WorldWideScience

Sample records for term hypothyroidism affects

  1. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  2. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  3. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  4. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in term pregnancies in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is common in pregnancy. No study has determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in term pregnancies in India. Aim: This study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of hypothyroidism in women who delivered at a center in Karnal, Haryana, North India. Results: Indoor records of all women who had delivered at this centre from April 2016 to March 2017 were reviewed. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 12.3%, of which 15.5% were diagnosed during pregnancy. The dose requirement of L-thyroxine ranged from 25 to 200 μg (mean 76.38 +- 43.02. With this, 80% were able to achieve trimester-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone targets. Hypothyroidism did not correlate with any medical or obstetric complications. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is common in term pregnancies. If treated adequately, healthy fetomaternal outcomes can be achieved.

  5. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to meet your body's needs. This condition is hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is more common in women, people with other ... cause. Other causes include thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, congenital hypothyroidism, surgical removal of part or all of the ...

  6. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the National Agricultural Library website at www. nutrition. gov. Dietary Supplements Iodine is an essential mineral for the thyroid. ... in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review. American Journal of ... Hypothyroidism Points ...

  7. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to normal, as do some patients with thyroiditis after pregnancy. Hypothyroidism may become more or less severe, and your dose of thyroxine may need to change over time. You have to make a lifetime commitment to treatment. But if you take your pills every day and work with your doctor to get and ...

  8. Hypothyroidism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The rate ... and physical sluggishness. The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, which is a medical emergency.

  9. Atropine Pharmacokinetics are Affected by Moderate Hemorrhage and Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Moderate Hemorrhage and Hypothyroidism 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R.C. Smallridge, B. Chernow, S. Teich, C. Kinzer, C. Umstott, G. Geelhoed, _ Ppmnl i n 13a...moderate hemorrhage and hypothyroidism ROBERT C. SMALLRIDGE, MD: BART CHERNOW, MD: STEVEN TEICH, MD, CAROL KINZER: CAROLYN UMSTOTT: GLEN GEELHOED. MD...under resting conditions. logic responses (heart rate, mydriasis, inhibition of Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in mongrel logi reo (a rat . dogs

  10. Hypothyroidism and Bipolar Affective Disorder: Is There a Connection?

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Bindu

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder has received less attention as compared with that in depressive disorder. Aims: To study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and compare it with a population norm. Settings and Design: The setting was the psychiatry inpatient unit of a tertiary care hospital. The design was retrospective and observational. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective observatio...

  11. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  12. Increased risk of developing affective disorder in patients with hypothyroidism: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Anders F; Kvist, Tine K; Andersen, Per K; Kessing, Lars V

    2005-07-01

    Links between thyroid function and depression have been noted in many contexts. We assessed whether hospitalization with hypothyroidism was a risk factor for developing affective disorder. We conducted a prospective cohort study using historical data from Danish registers. The observational period was 1977-1999. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admittance with the resulting index discharge diagnoses hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, or nontoxic goiter. A later hospitalization with a resulting discharge diagnosis of affective disorder was used as event of interest, and rates of readmission were estimated and compared using competing risk models in survival analyses. We identified 165,307 patients discharged with an index diagnosis. In the observational period, 1041 events occurred. An index diagnosis of hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with affective disorder when compared to the control diseases. The risk of hospitalization with affective disorder was greatest in the first year after index hospitalization. Patients hospitalized with hypothyroidism have a greater risk of readmission with depression or bipolar disorder than control patients. This renders epidemiologic support to theories linking thyroid dysfunction with mood disturbances.

  13. Transient Hypothyroidism in Premature Infants After Short-term Topical Iodine Exposure: An Avoidable Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Pinsker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in preterm infants have shown that prolonged treatment with topical iodine (multiple doses, often over multiple days can transiently suppress thyroid function. However, it is uncertain if topical iodine exposure for very short periods of time can cause significant changes in thyroid function. We report two cases of transient hypothyroidism in preterm infants after short-term exposure to topical iodine during surgical preparation, and review their clinical and laboratory findings before and after iodine exposure. We conclude that premature infants are at risk of developing transient hypothyroidism in response to a single, short-term exposure to topical iodine, even in iodine-sufficient geographical areas. We advise monitoring of thyroid function in these infants after iodine exposure, as treatment with levothyroxine may be needed for a limited duration to prevent the sequelae of untreated hypothyroidism. Consideration of using alternative cleansing agents is also advised.

  14. Dietary-induced chronic hypothyroidism negatively affects rat follicular development and ovulation rate and is associated with oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, E.; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; Stelt, van der Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the

  15. Hypothyroidism and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovcic, Maja; Pena, Raul Herrera; Patham, Bhargavi; Tabatabai, Laila; Kansara, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a commonly encountered clinical condition with variable prevalence. It has profound effects on cardiac function that can impact cardiac contractility, vascular resistance, blood pressure, and heart rhythm. With this review, we aim to describe the effects of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism on the heart. Additionally, we attempt to briefly describe how hypothyroid treatment affects cardiovascular parameters.

  16. Neonatal hypothyroidism affects testicular glucose homeostasis through increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice: effects on GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, D; Singh, S K

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells. THs also modulate level of gap junctional protein such as connexin 43 (Cx43), a potential regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium. Although the role of transient neonatal hypothyroidism in adult testis in terms of testosterone production is well documented, the effect of THs deficiency in early developmental period and its role in testicular glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress with reference to Cx43 in immature mice remain unknown. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on testicular glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress at postnatal days (PND) 21 and 28 in relation to GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43. Hypothyroidism induced by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) markedly decreased testicular glucose level with considerable reduction in expression level of GLUT3 and GLUT8. Likewise, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and intratesticular concentration of lactate were also decreased in hypothyroid mice. There was also a rise in germ cell apoptosis with increased expression of caspase-3 in PTU-treated mice. Further, neonatal hypothyroidism affected germ cell proliferation with decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cx43. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters testicular glucose

  17. Primary and secondary hypothyroidism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The rate ... and physical sluggishness. The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, a medical emergency. Hypothyroidism can be ...

  18. Hypothyroidism (primary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism is six times more common in women, affecting up to 40 in 10,000 each year (compared with 6/10,000 men). METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for clinical (overt......) hypothyroidism? What are the effects of treatments for subclinical hypothyroidism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We...

  19. Congenital hypothyroidism in one of monozygotic twins: comparison of their long-term psychosomatic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluholucký, Svetozár; Hornová, V; Lukác, P

    2006-01-01

    Authors present the long-term development of two monozygotic twin sisters. One of them was detected by newborn screening as athyreotic (gemelus A) and healthy gemelus B sister. Therapy in athyreotic girl started at 4 weeks after birth and was monitored in order to maintain serum thyroxine and TSH in normal range. Both sisters spent their chilhood and adolescence together in the same family, school and work together as tailors in the same factory. Their development was very similar. In order to detect subclinical difference of their development, the school achievements were tested using their school certificates. Studies were divided to testing mechanical memory, logical thinking and skills. The evaluation of all classes of school attendance (13 years) reveals subtle differences - deficit of patient at approximately 6-15% level, mainly in studies demanding skills. However, dynamic evaluation after years reveals that the worse results of the patient (gemelus A) occurred during the first years of basic school whereas during adolescence having attended the special school tailor, she attained better results than her healthy sister. It seems that mental deficit in early treated hypothyroid patient is not severe and varies even during the life. Problem of the fetal hypothyroidism is probably more related to the iodine deficiency, which assures necessity of thyroid hormones for athyreotic child from mother's or twin's normally supplemented thyroid glands.

  20. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Chronic hypothyroidism only marginally affects adult-type Leydig cell generation after EDS administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, E.; Kesteren-Buiting, van A.; Keijer, J.; Teerds, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prenatally induced dietary hypothyroidism delays adult-type Leydig cell development, but does not block this process. Using a chemical model to induce hypothyroidism, it was suggested that development of a new population of Leydig cells was completely inhibited following the addition of the

  2. Bone health in children with long–term idiopathic subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Mase Raffaella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a relatively common condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The management of children with SH is still a controversial issue and the decision to treat with L-thyroxine represents a clinical dilemma. Thyroid hormone and TSH play an important role in skeletal growth and bone mineral homeostasis. Aim To evaluate whether untreated idiopathic SH may affect bone health in childhood and to compare two different diagnostic tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA and quantitative ultrasound (QUS. Patients and Methods Twenty-five children and adolescents (11 males aged 9.8 ± 3.5 years (range 4.2-18.7 with untreated idiopathic SH were enrolled in the study. SH was diagnosed on the basis of normal FT4 levels with TSH concentrations between 4.2 and 10 mU/l. Children have been followed for 3.3 ± 0.3 years from the time of SH diagnosis. Twenty-five healthy children, age- and sex-matched, were enrolled as controls. Patients and controls underwent DXA to evaluate lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD and QUS at proximal phalanges of the non-dominant hand to assess bone quality, measured as amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS and bone transmission time (BTT. Results Mean BMD Z-score was −0.4 ± 1.36 in patients and −0.2 ± 1.2 in controls. Mean Ad-SoS Z-score was 0.01 ± 1.0 in patients and 0.1 ± 1.2 in controls and mean BTT Z-score was −0.03 ± 0.8 and 0.04 ± 1.1 respectively. All values were within the normal range, both in patients and in controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Bone health, evaluated by lumbar spine DXA and phalangeal QUS, is not impaired in our children, despite long-term duration of idiopathic SH. Data about bone status provided by QUS are comparable to those provided by DXA. Therefore, QUS may represent a good, cheaper and safe screening test for bone evaluation in children with SH.

  3. Minimal changes of thyroid axis activity influence brain functions in young females affected by subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, D; Sebastiani, L; Comparini, A; Pingitore, A; Ghelarducci, B; L'Abbate, A; Iervasi, G; Gemignani, A

    2013-03-01

    There is evidence of an association between thyroid hormones (TH) alterations and mental dysfunctions related to procedural and working memory functions, but the physiological link between these domains is still under debate, also for the presence of age as a confounding factor. Thus, we investigated the TH tuning of cerebral functions in young females affected by the borderline condition of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and in euthyroid females of the same age. The experiment consisted in the characterization of the affective state and cognitive abilities of the subjects by means of specific neuropsychological questionnaires, and of brain activity (EEG) in resting state and during the passive viewing of emotional video-clips. We found that SH had i) increased anxiety for Physical Danger; ii) better scores for both Mental Control and no-working-memory-related functions; iii) association between anxiety for Physical Danger and fT4 levels. Thus, in young adults, SH increases inward attention and paradoxically improves some cognitive functions. In addition, self-assessed questionnaires showed that SH had a greater susceptibility to unpleasant emotional stimulation. As for EEG data, SH compared to controls showed: i) reduction of alpha activity and of gamma left lateralization in resting state; ii) increased, and lateralized to the right, beta2 activity during stimulations. Both results indicated that SH have higher levels of arousal and greater susceptibility to negative emotion than controls. In conclusion, our study indicates that minimal changes in TH levels produce subtle but well-defined mental changes, thus encouraging further studies for the prediction of pathology evolution.

  4. Adult onset-hypothyroidism increases response latency and long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during both development and in adulthood. The hippocampus is critical for some types of learning and memory and is particularly sensitive to thyroid hormone deficiency. Hypothyroidism in adulthood has been ass...

  5. Long-Term Outcome in Levothyroxine Treated Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Concomitant Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. DESIGN: This was a register-based historical cohort...... study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was composed of Danish primary care patients and hospital outpatients age 18 years and older with established heart disease who were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism in 1997-2011. Patients were stratified according to whether they claimed a subsequent...... myocardial infaction and stroke, and all-cause hospital admissions. RESULTS: Of 61 611 patients with a diagnosis of cardiac disease having their first time thyroid function testing, 1192 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 73.6 [SD ± 13.3] y, 63.8% female) were included, of whom 136 (11...

  6. Linear growth and intellectual outcome in children with long-term idiopathic subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Manuela; Bravaccio, Carmela; Capalbo, Donatella; Polizzi, Miriam; Wasniewska, Malgorazata; Cioffi, Daniela; Improda, Nicola; Valenzise, Mariella; Bruzzese, Dario; De Luca, Filippo; Salerno, Mariacarolina

    2011-04-01

    The treatment of children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is controversial for TSH values between 4.5 and 10 mU/l. The aim of this cross-sectional, controlled study was to evaluate growth and intellectual outcome in children with persistent SH who have never been treated with levothyroxine. Clinical and auxological parameters, thyroid function, and intellectual outcome were evaluated in 36 children with persistent SH at the age of 9.7±0.6 (range 4-18.0) years. Children had been followed longitudinally for 3.3±0.3 (range 2.0-9.3) years, from first diagnosis of SH until enrollment in the study. Thirty-six age- and sex-matched children were enrolled in the study as controls. At study entry, height (-0.8±0.2 SDS), bone age/chronological age (BA/CA ratio 0.92±0.6), and body mass index (BMI -0.1±0.2 SDS) in SH children were normal. Despite long-term duration of SH, none of these parameters showed a worsening with respect to height (-0.7±0.2 SDS), BA/CA (0.97±0.03), and BMI (-0.1±0.2) at the time of first SH detection. None of the children showed overt signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism during the follow-up. Verbal (99.1±2.2), performance (100.4±1.9), and full-scale (99.7±1.9) intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in SH children were normal and comparable to those of controls. No relationship was detected between IQ scores and the degree or duration of SH. Persistent SH in children is not associated with alterations in growth, bone maturation, BMI, and cognitive function or other complaints that could be ascribed to SH even after several years without therapeutic intervention.

  7. Hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Patil-Sisodia, Komal; Cooper, David S

    2013-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common pregnancy-related thyroid disorder, affecting 3-5% of all pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more common than is overt hypothyroidism, and is usually defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration greater than the pregnancy-specific reference range for each laboratory value, or by serum TSH concentrations greater than 2·5 mIU/L in the first trimester and greater than 3 mIU/L in the second and third trimesters. Some authors have defined subclinical hypothyroidism as a serum TSH between 5 and 10 mIU/L, and overt hypothyroidism as a serum TSH greater than 10 mIU/L, but this is not the commonly accepted definition. Once overt hypothyroidism is diagnosed, treatment with levothyroxine should be started to achieve serum TSH concentrations within the reference ranges for pregnancy as soon as possible. For patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, recommendations for therapy differ between various professional groups as a result of inconsistent data from both observational studies and clinical trials regarding the benefits for the mother or the child. Similarly, because benefits of therapy are still uncertain, universal screening of all pregnant women for subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity is not recommended by most professional groups. During gestation, an increase in levothyroxine dose is required in more than 50% of women with previously diagnosed hypothyroidism, and can be managed by increasing the levothyroxine dose by 30% when pregnancy is confirmed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanelli, G; Dattola, L; Padovani, F

    1996-03-01

    Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) show hemeralopia, restricted field of vision and reduced visual acuity, owing to the degeneration and proliferation of photoreceptors and a retinal pigment epithelium. The prevalence in Italy is 1:4,000. A certain number of "syndromic" associations have been described, and, in particular, also that with hypothyroidism, but very few cases have been studied. We describe a family of 40 people, spanning four generations, in which we have recorded the presence of autosomic dominant RP, associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism or with circulating antithyroid autoantibodies (ATA), currently considered as the expression of active autoimmune thyroiditis or a risk factor for this complaint. We measured, in all members, TSH, FT3, FT4, antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase autoantibodies. A fundus oculi examination was performed in every subject, as well as a careful examine of the anterior region on the neck. A control population of 100 healthy people was also studied. Our data show a higher prevalence of ATA, statistically significant, in the patients with RP and in their relatives, compared with the control population and the data from the literature (13 cases over 40 = 32.5%; p distrophy reflects the need, emerging from our data, to test the thyroid function in the subjects with RP and in members of their families, since circulating ATA are considered a risk factor for the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  9. [Hypothyroidism in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-06-01

    Because of its frequent occurrence during the reproductive period of a woman's life, hypothyroidism belongs to the most common endocrinopathies affecting women of childbearing age. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism in pregnant patients may be complicated by the fact that pregnancy has a considerable impact on thyroid homeostasis. Even overt hypothyroidism in these patients may be characterized by nonspecific signs or symptoms that are easily confused with complaints common to pregnancy itself. Unrecognised or untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes that can be ameliorated or prevented by adequate therapy with thyroxine. This article discusses the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. We review the results of the current studies assessing the effect of the disease on pregnancy outcome or the offspring and provide the reader with recommendations concerning its diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Resources MedlinePlus (NIH) Mayo Clinic What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  11. Hypothyroidism and hip pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE is the most common hip disorder affecting adolescents and has multifactorial aetiology. Hypothyroidism may present as SCFE. We introduce a patient with such a presentation to highlight the association.

  12. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Teng, Weiping, E-mail: twpendocrine@yahoo.com.cn [Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2013-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway – a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory – was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  13. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway - a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory - was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  14. Obesity and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    S M Zakharova; L V Savelieva; M I Fadeeva

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and hypothyroidism are common diseases, and consequently clinicians should be particularly alert to the possibility of thyroid dysfunction in obese patients. The relationship between thyroid function and obesity is likely to be bidirectional, with hypothyroidism affecting weight, but obesity also influencing thyroid function. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and fT3 are typically increased in obese individuals, an effect likely mediated by leptin. Following L-T4 treatment for ov...

  15. Features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Combination with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The last decades are characterized by the considerable increase in the prevalence of endocrine disorders with the change of the structure, and first of all cases of polyendocrinopathy, the special place among which is occupied by combination of diabetes mellitus (DM and thyroid diseases. Increase in the incidence of DM type 2 associated with hypothyroidism affects the clinical course of this pathology, remains topical problem of modern medical science. The objective: to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 DM and to establish clinical features of DM type 2 in combination with hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. We have examined 179 patients with DM associated with primary hypothyroidism, including 64 patients with DM type 1 and 115 patients with type 2 DM. Comparison group consisted of 62 patients with DM without hypothyroidism (27 of them — with DM type 1, 35 — with DM type 2. Thyroid function was assessed by determining the basal concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine fraction. Results. It was found that patients with DM type 2 and hypothyroidism belonged to an older age group than patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism. Thus, the age of patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism was 35.3 ± 9.5 years, and in patients with type 2 DM and hypothyroidism — 47.6 ± 11.0 years. In all groups of patients, the percentage of women was much higher than men. The significant differences were detected in terms of the amplitude of glycemic index, namely its increase in patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism. When DM type 2 was combined with hypothyroidism, lipid metabolism indices were higher than in DM type 2 without thyroid disease. This confirms the effect of hypothyroidism on lipid metabolism and causes increased risk of progression of cardiovascular events at the presence of two diseases. Conclusions. Among examined patients, hypothyroidism occurred 2.4 times more often

  16. Neurologic manifestations of hypothyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalan, Abigail; Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A variety of clinicopathologic abnormalities may be present; however, neurologic deficits are rare. In some instances, neurologic deficits may be the sole manifestation of hypothyroidism. Consequent ly, the diagnosis and management of the neurologic disorders associated with hypothyroidism can be challenging. This article describes several neurologic manifestations of primary hypothyroidism in dogs; discusses the pathophysiology of hypothyroidism-induced neurologic disorders affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems; and reviews the evidence for the neurologic effects of hypothyroidism.

  17. Experimental hypothyroidism during pregnancy affects nociception and locomotor performance of offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, I G N; da Cruz, K M L; Mota, C M D; de Santana, D S; Gaujac, D P; de Carvalho, V C B; Reis, L C; Sluka, K A; Quintans-Junior, L J; Antoniolli, A R; Desantana, J M; Badauê-Passos, D; de Santana-Filho, V J

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a crucial role in the development of several organic systems. An adequate support of maternal THs may be required to ensure a normal nociceptive function of offspring into adulthood. We investigated the impact of experimental gestational hypothyroidism (EGH) on nociceptive threshold and motor performance in the offspring at different post-natal days (PND) in both male and female rats. EGH was induced by the administration of 0.02% methimazole (MMI) in the drinking water from the ninth day of gestation until birth. The offspring from MMI-treated dams (OMTDs) or from water-treated dams (OWTDs) were assessed for thermal and mechanical nociception using the tail-flick test and von Frey filaments, respectively. Both rota-rod and grip strength were used to assess motor function. OMTD had reduced thermal (p<0.05) but not mechanical threshold at all studied ages (60 and 120 PND). Sixty-day-old OMTD presented reduced latency to the tail-flick test (p=0.01). Grip strength in 120-day-old OMTD was reduced (p<0.01). However, only male OMTD presented a lower locomotor performance on the rota-rod test when analysed on the 60th PND (p<0.01). EGH promotes hypersensitivity to noxious thermal but not mechanical stimulus. Moreover, motor force is similarly reduced in male and female OMTDs, whereas motor performance is reduced only in mature male OMTD, suggesting the presence of a protective factor in females. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  18. Medicines for Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... f y o ro r idism What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, occurs when the thyroid ... by your body. What is the treatment for hypothyroidism? People who have hypothyroidism must take a pill ...

  19. Factors Affecting Parent-Child Relationships One Year After Positive Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis or Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine factors that mediate parent-infant relationships 12 months after positive newborn screening (NBS). Method We examined effects of infant diagnosis, parents’ perceptions of child vulnerability and child attachment, parental depression and anxiety on parent-infant feeding interactions for 131 mothers and 118 fathers of 131 infants whose NBS and diagnostics confirmed cystic fibrosis (CF, n=23), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n=35), CF carrier status (CF-C, n=38), or healthy, normal NBS (H, n=35). Results Separate composite indicator structural equation models for mothers and fathers showed neonatal diagnosis was not associated with increased anxiety or depression. In comparison to the H group, CF group parents reported higher perceptions of child vulnerability (paffective involvement and verbalization was associated with high infant affective expressiveness, communicative skills, and social responsiveness (mothers’ paffect and/or inconsistent and intrusive behavior was associated with infant dysregulation and irritability (mothers’ paffect parents’ perceptions of their child’s vulnerability and attachment. Infant feeding problems in the context of chronic health conditions, like CF, could represent signs of more deeply rooted concerns regarding the parent-child relationship that merit additional clinical evaluation. PMID:25493463

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  1. Obesity and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Zakharova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and hypothyroidism are common diseases, and consequently clinicians should be particularly alert to the possibility of thyroid dysfunction in obese patients. The relationship between thyroid function and obesity is likely to be bidirectional, with hypothyroidism affecting weight, but obesity also influencing thyroid function. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and fT3 are typically increased in obese individuals, an effect likely mediated by leptin. Following L-T4 treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears to be modest and mediated primarily by loss of water weight rather than fat. Selected thyroid analogs might be a means by which to improve weight loss by increasing energy expenditure in obese patients during continued caloric deprivation

  2. Iodine-Induced Hypothyroidism in Full-term Infants With Congenital Heart Disease: More Common Than Currently Appreciated?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaker, V. V; Leung, A. M; Braverman, L. E; Brown, R. S; Levine, B

    2014-01-01

    Context: Iodine is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroid hormone is critical for normal neurocognitive development in young infants, and even transient hypothyroidism can cause adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes...

  3. The Natural History of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwaru, Lily L.; Rariy, Chevon M.; Arnold, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies of long-term outcomes of subclinical hypothyroidism have assessed only baseline thyroid function, despite natural transitions to euthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism over time. Objective: We provide estimates of persistence, resolution, and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism over 4 yr, stratified by baseline TSH, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status, age, and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 3996 U.S. individuals at least 65 yr old enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected at baseline in 459 individuals not taking thyroid medication. Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid function was evaluated at 2 and 4 yr and initiation of thyroid medication annually. Results were stratified by baseline TSH, TPOAb status, age, and sex. Results: Persistence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 56% at 2 and 4 yr. At 2 yr, resolution was more common with a TSH of 4.5–6.9 mU/liter (46 vs. 10% with TSH 7–9.9 mU/liter and 7% with TSH ≥10 mU/liter; P hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism were common between 2 and 4 yr. Age and sex did not affect transitions. Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism persists for 4 yr in just over half of older individuals, with high rates of reversion to euthyroidism in individuals with lower TSH concentrations and TPOAb negativity. Future studies should examine the impact of transitions in thyroid status on clinical outcomes. PMID:22438233

  4. Obesity and attenuated adiposity rebound in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Normalization of BMI values in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, S; Magiakou, M-A; Mengreli, C; Girginoudis, P; Galani, C; Smyrnaki, P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C; Xekouki, P; Chrousos, G P; Dacou-Voutetakis, C

    2007-07-01

    An earlier adiposity rebound, suggestive of adult obesity, has been reported in children with congenital hypothyroidism. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of congenital hypothyroidism on: 1) the timing of adiposity rebound, 2) the long-term prognosis of BMI status, and 3) the factors potentially affecting adiposity in subjects with congenital hypothyroidism. We found that in children with congenital hypothyroidism the BMI values were higher during the first years of life compared to normal population, but subsequently normalized. After the initial rise of BMI, the decline (nadir) and subsequent rise (adiposity rebound), usually occurring in normal children at an age greater than 30 months, was less evident in our group of children with congenital hypothyroidism. The severity of hypothyroidism affected BMI values at 6 and 12, but not at 36 months of age. In conclusion, in children with congenital hypothyroidism, 1) the high BMI values in early childhood normalize in adolescence, and 2) the normally expected BMI fluctuations during the first years of life are attenuated. These findings constitute indirect evidence that thyroid function during fetal and neonatal life affects BMI status during the first years of life.

  5. Correlation of Hypothyroidism and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.Y. Yuzvenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and hypothyroidism are common diseases, and consequently clinicians should be particularly alert for the possible thyroid dysfunction in obese patients. The relationship between thyroid function and obesity is likely to be bidirectional, with hypothyroidism affecting weight, but obesity also influencing thyroid function. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and fT3 are typically increased in obese individuals, likely mediated by leptin. Following LT4 treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears due to water weight rather than fat. Selected thyroid analogs might be a means to improve weight loss by increasing energy expenditure in obese patients during lasting hypocaloric diet.

  6. IMPAIRMENT IN SHORT-TERM BUT ENHANCED LONG-TERM SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION AND ERK ACTIVATION IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPAL AREA CA1 FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA must evaluate the risk of exposure of the developing brain to chemicals with the potential to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. The existing literature identifies morphological and neurochemical indices of severe neonatal hypothyroidism in the early postnatal period i...

  7. Preventing and treating maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichtel, Laura E; Alexander, Erik K

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid disease is common during pregnancy. There are multiple alterations in maternal thyroid physiology, leading to an increased demand for thyroid hormone during gestation, that have significant implications for both maternal and fetal health. Importantly, pregnant reference ranges must be used for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of maternal hypothyroidism. There is currently broad interest in the maternal and fetal complications of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, with significant debate regarding the nuances of screening, despite universal agreement regarding the need for treatment. Current literature has provided new evidence demonstrating maternal and fetal complications of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. There is evidence for improved outcomes with appropriate treatment of maternal hypothyroidism. Although universal screening for hypothyroidism in pregnancy is currently controversial, it is increasingly apparent that maternal hypothyroidism can significantly affect both maternal and fetal health outcomes. Because of the ease and low risk of treatment, current recommendations emphasize appropriate case recognition and treatment to minimize the risk of unnecessary complications.

  8. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms......: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search...... patients) as exposure and hypothyroidism as outcome. Among these, we found a non-significantly increased risk of hypothyroidism associated with glaucoma (RR 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-2.82). Based on five studies (168 006 patients) with hypothyroidism as exposure and glaucoma as outcome, we...

  9. Central hypothyroidism - a neglected thyroid disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Rodari, Giulia; Giavoli, Claudia; Lania, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism. Obtaining a positive diagnosis for central hypothyroidism can be difficult from both a clinical and a biochemical perspective. The diagnosis of central hypothyroidism is based on low circulating levels of free T 4 in the presence of low to normal TSH concentrations. The correct diagnosis of both acquired (also termed sporadic) and congenital (also termed genetic) central hypothyroidism can be hindered by methodological interference in free T 4 or TSH measurements; routine utilization of total T 4 or T 3 measurements; concurrent systemic illness that is characterized by low levels of free T 4 and normal TSH concentrations; the use of the sole TSH-reflex strategy, which is the measurement of the sole level of TSH, without free T 4 , if levels of TSH are in the normal range; and the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism based on TSH analysis without the concomitant measurement of serum levels of T 4 . In this Review, we discuss current knowledge of the causes of central hypothyroidism, emphasizing possible pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.

  10. Hypothyroidism in neonates post-iodinated contrast media: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmet, Alexandra; Lawson, Margaret L; Babyn, Paul; Tricco, Andrea C

    2009-10-01

    To determine if neonates exposed to iodinated contrast media are at risk of hypothyroidism. A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE), contacting experts and scanning reference lists. Studies examining the effects of contrast media on neonatal thyroid function were included. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and assessed the risk of bias, while one reviewer abstracted data. Eleven studies were included; nine studies directly examined the risk of hypothyroidism (n = 182 neonates exposed to contrast media). All were highly affected by bias. In the three studies including term infants, one showed a trend towards increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased free thyroxine (FT4) among exposed groups. Six of 72 (8.3%) term infants exposed were treated for hypothyroidism. In studies of premature infants, there was a trend towards increased TSH (n = 3/7 studies), lower total thyroxine (n = 1), decreased triidothyronine and FT4 (n = 3) and hypothyroidism (n = 5). Twenty of 110 (18.2%) premature infants exposed were treated for hypothyroidism. Hospitalized neonates exposed to iodinated contrast media are at risk for abnormal thyroid function and development of hypothyroidism. Premature infants might be at increased risk. Well-controlled studies are required to replicate our findings because the included studies were highly affected by bias.

  11. Hypothyroidism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Qari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease that was seen in the clinical practice especially for family physicians. Methods: This review article covered the important practical clinical issues for managing overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Conclusions: The clinical issues were addressed by clinical scenario followed by questions and stressed on the important clinical points.

  12. Psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Overt hypothyroidism has major effects on neuropsychiatric function, but patients with mild hypothyroidism may attribute unrelated neuropsychiatric symptoms to their thyroid condition. This review will summarize data on neuropsychiatric effects of hypothyroidism, and provide guidelines regarding the relationship between hypothyroidism and neuropsychiatric issues, and treatment indications. Recent findings Clinical investigations and functional imaging studies confirm that overt hypothyroidism is associated with affective and cognitive decrements, largely reversible with treatment. In contrast, subclinical hypothyroidism is not associated with major neuropsychiatric deficits, although studies utilizing sensitive measures show small deficits in memory and executive function. Neuropsychiatric complaints are more common when patients are aware of their thyroid disease, regardless of their thyroid function at the time of testing. Summary Neuropsychiatric dysfunction is common in overt hypothyroidism, and will improve (although perhaps not completely resolve) with therapy. On the other hand, deficits related to thyroid dysfunction are usually mild in subclinical hypothyroidism, and realistic expectations need to be set regarding symptom reversibility with treatment. Patients with mild hypothyroidism and significant distress related to neuropsychiatric symptoms most likely have independent diagnoses that should be evaluated separately. PMID:25122491

  13. Discriminant function analysis of the occurrence risk of abnormal electrocardiogram in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with short-term overt hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Feng; Zhao, Hongguang; Jiao, Benzheng; Liu, Shanshan; Sa, Ri; Hou, Sen; Lin, Qiuyu; Wang, Qi; Lin, Chenghe

    2016-02-01

    The common form and risk factors of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormality in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients with short-term overt hypothyroidism were investigated and some discriminant formulas for forecasting the occurrence of abnormal ECG in this specific population were deduced in this study. A total of 260 thyroidectomized DTC patients were retrospectively reviewed, 67 of whom had abnormal ECG and 193 normal ECG after short-term (3 weeks) levothyroxine (L-T4) withdrawal. One-way ANOVA, Spearman's rank correlation analysis and discriminant function analysis were performed using data from these DTC patients. A flat or inverted T wave in inferior myocardial and left ventricular wall leads was the most common abnormal ECG finding in short-term overt hypothyroidism. Statistical analyses showed that age, interval, TSH-end (The serum hormothyrin level at the end of L-T4 withdrawal for 3 weeks), and TSH-vel (The average ascending velocity of serum hormothyrin level during L-T4 withdrawal for 3 weeks) were statistically significant and positively correlated with the occurrence of abnormal ECG. Meanwhile, TSH-vel showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.358, p = 0.000). The formulas, especially deduced from age, interval and TSH-vel, could discriminate patients with abnormal ECG or not as high as 77.6 and 70.5%, respectively (resubstitution accuracy: 72.3%). The thyroidectomized DTC patients undergoing short-term L-T4 withdrawal before their first radioiodine ablative therapy, who had one or more of the above-mentioned risk factors, are likely to show abnormal ECG findings. The formulas from discriminant function analysis may be helpful for predicting patients with abnormal ECG with short-term L-T4 withdrawal and allow appropriate medical intervention beforehand.

  14. Natural Course of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Sytch

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate the natural course of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH and to estimate possible predictable factors of overt hypothyroidism. Population of the study was selected from the patients with spontaneously elevated thyrotropin (TSH and normal free thyroxin (fT4 levels. Overall 87 patients (12 male, 75 female with SH without any therapy with thyroid hormones or iodide drugs or without previous thyroid surgery, thyrostatic therapy, or radioactive iodine therapy were included in the analysis. Results: the main risk factors of overt hypothyroidism in this population were positive thyroid antibodies (odds ratio = 3.99 and high initial level of TSH (>8 mU/l (odds ratio = 4.77. Patient’s age, gender or duration of SH did not affect significantly the risk of overt hypothyroidism. Conclusions: rational substitutive therapy with thyroid hormones was not discussed in this study, however the data suggest that positive thyroid antibodies and relatively high TSH level may be useful to decide upon such therapy in individuals with SH. Key words: hypothyroidism, Hashimotos, thyroiditis, thyrotropin.

  15. [Congenital hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Peón, María Fernanda

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a cause of preventable mental retardation; therefore, timely diagnosis and treatment by the primary care physician is very important. CH screening must be performed between the second and fifth days of life with capillary blood done with a heel prick and must be confirmed by measurement of thyroid hormones in venous blood. The most common cause of CH is thyroid dysgenesis, which may be identified by a thyroid scan carried out before initiating treatment. Treatment should be with levothyroxine (10-15μg/kg/day) and should not be delayed or suspended during the first 3 years of life due to the deleterious effect on neurodevelopment in case of low thyroid hormones during this time. Preterm or sick infants or those with Down syndrome require special consideration. This article provides diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for CH. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroid disorders. Part II: hypothyroidism and thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, James W

    2006-08-01

    Part II of the series on thyroid disorders discusses hypothyroidism and thyroiditis that may be found in dental patients. An overview of the conditions is presented. Presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory tests used to diagnose hypothyroidism and thyroiditis, and their medical management is discussed. The dental management of patients with hypothyroidism is discussed in detail. The dentist by detecting the early signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism and thyroiditis can refer the patient for medical diagnosis and treatment and avoid potential complications of treating patients with uncontrolled disease. Patients with thyroiditis may have a short period of being hyperthyroid and it may be best to avoid routine dental treatment during that period. Patients with suppurative thyroiditis should not receive routine dental treatment during the acute stage of the disease. The end stage of Hashimoto's thyroiditis results in hypothyroidism. Central nervous system depressants, sedatives, or narcotic analgesics must be avoided in patients with severe hypothyroidism because significant respiratory depression may occur. In addition, myxedematous coma, particularly in elderly hypothyroid patients, can be precipitated by central nervous system depressants, infection, and possibly stressful dental procedures. In medically well-controlled patients the dental treatment plan is not affected and most dental procedures can be offered to these patients.

  17. Clinical Features of Early and Late Postoperative Hypothyroidism After Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Eyun; Oh, Hye-Seon; Kim, Mijin; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Won Gu

    2017-04-01

    Lobectomy is preferred in thyroid cancer to decrease surgical complications and avoid lifelong thyroid-hormone replacement. However, postoperative hypothyroidism, requiring thyroid-hormone replacement, may occur. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of postoperative hypothyroidism to develop a surveillance strategy after lobectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This historical cohort study involved 335 patients with PTMC treated by lobectomy. Postoperative thyroid functions were measured regularly, and patients were prescribed levothyroxine according to specific criteria. Patients not satisfying hormone-replacement criteria were closely followed up. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred in 215 patients (64.2%) including 5 (1.5%) with overt hypothyroidism and 210 (62.7%) with subclinical hypothyroidism. Forty patients (11.9%) were required thyroid hormone replacement. One hundred nineteen patients (33.5%) experienced temporary hypothyroidism and spontaneously recovered to euthyroid state. High preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was the most important factor predicting postoperative hypothyroidism and failure of recover from hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 2.82 and 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07 to 3.95 and 1.22 to 2.63; P hypothyroidism, 70 (32.6%) developed hypothyroidism after the first postoperative year. Postoperative 1-year TSH levels were able to differentiate patients developing late hypothyroidism or euthyroidism (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.68 to 3.26; P hypothyroidism and identify those requiring long-term surveillance for hypothyroidism. Additionally, mild postoperative hypothyroidism cases should be followed up without immediate levothyroxine replacement with the expectation of spontaneous recovery.

  18. Lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroidism : the contribution of growth hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data suggest a role for GH in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In hypothyroidism not only the secretion of thyroid hormone, but also of GH is decreased. Generally the effects on plasma lipids seen in hypothyroid individuals are considered to be a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone levels. More then twenty years ago evidence was found that treatment of hypothyroid rats with GH in supraphysiologic doses affects plasma lipid concentrations, but whether a lack o...

  19. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase atrial fibrillation inducibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y; Pol, Christine J; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A Martin

    2013-10-01

    Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Thyroidectomized rats with serum-confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (N=9), euthyroid (N=9), and hyperthyroid (N=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3-mg l-thyroxine (T4), or 20-mg T4 pellets (60-day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, whereas hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all PHypothyroidism increased atrial interstitial fibrosis, but connexin 43 was not affected. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF.

  20. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects...... of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were...... identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients...

  1. Erythrocyte glutathione levels in lithium-induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla; Altan, Nilgun; Isik, Erdal

    2005-01-01

    Lithium, widely used in the prophylaxis of psychiatric patients with bipolar affective disorders, is well known to induce thyroid alterations. However, a possible metabolic linkage between blood thyroxine levels and its regulatory function on erythrocyte glutathione concentration has not yet been evaluated in lithium-treated patients. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidative capacity of erythrocytes in lithium-induced hypothyroidism before and after thyroxine replacement. Thyroid ultrasound with clinical and laboratory evaluation of thyroid function and thyroid-stimulating hormone assay were performed prior to and at 6-month intervals during lithium prophylaxis in 76 patients with bipolar affective disorders. The daily lithium dosage was adjusted to 600-1200 mg and the mean duration of treatment was 2.2 +/- 0.4 years. Final assessment revealed that 12 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and these were assigned as the test group. Lithium prophylaxis was supplemented with thyroxine at a dosage of 100 mg/day within 6 months after thyroid dysfunction was diagnosed. Red blood cell superoxide dismutase activities and the glutathione contents were measured before and after thyroxine replacement. In order to assess the effect of long-term lithium administration on red blood cell glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels, 12 patients who had not developed hypothyroidism during the follow-up period were selected for the lithium-treated euthyroid group. Mann Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon rank sum W-test were used for comparison of data. A comparison of the lithium-treated test group with healthy volunteers and their own values after thyroxine replacement revealed a significant decrease in red blood cell glutathione concentrations (p = 0.000) in the hypothyroid state. However, no clinically significant changes were observed in red blood cell superoxide dismutase activities of the test group. A statistical survey also demonstrated that there was no

  2. The heart and hypothyroidism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... Hypothyroidism may initiate cardiac disease or worsen that which alread\\' exists. Treatmenr of the cardiac problem is influenced by the thyroid disorder and vice versa. We recenrly saw a patienr with hypothyroidism who presenred with cardiomyopathy and severe hean failure resistanr to treatment.

  3. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  4. Experimental hypothyroidism increases plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in rat plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padró, T.; Hoogen, C.M. van den; Emeis, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypothyroidism would affect the components of the rat plasma fibrinolytic system. Hypothyroidism was induced by feeding rats a thiouracil-containing diet for 2 weeks. During this period, half of the animals received subcutaneous injections of

  5. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In an approach analogous to Rajan and Zingales (1998), we examine how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. We find that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in

  6. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N; Rijntjes, E; van de Heijning, B J M

    2008-11-01

    A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the present study, behavioural effects of perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism were assessed during development in both male and female offspring of hypothyroid rats. To induce hypothyroidism, dams and offspring were fed an iodide-poor diet and drinking water with 0.75% sodium perchlorate; dams starting 2 weeks prior to mating and pups either until the day of killing (chronic hypothyroidism) or only until weaning (perinatal hypothyroidism) to test for reversibility of the effects observed. Neuromotor competence, locomotor activity and cognitive function were monitored in the offspring until postnatal day 71 and were compared with age-matched control rats. Early neuromotor competence, as assessed in the grip test and balance beam test, was impaired by both chronic and perinatal hypothyroidism. The open field test, assessing locomotor activity, revealed hyperactive locomotor behavioural patterns in chronic hypothyroid animals only. The Morris water maze test, used to assess cognitive performance, showed that chronic hypothyroidism affected spatial memory in a negative manner. In contrast, perinatal hypothyroidism was found to impair spatial memory in female rats only. In general, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on development were more pronounced than the effects of perinatal hypothyroidism, suggesting the early effects of hypothyroidism on functional alterations of the developing brain to be partly reversible and to depend on developmental timing of the deficiency.

  7. Dataset of liver proteins of eu- and hypothyroid rats affected in abundance by any of three factors: in vivo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, thyroid status, gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Miller

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Male Wistar rats with different thyroid status (eu-, hypothyroid were exposed to 0, 3 or 30 mg/kg body weight of the flame retardant HBCD for 7 days and obtained data compared with a previous study in females, “Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD induced changes in the liver proteome of eu- and hypothyroid female rats” (Miller et al., 2016 [1]. Specifically, proteomic investigation of liver protein patterns obtained by 2D-DIGE was performed and differences between animals groups recorded, based on the factors exposure, thyroid status and gender. All proteins with significantly changed abundance in any of these comparisons were identified by mass spectrometry. General, hormone and proteomic data of both the present and the previous studies are discussed in Miller et al. (2016 [1] and in "Gender specific differences in the liver proteome of rats exposed to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD" Miller et al. (2016 [2].

  8. Polyneuropathy in hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, D J; Lane, R.J.; Nogues, M. A.; Fawcett, P R

    1983-01-01

    A patient who developed symptoms and signs of a polyneuropathy was found to have hypothyroidism, though this diagnosis was not clinically suspected. Treatment with thyroxine resulted in resolution of his symptoms and restored his nerve conduction studies to normal.

  9. Macular amyloidosis and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53 year old woman presented with extensive pruritic hyperpigmented macules in interscapular area and extremities of four years duration.She was an established case of hypothyroidism on treatment for last four years.

  10. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  11. Effect of hypothyroidism in the thyroidectomized rats on immunophenotypic characteristics and differentiation capacity of adipose tissue derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, T; Duruksu, G; Okçu, A; Aksoy, A; Erman, G; Utkan, Z; Cantürk, Z; Karaöz, E

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones influence multiple physiological functions, like growth, differentiation, protein synthesis and metabolic rate. The hypothyroid state is a complex hormonal dysfunction rather than a single hormonal defect. The relation between hypothyroidism after thyroidectomy and stem cells is not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effect of thyroidectomy on the proliferation, telomerase enzyme activities, immunophenotypic properties and differentiation potentials of adipose tissue-derived (AT-) stem cells (SCs). AT-SCs after 60 and 120 days of thyroidectomized (Tx) rats were compared to normal rats by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry analyses, and their telomerase activities were estimated. The telomerase activity was found to be positive for AT-SCs of Tx rats of both 60 and 120 days used in this study, but a decrease was noticed in the cells with the long-term exposure to hypothyroidism. This might indicate the decrease in the regenerative ability of the AT-SCs after 120 days of Tx compared to cells after 60 days of Tx. Both cell lines were induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic cell lineages, but osteogenic marker expression was not detected in the undifferentiated AT-SCs of the Tx rats. Osteogenic differentiation was also failed in stem cells derived from Tx rats, shown by Alizarin red S staining and alkaline phosphates enzyme assays. These results suggest that hypothyroidism affected SCs, altered stem cell characteristics, like telomerase activity and loss of in vitro bone formation, but not adipogenic or neurogenic differentiation ability. Hypothyroidism after Tx affects the osteogenic differentiation capacity of stem cells, which might be one of the factors of bone loss due to postnatal hypothyroidism.

  12. [Hypothyroidism coexisting with pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczek, T; Michalska, J; Olszewski, J; Starnawski, M; Klasa-Mazurkiewicz, D

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe pregnancies, deliveries, and puerperal times, and to compare them with the reached scientific communications. Four pregnancies in women with the hypothyroidism were described. All cases were taken from the group of twenty pregnancies (18 women) who were treated because of thyroid gland diseases in our clinic. We found that every infant was born in good condition, deliveries and childbeds were uncomplicated. Our notices are similar to new scientific communications, that hypothyroidism coexists with pregnancy much often then everybody, till now, suspected and infants have not so often congenital defects.

  13. Pediatric Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassner, Ari J

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone has important physiologic functions in nearly every organ system. The critical role of thyroid hormone in growth and in physical and neurologic development lends particular importance to the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hypothyroidism in infants and children. Congenital hypothyroidism is common and has potentially devastating neurologic consequences. While the approach to diagnosis and treatment of severe congenital hypothyroidism is well established, data continue to emerge about the genetic causes, clinical significance, and prognosis of the milder forms of congenital hypothyroidism that are increasingly being diagnosed by newborn screening. Similarly, the diagnosis and treatment of severe acquired hypothyroidism is straightforward and clearly of clinical benefit, but uncertainty remains about the optimal management of mild subclinical hypothyroidism. This review summarizes current knowledge of the causes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of hypothyroidism in infants and children, with a focus on recent developments and areas of uncertainty in this field.

  14. Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, EHEM; Pomp, ER; Strubbe, JH; Scheurink, AJW; Koolhaas, JM

    2005-01-01

    Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments,

  15. Hypothyroidism causing paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaturaka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with severe hypothyroidism complicated by paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury. A 65 year old male patient, diagnosed with hypothyroidism one year ago was transferred to our unit in a state of drowsiness and confusion. He was severely hypothyroid and had paralytic ileus and impaired renal function at the time of transfer. Hypokalaemia was present, and was likely to have contributed to the paralytic ileus and this together with dehydration was likely to have contributed to renal injury. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism is very likely to have been the principal precipitant of both these complications, and both paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury improved with thyroxine replacement. Unfortunately, the patient died unexpectedly eight days after admission to the unit. Hypothyroidism may induce de novo acute kidney injury or it may exacerbate ongoing chronic kidney disease. This rare complication is assumed to be due to the hypodynamic circulatory state created by thyroid hormone deficiency. Paralytic ileus is an even rarer fatal manifestation of hypothyroidism and is thought to be due to an autonomic neuropathy affecting the intestines that is reversible with thyroxine replacement. To our knowledge, both these complications have not been observed in a single patient so far. It is important that clinicians are aware of these rare manifestations of hypothyroidism as in most occasions, thyroxine deficiency may be missed, and treatment can reverse the complications.

  16. Hypothyroidism in the Newborn Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassner, Ari J.; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review summarizes significant advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), with a focus on thyroid dysfunction in preterm infants. Recent Findings CH appears to be increasing in incidence, primarily due to increased stringency of screening strategies, with smaller contributions from changing demographics and improved survival of increasingly premature infants. The greatest increase has been in mildly affected infants. Although many such cases are transient, some eventually prove to be severe and/or permanent. In preterm infants, transient hypothyroidism is common and may be delayed in onset. The etiology is probably multifactorial, and inadequate iodine intake may contribute to some cases. Transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP), also common in premature infants, is correlated with markers of inflammation. Despite concern about the potential morbidity of THOP, the benefits and safety of treatment have not been established. Novel genetic causes of CH continue to be identified, and accumulating data support the sensitivity of infants with severe CH to small changes in levothyroxine formulation. Summary Changes in newborn screening strategies have increasingly identified thyroid function abnormalities of unclear clinical significance. Novel causes of CH continue to be identified, and new data continue to emerge regarding optimal therapy. PMID:23974774

  17. Clinical aspects of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the peer-reviewed literature on hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy. We review published studies on thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in pregnancy, the impact of thyroid disease on pregnancy, and discuss implications for screening. Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are responsible for adverse obstetric and neonatal events. Several studies of association suggest that either subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity increase the risk of complications. One randomized controlled trial showed that pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism benefit from treatment in terms of obstetric and neonatal complications, whereas another study demonstrated no benefit in the intelligence quotient of babies born to women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid autoimmunity has been associated with increased rate of pregnancy loss, recurrent miscarriage, and preterm delivery. Current guidelines agree that overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism need to be promptly treated and that as potential benefits outweigh potential harm, subclinical hypothyroidism also requires substitutive treatment. The chance that women with thyroid autoimmunity may benefit from levothyroxine treatment to improve obstetric outcome is intriguing, but adequately powered randomized controlled trials are needed. The issue of universal thyroid screening at the beginning of pregnancy is still a matter of debate, and aggressive case-finding is supported.

  18. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women and its effect on fetomaternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmeen, M; Shamsunnahar, P A; Laita, T R; Chowdhury, S B

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid disorders are among the common endocrine problems in pregnant women. It is now well established that not only overt but subclinical thyroid dysfunction also has adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcome. There are few data from Bangladesh about the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. With this background, this study aims to find out thyroid dysfunction (both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism) in pregnancy and its impact on obstetrical outcome. We studied the evaluation of 50 admitted pregnancies corresponding to 29 women with subclinical hypothyroidism and rest 21 was overt hypothyroidism. Detailed history and examination were performed. Apart from routine obstetrical investigations, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) estimation was done. Their obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were noted. Overt hypothyroidism was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients. In sub clinical hypothyroidism 86.2% conceived firstly within 2 years and 66.7% in overt hypothyroidism patients conceived firstly in between 3 to 5 years after marriage. Overt hypothyroids were prone to have pregnancy-induced hypertension 42.9%, intrauterine growth restriction (P = 0.001) and gestational diabetes (38.1%) as compared to subclinical cases. Neonatal complications were significantly more in overt hypothyroidism group. Mean TSH level was significantly (p hypothyroidism patients but mean FT4 level was almost similar in both groups. Majority of the patient underwent caesarean section in both groups due to associated medical and obstetrical complications. None of the babies showed hypothyroidism by cord blood tests. In this analysis our results showed that overt hypothyroidism among Bangladeshi pregnant women are associated with more maternal complication & adverse parental outcome than subclinical hypothyroidism. The adequate treatment of hypothyroidism during gestation minimizes risks and generally, makes it possible for pregnancies to be carried to term without complications

  19. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Nygaard Andersen

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients of which 12,212 (1.9% had subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 55.2 [SD ± 18.8] years; 79.8% female. Within the first six months 2,483 (20.3% patients claimed a prescription for levothyroxine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR: 5.2 years, 358 MI's and 1,566 (12.8% deaths were observed. Out of these, 766 of the deaths were cardiovascular related. No beneficial effects were found in levothyroxine treated patients on MI (IRR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.81 to 1.44], cardiovascular death (IRR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.83 to 1.25] or all-cause mortality (IRR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.90 to 1.19], except in patients under the age of 65 years (IRR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40 to 0.99].Levothyroxine substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients does not indicate an association with lower mortality or decreased risk of MI.

  20. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  1. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism: how should it be managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatourechi, Vahab

    2002-01-01

    The term 'subclinical hypothyroidism' applies to patients who have mildly increased levels of serum thyrotropin hormone (TSH) and normal levels of thyroxine and liothyronine (triiodiothyronine). This very common condition, also called 'mild thyroid failure', accounts for 75% of patients who have increased serum TSH. For patients with sustained increases above 10 mIU/L, there is uniform agreement that thyroxine therapy is indicated. Therapy for milder forms of hypothyroidism is controversial. Some randomized clinical trials favor therapy for mild thyroid failure, but they are inconclusive because they lack stratification for the subgroup of patients with TSH levels below 10 mIU/L. For this subgroup, we recommend individualized management. The presence of goiter, positive thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies, manic-depressive disorder, fertility problems, or pregnancy or the anticipation of pregnancy favors the initiation of therapy. Positive TPO antibodies are a strong indication for therapy because of the high likelihood in these patients of progression to overt hypothyroidism; patients who are already receiving thyroxine should have adjustments of their dosage. Children and adolescents with mild thyroid failure should also be treated because of possible adverse effects on growth and development. It has been suggested that subclinical hypothyroidism is a cardiovascular risk factor, however further investigation is needed. The controversy surrounding therapy will not be resolved until more randomized studies are available for the subgroup of patients with TSH <10 mIU/L, and until the question of cardiovascular risk factors is further clarified.

  3. Heritability of hypothyroidism in the Finnish Hovawart population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhlgren, Johanna; Uimari, Pekka

    2016-06-07

    The Hovawart is a working and companion dog breed of German origin. A few hundred Hovawart dogs are registered annually in Finland. The most common disease with a proposed genetic background in Hovawarts is hypothyroidism. The disease is usually caused by lymphocytic thyroiditis, an autoimmune disorder which destroys the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism can be treated medically with hormone replacement. Its overall incidence could also be reduced through selection, provided that the trait shows an adequate genetic basis. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of hypothyroidism in the Finnish Hovawart population. The pedigree data for the study were provided by the Finnish Kennel Club and the hypothyroidism data by the Finnish Hovawart Club. The data included 4953 dogs born between 1990 and 2010, of which 107 had hypothyroidism and 4846 were unaffected. Prior to the estimation of heritability, we studied the effects of gender, birth year, birth month, and inbreeding on susceptibility to hypothyroidism. Heritability was estimated with the probit model both via restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and Gibbs sampling, using litter and sire of the dog as random effects. None of the studied systematic effects or level of inbreeding had a significant effect on susceptibility to hypothyroidism. The estimated heritability of hypothyroidism varied from 0.47 (SE = 0.18) using REML to 0.62 (SD = 0.21) using Gibbs sampling. Based on our analysis, the heritability of hypothyroidism is moderate to high, suggesting that its prevalence could be decreased through selection. Thus, breeders should notify the breed association of any affected dogs, and their use for breeding should be avoided.

  4. Central hypothyroidism and its role for cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is characterized by hypometabolism, and may be seen as a part of secondary failure due to pituitary insufficiency or tertiary due to hypothalamic disease. Secondary and tertiary failures are also referred to as central hypothyroidism. Whereas overt primary hypothyroidism has a well-known affection on the heart and cardiovascular system, and may result in cardiac failure, cardiovascular affection is less well recognized in central hypothyroidism. Studies on central hypothyroidism and cardiovascular outcome are few and given the rarity of the diseases often small. Further, there are several limitations given vast difficulties in diagnosing the condition correctly biochemically, and difficulties monitoring the treatment because normal thyroid-pituitary feedback interrelationships are disrupted. The present review summarizes available studies of central adult hypothyroidism and its possible influence on the cardiovascular system, describe differences from primary thyroid failure and seek evidence for performing guidelines for clinical management of this particular thyroid and hypothalamo-pituitary disorder.

  5. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Does it cause joint pain? Can hypothyroidism cause joint pain? I have hypothyroidism and have been experiencing severe arthritis-like pain in my shoulders and hips. Answers from Todd B. ...

  6. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  7. Maternal and fetal complications of the hypothyroidism-related pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudosa, Rodica; Vartej, P; Horhoianu, Irina; Ghica, C; Mateescu, Stela; Dumitrache, I

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid pathology worsens during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism can be pre-existent or may begin during pregnancy period. Most of the patients who presented hypothyroidism during pregnancy have a history of thyroid disease for which they have undergone treatment (medical, surgical or radioisotopes). Hypothyroidism is difficult to be diagnosed during pregnancy as the signs can belong to pregnancy itself. Changes in thyroid function have a major negative impact on both mother and fetus.Complications that arise depend on the severity of hypothyroidism, on how appropriately and early the treatment will be initiated, on other obstetrical and extragenital pathologies associated with the present pregnancy. Clinical symptoms are polymorphic, often nonspecific, and are related mainly to the time of occurrence and to the severity of thyroid hormone deficiency. The appropriate, early administered treatment and maintenance of a normal level of thyroid hormones minimize the risk of maternal and fetal complications and make it possible that the pregnancy may be carried to term without severe complications.

  8. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Meena P

    2012-12-01

    Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH) are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS) for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  9. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  10. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  11. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  12. [Management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Functional thyropathies present significant health risks for patients. Advanced functional thyropathies are always treated while indications for therapy of subclinical thyropathies are individual and often controversial. It is widely agreed that these disorders should be diagnosed and individuals should be followed. The drug of choice in substitution therapy of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine, in the treatment of hyperthyroidism it is methimazole. Administration of propylthiouracil should be limited to the first trimester of pregnancy, because its serious hepatotoxicity has been described. Hyperthyroidism based on thyroid nodules and immunogenic hyperthyroidism not reaching long-term remission, need to be treated radically: by surgery or radioiodine treatment. When radiation protection requirements are met, radioiodine can also be administered on an outpatient basis. Exceptionally, small doses of methimazole can be administered over an extended period of time in individual cases.

  13. Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of CH in neonates. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units of the Department of Pediatrics Unit-I, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore and Lady Willington Hospital Lahore in 6 months (January-June 2011. Materials and Methods: Sample was collected by non-probability purposive sampling. After consent, 550 newborn were registered for the study. Demographic data and relevant history was recorded. After aseptic measures, 2-3 ml venous blood analyzed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level by immunoradiometric assay. Treatment was started according to the individual merit as per protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and Chi-square test was applied to find out the association of CH with different variables. Results: The study population consisted of 550 newborns. Among 550 newborns, 4 (0.8% newborns had elevated TSH level. CH had statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism (P value 0.000 and mother′s drug intake during the pregnancy period (P value 0.013. Conclusion: CH is 0.8% in neonates. It has statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism and mother′s drug intake during pregnancy.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  15. Hypothyroid myopathy mimicking postpolio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Lalla, Rakesh; Sahu, Ritesh

    2012-08-24

    Hypothyroidism can have diverse neurological manifestations. Myopathy may rarely be the sole manifestation of autoimmune thyroiditis. We hereby report an atypical manifestation of severe hypothyroidism in a middle-aged woman with childhood onset of paralytic polio involving her right leg presenting with a recent onset of increased weakness in the right leg mimicking postpolio syndrome.

  16. Myocardial Performance Index for Patients with Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Aziz; Doğan, Abdullah; Tuzcu, Alpaslan Kemal

    2017-05-25

    BACKGROUND Hypothyroid has several effects on the cardiovascular system. Global myocardial performance index (MPI) is used in assessment of both left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. We compared MPI in hypothyroidism patients vs. normal control subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-two hypothyroid patients were divided into 2 groups: a subclinical hypothyroid (SH) group (n=50), and an overt hypothyroid (OH) group (n=32). The healthy control group (CG) constituted of 37 patients. TSH, FT3, and FT4, anti-TPO, anti-TG, insulin, lipid values, and fasting glucose levels were studied. All patients underwent an echocardiographic examination. Myocardial performance indexes were assessed and standard echocardiographic examinations were investigated. RESULTS MPI averages in OH, SH, and control groups were 0.53±0.06, 0.51±0.05, and 0.44±0.75 mm, respectively. MPI was increased in the OH and SH groups in comparison to CG (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS MPI value was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients in comparison to the control group, showing that regression in global left ventricular functions is an important echocardiographic finding. Future studies are required to determine the effects of this finding on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Overview of Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroopnick, Jeffrey M; Kim, Caroline S

    2016-11-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, defined as an elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and reduced serum free thyroxine or a TSH >10 mIU/L, is known to have adverse effects on pregnancy. Subclinical hypothyroidism is typically defined as an elevated TSH and normal FT4 levels. There remains much controversy on the benefit of starting levothyroxine for mothers diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Recent studies are redefining the normal range for TSH in pregnancy, and the data on whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes for the mother and fetus are unclear. One confounding variable is the presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies, as it may be a surrogate marker for other autoimmune disorders detrimental to pregnancy. If levothyroxine treatment is initiated, the dosing and monitoring strategy is different from nonpregnant individuals. Randomized clinical trials are underway that may better elucidate whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is warranted. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Congenital hypothyroidism presenting as menorrhagia in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sadish; Mahesh, D M; Vignesh, G; Sagili, Haritha; Dhanapathi, H; Hamide, Abdoul

    2013-09-01

    Although hypothyroidism is a common cause of menorrhagia, it is an uncommon presentation of congenital hypothyroidism. We report a case of congenital hypothyroidism presenting in adulthood with severe menorrhagia. Despite the late presentation, she had features to suggest hypothyroidism since birth.

  19. Transient hypothyroidism: Dual effect on adult-type leydig cell and sertoli cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, Eddy; Lucca Moreira Gomes, de Marcos; Zupanic, Nina; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Transient neonatal 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroidism affects Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers in the developing testis, resulting in increased adult testis size. The hypothyroid condition was thought to be responsible, an assumption questioned by studies showing that uninterrupted

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  1. Management of hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Anna; Brent, Gregory A

    2011-10-01

    Examine recent studies on the assessment of thyroid status in pregnancy, approach to thyroid testing, the spectrum of hypothyroidism in pregnancy, and strategies for thyroid replacement in women with known hypothyroidism. Trimester-specific references range for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine in pregnancy must take into account iodine and thyroid autoantibody status, race, BMI, as well as other factors. Thyroid testing of only those pregnant women at increased risk for thyroid disease, case finding, will miss 30-80% of women with thyroid disease. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increasing number of adverse effects including infertility, miscarriage, preterm delivery, and breech presentation at birth. Many pregnant women with known hypothyroidism have an out-of-range TSH at the time of confirmed pregnancy. A variety of strategies are effective at keeping serum TSH normal during pregnancy including preconception increase in thyroxine, increase in thyroxine dose at the time pregnancy is confirmed, or making adjustments based on serum TSH monitoring. Evaluation of thyroid status in pregnancy requires an understanding of pregnancy-associated changes in thyroid function tests and how they vary by trimester. The spectrum of hypothyroidism in pregnancy includes isolated thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity, isolated hypothyroxinemia, subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. These patterns, in some situations, may be related to iodine status, selenium status, or underlying thyroid disease. There are a variety of approaches to management of thyroxine replacement in known hypothyroid women at the time of pregnancy that are all effective at maintaining a normal range during pregnancy.

  2. Recent advances in central congenital hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16 000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated neonatal hypothyroidism. Alternatively, coexisting growth hormones or ACTH deficiency may pose additional risks, such as life threatening hypoglycaemia. Genetic ascertainment is possible in a minority of cases and reveals mutations in genes controlling the TSH biosynthetic pathway (TSHB, TRHR, IGSF1) in isolated TSH deficiency, or early (HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, SOX3, OTX2) or late (PROP1, POU1F1) pituitary transcription factors in combined hormone deficits. Since TSH cannot be used as an indicator of euthyroidism, adequacy of treatment can be difficult to monitor due to a paucity of alternative biomarkers. This review will summarize the normal physiology of pituitary development and the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, then describe known genetic causes of isolated central hypothyroidism and combined pituitary hormone deficits associated with TSH deficiency. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of these conditions will then be discussed. PMID:26416826

  3. Risks and safety of combination therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism is currently a condition that can be treated, but not cured. Although levothyroxine reverses stigmata of hypothyroidism in most individuals, some patients feel dissatisfied with 'monotherapy', and this has stimulated interest in 'combination therapy' with both levothyroxine and liothyronine. A search of PubMed was conducted using terms including hypothyroidism, treatment, benefits, risks, and safety. Based on the articles identified, the body of evidence regarding the efficacy of traditional levothyroxine is reviewed. Concerns with levothyroxine therapy including impaired quality of life in treated patients, thyroxine-predominant hormone ratios, and inadvertent iatrogenic thyroid disease are discussed. The trials of combination therapy performed since 1999 were reviewed. The heterogeneity of these trials, both in terms of design and results, is discussed. The potential for new trials to determine whether combination therapy can reverse the dissatisfaction associated with monotherapy, while avoiding non-physiologic hormone ratios, inadvertent thyrotoxicosis, and unacceptable side effects is discussed. Expert commentary: Research regarding which therapy fully reverses hypothyroidism at a tissue and cellular level is ongoing. The field would be advanced by the development of an extended release preparation of liothyronine. In the future regeneration of functional thyroid follicles from stem cells may offer hope for curing hypothyroidism.

  4. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  5. Effects of short- and long-duration hypothyroidism on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: in vitro and in situ studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Calogero, Aldo E; Konstandi, Mary; Kamilaris, Themis C; La Vignera, Sandro; Chrousos, George P

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hypothyroidism on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; the functional integrity of each component of the HPA axis was examined in short-term and long-term hypothyroidism. Neuropeptide synthesis, release, and content were evaluated in vitro both in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, and corticosterone release was assessed in primary adrenal cell cultures at 7 (short-term) and 60 days (long-term hypothyroidism) after thyroidectomy in male rats. Hypothyroid rats showed adrenal insufficiency in several parameters, which were associated with the duration of hypothyroidism. Cerebrospinal (CSF) ACTH was decreased in all hypothyroid animals, while CSF corticosterone levels were significantly decreased only in long-term hypothyroidism. Long-term hypothyroid animals showed decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus under both basal and stress conditions, decreased CRH release from hypothalamic organ cultures after KCL and arginine vasopressin stimulation, as well as an increased number of anterior pituitary CRH receptors. In contrast, short-term hypothyroid rats showed changes in anterior pituitary function with an increased responsiveness to CRH that was associated with an increase in CRH receptors. Although both short- and long-term hypothyroidism was associated with significant decreases in adrenal weights, only long-term hypothyroid rats showed changes in adrenal function with a significant decrease of ACTH-induced corticosterone release from cultured adrenal cells. The data suggest that long-term hypothyroidism is associated with adrenal insufficiency with abnormalities in all three components of the HPA axis. Short-term hypothyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with increased pituitary corticotroph responsiveness to CRH.

  6. The biopsychosocial model and hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin T; Bonello, Rod; Pollard, Henry

    2005-01-01

    This paper comments on the role and emergence of the biopsychosocial model in modern medical literature and health care settings. The evolution of the biopsychosocial model and its close association with modern pain theory is also examined. This paper seeks to discuss the place of this model with respect to the management of hypothyroidism. This discussion represents a forerunner to a randomised control trial that will seek to investigate the effect of a biopsychosocial-based treatment regime on hypothyroidism. PMID:15967049

  7. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  8. Hypothyroidism after a cancer diagnosis: etiology, diagnosis, complications, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer's clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients.

  9. A link between hypothyroidism, obesity and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system.

  10. Hypothyroidism After a Cancer Diagnosis: Etiology, Diagnosis, Complications, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer’s clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients. PMID:24309982

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism of dogs and cats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanic, K; Acke, E; Jones, B R

    2011-05-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a rare and underdiagnosed congenital endocrine disorder in dogs and cats and the true incidence is unknown. The disorder may cause a range of clinical signs depending on the primary defect, which affect production of thyroid hormones; some cases present when adult. Hallmark clinical signs of congenital hypothyroidism are mental impairment and skeletal developmental abnormalities, resulting in disproportionate dwarfism; goitre may or may not be present. Documented causes of congenital hypothyroidism in dogs include deficiency of, or unresponsiveness to, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency. In cats, TSH unresponsiveness, thyroid dysgenesis, dyshormonogenesis and iodine deficiency have been confirmed. Adequate replacement therapy results in a successful outcome in the majority of cases, especially when started early in life, as permanent developmental abnormalities can be prevented. This review describes reported cases in dogs and cats, diagnostic investigation, and recommendations for treatment.

  12. Impacts of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on body weight gain, leptin and various metabolic aspects in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; Gabar, Mohamed Abdel; Ali, Tarek M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the interrelationship and the influence of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on thyroid hormone levels, insulin levels and biochemical variables related to carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in addition to thyroid gland and Islets of Langerhans histological changes and antioxidant defense system. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to fasting albino rats at dose level of 45 mg/kg b. w. Hypothyroidism in diabetic and normal rats was induced by adding methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that hypothyroidism interacts with diabetes in a way that prevents the progress of the hyperglycemic state. This may be due to the increase in the insulin secretory response in diabetic hypothyroid than diabetic rats. Serum T3 level decreased in order in diabetic (-26.63%), hypothyroid (-61.89%) and diabetic hypothyroid (-65.69%) rats while T4 level was increased in diabetic rats and decreased in hypothyroid ones. The decrease in T3 level in diabetic animals in spite of T4 increase may be attributed to the decrease in conversion of T4 to T3 as a result of hepatic 5'-DI decreased activity. Liver glycogen content was three-fold decreased in diabetic rats and was not significantly altered in both hypothyroid and diabetic hypothyroid rats. The serum leptin level and body weight gain were decreased in diabetic and diabetic hypothyroid rats; the leptin level was more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats while body weight gain was more affected in diabetic rats. Serum triglycerides level was more increased in diabetic rats than in diabetic hypothyroid ones on one hand, while total lipids, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels as well as cardiovascular indices were more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats than diabetic ones on the other hand. Serum total protein and globulin levels were decreased in diabetic rats and were

  13. [Hypothyroidism during pregnancy risks the child's neurocognitive development. New guidelines and remaining knowledge gaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalkidou, Alkistis; Bixo, Marie; Sköldebrand Sparre, Ann-Charlotte; Strandell, Annika; Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica; Filipsson Nyström, Helena

    2016-02-05

    Thyroid abnormalities are common during pregnancy and can affect pregnancy outcome. In 2012, the working group for endocrinology was assigned by SFOG to develop evidence based guidelines for their management. There is high quality evidence that untreated clinical hypothyroidism increases the risk of pregnancy and fetal complications. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications. The presence of TPO-antibodies is linked to miscarriage and premature birth. It is uncertain whether subclinical hypothyroidism/maternal TPO-antibodies adversely affect the child's neurocognitive development. Reference intervals for TSH among pregnant women in Sweden need to be established.

  14. Prepregnancy hypothyroidism versus gestational hypothyroidism: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Ulhas Kaduskar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism managed inadequately in pregnancy may have grave outcomes for both mother and baby. Understanding pregnancy outcomes in our country with low awareness about thyroid diseases is important. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate demographic features and biochemical parameters in patients with prepregnancy hypothyroidism versus patients diagnosed to have primary hypothyroidism during pregnancy and to assess pregnancy outcomes. Study Design: Prospective design Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in Bengaluru for 2 years. The patients were divided into two groups - Group I: Prepregnancy hypothyroidism and Group II: Hypothyroid during pregnancy. They were further staged according to ESI guidelines as subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square and Mann–Whitney test. Results: A total of 452 pregnant women with hypothyroidism were analyzed. The data of 371 delivered pregnancies were available. Group I and II had 196 (43.36% and 256 (56.64% patients, respectively. Age at presentation (years was 27.09 ± 4.19 in Group I versus 25.74 ± 4.29 in Group II (P = 0.003; gestational age (weeks was 9.04 ± 5.41 in Group I versus 13.81 ± 9.12 in Group II (P = 0.000. There was one case of congenital hypothyroidism in baby in each group. Mean birth weight was 2.90 ± 0.39 kg in Group I versus 2.88 ± 0.36 kg in Group II; P = 0.608. There were four abortions in Group I versus ten in Group II (P = 0.231, 104 cesarean sections in Group I compared to 133 in Group II; (P = 0.382. There was no difference in number of cesarean sections, abortions and low birth weight babies between overt and subclinical hypothyroidism subgroups. Conclusions: Group I patients presented earlier for testing suggesting awareness was good in this group. There was no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two groups. Overt versus subclinical status did not have any different

  15. Perioperative conditions affect long-term hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, W.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; de Jong, E.H.; Molema, G.; Niessen, F.B.

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroids are widely used as treatment for excessive scarring by intralesional injection with variable success rates. It is conceivable that systemically administered corticosteroids affect a wider range of inflammatory processes that influence wound healing and may be more successful in

  16. Perioperative Conditions Affect Long-term Hypertrophic Scar Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Willem M.; Ferreira, Jose A.; de Jong, Etty H.; Molema, Grietje; Niessen, Frank B.

    Corticosteroids are widely used as treatment for excessive scarring by intralesional injection with variable success rates. It is conceivable that systemically administered corticosteroids affect a wider range of inflammatory processes that influence wound healing and may be more successful in

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  19. Interest of the thyroid scintigraphy in the hypothyroidism of children affected by Downs Syndrome; Interet de la scintigraphie thyroidienne dans l'hypothyroidie des enfants atteints de trisomie 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimi, S.; Slim, I.; Yeddes, I.; El Ajmi, W.; Rmadi, S.; Ltaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, institut Salah Azeiz, Tunis, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    The corrected hypothyroidism for the trisomic children can have diverse etiologies. the thyroid scintigraphy allows to precise the stage of the thyroiditis in case of auto-immune disease and to comfort the hypothesis of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis immaturity in the case of negative immunological evaluation. (N.C.)

  20. Hypothyroidism associated with parathyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Elli, Francesca Marta; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism may also follow endocrine glands' damages due to autoimmunity or chronic iron overload in thalassemic disorders, both genetically determined conditions. Finally, besides PTH deficiency, hypocalcemia can be due to PTH resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism; when hormone resistance is generalized, patients can suffer from hypothyroidism due to TSH resistance. In evaluating patients with hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia, physical examination and clinical history are essential to drive the diagnostic process, while routine genetic screening is not recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Central hypothyroidism and its role for cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    -known affection on the heart and cardiovascular system, and may result in cardiac failure, cardiovascular affection is less well recognized in central hypothyroidism. Studies on central hypothyroidism and cardiovascular outcome are few and given the rarity of the diseases often small. Further, there are several...... influence on the cardiovascular system, describe differences from primary thyroid failure and seek evidence for performing guidelines for clinical management of this particular thyroid and hypothalamo-pituitary disorder....

  2. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  3. Developmental hypothyroidism abolishes bilateral differences in sonic hedgehog gene control in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Wang, Liyun; Kimura, Masayuki; Abe, Hajime; Mizukami, Sayaka; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism disrupt rat hippocampal neurogenesis. We previously showed that exposing mouse offspring to manganese permanently disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and abolishes the asymmetric distribution of cells expressing Mid1, a molecule regulated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. The present study examined the involvement of Shh signaling on the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in rats with hypothyroidism. Pregnant rats were treated with methimazole (MMI) at 0 or 200 ppm in the drinking water from gestation day 10-21 days after delivery (developmental hypothyroidism). Adult male rats were treated with MMI in the same manner from postnatal day (PND) 46 to PND 77 (adult-stage hypothyroidism). Developmental hypothyroidism reduced the number of Mid1(+) cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of offspring on PND 21, and consequently abolished the normal asymmetric predominance of Mid1(+) cells on the right side through the adult stage. In control animals, Shh was expressed in a subpopulation of hilar neurons, showing asymmetric distribution with left side predominance on PND 21; however, this asymmetry did not continue through the adult stage. Developmental hypothyroidism increased Shh(+) neurons bilaterally and abolished the asymmetric distribution pattern on PND 21. Adult hypothyroidism also disrupted the asymmetric distribution of Mid1(+) cells but did not affect the distribution of Shh(+) hilar neurons. The results suggest that the hippocampal neurogenesis disruption seen in hypothyroidism involves changes in asymmetric Shh(+) neuron distribution in developmental hypothyroidism and altered Mid1 expression in both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The effect of hypothyroidism occurring in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, Marcin; Junik, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome involves abdominal obesity, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes and lipid disorders manifested as atherogenic dyslipidaemia. Abnormal thyroid function affects the severity of MetS components, since regulating metabolism is one of the most important functions of thyroid hormones. In this study, we present the influence of hypothyroidism on lipid and carbohydrate disorders in patients with MetS. The described study was a prospective, two-centre screening study of 24-month duration. The study participants were 441 patients (350 women, 91 men, aged 28-82) with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the 2005 IDF. By comparing the study and the control group, statistically significant differences were observed in the mean triglyceride levels (respectively 161,5 vs. 134,8 mg/dL, p = 0.047), mean fasting glycaemia (respectively 111,8 vs. 126,1 mg/dL, p = 0.044) and TG/HDL ratio (4,74 vs. 3,71, p = 0.043). Hypothyroidism shows a positive correlation with the TG levels and TG/HDL-C ratio and a negative correlation with the mean fasting glycaemia in people with MetS. A significantly higher TG/HDL-C ratio and lower mean insulin sensitivity ratio observed in men with hypothyroidism, indicated higher insulin resistance in men. In view of the above, it may be hypothesized that in patients with both MetS and hypothyroidism, especially of male gender, the risk of death of cardiovascular causes is greater due to the severity of MetS components. Moreover, we suggest that in patients recently diagnosed with MetS, active detection of hypothyroidism should be performed by determining the TSH levels, while patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism (apart from replacement therapy) should be monitored for the possible occurrence of MetS in the future.

  5. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Joo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Kyung [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Kwang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Moore, David D., E-mail: moore@bcm.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice.

  6. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis and hypothyroidism in a young adult: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Danao; Harb, Eric; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-10-10

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is the most common hip disorder affecting the adolescent population, usually individuals between 8 and 15 years old. However, there are few case reports of older patients in the literature to date. It is believed that the etiology is multifactorial and may include obesity, trauma and, less frequently, endocrine pathologies comprising hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and panhypopituitarism. We present the case of a 28-year-old Latino woman diagnosed with hypothyroidism secondary to arachnoidocele associated with skeletal immaturity and slipped capital femoral epiphysis. It is important to conduct clinical and radiographic studies in these patients to rule out endocrine pathologies, especially hypothyroidism in those of sexual maturity.

  8. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  9. [Management of Graves' disease and hypothyroidism in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momotani, Naoko; Iwama, Saika

    2012-11-01

    In the treatment of pregnant patients with Graves' disease, propylthiouracil is preferred over methimazole in early pregnancy because of a possible teratogenicity of methimazole. Methimazole is preferable to propylthiouracil in other time of pregnancy on the basis of severe liver dysfunction occasionally caused by propylthiouracil. Fetal hypothyroidism can be avoided when maternal free T4 levels are maintained at or above the upper normal limit for non-pregnant subjects. However, maternal free T4 should be kept normal for pregnant reference range when pregnancy complications develop. Fetal hypothyroidism in this setting will not affect the infant's development as long as mothers are euthyroid and the infants recover from hypothyroid state within a short time after birth. In hypothyroid women, 1-T4 dose often needs to be increased in pregnancy. Maternal T4 deficiency in early pregnancy has been suggested to affect normal brain development in the offspring. However, it has recently been shown in iodine rich area that no adverse effect on neuropsychological development was seen irrespective of the severity of maternal T4 deficiency. Insufficient iodine intake in the mother can cause low T4 in pregnancy and also inadequate production of T4 in breast-fed infants when sufficient T4 is essential for normal brain development.

  10. Hypothyroidism and obesity. Cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhyuday; Jayaraman, Muthukrishnan; Kumar, Hari K V S; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2008-08-01

    To establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in the Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in Mar 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism.

  11. Hypothyroidism in Cancer Patients on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors with anti-PD1 Agents: Insights on Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusseini, M; Samantray, J

    2017-04-01

    Background: Immune therapy using monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) for various cancers have been reported to cause thyroid dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and the course of hypothyroidism that subsequently develops. In this report, we use the change in thyroglobulin and thyroid antibody levels in patients on immune therapy who develop hypothyroidism to better understand its pathogenesis as well as examine the status of hypothyroidism in the long term. Methods: We report a case series of 10 patients who developed hypothyroidism after initiation of immune therapy (either anti-PD-1 alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4). Available thyroid antibodies including anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) were noted during the initial thyroiditis phase as well as the hypothyroid phase. Persistence or remission of hypothyroidism was noted at 6 months. Summary: During the thyroiditis phase, 50% of the patients had elevated Tg titers, 40% had elevated anti-Tg, and 40% had elevated TSI. All of these titers decreased during the hypothyroid phase. Permanent hypothyroidism was noted in 80% of the cases. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism following initiation of immune therapy has immunologic and non-immunologic mediated mechanisms and is likely to be persistent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Debmalya; Raychaudhuri, Moutusi

    2016-01-01

    According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity. However, linking them causally is controversial. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain, but there is a lack of clarity regarding subclinical hypothyroidism. Novel view indicates that changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) could well be secondary to obesity. The increasing prevalence of obesity further confounds definition of normal TSH range in population studies. Thyroid autoantibody status may help in establishing the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in obesity. High leptin levels may play a role in the hyperthyrotropinemia of obesity and also increase susceptibility to thyroid autoimmunity and subsequent hypothyroidism. There is at most a modest effect of L-T4 treatment in overt hypothyroidism in inducing weight loss; benefit in subclinical hypothyroidism is not established with no data supporting thyroid hormone use in euthyroid obese patients.

  13. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity. However, linking them causally is controversial. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain, but there is a lack of clarity regarding subclinical hypothyroidism. Novel view indicates that changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH could well be secondary to obesity. The increasing prevalence of obesity further confounds definition of normal TSH range in population studies. Thyroid autoantibody status may help in establishing the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in obesity. High leptin levels may play a role in the hyperthyrotropinemia of obesity and also increase susceptibility to thyroid autoimmunity and subsequent hypothyroidism. There is at most a modest effect of L-T4 treatment in overt hypothyroidism in inducing weight loss; benefit in subclinical hypothyroidism is not established with no data supporting thyroid hormone use in euthyroid obese patients.

  14. Transient Hypothyroidism: Dual Effect on Adult-Type Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Rijntjes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient neonatal 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism affects Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers in the developing testis, resulting in increased adult testis size. The hypothyroid condition was thought to be responsible, an assumption questioned by studies showing that uninterrupted fetal/postnatal hypothyroidism did not affect adult testis size. Here, we investigated effects of transient hypothyroidism on Leydig and Sertoli cell development, employing a perinatal iodide-deficient diet in combination with sodium perchlorate. This hypothyroidism inducing diet was continued until days 1, 7, 14, or 28 postpartum (pp respectively, when the rats were switched to a euthyroid diet and followed up to adulthood. Continuous euthyroid and hypothyroid, and neonatal PTU-treated rats switched to the euthyroid diet at 28 days pp, were included for comparison. No effects on formation of the adult-type Leydig cell population or on Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation were observed when the diet switched at/or before day 14 pp. However, when the diet was discontinued at day 28 pp, Leydig cell development was delayed similarly to what was observed in chronic hypothyroid rats. Surprisingly, Sertoli cell proliferation was 6- to 8-fold increased 2 days after the diet switch and remained elevated the next days. In adulthood, Sertoli cell number per seminiferous tubule cross-section and consequently testis weight was increased in this group. These observations implicate that increased adult testis size in transiently hypothyroid rats is not caused by the hypothyroid condition per se, but originates from augmented Sertoli cell proliferation as a consequence of rapid normalization of thyroid hormone concentrations.

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood and adolescense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Atilla; Bober, Ece

    2014-11-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level above the reference range with normal serum free thyroxin (sT4) and free triiodothyronine (sT3) levels. The prevalence of SH in children and adolescents is reported between 1.7% and 9.5%. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most prevalent cause of SH in children. Although it has been suggested that SH is entirely an asymptomatic laboratory diagnosis, typical hypothyroid symptoms as well have been reported in some patients. Results of the adult studies on SH revealed that SH had unfavorable effects on cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis); metabolic parameters (dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, etc.); neuromuscular system; and cognitive functions in the long term. The number of studies investigating the effect of childhood SH on growth, bone maturation, lipid parameters, carbohydrate metabolism, neuromuscular system, and cognitive and cardiac function is limited. Knowledge about the natural history of SH is unclear even though there are numerous studies upon this subject. In children and adults, treatment of SH with L-T₄ is still a matter of debate, and there is no consensus on this issue yet.

  16. To study the neonatal outcomes in pregnancies with hypothyroidism in a tertiary referral centre

    OpenAIRE

    Shameel Faisal; Satish Tibrewala; Sana Afreen; Raksha Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal hypothyroidism may be associated with a variety of adverse maternal fetal outcomes, whether those outcomes are affected by the maternal thyroid status during her antenatal periods remains yet to be clear. The prospective observational study was done and investigated the maternal foetal and neonatal outcomes in patients with hypothyroidism during their antenatal period. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) and new...

  17. High prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism during first trimester of pregnancy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K Dhanwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is a common occurrence in pregnancy and affects both maternal and fetal outcomes. There are limited data on prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy from India. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction especially hypothyroidism during first trimester in a large public hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive first trimester pregnant women attending Lok Nayak and Kasturba Hospitals were enrolled in the study after institutional ethics approval and consent from the study subjects. The pregnant women with diagnosed thyroid disease and on thyroid medications were excluded from the study. Morning samples of study participants were analyzed for thyroid hormone profile which included free T3, free T4, TSH, and TPO Ab. In addition, all study participants were tested for CBC, LFT, KFT, and lipid profile. Results: A total of 1000 women were enrolled for this prospective observational study. The mean (SD age of study subjects was 25.6 (11.1 years, and mean (SD gestational age was 10.3 (3.4 weeks. One hundred and forty-three (14.3% subjects had TSH values more than 4.5 mIU/L above the cutoff used for definition of hypothyroidism. Out of these, 135 had normal free T4 and therefore labeled as subclinical hypothyroidism and 7 had low free T4 suggestive of overt hypothyroidism. TPO Ab was positive in 68 (6.82% of total, 25 (18.5% of subclinical and 5 (71% of overt hypothyroid patients. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism, especially subclinical, is common in North Indian women during first trimester. Further countrywide studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of hypothyroidism to prevent maternal and fetal adverse effects of hypothyroidism in India.

  18. Hypothyroidism: The Thyroid and You | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism The Thyroid and You: Coping with a Common ... is made by the pituitary gland. What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid ...

  19. Hypothyroidism:Symptoms,Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table ... of its symptoms are seen in other diseases, hypothyroidism usually cannot be diagnosed based on symptoms alone. ...

  20. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory...

  1. Factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension, obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Николаевна Плиговка

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the factors of early atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and obesity and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Aim: To identify factors that influence the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and comorbid subclinical hypothyroidism.Methods. The study involved 75 patients, including 53 patients in the phase of subclinical hypothyroidism and 22 patients in the phase of euthyroidism. All the patients underwent measurement of anthropometric parameters. They were identified lipid profile, CRP, TSH, T4. Determination of IMT was performed using color Doppler ultrasound machine with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 13.0.Results. A study of patients showed that the comparison group matched for age, sex, BMI. The levels of atherogenic lipids and CRP were statistically higher in the subclinical hypothyroidism group compared with the control group. A mathematical analysis showed that TSH affects indicators such as the IMT, CRP and BMI.In subclinical hypothyroidism group were statistically significantly higher levels of atherogenic lipids, CRP as compared with the control group. Mathematical analysis showed that the significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism are the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone, CRP and BMI.Conclusions: Significant factors affecting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism is the TSH, CRP and BMI. The level of TSH above 10.2 mIU/L is associated with the development of atherosclerosis in patients with obesity, hypertension and subclinical hypothyroidism

  2. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  3. Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Frida Hosseini; Johansson, Bengt; Möllerström, Gunnar; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Skjöldebrand-Sparre, Lottie

    2017-11-01

    Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n = 611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n = 511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n = 88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed. The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p = 0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0 mIU/L. High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since ∼10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  4. Hypothyroidism Complicating Nephropathy in a Diabetes Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash Sahoo; Ilangovan Veerappan; Anila Abraham; Somasundaram Hariharan

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune hypothyroidism who presented with elevated serum creatinine possibly due to subclinical rhabdomyolysis induced by hypolipidemic drug therapy in the background of diabetic nephropathy. Both hypothyroidism and rhabdomyolysis were asymptomatic in this case as evidenced by lack of classical clinical features of hypothyroidism despite elevated serum TSH and absent pigment cast in renal biopsy. The combination of diabetes mellitus a...

  5. The Treatment of Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu; Mihai Andrada Doina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a pathologic condition generated by the thyroid hormone deficiency. The American Thyroid Association advises for the screening of hypothyroidism beginning at 35 years and thereafter every 5 years in people at high risk for this condition: females older than 60 years, pregnant women, patients with other autoimmune disease or patients with a history of neck irradiation. In pregnant women, hypothyroidism can been associated with adverse effect for both mother and child. The „Gu...

  6. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Trbojević, Božo

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l), or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l) hypothyrodi...

  7. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link

    OpenAIRE

    Debmalya Sanyal; Moutusi Raychaudhuri

    2016-01-01

    According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity. However, linking them causally is controversial. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain, but there is a lack of clarity regarding subclinical hypothyroidism. Novel view indicates that changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) could well be secondary to obesity. The increasing prevalence of obesity further confounds definition of normal TSH range in population studies. Thyroid autoantibody st...

  8. Hemostasis in Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hypothyroidism on the changes in hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This paper reviews the studies on laboratory and population-based findings regarding hemostatic changes and risk of VTE in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hypothyroidism; thyroiditis, autoimmune; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation tests; hemostasis, blood coagulation disorders; thyroid hormones; myxedema; venous thromboembolism; fibrinolysis, receptors thyroid hormone. The papers that were related to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorder and hemostasis are used in this review. Results Overt hypothyroidism is more associated with a hypocoagulable state. Decreased platelet count, aggregation and agglutination, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, several coagulation factors such as factor VIII, IX, XI, VII, and plasminogen activator-1 are detected in overt hypothyrodism. Increased fibrinogen has been detected in subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease rendering a tendency towards a hypercoagulability state. Increased factor VII and its activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are among several findings contributing to a prothrombotic state in subclinical hypothyroidism. Conclusions Overt hypothyroidism is associated with a hypocoagulable state and subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders may induce a prothrombotic state. However, there are contradictory findings for the abovementioned thyroid disorders. Prospective studies on the risk of VTE in various levels of hypofunctioning of the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid disorders are warranted. PMID:29026409

  9. [Obesity and hypothyroidism: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio

    2007-04-04

    While obesity has been historically considered a criteria to establish the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the association between them is seldom encountered in patients. Nowadays the main metabolic criteria is the gain of weight in the presence of other symptoms of hypothyroidism. The large differences between the thermogenesis of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients underline the complex relationship of thyroid hormones and metabolic pathways. The treatment of a subclinical hypothyroidism has almost no influence on the body weight, whereas in more severe dysfunctions a weight loss is expected, usually less than 10% of body weight. Thereafter severe obesity may not be secondary to a thyroid failure.

  10. Hypothyroidism Complicating Nephropathy in a Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune hypothyroidism who presented with elevated serum creatinine possibly due to subclinical rhabdomyolysis induced by hypolipidemic drug therapy in the background of diabetic nephropathy. Both hypothyroidism and rhabdomyolysis were asymptomatic in this case as evidenced by lack of classical clinical features of hypothyroidism despite elevated serum TSH and absent pigment cast in renal biopsy. The combination of diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism is common in the general population and should not be forgotten in patients with diabetes and kidney disease.

  11. An unusual presentation of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sonia; Singh, Gundeep; Yasir, Subia; Hatipoglu, Betul

    2005-03-01

    We describe a case of a 42-year-old male, with a 5-year history of recurrent gum bleeding, easy bruising, and chronic fatigue who presented for management of possible bleeding complications prior to a planned dental procedure. After extensive work-up, the patient was diagnosed with acquired von Willebrand Disease and underlying hypothyroidism with a thyrotropin (TSH) of 321 mIU/L (0.35-5.5) and total thyroxine (T(4)) of less than 1 microg/dL (4.5-12.5). He was started on levothyroxine and therapy and when compliant with treatment, the mucosal bleeding and symptoms of hypothyroidism were resolved. A subsequent TSH and total T(4) samples were drawn and found to be 6.3 mIU/L and 4.1 microg/dL, respectively.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  13. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  14. Anemia, Growth Failure and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chaytors, Richard Gordon; Higgins, Gerald

    1980-01-01

    A 12-year-old Caucasian female presented to her family physician with an old complaint of anemia and a new complaint of failure to grow. The anemia, first observed four years previously, had been diagnosed as iron deficiency, but had never satisfactorily responded to adequate iron therapy. Investigation of the failure to grow resulted in a diagnosis of hypothyroidism with related normochromic normocytic anemia.

  15. The biopsychosocial model and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bonello Rod; Brown Benjamin T; Pollard Henry

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper comments on the role and emergence of the biopsychosocial model in modern medical literature and health care settings. The evolution of the biopsychosocial model and its close association with modern pain theory is also examined. This paper seeks to discuss the place of this model with respect to the management of hypothyroidism. This discussion represents a forerunner to a randomised control trial that will seek to investigate the effect of a biopsychosocial-based treatme...

  16. Reversible hypothyroidism and Whipple's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major cause of primary hypothyroidism is autoimmune mediated with progressive and permanent destruction of the thyroid gland resulting in life-long replacement therapy. Treatable and reversible hypothyroidism is unusual and here forth is such a case due to infection of the thyroid gland with Tropheryma whippleii, Whipple disease. Case presentation A 45 year-old female presented with symptoms and signs consistent with primary hypothyroidism, which was also confirmed biochemically. Her response to thyroxine replacement therapy was poor however, requiring a significantly elevated amount. Further investigation revealed the presence of Whipple's disease involving the gastrointestinal trace and possibly the thyroid gland. Her thyroxine requirement decreased drastically following appropriate antimicrobial therapy for Whipple's disease to the extent that it was ceased. Thyrotropin releasing hormone testing in the steady state suggested there was diminished thyroid reserve due to Whipple's disease. Conclusion This is the first ante-mortem case report studying the possible involvement of the thyroid gland by Whipple's disease. Despite the normalization of her thyroid function test biochemically after antibiotic therapy, there is diminished thyroid reserve thus requiring close and regular monitoring.

  17. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  18. Features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Combination with Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2016-01-01

    Background. The last decades are characterized by the considerable increase in the prevalence of endocrine disorders with the change of the structure, and first of all cases of polyendocrinopathy, the special place among which is occupied by combination of diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid diseases. Increase in the incidence of DM type 2 associated with hypothyroidism affects the clinical course of this pathology, remains topical problem of modern medical science. The objective: to study the...

  19. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armada-Dias L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  20. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Armada-Dias

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  1. Skewed distribution of hypothyroidism in the coastal communities of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Knight, John C; Babichuk, Nicole A; Mulay, Shree

    2015-10-01

    Several studies published in the recent past have shown that rising levels of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in the environment affect thyroid function in humans. These TDCs are the anthropogenic organic compounds that enter the human body mostly by ingestion and may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The studies also show the presence of high levels of TDCs in marine animals; therefore, consumption of contaminated seafood might trigger hypothyroidism. So far, there is no readily available population-based data, showing the regional distribution of hypothyroidism cases. We collected administrative data from the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information on hospitalizations with hypothyroidism (from 1998 to 2012) in 41 coastal communities of Newfoundland and found that mean hypothyroidism rates of west and south coasts were significantly higher than in the east coast (1.8 and 1.9 times respectively). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test for regional differences in rates. A significant between-group difference in the rate of hypothyroidism was found (F2,38 = 8.309; p = 0.001). The St. Lawrence River, its estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence are heavily polluted with TDCs from industries, their effluents, and urbanization in the Great Lakes Watershed and along the river. Environment Canada has already identified this river along with the Great Lakes Watershed as one of the top TDCs polluted water sources in the country. The west and south coasts are in contact with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Local marine products are a regular diet of the coastal communities of Newfoundland. Based on these available evidence, we hypothesize the role of TDCs in the rise of hypothyroidism on the western and southern coasts. However, further study will be needed to establish any association between abnormally high rates of hypothyroidism and exposure to TDCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-24

    Dec 24, 2013 ... triiodothyronine and free T4 levels were both low, while the TSH level was markedly elevated, indicating primary congenital hypothyroidism. The tachycardia reflects the anaemia, rather than the typical bradycardia of hypothyroidism. The resolution of persistent anaemia following levothyroxine therapy ...

  3. Effects of Hypothyroidism and Exogenous Thyroxine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Thyroxine (T4) is important in gut development and maturation, and its use in treating hypothyroidism is becoming more ... hypothyroidism diminishes the morphological variables of absorption in the small intestine as a mechanism to reducing its transfer ..... Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management. 7th edition.

  4. Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-24

    Dec 24, 2013 ... Case Study: Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe anaemia in early infancy. 85. 2014 Volume 19 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Although anaemia is a common finding in adults with hypothyroidism, there is a general paucity of studies on anaemia in infants with congenital ...

  5. Prognostic Role of Hypothyroidism in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ning; Gao, Dengfeng; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Iacoviello, Massimo; Mitchell, Judith E.; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Yan; Kou, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypothyroidism is a risk factor of heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the relationship between hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with established HF is still inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association of hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases for studies of hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with HF published up to the end of January 2015. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. We included 13 articles that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hypothyroidism with outcomes in patients with HF. For the association of hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality and with cardiac death and/or hospitalization, the pooled RR was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.29–1.61) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.22–1.55), respectively. However, the association disappeared on adjustment for B-type natriuretic protein level (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.90–1.52) and in studies of patients with mean age hypothyroidism associated with increased all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. Further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for hypothyroidism may be needed for patients with HF. PMID:26222845

  6. Demographic and Clinical Aspects of Congenital Hypothyroidism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common congenital endocrine disorder worldwide. Approximately 80 to 85% of cases are caused by defects in thyroid development (dysgenesis), the remaining 15 to 20% are due to errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis (dyshormonogenesis). Congenital hypothyroidism ...

  7. Hypothyroidism in the elderly: diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Olmos, Rodrigo D; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are highly prevalent, occurring most frequently in aging women. Thyroid-associated symptoms are very similar to symptoms of the aging process; thus, improved methods for diagnosing overt and subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly people are crucial. Thyrotropin measurement is considered to be the main test for detecting hypothyroidism. Combined evaluations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free-thyroxine can detect overt hypothyroidism (high TSH with low free-thyroxine levels) and subclinical hypothyroidism (high TSH with normal free-thyroxine levels). It is difficult to confirm the diagnosis of thyroid diseases based only on symptoms, but presence of symptoms could be an indicator of who should be evaluated for thyroid function. The most important reasons to treat overt hypothyroidism are to relieve symptoms and avoid progression to myxedema. Overt hypothyroidism is classically treated using L-thyroxine; elderly patients require a low initial dose that is increased every 4 to 6 weeks until normalization of TSH levels. After stabilization, TSH levels are monitored yearly. There is no doubt about the indication for treatment of overt hypothyroidism, but indications for treatment of subclinical disease are controversial. Although treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism may result in lipid profile improvement, there is no evidence that this improvement is associated with decreased cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in elderly patients. In patients with a high risk of progression from subclinical to overt disease, close monitoring of thyroid function could be the best option. PMID:22573936

  8. Exercise-induced hyperkalemia in hypothyroid dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, IA; van Emst, MG; Verkleij, CB; Peeters, ME; Boer, P; Rijnberk, A; Everts, ME

    We investigated the effect of hypothyroidism in dogs on (1) the Na+-, K+-ATPase concentration in skeletal muscle, and (2) potassium (K+) homeostasis at rest and during exercise. Prior to and I year after induction of hypothyroidism by surgery and subsequent radiothyroidectomy, the Na+-, K+-ATPase

  9. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma: a critical review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-12-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search, thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and could be categorized into two groups based on the exposure. The designs of the studies varied considerably, and there was heterogeneity related to lack of power, weak phenotype classifications and length of follow-up. Eight studies had glaucoma (5757 patients) as exposure and hypothyroidism as outcome. Among these, we found a non-significantly increased risk of hypothyroidism associated with glaucoma (RR 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-2.82). Based on five studies (168 006 patients) with hypothyroidism as exposure and glaucoma as outcome, we found the risk of glaucoma to be significantly increased (RR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13-1.58). Based on these meta-analyses, there seems to be an association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, which does not seem to be the case between glaucoma and hypothyroidism. However, larger scale studies with better phenotype classification, longer follow-up and taking comorbidity and other biases into consideration are needed to address a potential causal relationship. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Secondary hypothyroidism after cervical irradiation: systematic evaluation of thyroid function in follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sara Monteiro; Ferreira, Brígida Costa; Guardado, Maria João; Marques, Rui; Serra, Tânia; Serra, Maria João; Roda, Domingos; Brandão, Joana; Melo, Gilberto; Lopes, Maria Carmo; Khouri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    complication after irradiation and affects a large percentage of patients undergoing cervical radiotherapy with curative intent. It has been shown that the risk of hypothyroidism increases with time after exposure, but the highest incidence appears to be in the first two years after treatment. From our analysis we obtained at 12 months, a rate of incidence of hypothyroidism of 18.6% (16.55% grade 1 and grade 2, 2.1%). This study found an incidence of hypothyroidism corresponding to the lowest values reported in other published studies. The short duration of follow-up considered in this analysis, may justify these results. With these results and their correlation with the available literature, the authors consider justified and recommend the inclusion of the systematic evaluation of thyroid function in the follow-up protocol of these patients.

  11. Gender differences in symptoms of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...... of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures...... for the association between participant status (case vs control) and presence of symptoms (yes vs no). RESULTS: In overt autoimmune hypothyroidism, 94·9% of women and 91·3% of men (P = 0·62) reported at least one of the hypothyroidism-associated symptoms, with tiredness as the most common symptom followed by dry skin...

  12. Excess mortality in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from...... January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over...... a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0-30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  13. Epidemiology of subtypes of hypothyroidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Studies of hypothyroidism are often based on referred patients. and limited information is available on the incidence rates of subtypes of hypothyroidism in the general population. We therefore studied incidences of subtypes of primary. overt hypothyroidism in a Danish population cohort...... and compared incidences in two subcohorts with different levels of iodine intake. Design: A prospective population-based study, monitoring a well-defined cohort representative of the Danish population. Methods: The Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases registry of hyper- and hypothyroidism...... was established as part of the monitoring of the iodine fortification of salt in Denmark. A computer-based system linked to laboratory databases identified all patients diagnosed with new. biochemically overt hypothyroidism in populations living in Aalborg (moderate iodine deficiency, n = 311 102) and Copenhagen...

  14. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on anthropometric characteristics, lipid, glucose and hormonal profile of PCOS patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Prodromidou, Anastasia; Florou, Venetia; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina N

    2017-03-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is encountered in 10-25% of women with PCOS. To date, it remains unclear whether this coexistence influences the severity of metabolic and hormonal profile of these patients. The purpose of our systematic review is to investigate this potential relation. We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Google Scholar databases together with reference lists from included studies. All prospective and retrospective observational cohort studies that investigated the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on hormonal and metabolic parameters of PCOS patients were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed with the Ottawa-Newcastle criteria. Statistical meta-analysis was performed with the RevMan 5.3 software. Twelve studies were finally included in the present review, which enrolled 2341 PCOS patients. Among them, 577 had subclinical hypothyroidism, whereas the remaining 2077 were PCOS women with normal thyroid function. The presence of SCH significantly affected HDL (MD -3.92 mg/dL 95% CI: -6.56, -1.29) and triglycerides levels (26.91 mg/dL 95% CI: -3.79, 50.02). HOMA-IR was also affected (MD 0.82 95% CI: 0.15, 1.50). On the other hand, LDL, fasting glucose and 2-h OGTT were not influenced. Similarly, prolactin, FSH, LH, LH/FSH ratio and sex hormone-binding globulin remained unaffected. Subclinical hypothyroidism does not influence the hormonal profile of women with PCOS. On the other hand, it results in mild metabolic abnormalities, which are not clinically important in a short-term setting. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. The heart and hypothyroidism | Bennett | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of hypothyroidism with heart disease is reviewed. The. relative rarity of cardiac failure due to hypothyroidism is stressed, and structural abnormalities of the heart due to hypothyroidism are discussed. The clinical management of hypothyroid patients with heart disease is described.

  16. Hypothyroidism and Mortality among Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M.; Alexander, Erik K.; Bhan, Ishir

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hypothyroidism is highly prevalent among ESRD patients, but its clinical significance and the benefits of thyroid hormone replacement in this context remain unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the association between hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality among 2715 adult dialysis patients with baseline thyrotropin levels measured between April of 2005 and April of 2011. Mortality was ascertained from Social Security Death Master Index and local registration systems. The association between hypothyroidism (thyrotropin greater than assay upper limit normal) and mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. To reduce the risk of observing reverse-causal associations, models included a 30-day lag between thyrotropin measurement and at-risk time. Results Among 350 (12.9%) hypothyroid and 2365 (87.1%) euthyroid (assay within referent range) patients, 917 deaths were observed during 5352 patient-years of at-risk time. Hypothyroidism was associated with higher mortality. Compared with thyrotropin in the low-normal range (0.4–2.9 mIU/L), subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >upper limit normal and ≤10.0 mIU/L) was associated with higher mortality; high-normal thyrotropin (≥3.0 mIU/L and ≤upper limit normal) and overt hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >10.0 mIU/L) were associated with numerically greater risk, but estimates were not statistically significant. Compared with spontaneously euthyroid controls, patients who were euthyroid while on exogenous thyroid replacement were not at higher mortality risk, whereas patients who were hypothyroid were at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analyses indicated that effects on cardiovascular risk factors may mediate the observed association between hypothyroidism and death. Conclusions These data suggest that hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients, which may be ameliorated by thyroid hormone replacement

  17. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  18. Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and subsequent hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Tuija; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Pouta, Anneli; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Mendola, Pauline; Miettola, Satu; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Ruokonen, Aimo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Suvanto, Eila

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) on subsequent hypothyroidism. Recent studies suggest that women with PE have increased risk for reduced thyroid function, but the association between PE and GH with overt hypothyroidism has not been examined. Study design Two prospective population-based cohort studies, the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986, followed women who had PE (N=955), GH (N=1449) or were normotensive (N=13531) during pregnancy. Finnish national registers were used to confirm subsequent hypothyroidism. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated hypothyroidism risk when comparing women with PE or GH with normotensive women. Main outcome measures Primary hypothyroidism during follow-up of 20–40 years. Results The subsequent prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher among women with PE (4.0%) and GH (4.5%) compared with normotensive women (3.5%), but the risk increase was not significant (aHR for PE 1.13, 95%CI 0.80–1.59 and aHR for GH 1.11, 95%CI 0.85–1.45). Subgroup analysis among nulliparous women revealed a significant association between late PE and subsequent hypothyroidism (aHR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04–3.19). Early or recurrent PE were not associated with hypothyroidism (aHR 0.93, 95%CI 0.46–1.81 and aHR 1.35, 95%CI 0.63–2.88, respectively). Conclusions Overall, PE or GH during pregnancy was not significantly associated with subsequent hypothyroidism in Finnish women after 20–40 years of follow-up. However, late PE in nulliparous women was associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk of subsequent hypothyroidism, a finding that merits further study in other populations. PMID:23439671

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  20. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  1. Hypothyroid dogs treated with intravenous levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, William H; Hess, Rebecka S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to report clinical and clinicopathologic findings, response to treatment, and outcome of hypothyroid dogs treated with levothyroxine intravenously (IV). Seven levothyroxine IV treated hypothyroid dogs and 799 other hypothyroid dogs examined during the same period were included. Rottweiler dogs were overrepresented in the group of levothyroxine IV-treated hypothyroid dogs compared with other hypothyroid dogs (P dogs), mental dullness (5 dogs), and nonpitting edema (4 dogs). Anemia (4 dogs) and hypercholesterolemia (5) were common, although 1 dog had neither. Concurrent disease (most commonly infection) was observed in 5 dogs. Glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs had been administered to 2 dogs before examination. Surgery was performed in 2 dogs before treatment with levothyroxine IV. Four of the 7 dogs received 4-5 microg/kg of levothyroxine IV. Subjective improvement in mentation or ambulation (6 of 7 dogs) and systolic hypotension (2 of 2 dogs) occurred within 30 hours of levothyroxine IV administration. Six of the 7 dogs responded well to therapy and were discharged from the hospital. It was concluded that physical examination and clinicopathologic findings of dogs with a hypothyroid crisis are nonspecific, although Rottweiler dogs may be at increased risk. Concurrent disorder, such as infection, concurrent administration of thyroid hormone-altering medication, and surgery, may be associated with development of a hypothyroid crisis. Resolution of abnormal mentation, ambulation, and systolic hypotension should be expected within 30 hours. Prognosis is good in most treated dogs.

  2. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-08-03

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone.

  3. Rhabdomyolysis in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nooshin; Agoston, Endre; Munir, Iqbal; Thompson, Gary J

    2017-08-22

    BACKGROUND Muscular symptoms, including stiffness, myalgia, cramps, and fatigue, are present in the majority of the patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism, but rhabdomyolysis, the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle, is a rare manifestation. In most patients with hypothyroidism who develop rhabdomyolysis, precipitating factors, such as strenuous exercise or use of lipid-lowering drugs, can be identified. CASE REPORT We report a case of a 52-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with fatigue, severe generalized weakness, bilateral leg pain, and recurrent falls. She reported poor medication compliance for the preceding month. Initial laboratory testing showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, indicating uncontrolled hypothyroidism with associated rhabdomyolysis. Supportive treatment with intravenous fluids and intravenous levothyroxine were initiated and resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS We report a case of rhabdomyolysis, which is a rare but potentially serious complication of hypothyroidism. Screening for hypothyroidism in patients with elevated muscle enzymes should be considered, since an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypothyroidism is essential to prevent rhabdomyolysis and its consequences.

  4. [Hypothyroidism in patients with heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Jan

    Hypothyroidism is frequently found in patients with heart disease. It is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease and has a direct negative effect on both the left and right ventricular functions (hypothyroidism-induced cardiomyopathy). The confirmed manifest hypothyroidism is always a reason for replacement therapy with levothyroxine; regarding patients with heart disease, we always begin treatment with a small dose and increase it gradually. The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart disease is disputable and its benefits probably depend on age. At a higher age, the therapy-related risks often outweigh its benefits, so we make do with the target levels of the thyroid stimulating hormone being within the upper band of the normal range, or even slightly above it, rather than overdosing the patient. To summarize in a simplified way, the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart disease is the most effective in younger individuals, mainly those aged below 65, while at a higher age > 80 years the risk usually outweighs the benefit.Key words: cardiovascular risk - hypothyroidism - ischemic heart disease - left ventricular dysfunction - right ventricular dysfunction - subclinical hypothyroidism - thyroid peroxidase antibodies.

  5. Tertiary hypothyroidism in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiel Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A nine-year-old male entire Labrador was diagnosed with pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Following seven months of successful mitotane therapy, the dog presented with marked weight gain, seborrhoea and alopecia. Routine clinicopathological analyses revealed marked hypercholesterolaemia. Serum total and free thyroxine (T4 concentrations were below their respective reference ranges. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH concentration was within reference range. TSH and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH response tests revealed adequate stimulation of total T4 in both, and cTSH in the latter test. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass arising from the pituitary fossa, with suprasellar extension. A diagnosis of tertiary hypothyroidism was made. Following four weeks of levothyroxine therapy, circulating cholesterol concentration had declined, weight loss had ensued and dermatological abnormalities had improved. Euthanasia was performed four months later due to the development of neurological signs. A highly infiltrative pituitary adenoma, with effacement of the overlying hypothalamus was identified on post mortem examination. Tertiary hypothyroidism has not been previously reported in dogs.

  6. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  7. Kinetically influenced terms for solute transport affected by heterogeneous and homogeneous classical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends a four-step derivation procedure, previously presented for cases of transport affected by surface reactions, to transport problems involving homogeneous reactions. Derivations for these classes of reactions are used to illustrate the manner in which mathematical differences between reaction classes are reflected in the mathematical derivation procedures required to identify kinetically influenced terms. Simulation results for a case of transport affected by a single solution phase complexation reaction and for a case of transport affected by a precipitation-dissolution reaction are used to demonstrate the nature of departures from equilibrium-controlled transport as well as the use of kinetically influenced terms in determining criteria for the applicability of the local equilibrium assumption. A final derivation for a multireaction problem demonstrates the application of the generalized procedure to a case of transport affected by reactions of several classes. -from Author

  8. [Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Major Psychiatric Disorders in Hospitalised Patients in Montserrat Hospital During the period March to October 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María

    Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Moniek; Hop-de Groot, Rianne J; Sweep, Fred C G J; Ross, H Alec; den Heijer, Martin; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2013-01-01

    Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions. In 372 women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy, we assessed thyroid function. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 73/372 women (19.6%). It occurred more often when pregnancy ended before 32 weeks of gestation (p = 0.008). In this cohort, subclinical hypothyroidism is more common after very preterm delivery. It may contribute to the elevated risk of remote cardiovascular disease.

  10. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  12. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  13. Effect of subclinical hypothyroidism and obesity on whole-body and regional bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, A; Fusco, A; Andreoli, A; Magnani, A; Tulli, A; Lauro, D; De Lorenzo, A

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism and obesity on bone mineral content (BMC) in different body segments. Thirty-two premenopausal women (age: 37 +/- 9.9 years), with a wide range in body mass index (BMI), were studied. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined by a basal TSH > or = 4 microU/l and/or a TRH-stimulated peak > or = 30 microU/l. For each subject, weight, height, BMI (weight/height(2)) and the waist/hip ratio were measured. Total BMC, total bone mineral density (BMD), leg BMC, leg BMD, trunk BMC, trunk BMD, arm BMC and arm BMD were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Thyroid function (basal and TRH-stimulated TSH, free T(3) and free T(4)) were determined from fasting blood samples for all subjects. Anova was conducted within all the groups to observe the effect of thyroid status and/or obesity on BMC and BMD. There was no statistical difference for age. Total BMC was affected by obesity (p obesity (p hypothyroid status (p obesity seem to affect BMD differently in the body segments. An influence of gravitational force seems necessary in order to make evident the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on bone. A condition of subclinical hypothyroidism should be considered when evaluating subjects for osteoporosis, since a BMD measured at the femoral neck may induce underestimation of initial osteoporosis. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  15. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  16. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  17. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Critique of the hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism CPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatcherd, Julie A

    2004-10-01

    The clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism was developed in 2002 to update the original American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) thyroid guidelines, which were published in 1995 (AACE Thyroid Task Force). The mission of this guideline as stated by the authors was to provide a framework for managing the diagnosis and treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. The guidelines are intended to improve outcomes and reduce costs while stressing the importance of routine continual care provided by one physician. The guidelines are also intended to enhance physicians' awareness of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, which are frequently encountered in the clinical setting and often have detrimental health consequences when untreated. The organization of the guideline is clear and easy to follow. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are described in two separate sections, each of which covers clinical features, diagnosis, laboratory evaluation, differential diagnosis, treatment, and management. (See previous article in this column.).

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  20. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  1. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  2. Quality of life in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Morgunova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess the quality of life of patients with hypothyroidism and to compare with the QoL of patients with nodular goiter and people without thyroid disease. Thirty patients with compensated primary hypothyroidism (aged from 25 to 55 years, 28 patients with nodular (multinodular euthyroid goiter of the same age not receiving levothyroxine, and 30 healthy people. The scores for the Short-Form 36 (SF-36 and Beck Depression Inventory Scale were analyzed. Almost all scales of the questionnaire SF-36 (except for general health and role emotional functioning in patients with compensated hypothyroidism were significantly lower (p < 0.05, than in healthy people. While comparing QoL in patients with hypothyroidism with QoL in patients with nodular goiter the rates of role physical functioning (p = 0.042, vitality (p = 0.015, social functioning (p = 0.0 and psychological health (p = 0.021 of patients with hypothyroidism were significantly less compared with patients with euthyroid goiter. In assessing the severity of depression revealed that the value on a scale of depression in patients with compensated hypothyroidism was significantly higher compared with the results of patients with nodular goiter and healthy individuals (p = 0.014. Conclusion: In patients with compensated hypothyroidism in almost all parameters the quality of life worse than in people without thyroid disease, and on many scales (role physical functioning, vitality, social functioning and psychological health is worse than in patients with euthy-roid goiter. Severity of depression in patients with compensated hypothyroidism is higher compared to patients with nodular goiter and healthy people, which may be one of the reasons for the decrease of quality of life of these patients.

  3. The Treatment of Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a pathologic condition generated by the thyroid hormone deficiency. The American Thyroid Association advises for the screening of hypothyroidism beginning at 35 years and thereafter every 5 years in people at high risk for this condition: females older than 60 years, pregnant women, patients with other autoimmune disease or patients with a history of neck irradiation. In pregnant women, hypothyroidism can been associated with adverse effect for both mother and child. The „Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum“ recommends the treatment of maternal overt hypothyroidism: females with a thyrotropin (TSH level higher than the trimester-specific reference interval and decreased free thyroxine (FT4, and females for which TSH level is higher than 10.0 mIU/L, irrespective of the FT4 value, with administration of oral levothyroxine. The goal of treatment of maternal overt hypothyroidism is to bring back the serum TSH values to the reference range specific for the pregnancy trimester. The Guidelines of the „European Thyroid Association for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children“ recommends treatment of pregnancy associated subclinical hypothyroidism with the following levothyroxine doses: „1.20 μg/kg/day for TSH≤4.2 mU/l, 1.42 μg/kg/day for TSH >4.2-10 and 2.33 μg/kg/day for overt hypothyroidism“. The „Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum“ and the „European Thyroid Association for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children“ do not recommend the treatment of isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy.

  4. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  5. Hypothyroidism in the adult rat causes incremental changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis, gliosis, and deterioration of postsynaptic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Claudia; Eugenin, Eliseo; Aliaga, Esteban; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; Gonzalez, Pablo A; Gayol, Silvina; Naranjo, David; Noches, Verónica; Marassi, Michelle P; Rosenthal, Doris; Jadue, Cindy; Ibarra, Paula; Keitel, Cecilia; Wohllk, Nelson; Court, Felipe; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A

    2012-09-01

    Adult hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent condition that impairs processes, such as learning and memory. Even though tetra-iodothyronine (T(4)) treatment can overcome the hypothyroidism in the majority of cases, it cannot fully recover the patient's learning capacity and memory. In this work, we analyzed the cellular and molecular changes in the adult brain occurring with the development of experimental hypothyroidism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) for 20 days to induce hypothyroidism. Neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the hippocampus of control and hypothyroid adult rats by confocal microscopy. The content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in situ hybridization. The glutamatergic synapse and the postsynaptic density (PSD) were analyzed by electron microscopy. The content of PSD proteins like tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), p75, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) were analyzed by immunoblot. We observed that the hippocampus of hypothyroid adult rats displayed increased apoptosis levels in neurons and astrocyte and reactive gliosis compared with controls. Moreover, we found that the amount of BDNF mRNA was higher in the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats and the content of TrkB, the receptor for BDNF, was reduced at the PSD of the CA3 region of hypothyroid rats, compared with controls. We also observed that the glutamatergic synapses from the stratum radiatum of CA3 from hypothyroid rats, contained thinner PSDs than control rats. This observation was in agreement with a reduced content of NMDAr subunits at the PSD in hypothyroid animals. Our data suggest that adult hypothyroidism affects the hippocampus by a mechanism that alters the composition of PSD, reduces neuronal and astrocyte survival, and alters the content of the signaling neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF.

  6. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you should take your medicine at bedtime. Taking it at bedtime may allow your body to absorb the medicine ... dose is too high, such as: Palpitations Rapid weight loss Restlessness or shakiness Sweating Outlook (Prognosis) In ...

  7. Hypothyroid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    providing appropriately written materials, using oral communication, and improving visual presentation (14). Significant effort has focused on improving the quality and appropriateness of printed materials (14). Further research needs to focus on using oral and visual communication to convey necessary medical information ...

  8. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ...

  9. The effect of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy on brain development in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dijie; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan; Yu, Xiaohui; Gao, Yun; Wang, Sen; Fan, Chenling; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hongmei

    2010-08-01

    Maternal thyroid hormones (THs), especially thyroxine (T(4)), are crucial to early brain development in the mammalian embryo. Epidemiological studies and case reports have shown that maternal subclinical hypothyroidism may result in significant negative effects on pregnancy and neurodevelopment of the fetus. To understand the mechanism responsible for these neurological alterations, we induced maternal subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant rats. Behavior and several genes that are under the control of THs were evaluated in the offspring of TH-deficient rats. A total of 60 female rats were divided into three groups: (i) maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (total thyroidectomy with T(4) infusion), (ii) maternal hypothyroidism (total thyroidectomy without T(4) infusion), and (iii) control (sham operated). All rats were mated 10 days after the start of infusion. The infusion continued until 10 days postpartum. Pups were sacrificed at postnatal day 3 (PND 3), PND 7, and PND 21. The hippocampus was collected and tested for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Rap1 protein expression by Western blotting and for BDNF and neural cell adhesion molecule mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. On PND 41-PND 49, rat pups explored the Morris water maze. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. This study found decreases in BDNF mRNA expression (on PND 3) and protein level (on PND 3 and PND 7) in hippocampi of pups from subclinical hypothyroidism dams (p hypothyroidism offspring than in control offspring at PND 7 and PND 21. No change was observed in neural cell adhesion molecule mRNA expression in the maternal subclinical hypothyroidism offspring. In addition, results from the Morris water maze revealed that pups from the subclinical hypothyroidism dams showed deficits in long-term memory, spending less time in the platform quadrant (p 0.05) in this group as well. The long-term memory deficits of pups born to maternal

  10. [Clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoantibody before 20 weeks pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowei; Li, Min; Chu, Defa; Liang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Junrong

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the relationship between clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantibody before 20 weeks pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Literature search was done in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang Medical Database, China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database and China Biology Medicine disc databases from January 1st, 1980 to December 31th, 2013. The following search terms were used:hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinnism, thyroid antibody, preterm labor, preterm birth, etc. (1) Criteria for inclusion:cohort studies and clinical studies were included; only articles that described at least 10 patients were eligible;the exposure was clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantihody, and outcome was preterm birth. (2) The excluded subjects were articles that described less than 10 patients; controls were pregnant women without eurothyrodisim. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5. The relationship between clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantibody and risk of preterm birth was evaluated by OR or RR. (1) Twenty cohort studies were enrolled. A total of 39 596 cases of preterm birth occurred among 498 418 pregnant women. The controls in these studies were pregnant women with eurothyrodisim. (2) Clinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: eight studies were included, reported data on 478 418 pregnant women (5 473 women with clinical hypothyroidism and 472 945 euthyroid pregnant women). The risk of preterm birth in pregnant women with clinical hypothyroidism was higher than those eurothyroid pregnant women in control group (OR = 1.25, 95% CI:1.15-1.36, P hypothyroidism in pregnancy: ten studies were included, reported data on 277 531 pregnant women (5 257 women with subclinical hypothyroidism and 272 274 euthyroid pregnant women). The risk of preterm birth in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism was higher than those in control group by random effects analysis (OR = 1

  11. [Subclinical and manifested hypothyroidism as a consequence of thyroid autoimmune disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Dragoslav P; Djurica, Snezana; Davidović, Mladen; Stević, Radmila; Rajić, Miodrag; Marković, Natasa

    2005-10-01

    Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) is a slowly developing persistent inflamation of the thyroid gland, which frequently leads to hypothyroidism. Some of the up-to-date knowledge about hypothyroidism, both subclinical and manifested, caused by autoimmune disease, was presented. Autoimmune thyroid gland disease can occur at any age, but predominantly affects women after periods of high emotional and physical stress or accidents, as well as during periods of hormonal changes. It can also develop in families, and having an autoimmune disease slightly increases the risk of developing another. This paper showed an increasing incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism (4.17%) in elderly, and, at the same time, the incidence of primary hypothyroidism accounting for 1%. It is very usefull to estimate the stimulated thyrotropin (TSH) response, as well as the value of fast, short time thyroid gland reserves, analyzed by T3 and T4 serum level at 60th minute after TRH stimulation. Treatment of choice for HT (hypothyroidism of any cause) is thyroid hormone replacement. Drug of choice is orally administered levothyroxine sodium, usually for life-time. The standard dose is 1.6-1.8 mcg/kg body weight per day, but is in most cases patient dependent. Elderly patients usually require smaller replacement dose of levothyroxine, sometimes less than 1 mcg/kg body weight per day with coronary dilatator at the same time.

  12. Preconception thyroid-stimulating hormone and pregnancy outcomes in women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishrat; Witczak, Justyna K; Hadjieconomou, Sofia; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. International practice guidelines recommend that women with hypothyroidism should attain a preconception and early gestation serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of hypothyroidism referred to an endocrine antenatal clinic between 2008 and 2010 (n = 78; mean age, 30.4 years; range, 19 to 43 years). Thyroid profiles (free thyroxine [FT4] and TSH) before conception and through pregnancy were documented. Obstetrics outcomes were examined, including low birth weight, preterm births, preeclampsia, caesarean sections, and admissions to special care neonatal units. Thyroid testing was undertaken in 80% of subjects before conception, and in 64, 94, and 96% of subjects in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. TSH >2.5 mU/L was seen in 49% of women before conception and in 68% of women in the first trimester. Six women were overtly hypothyroid before conception, attaining normal thyroid function at gestational ages ranging from 12 to 36 weeks. Neither the preconception nor the first postconception TSH level (>2.5 mU/L or ≤2.5 mU/L) was associated with gestational age at delivery, birth weight, or rates of caesarean section or preeclampsia. The majority of women with hypothyroidism do not achieve the recommended preconception and early gestation TSH targets. Preconception and early gestation TSH >2.5 mU/L was not associated with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes. Studies in larger cohorts will be required to confirm these findings, however.

  13. Clinical conundrums in management of hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Vishal; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Rinku; Bajaj, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Articles in various international and national bibliographic indices were extensively searched with an emphasis on thyroid and hypothyroid disorders, hypothyroidism in elderly hospitalized patients, hypothyroidism in critically ill geriatric population, thyroxine in elderly hypothyroid, drug interactions and thyroid hormones, and thyroid functions in elderly. Entrez (including PubMed), NIH.gov, Medscape.com, WebMD.com, MedHelp.org, Search Medica, MD consult, yahoo.com, and google.com were searched. Manual search was performed on various textbooks of medicine, critical care, pharmacology, and endocrinology. Thyroid function tests in elderly hospitalized patients must be interpreted with circumspection. The elderly are often exposed to high iodide content and critical care settings. This may occur because of either decreased iodine excretion or very high intake of iodine. This is especially true for elderly population with underlying acute or chronic kidney diseases or both. Amiodarone, with a very high iodine content, is also often used in this set of population. Moreover, other medications including iodinated contrast are often used in the critical care settings. These may affect different steps of thyroid hormone metabolism, and thereby complicate the interpretation of thyroid function tests. The current review is aimed at analyzing and managing various clinical aspects of hypothyroidism in hospitalized elderly, and critically ill geriatric patients.

  14. P300 event related potential application to cognitive status assessment of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejanović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of thyroid function are often accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders. Assessment of cognitive status in the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism represents a possibility for early diagnostics of cognitive impairment and timely introduction of necessary pharmacotherapy treatment. The aim of this study was to quantify whether there are P3 event related potential (ERP deviations as electrophysiological markers of cognitive activity in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. P300 potentials were examined in thirty patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 30 healthy subjects of the control group. P300 was recorded using the classic auditory oddball paradigm, with 20% of target and 80% of non-target stimuli. The results analysis showed a significantly longer latency P300 and reduced amplitude P300 in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid subjects. There is also a statistically significant negative correlation between the results of a mini mental state examination and the P300 latency at Fz electrode (r= -0.47, p <0.01 and Cz electrode (r= -0.43, p =0.017. P300 ERP is important in the evaluation of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, due to the sensitivity in the detection cognitive disorders.

  15. Increased type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in a regrown hepatic hemangioma with consumptive hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kazuhiko; Etani, Yuri; Ichimori, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Yoko; Namba, Noriyuki; Yoneda, Akihiro; Ooue, Takaharu; Chihara, Tsuyoshi; Morii, Eiichi; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Mushiake, Sotaro; Ozono, Keiichi

    2010-02-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioma with consumptive hypothyroidism is a rare condition. A 4-month-old girl presented with diffuse hepatic hemangiomas during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. Serum reverse triiodothyronine was elevated, and her hypothyroidism improved concomitant with involution of the hemangioma following prednisolone and interferon-alpha administration. At 20 months of age, 7 months after discontinuing prednisolone and interferon-alpha, a focal hemangioma regrew from one of the previous lesions and was surgically resected. The expression and activity of type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) were elevated in the resected tumor tissue compared with placenta. Here, we describe a patient with consumptive hypothyroidism and diffuse infantile hepatic hemangiomas, one of which regrew after involution following pharmacotherapy. The etiology of elevated D3 activity is also discussed. It is important to identify infantile hepatic hemangioma in patients with hypothyroidism refractory to hormone replacement therapy, who have low free triiodothyronine despite high thyrotropin and normal free thyroxine levels, and long-term follow-up will be needed for these patients.

  16. Impact of Hypothyroidism on Occurrence and Outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome from the National Inpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Rashmi; Basnet, Sijan; Poudel, Dilli Ram

    2017-12-15

    Thyroid hormones have a profound effect on cardiovascular physiology. We utilized a large national inpatient database in the United States (National Inpatient Sample) to study hypothyroidism in relation to the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its impact on outcomes (mortality, the length of stay, and hospitalization cost) in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subgroup of CHD patients. We found that although hypothyroidism has an increased association with CHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.12, p <0.001), the odds of developing ACS in these CHD patients is lower in the hypothyroid group (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.72, p <0.001) after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Additionally, patients with hypothyroid ACS have a reduced odds of in-hospital mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.88, p <0.001), shorter length of stay by 0.45 days (p <0.001), and lower hospitalization cost by $1,531.45 (p <0.001) compared with the euthyroid group. Our findings suggest that hypothyroidism has an increased CHD risk but a lower risk of development of ACS in hospitalized CHD patients, as well as a better short-term prognosis including ACS-associated mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  18. Gestational hypothyroidism: development of mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy in previously euthyroid women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Karen R; Cataldo, Nicholas A; Hubbard, Janice A; Malizia, Beth A; Steinkampf, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    To determine the proportion of euthyroid women attending a fertility practice who develop hypothyroidism in very early pregnancy (gestational hypothyroidism [GHT]), and to examine the association of GHT with exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Retrospective cohort study. A private reproductive medicine practice. All healthy women (N = 94) with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss, TSH level pregnancy detection. Gestational hypothyroidism (TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L) developed in 23 of 94 women (24%). The mean increase in serum TSH level from initial evaluation to early pregnancy was 0.45 ± 0.08 [SE] mIU/L. There was a trend toward the association of GHT with use of exogenous gonadotropins. Gestational hypothyroidism was positively associated with initial prepregnancy TSH level. Euthyroid women may develop mild hypothyroidism in early pregnancy, especially after exogenous gonadotropin treatment. Appropriate vigilance will allow for timely levothyroxine treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mild hypothyroidism improves glucose tolerance in experimental type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini, S; Bobby, Zachariah; Joseph, Manoj

    2015-06-25

    Co-existence of type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism is an emerging trend observed in clinical practice. Although the effects of isolated type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism are well known, there are limited studies addressing the metabolic complications when these two conditions co-exist. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction between type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism with respect to glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and redox balance in a state were these two diseases coexist. Sixty male Wistar Albino rats were randomised into six groups. Group 1: control, Group 2: overt hypothyroidism, Group 3: mild hypothyroidism, Group 4: type 2 diabetes, Group 5: mild hypothyroidism + type 2 diabetes, Group 6: overt hypothyroidism + type 2 diabetes. Experimental hypothyroidism was created by the administration of propyl-2-thiouracil and type 2 diabetes by feeding rats with 60% fructose (w/w). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. All the parameters were estimated at the start (basal) and the end of the study. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was carried out and area under curve (AUC) calculated to assess the glucose tolerance. Thyroid profile, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters were also measured. Plasma TSH level was elevated 3-fold in the mild hypothyroid group and 15.2-fold in the overt hypothyroid group in comparison to the control group. Thyroid profile was found to be normal in type 2 diabetic group. There was no significant difference between hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism+diabetes groups with respect to thyroid profile. Among the six groups the degree of glucose intolerance was found to be maximum for overt hypothyroidism+diabetes group, followed by diabetes group and overt hypothyroidism group. An interesting finding was that glucose intolerance was significantly reduced in mild hypothyroidism+diabetes group (increase in AUC: 48.04%) in comparison with isolated diabetes group (increase in AUC: 71.63%). Similar results were

  20. [Rational therapy of patients with essential hypertension and abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pligovka, V M

    2014-11-01

    It was determined the characteristics of lipid status of patients with essential hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism--mostly increased levels of total and LDL cholesterol. In assessing the effectiveness of statin therapy in combination with levothyroxine replacement therapy compared with statin monotherapy, combination therapy showed the best result in terms of achievement of target levels of both total cholesterol and LDL. The obtained results allow us to recommend the use of combination therapy for patients with hypertension, abdominal obesity with concomitant subclinical hypothyroidism in order to achieve the target values of LDL and thus to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these patients.

  1. Hyperleptinemia as One of the Factors for Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Didushko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the features of renal function in patients with hypothyroidism we have examined 132 patients with primary hypothyroidism. The results showed that in patients with overt hypothyroidism there is renal dysfunction manifested by increased serum creatinine level and decreased glomerular filtration rate, the development and progression of which is facilitated by the presence of risk factors in patients — hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight and abdominal obesity. It is stated that more significant indicators of dyslipidemia were associated with the greatest manifestations of abdominal obesity in terms of waist circumference (96.58 ± 1.70 cm and 98.73 ± 3.35 cm, as well as greater body mass index.

  2. Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis In A Child With Congenital Hypothyroidism : Association Or Co - Incidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj G R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD is a chronic benign relapsing, pustular eruption with distinctive histology1 affecting usually the females in the age group of 40 yrs. Recently, its association with hyperthyroidism has been reported2. We describe a child with congenital hypothyroidism and SCPD.

  3. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH...

  4. Coexistence of hypothyroidism with inflammatory arthritis is associated with cardiovascular disease in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raterman, H.G.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Peters, M.J.L.; Verheij, R.A.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypothyroidism and inflammatory arthritis tend to coexist, but data on this association are sparse. In terms of cardiovascular risk, this association may have clinical relevance as this coexistence may carry an additional cardiovascular risk. This study calculates, first, the prevalence

  5. Coexistence of hypothyroidism with inflammatory arthritis is associated with cardiovascular disease in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raterman, H.G.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Peters, M.J.L.; Verheij, R.A.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Hypothyroidism and inflammatory arthritis tend to coexist, but data on this association are sparse. In terms of cardiovascular risk, this association may have clinical relevance as this coexistence may carry an additional cardiovascular risk. This study calculates, first, the prevalence

  6. Effect of levothyroxine therapy on dyslipidemia in hypothyroid patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of levothyroxine therapy on dyslipidemia in hypothyroid patients. ... Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL ... (both subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), its association with dyslipidemia and whether replacement therapy with thyroid hormone has an effect on plasma lipid profile of hypothyroid patients.

  7. CASE REPORT OF SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA SECONDARY TO CONGINETAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    OpenAIRE

    Jhatoth; Tandra; Ramkumar Reddy; Srinivas Yadav

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia as a sign of untreated congenital hypothyroidism is rare nowadays due to implementation of neonatal screening and increased awareness of pediatricians to detect hypothyroidism earlier. But neonatal screening is not routinely done in the developing countries. Congenital hypothyroidism is still unrecognized in some parts of developing world. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, radiographic features and to stress the importance of scr...

  8. [Influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M Q; Wang, Z J; Hou, K Z

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus in pregnant women. A total of 4 286 pregnant women, who received prenatal examination in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2015, were selected as study subjects. The incidence of hypothyroidism and the influence on pregnancy outcomes and fetus were investigated. In 4 286 pregnant women surveyed, 209 hypothyroidism cases were detected(4.9%), including 85 clinical hypothyroidism cases and 124 subclinical hypothyroidism cases. In health group, the premature delivery rate was 1.0%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(6.5%), the differences were significant(χ(2)= 38.884, Phypothyroidism group(18.8%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.7%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=30.949, Phypothyroidism group(14.1%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(4.8%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=50.593, Phypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(5.6%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=19.257, Phypothyroidism group(9.25 ± 0.45)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.28 ± 0.44), the differences were significant(t=8.823, PHypothyroidism during pregnancy has adverse influences on pregnancy outcome and fetus, and it is necessary to strengthen the hypothyroidism detection in pregnant women for the early treatment.

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghada A. Mohamed

    hypothyroidism was 3.4% in males and 5.8% in females.14 Perros et al. found that the occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.3% in men and 4.6% in women with Type 2 diabetes.15 The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our study was greater than those of both these studies and revealed a dominance of.

  10. Health information-seeking behavior among hypothyroid patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism causes considerable morbidity. Low knowledge coupled with inadequate health literacy may lead to poor prevention and management. This study aimed to assess health information-seeking behavior and hypothyroid knowledge among South Indian hypothyroid patients. METHODS: This ...

  11. Activation of brown adipose tissue in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Maya, Yoshifumi; Wagner, Martin; Arias-Loza, Paula; Werner, Rudolf A; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) attracts growing interest as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Hyperthyroidism is well-known to increase BAT activity, but the role of hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between different thyroid hormone (TH) states and BAT activity. FDG-PET studies were retrospectively evaluated in thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy both at euthyroidism during TH replacement or at hypothyroidism after TH cessation. Serum TH levels were compared between patients with active BAT and control patients with non-active BAT matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Additionally, animal experiments with controls (n = 5) and hypothyroid rats (n = 5) were performed. Out of 124 patients, 6 patients with active BAT were identified. These patients showed significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than matched controls (P hypothyroid animals showed BAT activation at room temperature (24 °C), whereas controls did not (P hypothyroidism, which might be the result of a feedback mechanism to maintain body temperature in a state of reduced basal thermogenesis. Future research needs to explore the underlying mechanistic and biological implications.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Torun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid functions in obese children and adolescentswere evaluated in order to determine subclinicaland clinical hypothyroidism.Materials and methods: In this study, 85 obese (Bodymass index >97th percentile children, aged 2-14 years, aswell as 47 healthy controls were enrolled. Levels of serumfree triiodothyronine (fT3, free thyroxine (fT4 and thyroidstimulatinghormone (TSH of the two groups were compared.Obese children with TSH level above 5.4 IU/mlwere also analyzed for thyroid autoantibodies and thyroidultrasounds were performed.Results: Obese children showed higher serum concentrationsof TSH and fT3 than the controls but no significantdifference in serum fT4 levels was found between the twogroups (P=0.001. One child had high auto antibodiesand 32 had high TSH levels. Of 28 children with TSH >5,4IU/ml, 25 children had normal thyroid ultrasound findingsand three had nodules or thyroiditis but no enlargementof the thyroid gland.Conclusion: TSH and fT3 levels were found to be higherin obese children compared with non-obese children withno difference of fT4 levels between two groups.Key words: Body mass index, obesity, thyroid functions

  13. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen as a molecular biomarker for spermatogenesis in PTU-induced hypothyroidism of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousson, Ehab; Ali, Ehab M M; Ibrahim, Wafaa; Mansour, Mohammed A

    2011-07-01

    The thyroid hormone has few serious effects on the testes except during the neonatal stage. There is little knowledge concerning the prolonged effect of thyroid hormone deficiency throughout the rat's life span and its effect on spermatogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear matrix protein, which is essential for multiple cell cycle pathways. Here we used PCNA immunohistochemistry as a marker to differentiate between the testes of control and hypothyroid rats. About 20 rats were equally divided into 2 groups; the first group was the control group, while the second group was the experimental group in which rats were fed 0.05% 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against PCNA, showed at least 3 differences in the pattern of PCNA immunoreactivity (PCNA-ir). First, PCNA-ir was not detected in Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes of control rats and detected in some of the hypothyroid rats. Second, in the control group more than 96% of spermatogonia were PCNA-positive cells; however, hypothyroidism caused the reduction to approximately 25% PCNA staining in spermatogonia. The third difference was in the abnormal distribution of spermatogonia seen in the hypothyroid rat testis, not in the control one. These results suggest that prepubertal hypothyroidism affects the proliferation of spermatogenic cells leading to impaired spermatogenesis and that PCNA index is a useful marker for assessing germ cell kinetics and spermatogenesis in prepubertal hypothyroidism.

  14. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Méndez-Tepepa, M; Carrillo-Portillo, Y; Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Antolín, J; Zambrano, E; Castelán, F; Cuevas-Romero, E

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood.

  15. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez-Castelán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT. Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood.

  16. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J.; Méndez-Tepepa, M.; Carrillo-Portillo, Y.; Anaya-Hernández, A.; Zambrano, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood. PMID:28133606

  17. [Pendred syndrome among patients with hypothyroidism: genetic diagnosis, phenotypic variability and occurrence of phenocopies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banghová, K; Al, Taji E; Novotná, D; Zapletalová, J; Hníková, O; Cáp, J; Klabochová, J; Kúseková, M; Lebl, J

    2008-01-01

    Pendred syndrome (OMIM274600) is one of the causes of congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis. It is an autosomal recessive disease classically characterized by dyshormonogenetic goitre and sensorineural deafness. It is caused by mutations in PDS/SLC26A4 gene encoding for pendrin--an anion transporter, mostly expressed in the thyroid gland and the inner ear. The thyroid impairment in Pendred syndrome develops only in 80% of affected individuals in form of a euthyroid or hypothyroid goitre, which is rarely present at birth, when it can be diagnosed by the neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism. The study was aimed to identify patients with Pendred syndrome among children with congenital or postnatal non-autoimmune hypothyroidism and subsequently confirm the diagnosis by finding mutations in the PDS/SLC26A4 gene. We examined two-hundred thirty-six Caucasians with hypothyroidism diagnosed by screening or developing later in childhood. The clinical diagnosis of Pendred syndrome was based on the laboratory and ultrasonographic signs of thyroid dyshormonogenesis (elevated TSH, low T4/fT4, goitre or normal thyroid volume) in association with sensorineural hearing loss. In subjects clinically diagnosed as Pendred syndrome, we sequenced all 21 exons of the PDS/SLC26A4 gene and their flanking intron-exon junctions. Among 236 children, nine fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Pendred syndrome. In four, the diagnosis was confirmed by identification of mutations in the PDS/SLC26A4 gene, the remaining five patients were concluded phenocopies. Our study confirms the high phenotypic variability of thyroid impairment in Pendred syndrome and underlines the necessity of a molecular-genetic investigation for establishing the diagnosis in regard of the great number of phenocopies. However, from the endocrinologist's point of view, the genetic testing is only reasonable in patients with congenital hypothyroidism due to dyshormonogenesis in association with

  18. Hypothyroidism risk compared among nine common bipolar disorder therapies in a large US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Christophe G; Mazurie, Aurélien J; Lauve, Nicolas R; Hurwitz, Nathaniel G; Young, S Stanley; Obenchain, Robert L; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Perkins, Douglas J; Tohen, Mauricio; Kerner, Berit

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have been linked to lithium treatment for decades, yet other drugs have been less well studied. Our objective was to compare hypothyroidism risk for lithium versus the anticonvulsants and second-generation antipsychotics commonly prescribed for BD. Administrative claims data on 24,574 patients with BD were analyzed with competing risk survival analysis. Inclusion criteria were (i) one year of no prior hypothyroid diagnosis nor BD drug treatment, (ii) followed by at least one thyroid test during BD monotherapy on lithium carbonate, mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants (lamotrigine, valproate, oxcarbazepine, or carbamazepine) or antipsychotics (aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine). The outcome was cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism per drug, in the presence of the competing risk of ending monotherapy, adjusted for age, sex, physician visits, and thyroid tests. Adjusting for covariates, the four-year cumulative risk of hypothyroidism for lithium (8.8%) was 1.39-fold that of the lowest risk therapy, oxcarbazepine (6.3%). Lithium was non-statistically significantly different from quetiapine. While lithium conferred a higher risk when compared to all other treatments combined as a group, hypothyroidism risk error bars overlapped for all drugs. Treatment (p = 3.86e-3), age (p = 6.91e-10), sex (p = 3.93e-7), and thyroid testing (p = 2.79e-87) affected risk. Patients taking lithium were tested for hypothyroidism 2.26-3.05 times more frequently than those on other treatments. Thyroid abnormalities occur frequently in patients with BD regardless of treatment. Therefore, patients should be regularly tested for clinical or subclinical thyroid abnormalities on all therapies and treated as indicated to prevent adverse effects of hormone imbalances on mood. © 2016 The Authors. Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  20. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Farias Moeller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has been described in military recruits, trained athletes and daily runners. Statin use, quail ingestion, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and hypothyroidism, though rare, are risk factors for the development of rhabdomyolysis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female who presented with myalgias, weakness, and pigmenturia following marching band practice. Laboratory tests confirmed an elevated creatine kinase (CK level as well as a profound hypothyroid state. Muscle biopsy revealed severe muscle necrosis and myositis. Treatment with levothyroxine resulted in obtaining an euthyroid state and regain of muscle strength as well as decrease in CK levels. Although rare, hypothyroidism should be considered as a potential cause of rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients undergoing a myopathy workup.

  1. Hypothyroidism following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinger, Michael; Zeiter, Deborah; Heim, Dominik; Halter, Jörg; Gerull, Sabine; Tichelli, André; Passweg, Jakob; Nigro, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Hypothyroidism may complicate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT); we therefore analyzed risk factors in this study. We studied 229 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent an allo-HSCT between 2003 and 2013 with different conditioning regimens (myeloablative, reduced-intensity, chemotherapy-based, or total body irradiation-based). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine levels (fT4) were available in 104 patients before and after allo-HSCT. The median age at transplantation (n=104) was 47 (IQR 40-59)], 37 (35.6%) patients were female, and the overall mortality was 34.6% (n=36). After a median follow-up period of 47 (IQR 25-84) months, overt hypothyroidism (basal TSH>4.49mIU/l, FT4hypothyroidism (basal TSH>4.49mIU/l, normal fT4) was observed in 20 patients (19.2%). Positive thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies were found in 5 (4.8%) patients. A total of 13 patients (12.5%) were treated with thyroid hormone replacement. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) ≥grade 2 occurred in 55 (52.9%) and chronic GvHD (cGvHD) in 74 (71.2%) of the patients. The risk of developing hypothyroidism was higher in the patients with repeated allo-HSCTs (P=0.024) and with positive TPO antibodies (P=0.045). Furthermore, the development of overt hypothyroidism was inversely proportional to age (P=0.043). No correlation was found with GvHD, HLA-mismatch, total body irradiation, and gender. After allo-HSCT, a significant number of patients experience thyroid dysfunction, including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Long-term and continuous follow-up for thyroid function after HSCT is important to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High androgen levels protect against hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Dahlgren, Eva; Bryman, Inger; Berntorp, Kerstin; Trimpou, Penelope; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder, appearing mainly in women although less frequently found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to test the hypothesis that hyperandrogenism might protect against hypothyroidism. The data from three prospective follow-up studies (up to 21 years) and one register study were compared: women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria), n = 25, women with Turner syndrome, n = 217, a random population sample of women, n = 315, and men, n = 95 (the WHO MONICA study). Findings were to be verified or rejected in all females, n = 553 716, from the same region. The proportion of hypothyroidism was calculated and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) in serum were measured. Hypothyroidism at >50 years of age was found in 8% of women with PCOS, 4% in men (PCOS vs. men; ns), 43% of women with Turner syndrome, irrespective of karyotype (p 25 years (5.5%) than in women without PCOS (6.8%) from the same region (p < 0.01). Hypothyroidism was less frequently seen in women with PCOS and in men compared with women in the general population and among women with Turner syndrome. This was not explained by altered autoimmunity or the Y-chromosome. Androgens seem to protect against hypothyroidism. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Levothyroxin restores hypothyroidism-induced impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory: Behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Gerges, Nashaat Z; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2009-01-01

    Hypothyroidism induces cognitive impairment in experimental animals and patients. Clinical reports are conflicting about the ability of thyroid hormone replacement therapy to fully restore the hypothyroidism-induced learning and memory impairment. In this study, we investigated the effects of L-thyroxin (thyroxin) treatment on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in thyroidectomized adult rats. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, thyroxin treated thyroidectomized animals made significantly fewer errors than the untreated hypothyroid animals in Trial 3 of the acquisition phase, short-term memory and long-term memory tests. In addition, the number of errors made by the thyroxin treated thyroidectomized animals was not different from that of the control group. Furthermore, the days-to-criterion (DTC) values for thyroxin treated thyroidectomized animals were not different from those of the control group but significantly lower than those of the untreated hypothyroid animals. In anesthetized rats, extracellular recording from hippocampal area CA1 of hypothyroid rats shows that thyroxin treatment restores impaired Late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP). Immunoblot analysis of signaling molecules, including cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKp44/42; ERK1/2), in area CA1 revealed that thyroxin treatment reversed hypothyroidism-induced reduction of signaling molecules essential for learning and memory, and L-LTP. This study shows that thyroxin treatment reverses hypothyroidism-induced impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognition, and L-LTP, probably by restoring the levels of signaling molecule important for these processes. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Pathogenesis of rhinitis in rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigor, Hulya; Basak, Sema; Kozaci, Didem; Culhaci, Nil; Dost, Turhan; Ulutas, Pinar

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is accepted as one of the hormonal factors leading to non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal obstruction and runny nose due to an increase in submucosal connective tissue and mucous gland hypertrophy are the prominent symptoms in hypothyroidism-induced rhinitis at humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the biochemical and histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa of the rats with thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism and to compare them with those of a control group. A total of 60 adult male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study. The rats constituting the test and the control groups were randomly divided into 3 subgroups (T1-3 and C 1-3). While the rats in the test group underwent thyroidectomy, in the control group the incision was sutured without any interventions after exposure of thyroid tissues of the rats. The nasal and paranasal sinus regions of all the rats were carefully dissected and tissue samples were obtained for pathological examinations. In the rats in T1, T2, and T3, the decrease in serum glucuronic acid levels before and after thyroidectomy was statistically significant (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.002, respectively). The difference between the test and the control groups was statistically significant in terms of inflammation at the end of 12 weeks (p = 0.002). An increase in acid mucopolysaccharidase production due to TSH has been suggested to cause congestion in tissues. Although our study supports the data in the literature up to date, we consider that further clinical and experimental studies are necessary for this verification.

  5. Diabetes mellitus may affect short-term outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Stojan; Bozovic, Ivo; Bjelica, Bogdan; Berisavac, Ivana; Stojiljkovic, Olivera; Basta, Ivana; Beslac-Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, Vidosava; Lavrnic, Dragana; Stevic, Zorica

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine influence of diabetes mellitus on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) course and short-term prognosis. Among the 257 GBS patients included in this retrospective study, diabetes mellitus was present in 17%. The degree of disability at admission and on discharge was assessed according to the GBS Disability Scale (mild disability = 0-3, severe disability = 4-6). Even after correction for age, diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with more severe disability at nadir (odds ratio, OR = 3.4, p Linear regression analysis with multiple factors included showed that age and presence of diabetes were significant predictors of severe disability at nadir (adjusted R 2 = 0.21, p diabetes mellitus affects short-term prognosis of GBS, independent of age. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  6. Hypothyroid Symptoms Fail to Predict Thyroid Insufficiency in Old People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinic-based studies have indicated that older hypothyroid patients may present only few symptoms. METHODS: In this population-based study of hypothyroidism, we investigated how the power of symptom presence predicts overt hypothyroidism in both young and older subjects. We identified...... into account. RESULTS: In young hypothyroid patients, all 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms studied were more prevalent than in their matched controls, whereas only 3 of those (tiredness, shortness of breath, and wheezing) were more prevalent in old patients. The mean numbers of symptoms presented...

  7. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people with hypothyroidism who are biochemically euthyroid on levothyroxine replacement there is a significant proportion who report poorer quality of life. This review explores the historical and current treatment options for hypothyroidism, reasons for and potential solutions to suboptimal treatment, and future possibilities in the treatment of hypothyroidism. PMID:22291465

  8. Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2011-09-01

    The present manuscript provides a definition for, and evaluates the prevalence and maternal/fetal/child impact of, overt hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism is 0.5% and the prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism is 0.3%. Overt maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with heart failure, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, still birth, and neonatal mortality. Overt maternal hypothyroidism is associated with preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, cretinism, fetal deaths, and spontaneous abortion. A cost-effective analysis for screening and treating overt thyroid disease during pregnancy is warranted.

  9. Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Demidova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We observed 20 women suffering from adiposity and subclinical hypothyroidism. Lipid spectrum, carbohydrate metabolism, BP and insulinresistance, the extent and variants of fat tissue distribution, a test with physical exercise, all research in dynamics (in the beginning and 6 months after normalization of TSH level against the background of substitution therapy with L-T4 were evaluated. The positive shifts revealed during the afore mentioned research allow us to express our opinion in favour of carrying out substitution therapy with L-T4 at subclinical hypothyroidism .

  10. Similar distribution changes of GABAergic interneuron subpopulations in contrast to the different impact on neurogenesis between developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Ayako; Akane, Hirotoshi; Ohishi, Takumi; Wang, Liyun; Morita, Reiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-10-01

    Hypothyroidism affects neurogenesis. The present study was performed to clarify the sensitivity of neurogenesis-related cellular responses in the hippocampal dentate gyrus between developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism. An exposure study of methimazole (MMI) as an anti-thyroid agent at 0, 50, 200 ppm in the drinking water was performed using pregnant rats from gestation day 10 to postnatal day (PND) 21 (developmental hypothyroidism) and adult male rats by setting an identical exposure period from PND 46 through to PND 77 (adult-stage hypothyroidism). Offspring with developmental hypothyroidism were killed at PND 21 or PND 77, and animals with adult-stage hypothyroidism were killed at PND 77. Proliferation and apoptosis were unchanged in the dentate subgranular zone by either developmental or adult-stage hypothyroidism. With regard to precursor granule cells, a sustained reduction of paired box 6-positive stem or early progenitor cells and a transient reduction of doublecortin-positive late-stage progenitor cells were observed after developmental hypothyroidism with MMI at 50 and 200 ppm. These cells were unchanged by adult-stage hypothyroidism. With regard to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic interneuron subpopulations in the dentate hilus, the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was decreased and the number of calretinin-positive cells was increased after both developmental and adult-stage hypothyroidism with MMI at 50 and 200 ppm. Fluctuations in GABAergic interneuron numbers with developmental hypothyroidism continued through to PND 77 with 200 ppm MMI. Considering the roles of GABAergic interneuron subpopulations in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, subpopulation changes in GABAergic interneurons by hypothyroidism may be the signature of aberrant neurogenesis even at the adult stage.

  11. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  12. Analysis of factors affecting the long-term functional outcome of patients with skull base meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Naoyuki; Ohkawa, Toshika; Miki, Junichirou; Nishibayahsi, Hiroki; Ogura, Mitsuhiro; Uematsu, Yuji; Itakura, Toru

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed the factors that affect the long-term clinical outcome of a series of patients with skull base meningiomas. Clinical records of 73 patients with cranial base meningiomas were reviewed retrospectively, of whom 13 patients experienced a recurrence at various times following the initial surgery. The mean follow-up time was 90.4 ± 21.2 months (range=60-124 months). Based on the location of the recurrence, patients with recurrence were divided into peripheral (n=6) and central (n=7) skull base groups. Of several variables analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model, "high MIB-1 (Ki-67 proliferation antigen) labeling index" was an independent variable predicting poor long-term functional outcomes. Recurrence of the tumor at the central skull base was also a strong predictor of poor long-term outcomes. An increased proliferative potential, as indicated by a high MIB-1 labeling index, may induce repeated recurrences, eventually leading to worse functional outcomes, particularly for patients with central skull base meningiomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism among Egyptian children with systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    (SLEDAI), symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism (pubertal delay, puffy features, swelling in neck, cold intolerance, etc….) or hyperthyroidism (emotional lability, weight loss, and restless sleep, some degree of exophthalmos, etc….). Patients with overt thyroid disease were excluded. B- The laboratory work up of the study:.

  14. Hypothyroidism compromises hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Groba (Claudia); S. Mayerl (Steffen); A.A.A. van Mullem (Alies); T.J. Visser (Theo); V.M. Darras (Veerle); A.J. Habenicht (Andreas); H. Heuer (Heike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe impact of thyroid hormone (TH) on metabolism and energy expenditure is well established, but the role of TH in regulating nutritional sensing, particularly in the central nervous system, is only poorly defined. Here, we studied the consequences of hypothyroidism on leptin production

  15. NEOCORTICAL HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential to the normal development of the brain. Although severe congenital hypothyroidism has long been associated with mental retardation and motor defects, it has only recently been established that even subtle decreases in maternal TH alter fetal br...

  16. Effects of Hypothyroidism and Exogenous Thyroxine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Thyroxine (T4) is important in gut development and maturation, and its use in treating hypothyroidism is becoming more popular. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of thyroidectomy and thyroxine replacement on some gastrointestinal organs. Ten out of 20 thyroidectomised rats received 100pg/kgbw ...

  17. Recurrent Pericardial Effusion Associated with Hypothyroidism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The complex of Down Syndromehypothyroidism-pericardial effusion is largely unreported in sub-Sahara. Objective: To present and highlight an unusual manifestation of hypothyroidism. Methods: A 16-year-old girl with confirmed Down Syndrome presented with complaints of generalised body swelling of eight ...

  18. Severe hypothyroidism masquerading as renal impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Kvetny, J

    1996-01-01

    A case of severe hypothyroidism in a 51-year old male is presented. The patient was especially complaining of weakness, stiffness and moderate pain in the proximal muscle groups together with rhinorrhea and nasal stenosis. Because of severely elevated S-creatine-kinase combined with reduced...

  19. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  20. Hypothyroidism and depression: Are cytokines the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimal S Tayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Primary hypothyroidism has been thought of as an inflammatory condition characterized by raised levels of cytokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Depression is also well known to occur in hypothyroidism. Depression is also characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines. We planned to study whether cytokines play an important part in linking these two conditions. Objectives: (1 To know the prevalence of depression in overt hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroid disease. (2 To correlate the levels of inflammatory markers with the occurrence of depression. (3 To study the effect of levothyroxine on inflammatory markers and depression. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal, case–controlled study, 33 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone >10 uIU/ml were included with 33 age-, sex-, and body max index-matched healthy controls. Individuals were tested for Serum TNF-α, IL-6, high-sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP. They were assessed for depression using Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and World Health Organization Quality of Life (QOL Scale. Patients received L Thyroxine titrated to achieve euthyroidism and were reassessed for inflammatory markers and cognitive dysfunction. Results: Nineteen patients (57% had mild to moderate depression (MADRS >11. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients (42% had remission of depression with significant improvement in QOL scores (P < 0.05. TNF-α, IL-6, and hs-CRP were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls and reduced with therapy but did not reach baseline as controls. The change in inflammatory markers correlated with improvement in QOL scores in social and environmental domains (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Primary autoimmune hypothyroidism is an inflammatory state characterized by elevated cytokines which decline with LT4 therapy. It is associated with depression and poor

  1. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  2. Thermogenic effect of glucose in hypothyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax-0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax-6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  3. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  4. [Clinical analysis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-feng; Yang, Hui-xia

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the incidence, treatment and pregnant outcomes of women with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the perinatal care, treatment and pregnant outcomes of 31 pregnant women with hypothyroidism from Jan.1995 to May.2006 in our hospital. All subjects were received in the high risk clinic, and the thyroid function was monitored every 1.0 - 1.5 months. The dosage of LT4 was adjusted to maintain the normal level of thyroid function. The incidence of maternal hypothyroidism during the study period was 1.27 per thousand (31/24 327) [0.19 per thousand (1/5251) - 2.32 per thousand (15/6456)]. The average LT4 dosage in pre-gestation, the first, second, third trimester and postpartum was (33 +/- 35), (51 +/- 36), (68 +/- 42), (76 +/- 42) and (38 +/- 34) microg/d, respectively. Compared with the pre-gestational period, the dosage in the first trimester or postpartum was higher although the difference was not significant (P>0.05). The required dose of LT4 during the second and third trimester was respectively, remarkably increased compared to pre-gestational period (Ppregnancies was about 35%. All of 31 women had uneventful pregnancies. No perinatal mortality or congenital hypothyroidism occurred. The incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism was up to 16.1%. The incidence of maternal hypothyroidism is increasing yearly. It is of great value in improving the pregnant outcome through adjusting the LT4 dose during pregnancy and close monitoring of maternal and fetal status.

  5. Hypothyroidism and Glaucoma in The United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Caitlin; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Wang, Sophia Y.; Singh, Kuldev; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira; Lin, Shan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included all subjects above the age of 40 years from two nationwide surveys: the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) as well as the 2007 and 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The presence or absence of glaucoma, thyroid disease and other demographic and health-related information including comorbidities was ascertained via interview. Blood samples were collected from NHANES subjects and analyzed for thyrotropin (TSH). Results A total of 13,599 and 3,839 NHIS and NHANES participants respectively were analyzed to assess for a possible relationship between self-reported glaucoma, and self-reported hypothyroidism as well as self-reported thyroid disease. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for NHIS showed a significant association between self-reported glaucoma and self-reported hypothyroidism (OR 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, race, comorbidities, and health-related behavior, however, showed no association between self-reported glaucoma and hypothyroidism or thyroid disease in both surveys (OR 1.60, 95%CI 0.87-2.95 for NHIS; OR 1.05, 95%CI 0.59-1.88 for NHANES). Conclusion A previously reported association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease was not confirmed in two large U.S. health survey populations. While such an association was noted in the univariate analysis for the NHIS survey, such a relationship was not found in the multivariate analysis after adjustment for potential confounding variables. PMID:26230664

  6. Hypothyroidism and Glaucoma in The United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Kakigi

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease.This cross-sectional study included all subjects above the age of 40 years from two nationwide surveys: the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS as well as the 2007 and 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. The presence or absence of glaucoma, thyroid disease and other demographic and health-related information including comorbidities was ascertained via interview. Blood samples were collected from NHANES subjects and analyzed for thyrotropin (TSH.A total of 13,599 and 3,839 NHIS and NHANES participants respectively were analyzed to assess for a possible relationship between self-reported glaucoma, and self-reported hypothyroidism as well as self-reported thyroid disease. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR for NHIS showed a significant association between self-reported glaucoma and self-reported hypothyroidism (OR 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, race, comorbidities, and health-related behavior, however, showed no association between self-reported glaucoma and hypothyroidism or thyroid disease in both surveys (OR 1.60, 95%CI 0.87-2.95 for NHIS; OR 1.05, 95%CI 0.59-1.88 for NHANES.A previously reported association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease was not confirmed in two large U.S. health survey populations. While such an association was noted in the univariate analysis for the NHIS survey, such a relationship was not found in the multivariate analysis after adjustment for potential confounding variables.

  7. Live birth rates following in vitro fertilization in women with thyroid autoimmunity and/or subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Wing-Yee T; Lee, Chi-Yan V; Li, Hang-Wun R; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Hung-Yu E

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the live birth rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) is affected by thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism in subfertile women. Retrospective study in a university infertility clinic. A total of 627 women without past or current history of thyroid disorder undergoing their first IVF cycle. Pre-IVF archived blood serum samples were tested for TAI and thyroid function tests. Live birth rate. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar among women with or without TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism using a TSH threshold 4·5 mIU/l. Thyroid autoantibody level did not affect these IVF outcomes. The live birth rate and miscarriage rate of women with TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism following IVF were not impaired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Correction of Hypothyroidism Leads to Change in Lean Body Mass without Altering Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigiri, Sangeetha; Vaikkakara, Suresh; Sachan, Alok; Srinivasarao, P V L N; Epuri, Sunil; Anantarapu, Sailaja; Mukka, Arun; Chokkapu, Srinivasa Rao; Venkatanarasu, Ashok; Poojari, Ravi

    2016-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abnormal body composition. This study assessed changes in body composition and insulin resistance after thyroxine (T 4 ) replacement in overt hypothyroidism. In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care center, adult nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism were rendered euthyroid on T 4 . Anthropometry including skinfold thickness (SFT) at the triceps and subscapularis was recorded. Patients underwent testing for fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, serum insulin, T 4 , thyrotropin (TSH) and body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) both before and at 2 months after restoration to the euthyroid state. Twenty-seven patients (20 female and 7 male) aged 35.3 ± 11.0 years (min-max: 17-59 years) with overt hypothyroidism were recruited. Serum T 4 at the time of recruitment was 48.9 ± 24.6 nmol/l (normal range = 64.4-142 nmol/l). All patients had TSH ≥50 µIU/l. Following treatment, there was a mean body weight reduction of 1.7 kg (p = 0.01). Waist circumference as well as triceps and subscapularis SFT decreased significantly (p change in fat mass (FM), percentage of fat (%FM) or bone mineral content in any of the specified regions or in the body as a whole. In contrast, mean lean body mass (LBM) decreased significantly by 0.8 kg (p resistance and level of glycemia were not affected by treatment with T 4 . LBM decreases significantly without affecting FM after correction of hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance was not influenced by T 4 treatment.

  9. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta E. Lischinsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10 to 12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism within pregnancy (HYPO and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses suggesting mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects

  10. [Transient congenital hypothyroidism due to biallelic defects of DUOX2 gene. Two clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enacán, Rosa E; Masnata, María E; Belforte, Fiorella; Papendieck, Patricia; Olcese, María C; Siffo, Sofía; Gruñeiro-Papendieck, Laura; Targovnik, Héctor; Rivolta, Carina M; Chiesa, Ana E

    2017-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1:2000-3000 newborns detected by neonatal screening programs. Dual oxidases, DUOX1 and 2, generate hydrogen peroxide needed for the thyroid hormone synthesis. Hipotiroidismo congénito transitorio por defectos bialélicos del gen DUOX2. Dos casos clínicos Transient congenital hypothyroidism due to biallelic defects of DUOX2 gene. Two clinical cases Mutations in the DUOX2 gene have been described in transient and permanent congenital hypothyroidism. Two brothers with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening with eutopic gland and elevated thyroglobulin are described. They were treated with levothyroxine until it could be suspended in both during childhood, assuming the picture as transient. Organification disorder was confirmed. Both patients were compounds heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 of the paternal allele (c.1057_1058delTT, p.F353PfsX36 or p.F353fsX388) and in exon 11 of the maternal allele (c.1271T > G, p.Y425X) of DUOX2 gene. Our finding confirms that the magnitude of the defect of DUOX2 is not related to the number of inactivated alleles, suggesting compensatory mechanisms in the peroxide supply. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  11. Protective and antigenotoxic effect of Ulva rigida C. Agardh in experimental hypothyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikler, Serap; Tas, Sibel; Ziyanok-Ayvalik, Sedef; Vatan, O; Yildiz, Gamze; Ozel, M

    2014-03-01

    The presence of chromosomal damage in bone marrow cells affected by several diseases such as thyroid, cancer etc., was detected by the micronucleus (MN) assay. The present study was designed to evaluate: i) volatile components of Ulva rigida, ii) effects of hypothyroidism on bone marrow MN frequency, iii) effects of oral administration of Ulva rigida ethanolic extract (URE) on MN frequency produced by hypothyroidism, and iv) thyroid hormone levels in normal and 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. The volatile components of Ulva rigida was studied using a direct thermal desorption (DTD) technique with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). URE administration was of no significant impact on thyroid hormone levels in control group, while PTU administration decreased thyroid hormone levels compared to control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, URE supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in MN frequency in each thyroid group (p < 0.0001). This is the first in vivo study that shows the strong antigenotoxic and protective effect of URE against the genotoxicity produced by hypothyroidism.

  12. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby P. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. Materials and Methods A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100–200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia ( T -score: −2.26 ± 0.5 among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T -score. Conclusion Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years.

  13. Short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H

    2018-01-06

    Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Posthepatectomy Liver Failure Affects Long-Term Function After Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naohiko; Hatano, Etsuro; Iguchi, Kohta; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether the severity of posthepatectomy liver failure (PLF) affected the long-term postoperative liver recovery of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 395 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy from 2004 to 2012 at the Kyoto University Hospital. The severity of PLF between postoperative days 5 and 10 was categorized according to the International Study Group of Liver Surgery criteria. We compared the Child-Pugh (C-P) score, platelet count (PLT), and the ratio of future remnant liver volume (FRLV) to the total liver volume (%RLV) at 3, 6, and 12 months after hepatectomy in the non-PLF, grade A, and grade B groups. The non-PLF, grade A, and grade B groups contained 272, 63, and 56 patients, respectively. The C-P score in the grade A group recovered from 5.37 points before hepatectomy to 5.38 points at 12 months after hepatectomy. The C-P score in the grade B group increased from 5.51 to 6.81 points at 3 months and was significantly higher (6.00 points) at 12 months than in the non-PLF group (5.47 points). The PLT significantly decreased at 12 months in the grade B group compared with the non-PLF group. The %RLV at 12 months in the non-PLF, grade A, and grade B groups were 84, 83, and 78 %, respectively. The remnant liver hypertrophy in the grade B group was significantly slower than that in the non-PLF group. PLF severity affects long-term liver function recovery and remnant liver hypertrophy after hepatectomy.

  15. Long-term efficacy of imepitoin in the treatment of naive dogs affected by idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, A; Gagliardo, T; Menchetti, M; Bianchi, E; Bucci, D; Gandini, G

    2017-08-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term (12 months) efficacy and tolerability of imepitoin as first-choice treatment in 56 dogs suffering from idiopathic epilepsy and identify possible factors affecting the outcome. Primary treatment success (PTS) was defined as the achievement of a seizure-free interval three times longer than the pretreatment interictal interval (at least three months). Secondary treatment success (STS) was achieved by a decrease in seizure frequency ≥50 per cent compared with the pretreatment frequency. In the long-term follow-up, PTS was recorded in 14 (25 per cent) dogs and responder-dogs (PTS+STS) were 30 (54 per cent) showing significant reduction in the monthly average number of seizures (PDogs with cluster seizures were significantly reduced (P=0.02). PTS at three and six months was associated with PTS (P=0.006 and dogs (P=0.002) at 12-month follow-up. Dogs aged >36 months at the start of imepitoin treatment had a positive association to become responder dogs (Pdogs (29 per cent) discontinued imepitoin due to its inefficacy. The receiver operator curve highlighted ≥19 mg/kg twice a day as the most effective minimal dosage. Mild and transient side effects were observed in 16 dogs (29 per cent). British Veterinary Association.

  16. Psycho-social factors affecting elders' maltreatment in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natan, M Ben; Lowenstein, A; Eisikovits, Z

    2010-03-01

    To examine and analyse major variables affecting maltreatment of elderly nursing home residents. The study was based on two theoretical paradigms: the theoretical model for predicting causes of maltreatment of elderly residents developed by Pillemer, and the Theory of Reasoned Action developed by Ajzen & Fishbein. The study employed a correlational quantitative method. The research population consisted of the staff of 22 nursing homes in Israel. Six hundred questionnaires were distributed in these facilities and 510 were completed and returned (85%). In addition, 24 questionnaires were distributed among directors of the facilities and 22 were returned (91.6%). Slightly more than half of the staff sampled reported abuse of elderly residents over the past year, as manifested in one or more of types of maltreatment. The total number of various types of maltreatment reported was 513. About two-thirds of the cases were incidents of neglect. Seventy per cent of respondents reported that they had been present at incidents in which another staff member abused an elderly resident in one or more types of maltreatment, and in such situations mental abuse and mental neglect were the most prevalent forms of maltreatment. This is the first study to examine elder maltreatment in the long-term care population of Israel. The research findings produce an expanded and improved research model investigating elder maltreatment in long-term nursing homes.

  17. Chronic Sleep Deprivation Differentially Affects Short and Long-term Operant Memory in Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C.; Noakes, Eric J.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6 h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24 hours. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4 h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. PMID:27555235

  18. A multilevel analysis of long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B

    2008-11-01

    Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.

  19. The Test of Self-Conscious Affect: Internal Structure, Differential Scales and Relationships with Long-Term Affects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, J.; Luyten, P.; de Boeck, P.; Corveleyn, J.M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Item analyses and confirmatory factor analyses on the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), in a student (N = 723) and an adult (N = 891) sample, supported the theorized four factor structure of proneness to reparation, negative self-evaluation, externalizing blame and unconcern. However, two-fifth

  20. Methylphenidate during early consolidation affects long-term associative memory retrieval depending on baseline catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Bovy, Leonore; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-02-01

    Synaptic memory consolidation is thought to rely on catecholaminergic signaling. Eventually, it is followed by systems consolidation, which embeds memories in a neocortical network. Although this sequence was demonstrated in rodents, it is unclear how catecholamines affect memory consolidation in humans. Here, we tested the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on synaptic and subsequent systems consolidation. We expected enhanced memory performance and increased neocortical engagement during delayed retrieval. Additionally, we tested if this effect was modulated by individual differences in a cognitive proxy measure of baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Fifty-three healthy males underwent a between-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure across 2 days. On day 1, subjects studied and retrieved object-location associations and received 20 mg of methylphenidate or placebo. Drug intake was timed so that methylphenidate was expected to affect early consolidation but not encoding or retrieval. Memory was tested again while subjects were scanned three days later. Methylphenidate did not facilitate memory performance, and there was no significant group difference in activation during delayed retrieval. However, memory representations differed between groups depending on baseline catecholamines. The placebo group showed increased activation in occipito-temporal regions but decreased connectivity with the hippocampus, associated with lower baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. The methylphenidate group showed stronger activation in the postcentral gyrus, associated with higher baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Altogether, methylphenidate during early consolidation did not foster long-term memory performance, but it affected retrieval-related neural processes depending on individual levels of baseline catecholamines.

  1. Cardiac paraganglioma: clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and factors affecting short and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Fahad; Datta, Subhajit; Chisti, Mohammad Muhsin; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-20

    We describe our experience of the case of a young female who presented with chest pain and was found to have an intra-pericardial mass that was later confirmed to be a paraganglioma. Although preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show any left atrial invasion, the patient died in the peri-operative period due to irreparable damage of the cardiac structures from extensive neoplastic invasion. We then performed a retrospective analysis of the available literature to find the factors associated with adverse surgical and long-term outcomes in patients with cardiac paraganglioma. We found 93 case reports of cardiac and/or pericardial paragangliomas in the literature. After exclusions, 82 cases were included in the final analysis. The patients were divided into two groups based on the outcome of surgical management. Univariate analysis was performed using SPSS software (Chicago, IL version 18), and the statistical significance was defined as a p-valueparameters between the deceased and the surviving patients revealed that only the intra-cardiac location (p-value=0.021) and the development of metastases (p-valuestructures does not appear to affect short-or long-term survival in these patients. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed excellent long-term prognosis for patients with a complete surgical removal of the neoplasm. Based on our experience, we also suggest preoperative imaging with a three dimensional cardiac CT and evaluation for cardiac transplantation before embarking on the surgical resection of these tumors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memory 'object-recall' task?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sapkota, Raju P; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina

    This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory (VSTM) object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76...

  3. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...

  4. Impaired Fertility Associated with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Anne-Dorthe; Pedersen, Palle L; Larsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number...... of spontaneous abortions. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: 6.7% had mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism...... with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous...

  5. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  6. Postpartum follow-up in women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Neelaveni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management guidelines about the thyroid disease in pregnancy are silent about the postpartum course of new onset subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Hence, we analyzed the 2 years outcome of SCH diagnosed during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: We conducted this retrospective study using the medical records of patients with new onset SCH during pregnancy between 2010 and 2013 (n = 718. Patients who stopped their levothyroxine after delivery with a 2-year follow-up record were included. We excluded patients with known thyroid disorders and continuous use of drugs that affect the thyroid results. The patients were divided into two groups (Group 1 – euthyroid and Group 2 – hypothyroid based on the final outcome after 2 years. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods and a P < 0.05 was considered statically significant. Results: A total of 559 (77.8% women stopped levothyroxine after delivery, and the final follow-up data were available for 467 patients only. At the end of 2 years, 384 (82.2% remained euthyroid, and the remaining 83 (17.8% developed hypothyroidism. SCH and overt hypothyroidism were seen in 22 and 61 patients, respectively. Group 2 patients had higher mean age (25.5 vs. 23.6 years, goiter (51 vs. 2%, initial thyroid stimulating hormone (7.9 vs. 5.1 μIU/mL, and thyroid antibody positivity (76 vs. 13% (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The majority of patients with SCH during pregnancy remain euthyroid after delivery. Advanced age, goiter, positive family history, and thyroid autoimmunity increase the future risk of hypothyroidism in patients with SCH diagnosed during pregnancy.

  7. Serum Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Levels in Patients with Overt Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Tutal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Overt hypothyroidism affects mostly women with an increasing prevalence with age. Hypothyroidism is associated with accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases possibly caused by the higher incidence of hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP is specific for cardiomyocytes and a sensitive marker of myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was examining the effect of hypothyroidism on H-FABP levels and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT. Material and Method: We measured serum H-FABP levels in 33 patients with overt hypothyroidism and age, gender, and body mass index-matched 39 control subjects. The patients were newly diagnosed with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All participants underwent high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography for the measurement of CIMT. Results: There was no significant difference in serum levels of H-FABP between the patient group and controls (1515.87±2143.0 pg/mL vs. 953.0±416.0 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.15. CIMT level was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (0.53±0.08 mm vs. 0.48±0.05 mm; p=0.02. However, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels did not differ between the two groups. Discussion: Based on the results of this study, we assume that H-FABP is not a useful marker in detecting preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with overt hypothyroidism associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, however, CIMT might be a useful marker in detecting early atherosclerosis.

  8. Early levothyroxine treatment on maternal subclinical hypothyroidism improves spatial learning of offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Teng, W; Gao, Y; Fan, C; Zhang, H; Shan, Z

    2012-05-01

    Maternal hypothyroidism has adverse effects on neural development in the offspring. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impairs spatial learning in the offspring, as well as the efficacy and optimal time of levothyroxine (L-T(4)) treatment in pregnancy. Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10 per group): control, hypothyroid (H), subclinical hypothyroid (SCH) and SCH treated with L-T(4), starting from the tenth, thirteenth and seventeenth gestational day (GD10, GD13 and GD17), respectively, to restore normal thyroid hormone levels. Spatial learning was assessed on progenies by a water maze test, a field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) recording, and an long-term potentiation induction assay. Protein levels of early growth response protein 1 (Egr1), activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1), p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by western blotting. Progenies from the SCH and H groups demonstrated significantly longer mean latency in the water maze test and a lower amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs compared to offspring of the control group. L-T(4) treatment for the GD10 and GD13 groups significantly shortened mean latency and increased the amplification percentage of the amplitude and slope of the fEPSPs of the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. However, L-T(4) treatment for the GD17 group showed only minimal effects on spatial learning in the offspring. Progenies of SCH and H groups had lower levels of Egr1, Arc, p-ERK and BDNF but higher levels of Rap1 compared to those of the controls. L-T(4) treatment ameliorated these protein expression changes in the progeny of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism. Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism impaired spatial learning in the offspring; L-T(4) treatment in early pregnancy

  9. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  10. Soil composition and nutritional status of apple as affected by long-term application of gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Nava

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum does not affect the soil negative charges and maintains sulfate in the soil solution, making it one of the cheapest products to increase Ca activity in soil solution, especially in the deeper soil layers. Higher Ca levels in the soil solution can increase the uptake of this nutrient by apple trees, reducing the risk of physiological disorders caused by Ca deficiency. This study assessed the effect of long-term gypsum application on some soil properties and on the chemical composition of leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to fruit disorders associated with low Ca. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, in the South of Brazil, from 2001 to 2009. Gypsum rates of 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 t ha-1 were annually broadcast over the soil surface, without incorporation, in an apple orchard with cultivar ´Catarina´, planted in 1997. Gypsum application over eight consecutive years had no effect on soil exchangeable K and Al to a depth of 80 cm, but increased exchangeable Ca in the sampled layers (0-10, 10-20, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, while exchangeable Mg decreased only in the surface layer (0-20 cm. Gypsum did not affect the concentration of any nutrient in the fruits, including Ca. The same was verified in the leaves, except for Mg which decreased with increased gypsum rate. Despite increasing the availability of Ca in the soil profile to a depth of 80 cm, gypsum was not effective to increase the Ca content in leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to Ca deficiency grown in an appropriately limed soil.

  11. Does the anti-hypertensive drug clonidine affect the short-term variation in CTG recordings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Charlene E; Makris, Angela; Tooher, Jane M; Ogle, Robert F; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2010-10-01

    Cardiotocographic (CTG) recordings of the fetal heart remain standard obstetric practice among hypertensive women. Changes in the short-term variation (STV) in the fetal heart are often attributed to the effect of anti-hypertensive medications, regardless of the fact that this principle has never been validated. To assess the STV of CTG recordings pre- and post- the anti-hypertensive medication, clonidine. Forty hypertensive pregnant women, already receiving the anti-hypertensive clonidine, were recruited. The CTGs were conducted pre- and post-dose administration. The CTGs were assessed by the Sonicaid Team® automated CTG analysis (Oxford Instruments, UK) to avoid CTG assessor bias. Baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) (delta change from pre- and post-dose) and STV were compared using spss v.14® utilising Student t-tests. No statistical difference was found in the pre- and post-baseline FHRs (P = 0.48). The mean delta baseline heart rate before and after drug administration was -0.54 bpm. The STV of the CTGs recorded pre- and post-clonidine dose was also not affected by administration of the drug (P = 0.34). The mean delta STV before and after drug administration was 0.39 ms. Two women received betamethasone 12 mg intramuscularly within the 12-h period prior to CTG recordings to enhance fetal lung maturity. The mean STV for the fetuses of these women pre-drug was 4.8 ms and 13.2 ms post-administration. This was the largest delta seen in all STVs recorded in this dataset. The anti-hypertensive drug clonidine does not alter baseline FHRs or affect the STV of the FHR in hypertensive pregnant women. © 2010 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Long-term follow-up of Norwegian horses affected with acquired equine polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanche-Olsen, S; Kielland, C; Ihler, C F; Hultin Jäderlund, K

    2017-09-01

    Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP), a neurological disease clinically characterised by knuckling of metatarsophalangeal joints, has been described in numerous Nordic horses during the last 20 years. Although clinical recovery has been reported, large-scale data on long-term follow-up of survivors have been lacking. To describe long-term survival of AEP affected horses registered in Norway, with a focus on athletic performance and possible residual clinical signs connected to the disease. A retrospective cohort study. The study includes 143 horses recorded with AEP in Norway from 2000 to 2012, with the follow-up period continuing until 2015. Participating owners of survivors completed a standardised questionnaire, providing information on disease and convalescence, management, performance-level and possible residual clinical signs. To investigate the follow-up of survivors, we performed 2 multivariable linear regression models. The follow-up time of survivors was 1.0-14.5 years (median 5.3, interquartile range 2.5-7.2). Fifty-seven horses survived and all but 3 horses returned to previous or higher level of performance. However, possible disease-related residual clinical signs were reported in 14/57 horses. Forty-nine of the survivors were in athletic use at time of contact. The majority of survivors were categorised with low severity-grades at time of diagnosis and the initial grade was significantly associated with time to resumed training. Only 3 horses had experienced relapse/new attack during the follow-up period. Athletic performance was judged by owners, which renders a possible source of bias. Although AEP is a potential fatal disease, most survivors will recover and return to minimum previous level of athletic performance. Some horses display residual clinical signs, but often without negative effect on performance and relapse of disease is rare. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Patients with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Didushko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to determine the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Having examined 133 patients with manifested hypothyroidism, we discovered that levels of vascular endothelial growth factor significantly increased in blood plasma of both obese and non-obese patients, but the highest indices have been found in patients with hypothyroidism resulting from autoimmune thyroiditis and with obesity. The obtained correlations indicate mutually aggravating effect of thyroid hypofunction, obesity and hypercholesterolemia on the development of endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypothyroidism, in particular on the increase of vascular endothelial growth factor levels.

  15. Two logistic models for the prediction of hypothyroidism in pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mbah, Anthony U; Ejim, Emmanuel C; Onodugo, Obinna D; Ezugwu, Francis O; Eze, Matthew I; Nkwo, Peter O; Ugbajah, Winston C

    2011-01-01

    The mounting evidence linking hypothyroidism during pregnancy with poor pregnancy outcome underscores the need for screening and, therefore, a search for more reliable and cheaper screening methods...

  16. Both Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Increase Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I.; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y.; Pol, Christine J.; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure (HF) progression. It is also known that HF is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). While it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Methods and Results Thyroidectomized rats with serum confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (n=9), euthyroid (n=9) and hyperthyroid (n=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3mg L-thyroxine (T4), or 20 mg T4 pellets (60 day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic function, while hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF. PMID:24036190

  17. [Severe rhabdomyolysis revealing a myopathy linked to autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzouri, H; El Omri, N; Sekkach, Y; Frikh, R; Nzambe, C; Qacif, H; Baizri, H; Makouar, F; Qatni, M El; Belmejdoub, G; Rkiouak, F; Ghafir, D; Ohayon, V; Archane, M I

    2009-03-01

    While muscular manifestations are common of hypothyroidism, hypothyroid myopathy is most often limited to myalgia, muscular stiffness and cramps with, in some patients, elevated levels of muscle enzymes. We report two cases of rhabdomyolysis related to hypothyroid myopathy. One of the patients developed acute renal failure. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy improved thyroid and renal function with involution of rhabdomyolysis. Hypothyroidism appears to be an authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis and should be carefully ruled out in all patients with elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes.

  18. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH.......05). These changes were qualitatively similar but quantitatively less pronounced than in 15 women with overt hypothyroidism, also studied. Taking the two groups together (n = 31), pretreatment thyroid function (expressed as either TSH or free T(4) estimate) correlated to CO and SVR as well as the changes induced...... by LT(4) (p hypothyroidism should...

  19. Permanent post-partum hypothyroidism. Seven cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdent, C.; Pellenc, P.; Carrara Balacheff, O.; Kuhn, J.M.; Leclerc, P.; Wolf, L.M. (CHU de Rouen, Hopital de Boisguillaume, 76 (France)); Cavelier, B. (Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, 76 - Boisguillaume (France))

    1985-02-09

    Seven cases of hypothyroidism developed within 6 months of delivery are reported. Radioimmunoassays regularly showed very low thyroxin levels and high thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, thus confirming that the thyroid deficiency was of peripheral origin. A significant rise in antimicrosomial or antithyroglobulin antibodies was noted in 5 cases. One patient had HLA-B8 and 4 had HLA-DR3, which was not significantly different from the prevalence in the regional population. In contrast with the transient post-partum hypothyroidism reported mainly in Japan, the condition proved to be permanent in 6 patients followed up for more than two years. The increased frequency of HLA-DR3 and 5 recently described in thyroiditis with transient post-partum thyrotoxicosis was not found in our series. It would appear that pregnancy, which is a period of immune incompetence, may disclose a latent lymphocytic thyroiditis.

  20. Pregnancy outcomes in women with severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Dania; Levy, Sigal; Nadler, Varda; Kopel, Vered; Shainberg, Bracha; Toledano, Yoel

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Most studies have focused on subjects with a mild or subclinical disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the relative rate of severe thyroid dysfunction among pregnant women with hypothyroidism, identify related factors and analyse the impact on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case series design was employed. The study group included 101 pregnant women (103 pregnancies) with an antenatal serum TSH level >20.0 mIU/l identified from the 2009-2010 computerised database of a health maintenance organisation. Data were collected from the medical records. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of a control group of 205 euthyroid pregnant women during the same period. The study group accounted for 1.04% of all insured pregnant women with recorded hypothyroidism during the study period. Most cases had an autoimmune aetiology. All women were treated with levothyroxine (L-T₄) during pregnancy. Maximum serum TSH level measured was 20.11-150 mIU/l (median 32.95 mIU/l) and median serum TSH level 0.36-75.17 mIU/l (median 7.44 mIU/l). The mean duration of hypothyroidism during pregnancy was 21.2 ± 13.2 weeks (median 18.5 weeks); in 36 cases (34.9%), all TSH levels during pregnancy were elevated. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included abortions in 7.8% of the cases, premature deliveries in 2.9% and other complications in 14.6%, with no statistically significant differences from the control group. Median serum TSH level during pregnancy was positively correlated with the rate of abortions+premature deliveries and rate of all pregnancy-related complications (Phypothyroidism. Intense follow-up and L-T₄ treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes even when target TSH levels are not reached.

  1. Stress within a restricted time window selectively affects the persistence of long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yang

    Full Text Available The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM formation (tested 24 h later, but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system.

  2. Ventilator gas flow rates affect inspiratory time and ventilator efficiency index in term lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Katinka P; Kuschel, Carl A; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing survival in the smallest preterm infants, the incidence of chronic lung disease has not decreased. Research into ventilatory strategies has concentrated on minimising barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectotrauma, but little attention has been paid to the role of bias gas flow rates and the potential for rheotrauma or shear stress injury. Ventilated preterm infants frequently receive relatively high gas flow rates. We hypothesised that altering bias gas flow rates would change the efficiency of ventilation and thereby affect ventilatory parameters. We tested this hypothesis using an artificial lung followed by ventilation of 8 term lambs. Between flows of 2 and 15 l/min, inflation time (Ti) in the artificial lung was inversely related to the bias gas flow rate. In the ventilated lambs, Ti was inversely related to flow rates up to 10 l/min, with no statistically significant effect at flow rates >10 l/min. There were no adverse effects on gas exchange or cardiovascular parameters until a flow rate of 3 l/min was used, when inadequate gas exchange occurred. Ti is inversely associated with the bias gas flow rate. Flow rates much lower than those used in many neonatal units seem to provide adequate ventilation. We suggest that the role of ventilator gas flow rates, which may potentially influence shear stress in ventilator-induced lung injury, merits further investigation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Long-term cognitive enrichment affects opioid receptor expression in the amygdala of domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbe, C; Puppe, B

    2010-02-01

    Enriching the housing environment by stimuli that challenge both reward and cognitive mechanisms may enhance behavioural experiences and can improve animal welfare, particularly in farm animals. A newly developed experimental feeding system for domestic pigs using food-rewarded learning of discriminatory and instrumental tasks enabled the animals to successfully master a cognitive challenge and to be rewarded ca. 30 times per day with small food portions. Reward-related behaviour is expected to be modulated by endogenous opioid systems. Furthermore, recent evidence supports a role for the amygdala in processing positive affects by stimulus-reward learning. Hence, the present study investigates mRNA expression of cerebral receptors, which are involved in these processes. In an initial step, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provided the first evidence that transcripts of three different opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, KOR), as well as the neuropeptide Y 5 receptor (NPY5R), leptin receptor (LEPR) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are expressed in both the porcine amygdala and hypothalamus. Using real-time PCR we could show that the expression of two receptors of the opioid system (amygdala: KOR, DOR), in addition to the expression of NPY5R (hypothalamus) in eight enriched housed pigs was markedly downregulated compared to that of conventionally housed and fed pigs. Focusing on opioid receptors in the amygdala, the present study shows that long-term cognitive enrichment acts as a biologically relevant stimulus that causes modifications of gene expression of reward-sensitive cerebral receptors in domestic pigs.

  4. [Developmental effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on cognitive functions: focused on attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hiromi; Seto, Yukina

    2012-01-01

    times when the lever was inserted in the same side that they paid attention and responded with longer reaction times when the lever was inserted in the opposite side. We conclude that perinatal hypothyroidism affects shift attention in rats but further researches are necessary to examine whether hypothyroidism affects divided attention. Perinatal hypothyroidism causes the deficit of shift attention in rats but it was unclear whether hypothyroidism affects divided attention.

  5. Comparison of the effect of maternal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism in young and aged male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Faraji, Farzaneh; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2013-02-01

    Since thyroid hormones play fundamental roles in somatic growth and metabolism, disturbances of thyroid function affect many organs and systems. Both fetal hypothyroidism and aging can affect carbohydrate metabolism during adult life. This study aims to assess the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion capacity of islets in young and aged male offspring of mothers who were hypothyroid during pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid group received water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (200 ppm) during gestation. After birth, survival and weight of pups from both groups were followed. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, 0.5 g/kg glucose) was carried out in young and aged male offspring (at 3- and 12-months-old). In old, but not in young rats, serum glucose and insulin levels were respectively significantly higher and lower between 5 and 20 min in the fetal hypothyroid (FH) group, compared with the controls (C). Insulin secretion of the isolated islets stimulated with 5.6, 8.3, and 16 mmol/L glucose in the old FH group (240.5 ± 22.0, 457.0 ± 40.1, and 768.0 ± 57.1 respectively) were significantly lower (p = 0.014, p = 0.029 and p = 0.003 respectively), compared to the C group (327.9 ± 25.9, 579.2 ± 36.3, and 1024.0 ± 59.5 pmol/islet/min respectively). Results show that maternal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity, more obvious in older offspring. Hence it can be concluded that the effect of fetal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism may contribute to increased risk of type II diabetes in aged animals.

  6. The excess risk of major osteoporotic fractures in hypothyroidism is driven by cumulative hyperthyroid as opposed to hypothyroid time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Laulund, Anne Sofie

    2015-01-01

     = 222,138; comparator). We used a Cox proportional hazards analysis incorporating additional time-dependent covariates to represent initiation of thyroxine replacement and cumulative number of periods with high versus low TSH after index date with a mean follow-up of 7.2 years. Elevated baseline TSH...... thyroxine dosing-was significantly associated with increased risk of both hip fracture (HR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.15) and major osteoporotic fracture (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14). When gender- and age-stratified analyses for major osteoporotic fractures were undertaken, hyperthyroid time was identified......The long-term relationship between hypothyroidism and fracture risk is challenging to dissect because of the modifying influence of subsequent thyroxine replacement with the potential for excessive replacement doses. We studied changes in serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) over time...

  7. TSH Regulation Dynamics in Central and Extreme Primary Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ferruccio; Marsili, Alessandro; Pinchera, Aldo; DiStefano, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Thyrotropin (TSH) changes in extreme primary hypothyroidism include increased secretion, slowed degradation, and diminished or absent TSH circadian rhythms. Diminished rhythms are also observed in central hypothyroid patients and have been speculated to be a cause of central hypothyroidism. We examined whether TSH secretion saturation, previously suggested in extreme primary hypothyroidism, might explain diminished circadian rhythms in both disorders. Methods We augmented and extended the range of our published feedback control system model to reflect nonlinear changes in extreme primary hypothyroidism, including putative TSH secretion saturation, and quantified and validated it using multiple clinical datasets ranging from euthyroid to extreme hypothyroid (postthyroidectomy). We simulated central hypothyroidism by reducing overall TSH secretion and also simulated normal TSH secretion without circadian oscillation, maintaining plasma TSH at constant normal levels. We also utilized the validated model to explore thyroid hormone withdrawal protocols used to prepare remnant ablation in thyroid cancer patients postthyroidectomy. Results Both central and extreme primary hypothyroidism simulations yielded low thyroid hormone levels and reduced circadian rhythms, with simulated daytime TSH levels low-to-normal for central hypothyroidism and increased in primary hypothyroidism. Simulated plasma TSH showed a rapid rise immediately following triiodothyronine (T3) withdrawal postthyroidectomy, compared with a slower rise after thyroxine withdrawal or postthyroidectomy without replacement. Conclusions Diminished circadian rhythms in central and extreme primary hypothyroidism can both be explained by pituitary TSH secretion reaching maximum capacity. In simulated remnant ablation protocols using the extended model, TSH shows a more rapid rise after T3 withdrawal than after thyroxine withdrawal postthyroidectomy, supporting the use of replacement with T3 prior to 131I

  8. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Mangesh R.; Zein, Claudia O.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Yerian, Lisa; Lopez, Rocio; McCullough, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypothyroidism has been suggested. Possible explanations for this association are the recognized links between hypothyroidism and various elements of the metabolic syndrome which is often present in NAFLD. To further explore this association, we determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of patients with NAFLD and analyzed the potential factors associated with hypothyroidism in this patient population. Methods Two hundred and forty six patients with biopsy proven NAFLD attending hepatology clinics at the Cleveland Clinic between October 2006 to June 2009 and 430 age, gender, race and BMI matched control subjects seen in the general internal medicine clinic were included. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism who were on thyroid replacement therapy were considered to be hypothyroid. Results Hypothyroidism was more frequent among patients with NAFLD (21%vs 9.5%.; Phypothyroidism were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.9,P=0.02)) and 3.8 (95% CI:2,6.9, Phypothyroidism. NAFLD subjects who reported mild alcohol consumption were less likely to have hypothyroidism compared to those who reported complete abstinence (OR 0.37, P=0.008). Conclusions A higher prevalence of hypothyroidism was demonstrated in patients with NAFLD compared to controls. Patients with hypothyroidism were more likely to have NASH. Among subjects with NALFD, female gender, increased BMI and history of abstinence from alcohol were associated with hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed in order to confirm and better characterized these findings as well as the described associations and their pathogenesis. PMID:22183820

  9. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani, E-mail: arianiinaira@yahoo.com.br; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moraes, Rosana Nogueira [Pontifícia Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ramos, Helton Estrela [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5{sup th} and 10{sup th} days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity.

  10. Short-term thyroid hormone excess affects the heart but does not affect adrenal activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf; Moraes, Rosana Nogueira; Ramos, Helton Estrela; Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5th and 10th days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity.

  11. Stability of the diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder in a long-term prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Gorwood, Philip; Friedman, Serge; Even, Christian

    2017-11-07

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is mainly characterized by a seasonal pattern of depressive recurrences over the years. However, few studies have been conducted on the long-term course of patients with SAD, whose findings raised questions about the diagnosis stability over time. This study aimed to better characterize the diagnosis evolution, and determine prognosis markers. An initial cohort of 225 outpatients diagnosed as having a SAD, was assessed at baseline (T1) for clinical symptoms and response to bright light therapy. One hundred and nineteen patients (53%) were interviewed 2-12 years after (T2). Of 119 patients reached at follow-up (T2), only 32 patients (27%) still fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a stable SAD (S-SAD). A large proportion (59%) of the follow up cohort was in remission and 14% still suffered from a non-seasonal mood disorder. Family history of depression, previous suicide attempt, carbohydrate craving and HAD-depression score at baseline were associated with a stable SAD (S-SAD) diagnosis at T2, the HAD-depression score being the only one still significantly predictive (p=0.025) of a later stable SAD, with a multivariate approach. Carbohydrate craving, a core symptom of SAD, showed a trend (p=0.100) to predict diagnosis stability. Only 53% patients from the initial cohort were assessed at follow-up. Patients with eventual stable SAD show more subjective severity (higher HAD-Depression score) and carbohydrate craving at baseline. A low predictive validity of diagnosis criteria suggests that SAD is a temporary expression of a mood disorder rather than a specific disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Grazing intensity affects insect diversity via sward structure and heterogeneity in a long‐term experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrentrup, Jana Sabrina; Wrage‐Mönnig, Nicole; Röver, Klaus‐Ulrich; Isselstein, Johannes; McKenzie, Ailsa

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, we investigate the long‐term influence of grazing and the potential for spatial patterns created by different grazing intensities to enhance insect diversity. In a long‐term experiment (2002–2011...

  13. Hypothyroidism in adult male rats alters posttranscriptional mechanisms of luteinizing hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renata Marino; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Brunetto, Erika Lia; Goulart-Silva, Francemilson; Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2013-04-01

    Studies in men are not consistent regarding the effects of thyroid hormone on the production of gonadotropins. In hypothyroidism consequent to diverse causes, an increase or no change in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) have been reported. The attempt to explain the mechanisms involved in this pathology using rats as an experimental model also seems to repeat this divergence, since hypothyroidism has been shown to induce hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a hypergonadotropic state, or not to affect the basal levels of LH. Notably, the promoter region of the gene encoding the Lh beta subunit and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing factor) does not contain a thyroid responsive element. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that, in male rats, posttranscriptional mechanisms of LH synthesis are altered in hypothyroidism. We also attempted to determine if hypothyroidism directly affects testicular function in male rats. Male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were thyroidectomized or sham-operated. After 20 days, they were decapitated, and the pituitaries were collected and analyzed for Lh mRNA, LH content, poly(A) tail length, and polysome profile. The testes were collected and analyzed for Lh receptor mRNA, LH receptor content, and histology using morphometric analyses. The testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate were weighed, and serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, thyrotropin (TSH), and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured. Hypothyroidism was associated, in the pituitary, with an increase in Lh mRNA expression, a reduction in Lh mRNA poly(A) tail length, a reduction in the number of LH transcripts associated with polysomes. Pituitary LH was decreased but serum LH was increased from 102 to 543 pg/mL. Despite this, serum testosterone concentrations were decreased from 1.8 to 0.25 ng/mL. A decreased germinative epithelium height of the testes and a reduced weight of androgen-responsive tissues were observed (ventral prostrate: 74 vs. 23 mg/100 g body weight [BW

  14. Thyroid V50 Highly Predictive of Hypothyroidism in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Sean; Refaat, Tamer; Bacchus, Ian D; Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Mittal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced hypothyroidism affects a significant number of patients with head-and-neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We examined detailed dosimetric and clinical parameters to better determine the risk of hypothyroidism in euthyroid HNSCC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). From 2006 to 2010, 75 clinically euthyroid patients with HNSCC were treated with sequential IMRT. The cohort included 59 men and 16 females with a median age of 55 years (range, 30 to 89 y) who were treated to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 60 to 75 Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy in nearly all (95%) cases. Detailed thyroid dosimetric parameters including maximum dose, mean dose, and other parameters (eg, V50-percent volume receiving at least 50 Gy) were obtained. Freedom from hypothyroidism was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using Cox regression. After a median follow-up period of 50 months, 25 patients (33%) became hypothyroid. On univariate analysis, thyroid V50 was highly correlated with developing hypothyroidism (P=0.035). Other dosimetric paramaters including mean thyroid dose (P=0.11) and maximum thyroid dose (P=0.39) did not reach statistical significance. On multivariate analysis incorporating patient, tumor, and treatment variables, V50 remained highly statistically significant (P=0.037). Regardless of other factors, for V50>60%, the odds ratio of developing hypothyroidism was 6.76 (P=0.002). In HNSCC patients treated with IMRT, thyroid V50 highly predicts the risk of developing hypothyroidism. V50>60% puts patients at a significantly higher risk of becoming hypothyroid. This can be a useful dose constraint to consider during treatment planning.

  15. Developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism reduce proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors in rat offspring by downregulation of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wei, Wei; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui; Yu, Ye; Lei, Xibing; Zhao, Ming; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism during development result in dysfunction of the central nervous system, affecting psychomotor and motor function, although the underlying mechanisms causing these alterations are still unclear. Therefore, our aim is to study the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia, caused by mild ID, and developmental hypothyroidism, caused by severe ID or methimazole (MMZ), on the proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), an excellent experimental model of cerebellar development and function. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is essential for CGNP proliferation, and as such, its activation is also investigated here. A maternal hypothyroxinemia model was established in Wistar rats by administrating a mild ID diet, and two maternal hypothyroidism models were developed either by administrating a severe ID diet or MMZ water. Our results showed that hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism reduced proliferation of CGNPs on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, and PN21. Accordingly, the mean intensity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki67 nuclear antigen immunofluorescence was reduced in the mild ID, severe ID, and MMZ groups. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism reduced expression of the Shh signaling pathway on PN7, PN14, and PN21. Our study supports the hypothesis that developmental hypothyroxinemia induced by mild ID, and hypothyroidism induced by severe ID or MMZ, reduce the proliferation of CGNPs, which may be ascribed to the downregulation of the Shh signaling pathway.

  16. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  18. Cardiac tamponade due to hypothyroidism: a case cluster report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiac tamponade due to hypothyroidism: a case cluster report. Ankia Coetzee, Charles Kyriakakis, Chris Greyling, B.H. Ascott-Evans. Abstract. This study reports on three patients who were seen at Tygerberg Hospital within a short period of six months, with a new diagnosis of biochemically severe primary hypothyroidism ...

  19. Lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroidism : the contribution of growth hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data suggest a role for GH in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In hypothyroidism not only the secretion of thyroid hormone, but also of GH is decreased. Generally the effects on plasma lipids seen in hypothyroid individuals are considered to be a consequence of

  20. Pleiotropic Effects of Thyroid Hormones: Learning from Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism induces several metabolic changes that allow understanding some physiopathological mechanisms. Under experimental hypothyroid conditions in rats, heart and kidney are protected against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. An increased resistance to opening of the permeability transition pore seems to be at the basis of such protection. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate of hypothyroid kidney is low as a result of adenosine receptors-induced renal vasoconstriction. The vascular tone of aorta is also regulated by adenosine in hypothyroid conditions. In other context, thyroid hormones regulate lipoprotein metabolism. High plasma level of LDL cholesterol is a common feature in hypothyroidism, due to a low expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol plasma levels are variable in hypothyroidism; several proteins involved in HDL metabolism and structure are expressed at lower levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Based on the positive influence of thyroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism, thyromimetic drugs are promising for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In summary, hypothyroid status has been useful to understand molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia reperfusion, regulation of vascular function and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins.

  1. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  2. Juvenile hypothyroidism presenting with hypertrichosis, multicystic ovaries, and pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutusi Raychaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypothyroidism may present with atypical features in children. Here we report a 6-year-old female child with primary hypothyroidism presenting with a combination of several atypical features in the form of hypertrichosis, bilateral cystic ovaries, and feedback pituitary adenoma.

  3. Transient congenital hypothyroidism after topical iodine in pregnancy and lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Danziger, Y; Pertzelan, A; M. Mimouni

    1987-01-01

    A 6 week old girl with transient congenital hypothyroidism is described. The hypothyroidism was associated with multiple applications of povidone iodine during pregnancy and lactation. This case illustrates the potential hazard of using topical solutions containing iodine during pregnancy and lactation.

  4. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that patients suffering from hypothyroidism may express few symptoms, but this has not been studied in a population-based study design. OBJECTIVES: To study the array of symptoms as they are reported in newly diagnosed overt autoimmune hypothyroidism using a p...

  5. Maternal hypothyroidism may be associated with CHD in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Michael J; Thomas, Daina S; Hornberger, Lisa K; Hamilton, Robert M; Midodzi, William K; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-10-01

    This study tested whether mothers with maternal hypothyroidism have increased odds of CHD in their offspring, and examined the relationship between CHD, maternal thyroid function, and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk for foetal demise and prematurity and can have a negative impact on neurodevelopment. Prior studies have postulated a relationship between maternal thyroid function, CHD, and maternal nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted over a 17-month period to obtain a history of maternal thyroid status and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Paediatric echocardiograms were evaluated for CHD by a blinded paediatric cardiologist. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between CHD and maternal hypothyroidism. Of the 998 maternal-child pairs, 10% (98/998) of the mothers reported a history of prenatal hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of CHD in the study sample was 63% (630/998). Mothers with a history of hypothyroidism were significantly more likely to have offspring with CHD compared with mothers without a history of hypothyroidism (72 versus 62%; p=0.04). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CHD in offspring associated with reported maternal hypothyroidism was 1.68 (1.02-2.78). This study suggests that maternal hypothyroidism is a risk factor for the development of CHD. Further prospective investigations are necessary to confirm this association and delineate pathogenic mechanisms.

  6. Pituitary function and morphology in dogs with primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Espineira, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311389368

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have effect on almost every organ system in the body. This explains the wide range of clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism in dogs. The signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and the disease onset is insidious. It may therefore take a long time before hypothyroidism

  7. Association between different degrees of hypothyroidism and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between overt hypothyroidism (OH) and altered lipid profile is well known, however the significance of dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) remain controversial. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine any association between lipid profile and different degrees of thyroid dysfunction.

  8. Circadian changes in pulsatile TSH release in primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, R.; Brabant, G.; Prank, K.; Endert, E.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated pulsatile and circadian TSH secretion in primary hypothyroidism. In a prospective study, blood was sampled every 10 minutes during 24 hours for assay of TSH (IRMA). Thyroid hormones and TSH responsiveness to TRH were then measured. Nine patients with overt primary hypothyroidism, seven

  9. Unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinological disorder in children. Genetic and intrauterine factors have been implicated in its aetiology. The aim of this study was to describe an unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same sex triplets and challenges associated with the diagnosis.

  10. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solaf M. Elsayed

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat or not to treat??? Congenital hypothyroidism is 30 times more frequent in newborns with Down syndrome (DS) than in the population of healthy children [1]. Mild isolated plasma thyrotropin. (TSH) elevation with normal thyroxine (T4) ...

  11. Reproductive Effects of Prolonged Experimentally Induced Hypothyroidism in Bitches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panciera, D.L; Purswell, B.J; Kolster, K.A; Werre, S.R; Trout, S.W

    2012-01-01

    ..., prolonged interestrus interval, abortion, and stillbirth have been reported in a colony of Borzoi bitches with lymphocytic thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. Other reports of reproductive abnormalities in bitches with naturally occurring hypothyroidism have been poorly documented. Other studies in dogs have failed to show a detrimental eff...

  12. Hypothyroidism in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Amit; Cleper, Roxana; Krause, Irit; Blumenthal, Danit; Davidovits, Miriam

    2012-06-01

    Non-autoimmune hypothyroidism has been reported in children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. The hypothyroid state was attributed to massive prolonged thyroid hormone loss. However, this endocrine abnormality has not been reported in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) despite similar long-standing proteinuria. We describe all the patients with SRNS in our clinic's follow-up who developed non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. Five children aged 3-11 years at diagnosis of SRNS and followed for 5-42 months developed hypothyroidism (depressed free thyroxin and elevated thyrotropin levels) without evidence of autoimmune thyroiditis. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism was not temporarily related to disease duration or renal function. The disease was resistant to all therapies, renal function deteriorated in all the patients within 1.5-14.5 years from diagnosis. Despite thyroxine treatment and a decline in renal function, thyroid hormone level normalized only after reaching end stage renal disease (ESRD) and hemodialysis start. Nephrotic syndrome recurrence after kidney transplantation (in three patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) was not accompanied by recurrent hypothyroidism. It is our impression that non-autoimmune hypothyroidism is a potential significant complication of SRNS, and should be actively sought for especially in cases with renal function deterioration. Hypothyroidism usually resolved when these patients reach ESRD. The incidence and pathogenesis of this condition require further study.

  13. Hypothyroidism Induces Hypophagia Associated with Alterations in Protein Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Proopiomelanocortin in the Arcuate Nucleus, Independently of Hypothalamic Nuclei-Specific Changes in Leptin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino, Camila; Império, Güínever Eustáquio; Wilieman, Marianna; Costa-E-Sousa, Ricardo Henrique; Souza, Luana Lopes; Trevenzoli, Isis Hara; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas

    2016-01-01

    ARC and VMN but not in PVN nucleus. ObRb protein changes were concomitant with decreased phosphorylated STAT3 in the ARC, and decreased total STAT3 in VMN and PVN. However, hypothyroidism did not affect mRNA levels of Lepr or Stat3 in the hypothalamic nuclei. Experimental hypothyroidism induced a negative energy balance accompanied by decreased NPY and increased POMC protein content in the ARC, resulting in predominance of anorexigenic pathways, despite central leptin resistance and impairment of the leptin signaling cascade in a nuclei-specific manner.

  14. A Case of Capgras Syndrome Related to Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Aisha; Stewart, Jonathan T; Catalano, Glenn

    2015-11-01

    Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with a variety of psychiatric conditions, most commonly depression and cognitive impairment, but up to 5% to 15% of symptomatically hypothyroid patients may develop a nonaffective psychosis, classically referred to as "myxedema madness." We report the case of a woman who developed Capgras syndrome in the context of hypothyroidism, and whose psychosis rapidly resolved with levothyroxine supplementation. To date, very few cases of Capgras syndrome related to hypothyroidism have been reported. The pathophysiology of this condition remains unclear but it may be related to global cerebral hypometabolism or possibly to increased cerebral dopamine. Given the robust response of "myxedema madness" to thyroid replacement, psychiatrists should remain vigilant for covert hypothyroidism in patients with psychosis and atypical histories or presentations.

  15. [Risk factors for renal dysfunction in patients with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didushko, O M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In order to study the features of kidney function in patients with hypothyroidism, examined 84 patients with primary hypothyroidism. Of the patients 46 patients had postoperative hypothyroidism in 38--hypothyroidism is autoimmune thyroiditis in the background (AIT). According to our results, in patients with manifest hypothyroidism is present renal dysfunction, which is manifested by increased serum creatinine and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR),the development and progression of which contributes to the presence of risk factors in patients--hyperlipidemia, excessive body weight and abdominal obesity, which is a pronounced in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Stated that more meaningful indicators of dyslipidemia associated with major manifestations of abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference (OT) ((96.58 ± 1.70) and (98.73 ± 3.35) cm) and higher body mass index (BMI).

  16. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    interval (CI): 1.12-2.04) and increased prevalence of treatment with antipsychotics (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.29-1.73), antidepressants (OR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.35-1.67), and anxiolytics (OR 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16-1.41). After the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, patients had a higher risk of being diagnosed......Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non...

  17. Post-radiotherapy hypothyroidism in dogs treated for thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores-Fuster, I; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event after head and neck radiotherapy in human medicine, but uncommonly reported in canine patients. Records of 21 dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed thyroid carcinoma receiving definitive or hypofractionated radiotherapy were reviewed. Nine cases received 48 Gy in 12 fractions, 10 received 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 2 received 32 Gy in 4 fractions. Seventeen cases had radiotherapy in a post-operative setting. Ten cases developed hypothyroidism (47.6%) after radiotherapy. The development of hypothyroidism was not associated with the radiotherapy protocol used. Median time to diagnosis of hypothyroidism was 6 months (range, 1-13 months). Hypothyroidism is a common side effect following radiotherapy for thyroid carcinomas. Monitoring of thyroid function following radiotherapy is recommended. No specific risk factors have been identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Thyroid Antibody Status, Subclinical Hypothyroidism, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: An Individual Participant Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bauer, Douglas C.; Cappola, Anne R.; Åsvold, Bjørn O.; Weiler, Stefan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bremner, Alexandra; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Vanderpump, Mark P. J.; Cornuz, Jacques; Dörr, Marcus; Wallaschofski, Henri; Newman, Anne B.; Sgarbi, José A.; Razvi, Salman; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P.; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2014-01-01

    Context: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly with thyrotropin levels of 10.0 mIU/L or greater. The measurement of thyroid antibodies helps predict the progression to overt hypothyroidism, but it is unclear whether thyroid autoimmunity independently affects CHD risk. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the CHD risk of subclinical hypothyroidism with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Data Sources and Study Selection: A MEDLINE and EMBASE search from 1950 to 2011 was conducted for prospective cohorts, reporting baseline thyroid function, antibodies, and CHD outcomes. Data Extraction: Individual data of 38 274 participants from six cohorts for CHD mortality followed up for 460 333 person-years and 33 394 participants from four cohorts for CHD events. Data Synthesis: Among 38 274 adults (median age 55 y, 63% women), 1691 (4.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, of whom 775 (45.8%) had positive TPOAbs. During follow-up, 1436 participants died of CHD and 3285 had CHD events. Compared with euthyroid individuals, age- and gender-adjusted risks of CHD mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism were similar among individuals with and without TPOAbs [hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–1.53 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.58, P for interaction = .62], as were risks of CHD events (HR 1.16, CI 0.87–1.56 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.02–1.56, P for interaction = .65). Risks of CHD mortality and events increased with higher thyrotropin, but within each stratum, risks did not differ by TPOAb status. Conclusions: CHD risk associated with subclinical hypothyroidism did not differ by TPOAb status, suggesting that biomarkers of thyroid autoimmunity do not add independent prognostic information for CHD outcomes. PMID:24915118

  19. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L. (MSU); (UC)

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  20. Metabolic and hemostatic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    G G Petrik

    2011-01-01

    To identify hemostatic and metabolic abnormalities in patients with hypothyroidism of varying severity and duration and possible modifying effects of chronic hyperglycemia on the investigated parameters comprehensive analysis of the parameters of metabolism, platelet and plasma hemostasis in 69 patients with hypothyroidism and 36 patients having hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been performed. Decompensated hypothyroidism regardless of disease duration and presence of complicatio...

  1. Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism through enhancing neurogenesis and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Soo; Lee, Shin-Ho; Hwang, Dong-Sup; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Jin-Kook; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in new neuron production and maturation during brain development. Physical exercise is known to promote cell survival and functional recovery after brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, spatial learning ability, neurogenesis, and apoptosis in hypothyroidism rat pups. On the 14th perinatal day, the pregnant rats were divided into two groups: the maternal control group and the maternal methimazole (MMI)-treated group. For the induction of hypothyroidism in rat pups, MMI was added to the drinking water (0.02%, wt/vol), from the 14th prenatal day to the 49th postnatal day. After delivery, the male rat pups born from the maternal control group were assigned into the control group and the control and exercise group. The rat pups born from the maternal MMI-treated group were divided into the hypothyroidism-induction group and the hypothyroidism-induction and treadmill exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30min once a day, starting on the 22nd postnatal day for 4 weeks. Induction of hypothyroidism during the fetal and early postnatal period showed suppression of neurogenesis and enhancement of apoptosis in the hippocampus. Short-term memory and spatial learning ability were deteriorated in the hypothyroidism rat pups. Treadmill exercise during the postnatal period increased neurogenesis and inhibited apoptosis, and resulted in the improvement of short-term memory and spatial learning ability in the hypothyroidism rat pups. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  3. Hypothyroidism in Patients with Psoriasis or Rosacea: A Large Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sara M; Hill, Dane E; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-10-15

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease, and there may be a link between hypothyroidism and inflammatory skin disease. The purpose of this study is to assess whether hypothyroidism is more prevalent in psoriasis or rosacea patients. We utilized a large claims-based database to analyze rates of hypothyroidism in patients with psoriasis and rosacea compared to other patients with skin diseases. Participants were patients between 20-64 years of age with ICD-9 diagnosis codes for psoriasis, rosacea, and hypothyroidism. We found that rates of hypothyroidism in rosacea and psoriasis patients were similar to rates of hypothyroidism in those without rosacea or psoriasis.

  4. Is There Any Effect on Smell and Taste Functions with Levothyroxine Treatment in Subclinical Hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoy, Kamil; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Altundag, Aytug; Kurt, Onuralp; Salihoglu, Murat; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been accused for coronary heart disease, lipid metabolism disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, infertility or pregnancy related problems with various strength of evidence. Currently there is insufficient knowledge about olfaction and taste functions in subclinical hypothyroidism. Aim of the present study is to investigate the degree of smell and taste dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. 28 subclinical hypothyroid patients, and 31 controls enrolled in the prospective study in Istanbul, Turkey. Subclinical hypothyroid patients were treated with L-thyroxine for 3 months. Psychophysiological olfactory testing was performed using odor dispensers similar to felt-tip pens ("Sniffin' Sticks", Burghart, Wedel, Germany). Taste function tests were made using "Taste Strips" (Burghart, Wedel, Germany) which are basically tastant adsorbed filter paper strip. Patients scored lower on psychophysical olfactory tests than controls (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.9±1.1, p = 0.007; odor discrimination:12.4±1.3 vs 13.1±0.9, p = 0.016; odor identification:13.1±0.9 vs 14.0±1.1, p = 0.001; TDI score: 33.8±2.4 vs 36.9±2.1, p = 0.001). In contrast, results from psychophysical gustatory tests showed only a decreased score for "bitter" in patients, but not for other tastes (5.9±1.8 vs 6.6±1.0, p = 0.045). Three month after onset of treatment olfactory test scores already indicated improvement (odor thresholds:8.1±1.0 vs 8.6±0.6, psmell and taste, with thyroid function test were also evaluated. TSH, fT4 were found have no correlation with smell and taste changes with treatment. However bitter taste found positively correlated with T3 with treatment(r: 0.445, p: 0.018). Subclinical hypothyroid patients exhibited a significantly decreased olfactory sensitivity; in addition, bitter taste was significantly affected. Most importantly, these deficits can be remedied on average within 3 months with adequate treatment.

  5. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Carolina Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho de revisão do 6º ano médico com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre (área científica de pediatria) no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina. Although prognosis of Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) has been greatly modified since the introduction of newborn screening programs, persistent cognitive deficits are still reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CH and to determine whether severity of CH, age of...

  6. Effect of hypothyroidism on female reproductive hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Saran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective was to evaluate reproductive hormones levels in hypothyroid women and impact of treatment on their levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 women with untreated primary hypothyroidism were included in this prospective study. Venous blood was taken at baseline and after euthyroidism was achieved for measuring serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (FT3, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, and thyroid peroxidase antibody. Thirty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any hormonal disturbances served as controls. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 20 ([SPSS] IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: On an average at diagnosis cases have more serum TSH (mean[M] = 77.85; standard error [SE] = 11.72, PRL (M = 39.65; SE = 4.13 and less serum E2(M = 50.00; SE = 2.25 and T (M = 35.40; SE = 2.31 than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 1.74; SE = 0.73, (M = 16.04; SE = 0.84, (M = 76.25; SE = 2.60, and (M = 40.29; SE = 2.27, respectively. This difference was statistically significant t(58 = 6.48, P <0.05; t(58 = 6.49, P < 0.05; t(58 = 12.47; P <0.05; and t(58 = 2.04, P <0.05; respectively. Although average serum FSH(M = 12.14; SE = 0.40 and LH (M = 5.89; SE = 0.27 were lower in cases at diagnosis than after achieving euthyroidism (M = 12.70; SE = 0.40,(M = 6.22; SE = 0.25, respectively, but these differences were statistically insignificant t(58 = 1.61, P = 0.11; t(58 = 1.11, P = 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated low E2 and T levels in hypothyroid women which were increased after achieving euthyroidism. Although average serum FSH and LH were increased in hypothyroid women after achieving euthyroidism but this difference was statistically insignificant.

  7. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...... proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO2 quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies......Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...

  8. Short-term understory plant community responses to salvage logging in beetle-affected lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Rebecca L. Harris; Akasha M. Faist; William D. Bowman

    2018-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North American subalpine forests have prompted managers to salvage log some beetle-affected stands. We examined the short-term (i.e., two to three years post-treatment) consequences of such salvage logging on vascular understory plant (i.e., graminoid, forb, and shrub) communities. At 24 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) sites in...

  9. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  10. Soil structure, colloids, and chemical transport as affected by short-term reducing conditions: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upland soils in the Midwestern US often undergo reducing conditions when soils are temporally flooded during the spring and remain water saturated for days or weeks. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and may affect soil structure and solution chemical transport. The eff...

  11. Мonocyte Chemoattractant Protein Levels in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    O.M. Didushko

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the research — to study the content of monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 (MCP‑1) in the urine of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. 141 patients with overt hypothyroidism have been examined. Among them, 71 patients had postoperative hypothyroidism, 70 — hypothyroidism on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Patients were divided: into I A group consisted of 35 patients with hypothyroidism following AIT without obesity; I B group — 35 patie...

  12. Effect of Combination Treatment for Hypothyroidism on Renal Function in Patients with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Didushko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve known methods of diagnosing kidney damage in patients suffering from hypothyroidism with elements of metabolic syndrome, to study the effect of combined treatment on renal function. Materials and methods. The study included 240 patients with primary hypothyroidism (among them — 130 patients with primary hypothyroidism with components of the metabolic syndrome. All patients were divided into 2 groups: the I group included 42 patients with hypothyroidism without obesity (age 44.8 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI 21.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; group II — 45 patients with hypothyroidism and abdominal obesity (age 43.8 ± 6.1 years; BMI 33.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2. The control group included 20 healthy individuals (age 43.5 ± 5.9 years; BMI 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Kidney damage was detected in violation of glomerular filter permeability — occurrence of albuminuria and parameters of glomerular filtration rate (GFR were determined using CKD-EPI formulas. The concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, leptin, insulin was determined by immunoenzyme assay. Results. During the correlation analysis, between GFR in patients of group I we have established: moderate inverse correlation between the level of GFR and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH (r = 0.571, GFR and vascular endothelial growth factor (r = –0.616, GFR anf interleukin-6 (IL-6 (r = –0.418, total cholesterol (ChS (r = –0.311, GFR and insulin resistance index (IIR (r = –0.606 and weak inverse relationship between level of GFR and MCP-1 (r = –0.2917. In the II group of patients, a strong direct correlation between the level of GFR and IIR (r = 0.819, Caro index (r = 0.793 and a strong inverse correlation between GFR and TSH (r = –0.782, GFR and HOMA index (r = –0.875, moderate inverse correlation between the levels of GFR and ChS (r = –0.577, leptin (r = –0.476, GFR and IL-6 (r = –0.418, GFR and glucose (r = –0.436 and vascular endothelial growth factor (r

  13. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder degrees of TH disruption on adult neurogenesis following hypothyroidism induced during development, in adulthood, or both. Pregnant dams were administered the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU, 0 or 3ppm in drinking water) from gestational day 6 and pups were weaned to control water on postnatal day (PN)2 I. On PN6O, offspring from control or PTU dams were either re-exposed to PTU (3ppm) for I month or maintained on control. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 50 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) was administered to all animals on the last 5 days of the re-exposure period, and animals sacrificed 28 d later. Animals were perfused intracardially, the brains were removed, embedded in a MultiBrain (NSA) array and freeze sectioned. Every 8th section throughout the hippocampus was stained with an antibody against BrdU to mark actively dividing cells. The volume of the DO and the number of BrdUpositive cells were assessed from images captured on a Nikon microscope (200X) and Nikon Elements software. Preliminary findings indicate that developmental exposure to PTU produced a persistent reduction in the volume of the adult DO. BrdU cell counts were reduced similarly in all P11J-exposed groups. These data

  14. Content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle during experimental hypothyroidism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołyński Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6 - experimental males, E2 (n = 6 - experimental females, C1 (n = 6 - control males, and C2 (n = 6 control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.

  15. The systematic screening and management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinoer, D

    1998-12-01

    Altogether, thyroid function abnormalities during pregnancy can affect up to 10% of all women. The high prevalence of both hypo- and hyperthyroidism, the obstetrical repercussions associated with thyroid dysfunction in the mothers, as well as the potential role of maternal thyroid dysfunction as an influence on fetal development constitute solid arguments for a further increase of our knowledge of the pathophysiological processes underlying the alterations of thyroid function related to the pregnant state. In this review, the focus will be on the most clinically relevant aspects associated with hypothyroidism [autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs), subfertility, risk of miscarriage, risk of hypothyroidism in women with AITD and treatment of hypothyroid women] and with hyperthyroidism (clinical presentations during pregnancy, Graves' disease and its management, fetal hyperthyroidism in women with antithyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis associated with human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation of the maternal thyroid gland). I also propose a global strategy for the systematic screening of hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the pregnant state.

  16. Diagnosis and management of treatment-refractory hypothyroidism: an expert consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, M; Benvenga, S; Sachmechi, I

    2017-12-01

    There is a frequently encountered subset of hypothyroid patients who are refractory to standard thyroid hormone replacement treatment and require unexpectedly high doses of levothyroxine. In addition to clinical situations where hypothyroid patients are non-compliant, or where there is the possibility of excipient-induced disease exacerbation (gluten/celiac disease), therapeutic failure may be due to impaired absorption of the administered drug. The common approach to managing patients with unusual thyroxine needs is to escalate the dose of levothyroxine until targeted TSH levels are achieved. This approach can increase the risk for prolonged exposure to supratherapeutic doses of levothyroxine, which increase the chances of adverse outcomes. Repeated adjustments of levothyroxine can also escalate the costs of treatment, as frequent office visits and laboratory tests are required to determine and maintain the desired dose. Clinicians should take a systematic approach to managing patients whom they suspect of having treatment-refractory hypothyroidism. This may include searching for, and adjusting, occult medical conditions and/or other factors that may affect the absorption of levothyroxine, before up-titrating the dose of traditional levothyroxine therapy. Depending on the underlying pathology, another approach that may be considered is to try alternative formulations of levothyroxine that are less susceptible to intolerance issues related to excipients, or, in some cases, to malabsorption. The early discovery of these factors via a thoughtful patient work-up may avoid unnecessary thyroid medication adjustments and their consequences for both patients and clinicians.

  17. Hypothyroidism as a risk factor for statin intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Craig D; Bair, Tami L; Horne, Benjamin D; McCubrey, Ray O; Lappe, Donald L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Anderson, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of medications because of their proven cardiovascular benefits. However, statin intolerance occurs in 5% to 20% of patients. Understanding the basis for statin intolerance remains a key issue in preventive medicine. To evaluate the association of statin intolerance with hypothyroidism in a large integrated health care system, including its sex-specific relationship and subsequent statin rechallenge and prescription history. The Intermountain Healthcare electronic medical record database identified patients (n = 2686; males = 1276, females = 1410) with a documentation of intolerance ("allergy") to at least 1 statin. Age and sex similar controls (n = 8103; males = 3892, females = 4211) were identified among patients prescribed statins without documented intolerance. Patients were evaluated for a history of hypothyroidism, development of hypothyroidism, and statin prescription history up to 5 years of follow-up. A total of 30.2% patients (210 males, 16.5%; 602 females, 42.7%) with statin intolerance had a history of hypothyroidism compared with 21.5% of statin-tolerant patients (475 males, 12.2%; 1266 females, 30.1%), for an odds ratio (OR) in the total population of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.65; P intolerance and hypothyroidism were less likely to be on a statin than their statin-intolerant counterparts without hypothyroidism (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.75-0.94; P = .002). Hypothyroidism is more prevalent in those with statin intolerance, both in males and, especially, in females. People with hypothyroidism are less likely to have a prescription for a statin at follow-up than those without hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypothyroidism Is Associated With Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Zhang, Ming; Gharib, Hossein; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-07-29

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, beyond that which can be explained by its association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events, and may account for some of the increased risk in patients with hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction and hypothyroidism. In 1388 patients (mean age 50.5 [12.3] years, 34% male) presenting with stable chest pain to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for diagnostic coronary angiography, and who were found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (hypothyroidism, defined as a documented history of hypothyroidism or a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >10.0 mU/mL, n=188, and euthyroidism, defined as an absence of a history of hypothyroidism in the clinical record and/or 0.3hypothyroidism had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (48.26 [80.66] versus 64.58 [128.30]) compared to patients with euthyroidism, while the % Δ CAD Ach did not vary significantly between groups. After adjusting for covariates, females with hypothyroidism still had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (estimated difference in % Δ CBF Ach [SE]: -16.79 [8.18]). Hypothyroidism in women is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction, even after adjusting for confounders, and may explain some of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Two logistic models for the prediction of hypothyroidism in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkwo Peter O

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mounting evidence linking hypothyroidism during pregnancy with poor pregnancy outcome underscores the need for screening and, therefore, a search for more reliable and cheaper screening methods. Methods The study was conducted in two phases. The phase one study comprised of healthy women in different stages of pregnancy who attended routine antenatal clinic at St Theresa's Maternity Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria from September 6 to October 18 1994. In this study the variables compared between the hypothyroid and non-hypothyroid pregnant women were maternal age, the number of the pregnancy or gravidity, gestational age, social class, body weight, height, the clinically assessed size of the thyroid gland, serum free thyroxin (FT4 and serum thyrotrophin (TSH. Based on the parameter differences between the two comparison groups of pregnant women two Logistic models, Model I and Model 11, were derived to differentiate the hypothyroid group from their non-hypothyroid counterparts. The two logistic models were then applied in a prospective validation study involving 197 pregnant women seen at presentation in Mother of Christ Specialist Hospital and Maternity, Ogui Road, Enugu from March 2002 to November 2007 Findings The findings were that 82 (50.3% of the 163 pregnant women had thyroid gland enlargement while 60 (36.8% had hypothyroidism as defined by FT4 values below and/or TSH above their laboratory reference ranges. The pregnant subjects with hypothyroidism, compared with their non-hypothyroid counterparts, were characterized by a higher gravidity (p Conclusion It is concluded that logistic models fitting gravidity, thyroid gland size and gestational age or body weight are useful alternatives in screening for hypothyroidism during pregnancy. There is, however, a need for further independent confirmation of these findings.

  20. Two logistic models for the prediction of hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Anthony U; Ejim, Emmanuel C; Onodugo, Obinna D; Ezugwu, Francis O; Eze, Matthew I; Nkwo, Peter O; Ugbajah, Winston C

    2011-06-18

    The mounting evidence linking hypothyroidism during pregnancy with poor pregnancy outcome underscores the need for screening and, therefore, a search for more reliable and cheaper screening methods. The study was conducted in two phases. The phase one study comprised of healthy women in different stages of pregnancy who attended routine antenatal clinic at St Theresa's Maternity Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria from September 6 to October 18 1994. In this study the variables compared between the hypothyroid and non-hypothyroid pregnant women were maternal age, the number of the pregnancy or gravidity, gestational age, social class, body weight, height, the clinically assessed size of the thyroid gland, serum free thyroxin (FT4) and serum thyrotrophin (TSH). Based on the parameter differences between the two comparison groups of pregnant women two Logistic models, Model I and Model 11, were derived to differentiate the hypothyroid group from their non-hypothyroid counterparts. The two logistic models were then applied in a prospective validation study involving 197 pregnant women seen at presentation in Mother of Christ Specialist Hospital and Maternity, Ogui Road, Enugu from March 2002 to November 2007 The findings were that 82 (50.3%) of the 163 pregnant women had thyroid gland enlargement while 60 (36.8%) had hypothyroidism as defined by FT4 values below and/or TSH above their laboratory reference ranges. The pregnant subjects with hypothyroidism, compared with their non-hypothyroid counterparts, were characterized by a higher gravidity (p hypothyroidism during pregnancy. There is, however, a need for further independent confirmation of these findings.

  1. Hypothyroidism Is Associated With Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Zhang, Ming; Gharib, Hossein; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, beyond that which can be explained by its association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events, and may account for some of the increased risk in patients with hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction and hypothyroidism. Methods and Results In 1388 patients (mean age 50.5 [12.3] years, 34% male) presenting with stable chest pain to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for diagnostic coronary angiography, and who were found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (hypothyroidism, defined as a documented history of hypothyroidism or a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >10.0 mU/mL, n=188, and euthyroidism, defined as an absence of a history of hypothyroidism in the clinical record and/or 0.3hypothyroidism had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (48.26 [80.66] versus 64.58 [128.30]) compared to patients with euthyroidism, while the % Δ CAD Ach did not vary significantly between groups. After adjusting for covariates, females with hypothyroidism still had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (estimated difference in % Δ CBF Ach [SE]: −16.79 [8.18]). Conclusions Hypothyroidism in women is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction, even after adjusting for confounders, and may explain some of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. PMID:26224049

  2. Chylous effusion presenting in a 37-year-old woman with severe hypothyroidism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Weichia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report what is to the best of our knowledge the second adult case of chylothorax clearly associated with severe hypothyroidism in the English-language medical literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind reported without a prior history of malignancy. Case presentation A 37-year-old Hispanic woman with no reported significant past medical history initially presented with shortness of breath and inability to lose weight. She was found to have a large chylous effusion requiring chest-tube drainage, as well as severe hypothyroidism. After several weeks of thyroid hormone-replacement therapy, the formation of chylous pleural fluid in the patient greatly diminished, and the chest tube was removed. Upon long-term follow-up her minimal residual effusion remains stable on serial chest radiographs. Conclusion Although the exact pathophysiologic relation between low thyroid hormone levels and chyle formation remains to be elucidated, hypothyroidism should be a diagnostic consideration in patients with chylous effusions, especially those refractory to conventional treatments.

  3. Phosphodiesterase 8B gene polymorphism is associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Beverley M; Freathy, Rachel M; Knight, Bridget A; Hill, Anita; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T; Vaidya, Bijay

    2009-11-01

    Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of adverse outcomes in pregnancy. The Endocrine Society's recent consensus guidelines have recommended treatment with T(4) for this condition in pregnancy. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs4704397 in the phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene has been found to be associated with altered serum TSH concentrations in the general population. We aimed to assess whether genetic variation in TSH due to the rs4704397 genotype affects the number of individuals classified as having subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Serum TSH, FT4, FT3, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) were measured in 970 pregnant women at 28 wk gestation. rs4704397 genotype was available on 877 subjects. Reference range calculations were based on the TPOAb-negative women. TSH, but not FT4, FT3, or TPOAbs, varied with genotype and was highest in those with the AA genotype (median, 2.16, 1.84, and 1.73 mIU/liter for AA, AG, and GG genotypes, respectively; P = 0.0004). A greater proportion of women with the AA genotype had TSH concentrations above 4.21 mIU/liter, the upper limit of the reference range, compared with the AG and GG genotypes (9.6 vs. 3.5%, respectively; P = 0.004). Maternal PDE8B genotype was not associated with offspring birthweight or gestational age at delivery. Genetic variation in TSH levels in pregnancy associated with the PDE8B rs4704397 genotype has implications for the number of women treated for subclinical hypothyroidism under current guidelines. Consideration should be made to individualization of normal ranges, potential effects on pregnancy outcome, and intention to treat for subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

  4. Hypercalcaemia in a dog with primary hypothyroidism : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lobetti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year old female beagle was evaluated for symptomatic hypercalcaemia and primary hypothyroidism. Clinical findings were typical for hypothyroidism. Plasma parathyroid hormone was low and obvious causes for the hypercalcaemia were ruled out by means of abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands, survey thoracic radiographs, and fine needle aspirate cytology of the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes. Treatment with thyroxine resulted in resolution of the hypercalcaemia after approximately 9 weeks of therapy. This is the 1st report of primary adult-onset hypothyroidism associated with symptomatic hypercalcaemia in a dog.

  5. Insulin resistance in three dogs with hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S L; Nelson, R W; Feldman, E C; Niwa, D

    1993-05-01

    Insulin resistance resolved in 3 dogs with hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus after treatment with sodium levothyroxine. A thorough diagnostic evaluation failed to identify any other cause of insulin resistance in these dogs. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in each dog on the basis of clinical signs, physical findings, hyperlipidemia, and results of thyrotropin or thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test. Hypoglycemia was documented in each dog within 2 weeks of starting sodium levothyroxine administration. The insulin dosage was decreased by 60 to 62% during the ensuing months and good glycemic control was obtained at these lower insulin dosages in all dogs. These findings would suggest hypothyroidism-induced insulin resistance in these dogs.

  6. Concomitant Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, presenting as primary hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Hypothyroidism in patients with Graves\\' disease is usually the result of ablative treatment. We describe a 58 year old man with Graves\\' ophthalmopathy and pre-tibial myxoedema, who presented with spontaneous primary hypothyroidism. Circulating TSH receptor antibody activity was increased, while thyroid microsomal antibody was detectable in titres greater than one in one hundred thousand. It is likely that the TSH receptor antibody of Graves\\' disease was ineffective in stimulating hyperthyroidism because of concomitant thyroid destruction due to Hashimoto\\'s disease. Alternatively, primary hypothyroidism could have resulted from the effects of a circulating TSH receptor blocking antibody.

  7. [Thalidomide-associated hypothyroidism in a patient with multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ikue; Ikeda, Takashi; Sato, Ken; Kimura, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide is highly effective against multiple myeloma, but some patients must discontinue this medication due to adverse effects. We present herein an instructive case report on thalidomide-associated hypothyroidism in a patient with multiple myeloma. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy allowed us to restart administration of thalidomide, a potentially life-saving therapy. Known adverse effects of thalidomide, such as lethargy, constipation, and bradycardia, are potential symptoms of hypothyroidism, but we tend to overlook drug-associated hypothyroidism. Our case highlights the importance of routinely testing thyroid function in patients receiving thalidomide therapy.

  8. GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

  9. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  10. Short-Term Upper Limb Immobilization Affects Action-Word Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Meugnot, Aurore; Beauprez, Sophie-Anne; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether well-established associations between action and language can be altered by short-term upper limb immobilization. The dominant arm of right-handed participants was immobilized for 24 hours with a rigid splint fixed on the hand and an immobilization vest restraining the shoulder, arm, and forearm. The…

  11. Factors affecting long-term mortality of residential shade trees: evidence from Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Urban tree survival is essential to sustain the ecosystem services of urban forests and monitoring is needed to accurately assess benefits. While some urban forestry studies have reported street tree survival, little is known about the factors influencing residential yard tree survival, especially over the long-term. We assessed residential shade tree survival in...

  12. Whether long-term tracking of speech rate affects perception depends on who is talking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslowski, M.; Meyer, A.S.; Bosker, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Speech rate is known to modulate perception of temporally ambiguous speech sounds. For instance, a vowel may be perceived as short when the immediate speech context is slow, but as long when the context is fast. Yet, effects of long-term tracking of speech rate are largely unexplored. Two

  13. Level of threshold weed density does not affect the long-term frequency of weed control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Oijen, van M.

    1997-01-01

    Weed control thresholds are often presented as a means to reduce unnecessary control measures, thereby increasing the effectiveness of weed management. While the threshold is a useful tool for cost-effective application of control on a single-year base, its role over the longer term is more

  14. Cognitive and affective trait and state factors influencing the long-term symptom course in remitted depressed patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Timm

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is characterized by a high risk for relapses and chronic developments. Clinical characteristics such as residual symptoms have been shown to negatively affect the long-term course of MDD. However, it is unclear so far how trait repetitive negative thinking (RNT as well as cognitive and affective momentary states, the latter experienced during daily-life, affect the long-term course of MDD.We followed up 57 remitted depressed (rMDD individuals six (T2 and 36 (T3 months after baseline. Clinical outcomes were time to relapse, time spent with significant symptoms as a marker of chronicity, and levels of depressive symptoms at T2 and T3. Predictors assessed at baseline included residual symptoms and trait RNT. Furthermore, momentary daily life affect and momentary rumination, and their variation over the day were assessed at baseline using ambulatory assessment (AA.In multiple models, residual symptoms and instability of daily-life affect at baseline independently predicted a faster time to relapse, while chronicity was significantly predicted by trait RNT. Multilevel models revealed that depressive symptom levels during follow-up were predicted by baseline residual symptom levels and by instability of daily-life rumination. Both instability features were linked to a higher number of anamnestic MDD episodes.Our findings indicate that trait RNT, but also affective and cognitive processes during daily life impact the longer-term course of MDD. Future longitudinal research on the role of respective AA-phenotypes as potential transdiagnostic course-modifiers is warranted.

  15. Disturbance frequency and vertical distribution of seeds affect long-term population dynamics: a mechanistic seed bank model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, Eric Alan; Haridas, Chirakkal V; Pilson, Diana; Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-08-01

    Seed banks are critically important for disturbance specialist plants because seeds of these species germinate only in disturbed soil. Disturbance and seed depth affect the survival and germination probability of seeds in the seed bank, which in turn affect population dynamics. We develop a density-dependent stochastic integral projection model to evaluate the effect of stochastic soil disturbances on plant population dynamics with an emphasis on mimicking how disturbances vertically redistribute seeds within the seed bank. We perform a simulation analysis of the effect of the frequency and mean depth of disturbances on the population's quasi-extinction probability, as well as the long-term mean and variance of the total density of seeds in the seed bank. We show that increasing the frequency of disturbances increases the long-term viability of the population, but the relationship between the mean depth of disturbance and the long-term viability of the population are not necessarily monotonic for all parameter combinations. Specifically, an increase in the probability of disturbance increases the long-term viability of the total seed bank population. However, if the probability of disturbance is too low, a shallower mean depth of disturbance can increase long-term viability, a relationship that switches as the probability of disturbance increases. However, a shallow disturbance depth is beneficial only in scenarios with low survival in the seed bank.

  16. Internet search term affects the quality and accuracy of online information about developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Peter D; Dy, Christopher J; Patel, Ronak M; Blanco, John S; Doyle, Shevaun M

    2013-06-01

    The recent emphasis on shared decision-making has increased the role of the Internet as a readily accessible medical reference source for patients and families. However, the lack of professional review creates concern over the quality, accuracy, and readability of medical information available to patients on the Internet. Three Internet search engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) were evaluated prospectively using 3 difference search terms of varying sophistication ("congenital hip dislocation," "developmental dysplasia of the hip," and "hip dysplasia in children"). Sixty-three unique Web sites were evaluated by each of 3 surgeons (2 fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedic attendings and 1 orthopaedic chief resident) for quality and accuracy using a set of scoring criteria based on the AAOS/POSNA patient education Web site. The readability (literacy grade level) of each Web site was assessed using the Fleisch-Kincaid score. There were significant differences noted in quality, accuracy, and readability of information depending on the search term used. The search term "developmental dysplasia of the hip" provided higher quality and accuracy compared with the search term "congenital hip dislocation." Of the 63 total Web sites, 1 (1.6%) was below the sixth grade reading level recommended by the NIH for health education materials and 8 (12.7%) Web sites were below the average American reading level (eighth grade). The quality and accuracy of information available on the Internet regarding developmental hip dysplasia significantly varied with the search term used. Patients seeking information about DDH on the Internet may not understand the materials found because nearly all of the Web sites are written at a level above that recommended for publically distributed health information. Physicians should advise their patients to search for information using the term "developmental dysplasia of the hip" or, better yet, should refer patients to Web sites that they have

  17. Empowering disaster-affected communities for long-term reconstruction: intervening in Sri Lanka after the tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the importance of interdependencies between nations, delivery of humanitarian aid in an empowering manner, and long-term reconstruction. I examine relationships between overseas actors and local residents in tsunami-affected villages in Sri Lanka in a project initiated by the International Association of Schools of Social Work through its Rebuilding People's Lives After Disasters Network and another based on an institutional endeavour supported by Durham University because these sought to empower local communities through local, egalitarian partnerships. Lacking sufficient educational resources, capacity building in social work education has become a long-term objective.

  18. Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: Beneficial effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-08-04

    Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term wheat germ intake beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, L; Armand, M; Borel, P; Senft, M; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Lafont, H; Lairon, D

    1992-02-01

    In previous short-term studies in rats and humans, the ingestion of raw wheat germ lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the possible long-term effects of wheat germ intake. Diet supplementation with raw wheat germ or partially defatted wheat germ was tested in two separate groups of 10 and 9 free-living human subjects, respectively. They all exhibited hypercholesterolemia (6.14-9.67 mmol/L cholesterol) and 11 had hypertriglyceridemia. None was diabetic. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study, after 4 wk of 20 g/d wheat germ intake, after 14 additional weeks of 30 g/d wheat germ intake and after 12 wk without any supplementation. Dietary records were kept for seven and three consecutive days, before and during the wheat germ intake periods, respectively. Raw wheat germ intake significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (-8.7%) and tended to reduce VLDL cholesterol (-19.6%) after 4 wk. After 14 additional weeks, plasma cholesterol (-7.2%) and LDL cholesterol (-15.4%) remained lower and plasma triglycerides (-11.3%) tended to be lower. The apo B:apo A1 ratio significantly decreased after both periods. Partially defatted wheat germ transiently decreased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol after a 4-wk intake. The present data indicate that wheat germ reduces cholesterolemia in the long term and could play a beneficial role in the dietary management of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia.

  20. Facilitation or disengagement? Attention bias in facial affect processing after short-term violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanling; Lan, Haiying; Teng, Zhaojun; Guo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has been inconsistent on whether violent video games exert positive and/or negative effects on cognition. In particular, attentional bias in facial affect processing after violent video game exposure continues to be controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate attentional bias in facial recognition after short term exposure to violent video games and to characterize the neural correlates of this effect. In order to accomplish this, participants were exposed...

  1. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and...

  2. Hypothyroidism leads to increased dopamine receptor sensitivity and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, A.D.; Overstreet, D.H.; Crocker, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Rats treated with iodine-131 were confirmed to be hypothyroid by their reduced baseline core body temperatures, reduced serum thyroxine concentrations and elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations. When hypothyroid rats were compared to euthyroid controls they were more sensitive to the effects of apomorphine (1.0 mumol/kg) on stereotypy, operant responding and body temperature and showed a smaller reduction in locomotor activity after injection of haloperidol (0.25 mumol/kg). Receptor binding studies on striatal homogenates indicated that hypothyroid rats had increased concentrations of D2 dopamine receptors but there was no change in the affinity. It is concluded that hypothyroidism increases dopamine receptor sensitivity by increasing receptor concentration.

  3. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  4. No evidence of a causal relationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2018-01-01

    Background An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate......, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. Subjects and methods Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. 121,799 individuals diagnosed with a first episode of hypothyroidism were identified and were matched with 4 non-hypothyroid...... controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0±17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Results Overall, we...

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cognitive function in people over 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Jansen, Steffy W; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal thyroid hormone levels, and cognitive impairment are both common in older people. While the relation between overt hypothyroidism and cognitive impairment is well established, data on the association...... criteria for eligibility and methodological quality, and data were extracted using standardized forms. Of the 844 reports initially identified, 270 remained after exclusion of duplicates. Of the 270, 15 studies comprising 19,944 subjects, of whom 1,199 had subclinical hypothyroidism were included. Data...... hypothyroidism was not significantly associated with accelerated cognitive decline. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides no evidence that supports an association between SCH and cognitive impairment in relatively healthy older adults....

  6. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PTU-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propylthiouracil (PTU) exposure results in depletion of thyroid hormone by blocking its synthesis. It often is used to study the effects of hypothyroidism in the brain, where deficits during critical periods lead to neuroanatomical, molecular and neurochemical alterations. Decre...

  7. SEMDSA/ACE-SA Guideline for the Management of Hypothyroidism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypothyroidism is a common clinical condition confronting all healthcare practitioners yet there remains uncertainty about the optimal medication and optimum treatment targets. In addition, many patients remain symptomatic despite using recommended medications and attaining recommended treatment ...

  8. High Prevalence of Associated Birth Defects in Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify dysmorphic features and cardiac, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Patients and Methods. Seventeen children with congenital primary hypothyroidism were recruited. Cause for congenital hypothyroidism was established using ultrasound of thyroid and T99mc radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy. Malformations were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, X-ray of lumbar spine, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Results. Ten (59% patients (6 males and 4 females had congenital malformations. Two had more than one congenital malformation (both spina bifida and ostium secundum atrial septal defect. Five (29% had cardiac malformations, of whom three had only osteum secundum atrial septal defect (ASD, one had only patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, and one patient had both ASD and PDA. Seven patients (41% had neural tube defects in the form of spina bifida occulta. Conclusion. Our study indicates the need for routine echocardiography in all patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

  9. Short- and long-term treatment with modafinil differentially affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M D; Ellwardt, E; Storch, A

    2014-10-10

    The generation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult brain has been demonstrated in many species including humans and is suggested to have functional relevance for learning and memory. The wake promoting drug modafinil has popularly been categorized as a so-called neuroenhancer due to its positive effects on cognition. We here show that short- and long-term treatment with modafinil differentially effects hippocampal neurogenesis. We used different thymidine analogs (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), chlorodeoxyuridine (CldU), iododeoxyuridine (IdU)) and labeling protocols to investigate distinct regulative events during hippocampal neurogenesis, namely cell proliferation and survival. Eight-week-old mice that were treated with modafinil (64mg/kg, i.p.) every 24h for 4days show increased proliferation in the dentate gyrus indicated by BrdU-labeling and more newborn granule cells 3weeks after treatment. Short-term treatment for 4days also enhanced the number of postmitotic calretinin-expressing progenitor cells that were labeled with BrdU 1week prior to treatment indicating an increased survival of new born immature granule cells. Interestingly, long-term treatment for 14days resulted in an increased number of newborn Prox1(+) granule cells, but we could not detect an additive effect of the prolonged treatment on proliferation and survival of newborn cells. Moreover, daily administration for 14days did not influence the number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus. Together, modafinil has an acute impact on precursor cell proliferation as well as survival but loses this ability during longer treatment durations. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Input, retention, and output factors affecting adult age differences in visuospatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Alan A; Little, Deborah M; Speer, Nicole K; Jonides, John

    2011-07-01

    The sources of age differences in short-term memory for spatial locations were explored in 2 experiments that examined factors related to input, to maintenance, and to output. In each experiment, 4 dots were presented briefly, followed after a retention interval by a probe dot, which was judged to either match or not match one of the 4 memory-set dots. Results showed that poorer performance by older adults could be attributed independently to reduced visual acuity, to less effective use of rehearsal strategies, and to differences in response biases.

  11. Input, Retention, and Output Factors Affecting Adult Age Differences in Visuospatial Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Deborah M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Jonides, John

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The sources of age differences in short-term memory for spatial locations were explored in 2 experiments that examined factors related to input, to maintenance, and to output. Method. In each experiment, 4 dots were presented briefly, followed after a retention interval by a probe dot, which was judged to either match or not match one of the 4 memory-set dots. Results and Discussion. Results showed that poorer performance by older adults could be attributed independently to reduced visual acuity, to less effective use of rehearsal strategies, and to differences in response biases. PMID:21498844

  12. [Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, A; Loera-Luna, A; Aguirre, B E; Gamboa, S; Vargas, H; Robles, C

    1994-01-01

    A newborn screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and phenylketonuria (PKU) was conducted in 140 163 infants from the Federal District and the states of Mexico and Tlaxcala. These children were born mainly in hospitals for the non-insured population, although some were social security beneficiaries. Their filter-paper blood TSH and phenylalanine concentrations were determined 48 hours after birth. The frequency of CH was 1:1 797, with a 95 per cent confidence interval of 1:1 470 to 1:2 315, and was quite similar in the different types of hospitals. Only two PKU cases were found, for a frequency of 1:70 082, with a 95 per cent confidence interval of 0 to 1:4 762. This work demonstrates the feasibility of newborn screening programs in Mexico, identifies the problems to be solved in order to achieve a wide coverage and establishes the high frequency of CH in the Mexican population.

  13. Inclusion of short-term care patients affects the perceived performance of specialists: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Mark A; Cabanela, Rosa L; Liesinger, Juliette T; Santrach, Paula J; Naessens, James M

    2015-03-14

    Current publicly reported quality performance measures directly compare primary care to specialty care. Specialists see short-term patients referred due to poor control of their disease who then return to their local provider. Our study looked to determine if outcomes measured in short-term care patients differed from those in long-term care patients and what impact those differences may have on quality performance profiles for specialists. Retrospective cohort from a large academic medical Center. Performance was measured as "Optimal Care"--all or none attainment of goals. Patients with short-term care (90 days contact) were evaluated for both specialty and primary care practices during the year 2008. Patients with short-term care had significantly lower "Optimal Care": 7.2% vs. 19.7% for optimal diabetes care in endocrinology and 41.3% vs. 53.1% for optimal ischemic vascular disease care in cardiology (p performance for the specialty practice. Factors other than quality affect the perceived performance of the specialty practice. Extending current primary care quality measurement to short-term specialty care patients without adjustment produces misleading results.

  14. RESPONSE OF COMMIPHORA MUKUL (GUGGULU) ON MELATONIN INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Prasad, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that melatonin induces hypothyroidism in mice within eight days. Simultaneous administration of melatonin and petroleum ether extract of Commiphora mukul brings about a significant improvement in thyroid structure and function. Further, melatonin induced hypothyroidism is although a little reversible yet it is normalized quickly after C. mukul treatment. These data suggest that C. mukul directly stimulates thyroid function probably through some enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:22557386

  15. Hypothyroidism and its rapid correction alter cardiac remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Hajje

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects of mild and overt thyroid disease include a vast array of pathological changes. As well, thyroid replacement therapy has been suggested for preserving cardiac function. However, the influence of thyroid hormones on cardiac remodeling has not been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid replacement therapy on cardiac alterations. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: a control (n = 10 group and a group treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU (n = 20 to induce hypothyroidism. Ten of the 20 rats in the PTU group were then treated with L-thyroxine to quickly re-establish euthyroidism. The serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL6 and pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, were significantly increased in hypothyroid rats; elevations in cardiac stress markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and cardiac troponin T (cTnT were also noted. The expressions of cardiac remodeling genes were induced in hypothyroid rats in parallel with the development of fibrosis, and a decline in cardiac function with chamber dilation was measured by echocardiography. Rapidly reversing the hypothyroidism and restoring the euthyroid state improved cardiac function with a decrease in the levels of cardiac remodeling markers. However, this change further increased the levels of inflammatory and fibrotic markers in the plasma and heart and led to myocardial cellular infiltration. In conclusion, we showed that hypothyroidism is related to cardiac function decline, fibrosis and inflammation; most importantly, the rapid correction of hypothyroidism led to cardiac injuries. Our results might offer new insights for the management of hypothyroidism-induced heart disease.

  16. [Hypothyroidism in adults in a basic health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Macías, I; Hidalgo-Requena, A; Pérez-Membrive, E; González-Rodríguez, M E; Bellido-Moyano, C; Pérula-de Torres, L A

    2017-08-29

    The objective of the present study is to study the prevalence, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hypothyroid disease in adults using the computerised clinical records. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The target population was the patients of the health centres of Lucena I and II (Córdoba). Patients 14 years or older, diagnosed with hypothyroidism, born and resident in Lucena. Two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited by random sampling, who then underwent a clinical interview using a questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 49.71 years (SD 17.03; 95% CI 47.34-51.98), with 85.5% women. A diagnosis of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found in 74.8%, compared to 18.7% of primary hypothyroidism, and 6.5% of secondary hypothyroidism. The 53.7% (95% CI 46.81-60.59) of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism did not have thyroid antibodies results. However, 75.2% (95% CI 68.89-80.86) were being treated with levothyroxine. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.7% (95% CI 5.46-5.96). Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is very common in Primary Care clinics. Many patients are not correctly diagnosed and many are over-medicated, suggesting a need to review the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" and severe primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Sergey V; Collins, Gregory B

    2011-12-01

    Here we present a case of a coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" (botanically known as Mitragyna speciosa Korth) and developed severe primary hypothyroidism. We are discussing a possibility that high dose of indole alkaloid mitragynine (the major alkaloid identified from "Kratom") might reduce the normal response of the thyroid gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone resulting in primary hypothyroidism. Further experimental investigations of mitragynine as a possible suppressor of thyroid gland function would be a matter of interest.

  18. Development of Hyperthyroidism Following Primary Hypothyroidism: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Hua Chung; Horng-Yih Ou; Ta-Jen Wu

    2004-01-01

    Development of hyperthyroidism following primary hypothyroidism is uncommon, and only a few documented cases have been reported. Alterations in thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies in serum are currently considered to play the main role in the pathophysiology, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old man with disturbed consciousness due to hyponatremia. Thyroid function tests showed primary hypothyroidism with a high anti-microsomal antibo...

  19. Hypothyroidism and its rapid correction alter cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajje, Georges; Saliba, Youakim; Itani, Tarek; Moubarak, Majed; Aftimos, Georges; Farès, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of mild and overt thyroid disease include a vast array of pathological changes. As well, thyroid replacement therapy has been suggested for preserving cardiac function. However, the influence of thyroid hormones on cardiac remodeling has not been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid replacement therapy on cardiac alterations. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: a control (n = 10) group and a group treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) (n = 20) to induce hypothyroidism. Ten of the 20 rats in the PTU group were then treated with L-thyroxine to quickly re-establish euthyroidism. The serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL6) and pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), were significantly increased in hypothyroid rats; elevations in cardiac stress markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were also noted. The expressions of cardiac remodeling genes were induced in hypothyroid rats in parallel with the development of fibrosis, and a decline in cardiac function with chamber dilation was measured by echocardiography. Rapidly reversing the hypothyroidism and restoring the euthyroid state improved cardiac function with a decrease in the levels of cardiac remodeling markers. However, this change further increased the levels of inflammatory and fibrotic markers in the plasma and heart and led to myocardial cellular infiltration. In conclusion, we showed that hypothyroidism is related to cardiac function decline, fibrosis and inflammation; most importantly, the rapid correction of hypothyroidism led to cardiac injuries. Our results might offer new insights for the management of hypothyroidism-induced heart disease.

  20. Hypothyroidism in Carcinoma of the Tongue with Adjuvant Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Kumari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hypothyroidism with adjuvant treatment in oral tongue carcinoma patients treated primarily with surgery. Materials and methods A retrospective review was carried out to analyze hypothyroidism incidence and its relation to adjuvant treatment (radiation/radio-chemotherapy in oral tongue carcinoma after the primary surgical ablation and neck dissection. Hypothyroidism was analyzed in relation with dose of radiation, gender, and adjuvant treatment modality. Results The study analyzed the patients who were treated between January 2012 and June 2015. Among 705 patients with carcinoma of the tongue treated primarily with wide local excision and neck dissection, 383 received adjuvant treatment. A total of 215 patients received radiation, and 168 received concurrent radio-chemotherapy. Of 378 patients, 78 developed hypothyroidism during follow-up: 27 patients received concurrent radio-chemotherapy, and the remaining 51 received only radiation. Lower neck received 40–48 Gy in 2 patients, 50 Gy in 74 patients, and 60–70 Gy and concurrent radio-chemotherapy in 27 patients. Median follow-up was 32 months. Hypothyroidism occurred in 21.5% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. The minimum period to develop hypothyroidism was 3 months in this study. Gender and adjuvant treatment were not found to be significant for the incidence of hypothyroidism. Conclusions A significant number of patients with carcinoma of the tongue who receive adjuvant treatment will develop hypothyroidism, hence frequent monitoring of thyroid function is advised during follow-up.

  1. Hypothyroidism in diabetes mellitus patients in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Maskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM with hypothyroidism is a known clinical observation. Aims: To estimate prevalence and co-relate that of hypothyroidism in patients with DM in relation to the age and sex, the lipid profile, body mass index visiting diabetes clinic and inpatients in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Settings and Design: The hospital-based descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one known or newly detected cases of DM aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from September 2012 to September 2013 and subjected to evaluation for thyroid function - clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done. Statistical Analysis Used: For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, percentage, proportion were calculated. For inferential statistics following test were carried out at the level of significant 0.05 where confidence interval is 95%. The statistical operations were done through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 10. Results: Of 271 subjects, the prevalence of hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical in diabetics was, 4.05% (11/271 with females preponderance, of which 7 (30.4% were clinically hypothyroid and 4 (17.4% were subclinical hypothyroid. One (4.3% patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 DM was 51-60 years. 8.69% of diabetics with primary hypothyroids were having morbid obesity. High-density lipoprotein among different thyroid status were statistically significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is not uncommon in diabetes, and we found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism.

  2. Hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus – a risky dual gestational endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tirosh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Diabetes mellitus (DM and hypothyroidism are each associated with increased rate of pregnancy complications. However, their combined morbidity during gestation is poorly studied. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the combined morbidity of DM & hypothyroidism and whether it is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.Study design. This population based retrospective cohort study included 87,213 women who had 232,293 deliveries. All deliveries were divided into the following groups: (1 hypothyroidism & DM (n = 171; (2 hypothyroidism (n = 1502; (3 DM (n = 13,324; and (4 deliveries of women with neither endocrinopathy, who served as a control group (n = 217, 296.Results. The prevalence of DM & hypothyroidism in our population was 0.17%. In comparisons to the other study groups, women with DM & hypothyroidism had higher rates of infertility (p < 0.001, preeclampsia (p < 0.001, chronic hypertension (p < 0.001, preterm birth (p < 0.001, and cesarean deliveries (p < 0.001. In Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model, hypothyroidism & DM was an independent risk factor for cesarean section (OR 3.46; 95% CI 2.53–4.75 and for preeclampsia (OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.16–2.84.Conclusion. The combination of DM & hypothyroidism is rare, yet it is associated with higher rate of infertility, cesarean sections, preterm deliveries, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than the rest of the population. This dual endocrinological combination is an independent risk factor for preeclampsia and cesarean section. These findings suggest that these patients are at risk for perinatal complications and should be followed and delivered as high risk pregnancies.

  3. Macroglossia and generalized edema not due to hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Yalcin; Sacli, Fadime Sevgi; Erdamar, Sibel

    2012-06-01

    We present a 69-year-old male patient with the macroglossia, dysphagia and generalized edema. He was seen previously by other physicians and diagnosed as hypothyroidism. With thyroid stimulating hormone in normal range, tongue biopsy revealed primary systemic amyloidosis. Amyloidosis is the most common cause of macroglossia. Primary systemic amyloidosis should be suspected when laboratory does not support hypothyroidism especially if the enlarged tongue is firm and additional findings are present.

  4. Chronic brain ischemia in patients with arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Kovalenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the pathogenesis of chronic brain ischemia in patients with hypertension and hypothyroidism are studied. Examples of some results of authors’ research are listed. According to the research, patients with hypertensive dyscirculatory encephalopathy and hypothyroidism have deterioration of blood supply to the brain by reducing the reactivity of the vascular wall, decrease in the functional activity of the brain, impairement of cognitive function and increase in the anxiety and depression.

  5. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Effect of levothyroxine therapy on hypertension in hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe whether levothyroxine replacement therapy has an effect on hypertension in patients of hypothyroidism. This prospective study included all newly diagnosed cases of hypothyroidism (overt or subclinical with hypertension, of either sex between 21-70 years of age. Levothyroxine replacement therapy was administered continuously during study period. Patients were clinically assessed for blood pressure before and every 3-4 monthly on levothyroxine therapy. Statistical analysis was carried out using a paired Student’s t-test. During one year study period, out of 180 newly diagnosed hypothyroid cases enrolled, 88 had overt hypothyroidism (OH and 92 subclinical hypothyroidism (SH. Male: female ratio was 1: 6.5. Of these, hypertension was present in 51 (28.33% patients (33 OH and 18 SH. Only diastolic blood pressure was raised in 28(54.9% cases, systolic in 12 (23.53% and both systolic and diastolic in 11 (21.57% cases. Incidence of only diastolic hypertension was comparatively more in overt hypothyroidism (57.57% than subclinical hypothyroidism (50%. Complete reversal of hypertension was observed in 8 out of 17 SH and 18 out of 29 OH cases while partial reversal was noted in one case in each category. A statistically significant decrease in mean values of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in patients of SH as well as OH. Hypertension is fairly common in patients of hypothyroidism. Replacement therapy with levothyroxine is quite helpful in reversing hypertension, a potential cardiovascular risk factor.

  7. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: efficacy, esteem, and affective influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Marquez, David X; Hu, Liang; Jerome, Gerald J; Diener, Ed

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been effective in enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults over relatively short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of physical activity and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the mediating effects of psychological variables on the relationship between physical activity and global QOL (satisfaction with life) in older adults over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 174, M age = 66.7 years) completed a battery of psychosocial measures at 1 and 5 years following enrollment in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Panel analysis conducted within a covariance modeling framework indicated that physical activity was related to self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and positive affect at 1 year, and in turn, greater levels of self-efficacy and positive affect were associated with higher levels of QOL. Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over the 4-year period were related to increases in physical self-esteem and positive affect, but only positive affect directly influenced improvements in QOL. The findings lend support to the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term effects on well-being.

  8. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-12-13

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5-2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  9. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-06-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Sleep laboratory. Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Approximately 24 hours of total SD. SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact.

  10. Low dose, short-term rivastigmine administration does not affect neurocognition in methamphetamine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalechstein, Ari D; Yoon, Jin H; Croft, Daniel E; Jaeggi, Susanne; Mahoney, James J; De La Garza, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a well-documented consequence of methamphetamine addiction. Not surprising, methamphetamine-associated neurocognitive impairment has been identified as an important target of treatment. Thus, this study sought to determine whether rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and cognition enhancing agent, could improve neurocognitive performance in a sample of long-term, high-dose methamphetamine addicts who were not seeking treatment at the time of enrollment in the study. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated whether a daily dose 0, 3, or 6 mg of rivastigmine, administered over six consecutive days, would enhance performance on measures of attention/information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive/frontal lobe functioning relative to test performance at baseline. The results revealed that rivastigmine did not alter neurocognition in this cohort. There are a number of factors that may have mitigated the effects of rivastigmine in this particular study, including especially the short-term, low-dose treatment regimen utilized. The negative findings notwithstanding, the study serves as a springboard for future investigations that will examine whether other medications can alter neurocognition in methamphetamine dependent study participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil aggregation and aggregating agents as affected by long term contrasting management of an Anthrosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Renjie; Yang, Xueyun; Sun, Benhua; Li, Qinghui

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation was studied in a 21-year experiment conducted on an Anthrosol. The soil management regimes consisted of cropland abandonment, bare fallow without vegetation and cropping system. The cropping system was combined with the following nutrient management treatments: control (CONTROL, no nutrient input); nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); straw plus NPK (SNPK); and manure (M) plus NPK (MNPK). Compared with the CONTROL treatment, the abandonment treatment significantly increased the formation of large soil macroaggregates (>2 mm) and consequently improved the stability of aggregates in the surface soil layer due to enhancement of hyphal length and of soil organic matter content. However, in response to long-term bare fallow treatment aggregate stability was low, as were the levels of aggregating agents. Long term fertilization significantly redistributed macroaggregates; this could be mainly ascribed to soil organic matter contributing to the formation of 0.5-2 mm classes of aggregates and a decrease in the formation of the >2 mm class of aggregates, especially in the MNPK treatment. Overall, hyphae represented a major aggregating agent in both of the systems tested, while soil organic compounds played significantly different roles in stabilizing aggregates in Anthrosol when the cropping system and the soil management regimes were compared.

  12. Affective reactivity to daily stressors and long-term risk of reporting a chronic physical health condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jennifer R.; Charles, Susan T.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Mogle, Jacqueline; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Daily stressors, such as an argument with a spouse or an impending deadline, are associated with short-term changes in physical health symptoms. Whether these minor hassles have long-term physical health ramifications, however, is largely unknown. Purpose The current study examined whether exposure and reactivity to daily stressors is associated with long-term risk of reporting a chronic physical health condition. Methods Participants (N = 435) from the National Study of Daily Experiences completed a series of daily diary interviews between 1995 and 1996 and again 10 years later. Results Greater affective (i.e., emotional) reactivity to daily stressors at Time 1 was associated with an increased risk of reporting a chronic physical health condition at Time 2. Conclusion Results indicate that how people respond to the daily stressors in their lives is predictive of future chronic health conditions. PMID:23080393

  13. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rosa Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA, during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF, and a wash-out phase (WO in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected

  14. Increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations in canine hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Feuermann, Yonatan; Segev, Gilad; Klement, Eyal; Yas-Natan, Einat; Farkas, Amnon; Kol, Amir; Shamay, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Serum concentrations of leptin and insulin were compared between gender-matched hypothyroid (n=25) and healthy (n=25) client-owned dogs within comparable age and body condition score (BCS) ranges. Fasted blood samples were collected from each dog and analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin and insulin concentrations. Leptin and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the hypothyroid compared to normal dogs (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively) following adjustment for potential confounders. A nearly significant (P=0.051) interaction with BCS was found in the association between hypothyroidism and leptin. Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroid dogs compared to normal dogs, in separate analyses for BCS 6 (P=0.036) and 7 (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in glucose concentration between the hypothyroid and normal groups (P=0.84) following adjustment for BCS. This study showed that canine hypothyroidism is associated with increased serum leptin and insulin concentrations, neither of which may be attributed to obesity alone. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREVALENCE OF SUB CLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN FIRST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorder is s econd most common endocrine disorder in pregnancy . Hypothyroidism is more common in women in their reproductive age. Subclinical hypothyroidism is one of the type of thyroid disorders with incidence of 2 - 5% . The present study is to know the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy . METHODS : A prospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , ESIMC PGI MSR Bangalore , Karnataka . Data collected from One Hundred Fifty pregnant women attending antenatal checkup in our hospital in first trimester . According to Endocrinology society thyroid function test is done , if TSH is high then FT3 , FT4 values are estimated . Normal value for TSH is 0.1 - 2.5IU/ml in 1 st trimester . RESULT: In our study out of 150 women , Primi are 85 in number and Multie are 65 in number , Women with subclinical hypothyroidism is 20 . Prevalence of hypothyroidism in our study is 13% . CONCLUSION: Universal screening of thyroid disorder is necessary during pregnancy to prevent fetal and maternal morbidity associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  16. Metabolic and hemostatic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G G Petrik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify hemostatic and metabolic abnormalities in patients with hypothyroidism of varying severity and duration and possible modifying effects of chronic hyperglycemia on the investigated parameters comprehensive analysis of the parameters of metabolism, platelet and plasma hemostasis in 69 patients with hypothyroidism and 36 patients having hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus (DM has been performed. Decompensated hypothyroidism regardless of disease duration and presence of complications is accompanied by platelets hyperfunction. In subcompensated hypothyroidism the aggregation activity was not changed. The combination of type 2 diabetes in patients with decompensated and subcompensated hypothyroidism is accompanied by platelets activation, hypertriglyceridemia, increased platelets average volume and shortening of APTT.

  17. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S.; Alvarez, E.; Barba, E.

    2016-07-01

    Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population. (Author)

  18. Brain extracellular matrix affects AMPA receptor lateral mobility and short-term synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Renato; Heine, Martin; Perrais, David; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Choquet, Daniel; Gundelfinger, Eckart D

    2009-07-01

    Many synapses in the mature CNS are wrapped by a dense extracellular matrix (ECM). Using single-particle tracking and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that this net-like ECM formed surface compartments on rat primary neurons that acted as lateral diffusion barriers for AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Enzymatic removal of the ECM increased extrasynaptic receptor diffusion and the exchange of synaptic AMPA receptors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording revealed an increased paired-pulse ratio as a functional consequence of ECM removal. These results suggest that the surface compartments formed by the ECM hinder lateral diffusion of AMPA receptors and may therefore modulate short-term synaptic plasticity.

  19. Does the choice of the forcing term affect flow statistics in DNS of turbulent channel flow?

    CERN Document Server

    Quadrio, Maurizio; Hasegawa, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    We seek possible statistical consequences of the way a forcing term is added to the Navier--Stokes equations in the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of incompressible channel flow. Simulations driven by constant flow rate, constant pressure gradient and constant power input are used to build large databases, and in particular to store the complete temporal trace of the wall-shear stress for later analysis. As these approaches correspond to different dynamical systems, it can in principle be envisaged that these differences are reflect by certain statistics of the turbulent flow field. The instantaneous realizations of the flow in the various simulations are obviously different, but, as expected, the usual one-point, one-time statistics do not show any appreciable difference. However, the PDF for the fluctuations of the streamwise component of wall friction reveals that the simulation with constant flow rate presents lower probabilities for extreme events of large positive friction. The low probability value ...

  20. Does Workplace Bullying Affect Long-Term Sickness Absence Among Co-Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To examine if non-bullied employees at work units (WUs) with workplace bullying have more long-term sickness absence (LTSA) than employees in non-bullying WUs. METHODS: We included 7229 public health employees from 302 WUs and 3158 responders to a questionnaire on working conditions and health...... in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs; 1) no bullying (0% bullied); 2) moderate prevalence of bullying (bullied); and 3) high prevalence of bullying (≥10% bullied). LTSA (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence) during the following two years was obtained by linkage to the Danish...... register of sickness absence compensation benefits and social transfer payments. RESULTS: Non-bullied co-workers in WUs, where bullying was reported had 15 to 22% more LTSA compared with non-bullying WUs. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying may be associated with LTSA in the entire WU....

  1. Effective visual short-term storage capacity and speed of encoding are affected by arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Effects of spatial cueing on visual attention have been thoroughly investigated during the last 30 odd years. Similar to spatial cueing, temporal cueing seems to afford a performance enhancement to an observer when he or she knows the point in time at which an event will occur (Coull & Nobre, 1998......). Varying the statistical distribution of cue-stimulus onset asynchronies (foreperiods) is an effective way of manipulating the observer's temporal expectancies and, presumably, the observer's level of arousal. By use of this manipulation, Vangkilde and Bundesen (2009) found strong evidence that speed...... of encoding into visual short-term memory (VSTM) increased with the level of arousal in a single-stimulus identification experiment. Here we present a whole-report experiment corroborating the finding that speed of encoding stimulus items (letters) into VSTM increases with the level of arousal. However...

  2. Operative Time Affects Short-Term Complications in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchman, Kyle R; Pugely, Andrew J; Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Bedard, Nicholas A; Callaghan, John J

    2017-04-01

    Increased operative time has been associated with increased complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of operative time on short-term complications after TJA while also identifying patient and operative factors associated with prolonged operative times. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried from 2011-2013 to identify all patients who underwent primary total hip or knee arthroplasty. Patients were stratified by operative time, and 30-day morbidity and mortality data compared using univariate and multivariable analyses. We identified 99,444 patients who underwent primary TJA. The overall incidence of complications after TJA was 4.9%. Overall complications were increased in patients with operative times >120 minutes (5.9%) as compared to patients with operative times 120 minutes. In a multivariable analysis, operative time exceeding 120 minutes remained an independent predictor of any complication and wound complication, with each 30-minute increase in operative time beyond 120 minutes further increasing risk. Patient age ≤65 years, male sex, black race, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of 3 or 4, predicted operative times >120 minutes. We found that operative time >120 minutes was associated with increased short-term morbidity and mortality after primary TJA. Younger age, male sex, black race, obesity, and increased comorbidity were risk factors for operative time exceeding 120 minutes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M; Allen, Brett L; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Lenssen, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system.

  4. Long-Term Fluoride Release from Dental Resins Affects STRO-1+ Cell Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarco, A; Di Salle, A; Tammaro, L; De Luca, I; Mucerino, S; Petillo, O; Riccitiello, F; Vittoria, V; Peluso, G

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride-releasing restorative dental materials can be beneficial to remineralize dentin and help prevent secondary caries. However, the effects of fluoride release from dental materials on the activity of dental pulp stem cells are not known. Here we investigate whether different fluoride release kinetics from dental resins supplemented with modified hydrotalcite (RK-F10) or fluoride-glass filler (RK-FG10) could influence the behavior of a human dental pulp stem cell subpopulation (STRO-1(+) cells) known for its ability to differentiate toward an odontoblast-like phenotype. The 2 resins, characterized by similar physicochemical properties and fluoride content, exhibited different long-term fluoride release kinetics. Our data demonstrate that long-term exposure of STRO-1(+) cells to a continuous release of a low amount of fluoride by RK-F10 increases their migratory response to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), both important promoters of pulp stem cell recruitment. Moreover, the expression patterns of dentin sialoprotein (dspp), dentin matrix protein 1 (dmp1), osteocalcin (ocn), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (mepe) indicate a complete odontoblast-like cell differentiation only when STRO-1(+) cells were cultured on RK-F10. On the contrary, RK-FG10, characterized by an initial fluoride release burst and reduced lifetime of the delivery, did not elicit any significant effect on both STRO-1(+) cell migration and differentiation. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of taking into account fluoride release kinetics in addition to fluoride concentration when designing new fluoride-restorative materials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  6. Association of Hypothyroidism with Body Mass Index, Systolic Blood Pressure and Proteinuria in Diabetic Patients: Does treated Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine Replacement Therapy Prevent Nephropathy/Chronic Renal Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2016-01-01

    Untreated or sub-clinical hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, adverse effects on cardiovascular system, hypertension and in turn risk of nephropathy. However, these changes are reversible with thyroxine replacement therapy (TRT). Current research studied 4235 diabetic patients, divided into two groups, those with clinical hypothyroidism /on TRT, compared to those without thyroid disease or undiagnosed. BMI, blood pressure, creatinine, urine microalbumin and spot urine protein levels were compared between these two groups. Study finding demonstrated that for hypothyroid cases, BMI was higher (32.2 ± 7.44 versus 29.4 ± 5.7; p hypothyroidism (on TRT) was strongly associated with obesity (p hypothyroidism.

  7. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Level of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pan’kiv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of studying the relationship between the deficiency and the lack of vitamin D in autoimmune thyroid disorders, the effect of additional administration of the preparations of this vitamin has not been clear in such pathology. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on the content of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT. Materials and methods. The study included 52 patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism on the background of AIT, who were randomized into two groups. Patients of the first group additionally received cholecalciferol 2000 IU/day (14 000 IU/week and calcium preparations in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 12 weeks. Patients of the second group were administered only calcium preparations at a dose of 1000 mg/day for 12 weeks in addition to levothyroxine. A positive result of treatment was considered a reduction of antibodies to TPO of at least 25 %. Results. 94.2 % of patients with hypothyroidism had the deficiency and the lack of vitamin D. In patients with hypothyroidism, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of 25(OHD and the titer of antibodies to TPO (r = –0.172; p = 0.046. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant decrease of the level of antibodies to TPO (–48.1 % in patients with hypothyroidism. In general, lowering the level of antibodies to TPO by 25 % or more has been achieved in 73.1 % of patients. Administration of vitamin D contributed to a significant increase of the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum with a corresponding reduction in the concentration of intact parathyroid hormone in patients with hypothyroidism resulted from AIT. Conclusions. The positive effect of supplemental vitamin D has been established in terms of the level of antibodies to TPO in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  8. Impact of long-term meditation practice on cardiovascular reactivity during perception and reappraisal of affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Sergei V; Reva, Natalia V; Loktev, Konstantin V; Korenyok, Vladimir V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2015-03-01

    Meditation has been found to be an efficient strategy for coping with stress in healthy individuals and in patients with psychosomatic disorders. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological mechanisms of beneficial effects of meditation on cardiovascular reactivity. We examined effects of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation on cardiovascular reactivity during affective image processing under "unregulated" and "emotion regulation" conditions. Twenty two experienced meditators and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Under "unregulated" conditions participants were shown neutral and affective images and were asked to attend to them. Under "emotion regulation" conditions they down-regulated negative affect through reappraisal of negative images or up-regulated positive affect through reappraisal of positive images. Under "unregulated" conditions while anticipating upcoming images meditators vs. controls did not show larger pre-stimulus total peripheral resistance and greater cardiac output for negative images in comparison with neutral and positive ones. Control subjects showed TPR decrease for negative images only when they consciously intended to reappraise them (i.e. in the "emotion regulation" condition). Both meditators and controls showed comparable cardiovascular reactivity during perception of positive stimuli, whereas up-regulating of positive affect was associated with more pronounced cardiac activation in meditators. The findings provide some insight into understanding the beneficial influence of meditation on top-down control of emotion and cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  10. Short-term adaptation of saccades does not affect smooth pursuit eye movement initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongpeng; Smilgin, Aleksandra; Junker, Marc; Dicke, Peter W; Thier, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Scrutiny of the visual environment requires saccades that shift gaze to objects of interest. In case the object should be moving, smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) try to keep the image of the object within the confines of the fovea in order to ensure sufficient time for its analysis. Both saccades and SPEM can be adaptively changed by the experience of insufficiencies, compromising the precision of saccades or the minimization of object image slip in the case of SPEM. As both forms of adaptation rely on the cerebellar oculomotor vermis (OMV), most probably deploying a shared neuronal machinery, one might expect that the adaptation of one type of eye movement should affect the kinematics of the other. In order to test this expectation, we subjected two monkeys to a standard saccadic adaption paradigm with SPEM test trials at the end and, alternatively, the same two monkeys plus a third one to a random saccadic adaptation paradigm with interleaved trials of SPEM. In contrast to our expectation, we observed at best marginal transfer which, moreover, had little consistency across experiments and subjects. The lack of consistent transfer of saccadic adaptation decisively constrains models of the implementation of oculomotor learning in the OMV, suggesting an extensive separation of saccade- and SPEM-related synapses on P-cell dendritic trees.

  11. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease ...... was increased in the previously immobilized leg. Thus 2 wk of immobilization are sufficient to induce significant changes in muscle tissue, whereas tendon tissue seems to be more resistant to short-term immobilization.......Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease...... of 6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N...

  12. Short-Term Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Weaned Piglets Affects Cardiac Redox Metabolism and Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Subclinical zinc deficiency (SZD) represents the common zinc malnutrition phenotype. However, its association with oxidative stress is not well understood. The heart muscle may be a promising target for studying early changes in redox metabolism. Objective: We investigated the effects of short-term SZD on cardiac redox metabolism in weaned piglets. Methods: Forty-eight weaned German Large White × Landrace × Piétrain piglets (50% castrated males and 50% females; body weight of 8.5 kg) were fed diets with different zinc concentrations for 8 d. Measurements included cardiac parameters of antioxidative capacity, stress-associated gene expression, and tissue zinc status. Analyses comprised (linear, broken-line) regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: Glutathione and α-tocopherol concentrations as well as catalase, glutathione reductase, B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, and caspase 9 gene expression plateaued in response to reduction in dietary zinc from 88.0 to 57.6, 36.0, 36.5, 41.3, 55.3, and 33.8 mg/kg, respectively ( P SZD decreased cardiac antioxidative capacity of weaned piglets while simultaneously increasing stress-associated gene expression and zinc concentration. This is the first report to our knowledge on the effects of SZD on redox metabolism. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The contingencies of organizational learning in long-term care: factors that affect innovation adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Whitney; Teare, Gary F; Gilbart, Erin; Ginsburg, Liane Soberman; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Davis, Dave; Rappolt, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We apply the theoretical frameworks of knowledge transfer and organizational learning, and findings from studies of clinical practice guideline (CPG) implementation in health care, to develop a contingency model of innovation adoption in long-term care (LTC) facilities. Our focus is on a particular type of innovation, CPGs designed to improve the quality of LTC. Our interest in this area is founded on the premise that the ability of LTC organizations to adopt and sustain the use of innovations like CPGs is contingent on the initial capacity these institutions have to learn about them, and on the presence of factors that contribute to capacity building at each stage of innovation adoption. Based on our review of relevant theory, we develop a set of fifteen testable propositions that relate factors operating at the guideline, individual, organizational, and environmental levels in LTC institutions to stages of guideline adoption/transfer. Our model offers insights into the complexities of adopting and sustaining innovations in LTC facilities particularly, in health care organizations specifically, and in service organizations generally.

  14. Long-term affects of experimental flows on riverine biota below a reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Chris; Ortlepp, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Large dams have altered the flow regime of most rivers on the globe with consequent effects on riverine biota. Experimental flows (multiple floods per year) have been used on the regulated Spöl River below Livigno Reservoir for over 9 years to enhance the ecological condition of the river. The flow program has improved the brown trout fishery in the river as indicated by an increased number of redds. Floods have reset periphyton assemblages from a moss-dominated streambed to one dominated by diatoms and patches of filamentous algae. Zoobenthic assemblages have shown dramatic shifts in benthic structure in line with predictions from altered state models. Ecosystem regime shifts have been characterized with increases in parameter variances followed by periods of stable states. The system appears to be entering a second zoobenthic regime shift after year 8, perhaps in response to biotic interactions due to changes in the fishery. The response patterns clearly show that a long-term perspective must be in place when assessing biotic responses to changes in physical habitat properties resulting from flow experiments.

  15. Novel genetic variants in the TPO gene cause congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shao-Gang; Qiu, Ya-Li; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Hong; Li, Qing; Ji, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the dual oxidase maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) genes have been reported to cause goitrous congenital hypothyroidism (GCH). The aim of this study was to determine the genetic basis of GCH in affected children. Thirty children with GCH were enrolled for molecular analysis of the DUOXA2 and TPO genes. All subjects underwent clinical examination and laboratory testing. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and Sanger sequencing was used to screen for DUOXA2 and TPO gene mutations in the exon fragments amplified from the extracted DNA. Family members of those patients with mutations were also enrolled and evaluated. Analysis of the TPO gene revealed six genetic variants, including two novel heterozygous mutations, c.1970T> C (p.I657T) and c.2665G> T (p.G889X), and four mutations that have been reported previously (c.670_672del, c.2268dup, c.2266T> C and c.2647C> T). Three patients harbored the same mutation c.2268dup. The germline mutations from four unrelated families were consistent with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Conversely, no mutations in the DUOXA2 gene were detected. Two novel inactivating mutations (c.1970T> C and c.2665G> T) in the TPO gene were identified. The c.2268dup mutation occurred frequently. No mutations in the DUOXA2 gene were detected in this study.

  16. To what extent do the presentation of fetus, amniotic fluid index and fetal weight at term affect the cardiac axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Ismail Burak; Altınboga, Orhan; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Dogan, Nihan Guneri; Icer, Bilal; Alkan, Afra; Kucukozkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the change in cardiac axis with advancing gestational age and the factors that may affect it. 45 healthy pregnant women in 20th weeks of gestation were enrolled to the study. The cardiac axis was noted for each participant. The same group was once more assessed at term and the change in cardiac axis was calculated with the difference of cardiac axis at term and the 20th gestational weeks. Change in cardiac axis with advancing gestational weeks and factors that may affect it such as amniotic fluid index (AFI), estimated fetal weight (EFW) at term, actual birth weight and presentation of the fetus at term were evaluated. The median of ages was 28.0 (IQR=12.0)years within a range of 18-39years. The median of change in cardiac axis was 11.0 (IQR=9.0) degrees within a range of 3.0-47.0 degrees. The change in cardiac axis in regard to the fetal presenting part was 11.0 (IQR=8.0) degrees in vertex presentation and 23.50 (IQR=21.0) degrees in breech presentation. 81.1% of the variation in change in cardiac axis was found to be due to the actual birth weight and fetal presentation, with each 100g increase in actual birth weight leads to an increase of 0.375 degrees in cardiac axis. EFW at term, presentation of the fetus and the actual birth weight were all found to be significant in predicting the change in cardiac axis, but not AFI. These findings may have future potential value in evaluating electrocardiogram (ECG), especially of pregnants with extremes of left axis deviation (polyhydramnios, large fetus or breech presentation). Clinicians should be cautious during the interpretation of the ECG in pregnants, especially in those with extremes of left axis deviation because of either polyhydramnios, large fetus or breech presentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  18. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  19. Register for congenital hypothyroidism and efficiency of neonatal screening in Smolensk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I L Alimova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the data of the register, a high frequency of arrest of physical and mental development, functional alterations of cardiovascular system, anemia, dislipidemia, subcompensated conditions of thyroid function among children younger than 18 years were revealed. Organization of neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Smolensk region made it possible to reach a high percent of newborn's investigation, coverage of re-test, reduction of investigation terms and start of treatment. At the same time results of neonatal screening have shown insufficient iodine supply of pregnant women and necessity of strengthened control of iodine prevention during pregnancy.

  20. Paradoxical Reaction to Alprazolam in an Elderly Woman with a History of Anxiety, Mood Disorders, and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Smith, Tyler; Kerfeld, Mitchell; Ramsdell, Taylor; Sadiq, Hasnain; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    With less than 1% of patients who use benzodiazepines being affected, paradoxical responses to benzodiazepines are rare. In this case report, we outline the course of an 80-year-old female who developed a paradoxical response to benzodiazepines. Significant medical and psychiatric history includes anxiety, mood disorder, hypothyroidism, bilateral mastectomy, goiter removal, and triple bypass. The patient presented with mental status changes, anxiety, motor restlessness, and paranoia. Over tim...

  1. To study the prevalence of spontaneous abortions in pregnant women with hypothyroidism in the tertiary referral centre

    OpenAIRE

    Shameel Faisal; Satish Tibrewala; Sana Afreen; Raksha Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Background: The thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders affecting women of reproductive age group maternal hypothyroidism is the most common disorder of thyroid function in pregnancy and has been associated with spontaneous pregnancy loss, pre eclampsia, preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, low birth weight, fetal distress and reduced intellectual function of the offspring. The objective was to study the prevalence of spontaeous abortions in the pregnant women with hypothyr...

  2. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of DISC1 polymorphisms on the long-term course of neurocognitive deficits in non-affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Bourgon, J; Ayesa-Arriola, R; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Roiz-Santiañez, R; Fañanás, L; Crespo-Facorro, B

    2015-10-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia that determine a poorer outcome. High variability in the progression of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia has been described. It is still unknown whether genetic variations can affect the course of cognitive deficits. Variations in the Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene have previously been associated with neurocognitive deficits. This study investigated the association between 3 DISC1 polymorphisms (rs6675281 (Leu607Phe), rs1000731, and rs821616 (Ser704Cys)) and long-term (3 years) cognitive performance. One-hundred-thirty-three Caucasian drug-naive patients experiencing a first episode of non-affective psychosis were genotyped. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 3 years of initiating treatment. Other clinical and socio-demographic variables were recorded to eliminate potential confounding effects. Patients carrying the A allele of rs1000731 exhibited a significant improvement in Working Memory and Attention domains, and the homozygosity of the A allele of rs821616 showed a significant improvement in Motor Dexterity performance over 3 years of follow-up. In conclusion, DISC1 gene variations may affect the course of cognitive deficits found in patients suffering from the first episode of non-affective psychosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Sharma, Neera; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Dutta, Deep

    2016-11-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been reported in 0-57% of primary hypothyroidism. Data on hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is scant and inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in ScH. Consecutive patients diagnosed to have normal thyroid function, ScH or overt primary hypothyroidism underwent serum prolactin, gonadotropins, testosterone and estradiol estimation. Patients with pregnancy, pituitary adenomas, secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, comorbid states and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From initially screened 4950 patients, hormonal data from 2848 individuals who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. The occurrence of hyperprolactinemia (females:males) was highest in primary hypothyroidism (42.95%:39.53%) (n=192), followed by ScH (35.65%:31.61%) (n=770) and euthyroid individuals (2.32%:2.02%) (n=1886) (P10mIU/L (females: males) was 25.56%:20.73%, 49.07%:50% and 61.43%:35.71% respectively (Phypothyroidism. In females, testosterone was lowest in patients with primary hypothyroidism. In males, serum estradiol was significantly higher, and testosterone significantly lower in men with ScH and primary hypothyroidism. Regression analysis revealed serum TSH followed by free T4, to be best predictors of serum prolactin in both sexes. Hyperprolactinemia is common in ScH, especially in those with TSH>7.5mIU/L. ROC analysis confirmed that TSH≥7.51mIU/L in females and ≥8.33mIU/L in males had a sensitivity of ≈50% with a very high specificity of >90% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin screening may be warranted in ScH with TSH>7.5mIU/L, and may form an indication for treating ScH. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid function testing in neonates born to women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew; Reyani, Zahra; O'Connor, Pamela; White, Martin; Miletin, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the utility of serum thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone performed at 10-14 days of life in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study of all babies born in a tertiary referral centre for neonatology over a 12-month period. Infants who had thyroid function testing (TFT) checked at 10-14 days of life because of maternal hypothyroidism during the period of study were included. The results of the newborn bloodspot and day 10-14 TFT were recorded along with whether or not patients were subsequently treated. Of the 319 patients included in the study, only two patients were found to have CH and in both cases the newborn blood spot had been abnormal. No extra cases of CH were detected from the thyroid test at 10-14 days and this practice should be discontinued due to the robust nature of existing newborn screening programmes. What is Known: • Congenital hypothyroidism(CH) is the commonest preventable cause of childhood intellectual impairment. • Family history of hypothyroidism has been implicated as a risk factor for CH. • CH has formed part of newborn screening since the 1970s. What is New: • There is no research recommending thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life to detect CH in neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life does not improve diagnostic yield for CH in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Newborn blood spot remains the mainstay for accurate and timely diagnosis of CH.

  6. Developmental hypothyroidism disrupts visual signal detection performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Wada, Hiromi

    2013-03-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for proper brain development in mammals. TH insufficiency during early development causes structural and functional abnormalities in brain leading to cognitive dysfunction. The specific effects of developmental hypothyroidism on attention have not been well characterized in animal models. The present study was conducted to characterize the effects of developmental hypothyroidism on attention in rats, and tested the hypothesis that the hypothyroidism has adverse impacts on attention by means of a visual signal detection task. Pregnant rats were exposed to the anti-thyroid drug, methimazole (0.02% w/v) via drinking water from gestational day 15 through postnatal day (PND) 21 to induce maternal and neonatal hypothyroidism. Male offspring served as subjects for the task started on PND 90. A light stimulus (500 ms, 250 ms or 50 ms) was presented in signal trials and not in blank trials. The offspring were required to discriminate these signal events, and subsequently press the correct lever. The correct response for signal and non-signal events was considered as hit and correct rejection, respectively. The hypothyroid offspring exhibited a decreased hit response for short signals (250 ms and 50 ms) which requires the higher attentional demand. The total number of lever responses during inter-trial interval (ITI) was also increased in the hypothyroid group. The number of lever responses was negatively correlated with a hit response at 50 ms, not at 250 ms. These results suggest that developmental hypothyroidism disrupts signal detection performance via impairment of visual attention and the altered lever response behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Similar age-dependent levothyroxine requirements of schoolchildren with congenital or acquired hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlsteyn, Martin; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-06-01

    A recent study in children suggested that levothyroxine requirements are higher in congenital than in acquired hypothyroidism but did not match for severity of disease. Here, we studied only children with congenital or acquired hypothyroidism who had an undetectable fT4 at diagnosis. There were eight girls with congenital hypothyroidism due to athyreosis and eight girls with acquired hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroid disease. The median levothyroxine dose received at the most recent visit when serum TSH was hypothyroidism and decrease with age. Thus, in congenital hypothyroidism treated early with high-dose levothyroxine, pituitary resistance to thyroxine feedback does not appear to be present at school age. • Pediatric studies unmatched for severity have suggested that levothyroxine requirements are higher in congenital than in acquired hypothyroidism. What is new: • When strictly matched for severity, levothyroxine requirements are similar in children with congenital or acquired hypothyroidism and decrease with age.

  8. Risk of Hypothyroidism following Hemithyroidectomy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prognostic Studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, H.; Louwerens, M.; Schoones, J.W.; Kievit, J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dekkers, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The reported risk of hypothyroidism after hemithyroidectomy shows considerable heterogeneity in literature. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the overall risk of hypothyroidism, both clinical and subclinical, after hemithyroidectomy.

  9. Prevalence and correction of hypothyroidism in a large cohort of patients referred for dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, T.; Lansberg, P. J.; Kastelein, J. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of hypercholesterolemia can reduce the risk of developing premature atherosclerosis. The hypercholesterolemia caused by hypothyroidism is potentially reversible by thyroid hormone replacement therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients referred to a university lipid

  10. Abnormal Production of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    O.M. Didushko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research was to study monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in patients with hypothyroidism.Materials and methods. 139 patients with manifested hypothyroidism were examined. Among them 69 patients had postoperative hypothyroidism and 70 – developed it on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis. All patient were divided into several groups: IA group involved 35 patients with hypothyroidism resulting from AIT without obesity; IB group included 35 patients suffe...

  11. Interactive effect of negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity in terms of mental health among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-09-30

    From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reversible cognitive, motor, and driving impairments in severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles D; Grondin, Richard; LeMaster, William; Martin, Barbara; Gold, Brian T; Ain, Kenneth B

    2015-01-01

    Hypothyroidism has been associated with cognitive and motor impairments that are likely to constitute hazards in the operation of motor vehicles and a public safety risk. However, there is a paucity of data that would provide an evidence basis for recommendations to hypothyroid patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific neurological and psychological deficits consequent to hypothyroidism and whether they are of sufficient magnitude to impede the safe operation of motor vehicles. Repeated measurements were obtained in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and euthyroid hormone replaced states of thyroid cancer outpatients, at an academic medical center, who underwent thyroid hormone withdrawal preparation for radioiodine scanning. Study design used a within-subjects longitudinal "A-B-A" with each subject tested at three visits in the same sequence: euthyroid, hypothyroid, and euthyroid for a total of 32 subjects. Data on clinical status and cognitive performance were collected using standard instruments, including ThyDQoL and ThySRQ measures, National Adult Reading Test, Boston Naming Test, Mini-Mental State Exam, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-Revised, Letter Fluency FAS, and Beck Depression Inventory. Fine-motor function was measured with an automated assessment panel, and driving performance on a commercial driving simulator. In severe hypothyroidism (median thyrotropin 83.2 mIU/L), fine-motor performance of hands and reaction times in emergency braking tests were slowed, as well as subjective slowing reported on structured clinical scales. Depression was present, typified by vegetative and mood alterations, but lacking reported guilt and lowered self-esteem seen in other types of depression. Cognitive impairment was characterized by declines on speeded executive tests. In contrast, episodic memory performance improved over time regardless of thyroid hormone status. Braking times increased in hypothyroidism by 8.5%, equivalent to reports of effects

  13. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Sally M; Middleton, Philippa; Cossich, Mary C; Crowther, Caroline A

    2010-07-07

    Over the last decade there has been enhanced awareness of the appreciable morbidity of thyroid dysfunction, particularly thyroid deficiency. Since treating clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism may reduce adverse obstetric outcomes, it is crucial to identify which interventions are safe and effective. To identify interventions used in the management of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy and to ascertain the impact of these interventions on important maternal, fetal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a pharmacological intervention for hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy with another intervention or placebo. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted the data. We included three RCTs of moderate risk of bias involving 314 women. In one trial of 115 women, levothyroxine therapy to treat pregnant euthyroid women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies was not shown to reduce pre-eclampsia significantly (risk ratio (RR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 3.48) but did significantly reduce preterm birth by 72% (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.80). One trial of 30 hypothyroid women compared levothyroxine doses, but only reported biochemical outcomes. A trial of 169 women compared the trace element selenomethionine (selenium) with placebo and no significant differences were seen for either pre-eclampsia (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 8.38) or preterm birth (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.61). None of the three trials reported on childhood neurodevelopmental delay.There was a non-significant trend towards fewer miscarriages with levothyroxine, and selenium showed some favourable impact on postpartum thyroid function and decreased incidence of moderate to advanced postpartum thyroiditis. Levothyroxine treatment of clinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy is already standard

  14. National status of testing for hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Amy J; Nakamoto, Jon M; Kaufman, Harvey W

    2012-03-01

    Hypothyroidism, overt or subclinical, is associated with adverse outcomes for pregnant women and their offspring. Knowledge of current national thyroid testing rates and positivity during pregnancy is limited. The aim of the study was to estimate thyroid testing rate and positivity during pregnancy and postpartum, including testing and positivity rates of thyroperoxidase antibody (TPO Ab) and free T(4) tests in pregnant women with elevated TSH levels (hypothyroid), and in pregnant women having TSH within range (euthyroid). Records from a large, national sample of pregnant women screened from June 2005 through May 2008 were examined. The study included 502,036 pregnant women, for whom gestational age information was available. Testing rates and the prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum were measured using assay-specific, trimester-specific reference intervals. Screening and positivity rates of TPO Ab and free T(4) tests were also measured. Of women ages 18 to 40 yr, 23% (117,892 of 502,036) were tested for gestational hypothyroidism (defined as both subclinical and overt hypothyroidism). Of these, 15.5% (18,291 of 117,892) tested positive for gestational hypothyroidism. Twenty-four percent (22,650 of 93,312) of women with TSH within range and 33% (6,072 of 18,291) of women with elevated TSH were also tested for gestational hypothyroxinemia. Gestational hypothyroxinemia was seen in 0.2% (47 of 22,650) of the tested women with TSH within range and was seen in 2.4% (144 of 6,072) of the tested women having elevated TSH; 0.3% (276 of 93,312) of women with TSH within range received a TPO Ab test, and of these, 15% (41 of 276) tested positive; 0.66% (120 of 18,291) of women with elevated TSH received a TPO Ab test, and of these, 65% (78 of 120) tested positive. Only 20.7% (1873 of 9063) of hypothyroid women received thyroid screening within 6 months postpartum; of these, 11.5% (215 of 1873) were diagnosed with postpartum hypothyroidism. Gestational

  15. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Hypothyroidism-associated hyponatremia: mechanisms, implications and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, G; Filippatos, T D; Liontos, A; Elisaf, M S

    2017-01-01

    Patients with moderate to severe hypothyroidism and mainly patients with myxedema may exhibit reduced sodium levels (hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is one of the causes of hyponatremia, thus thyroid-stimulating hormone determination is mandatory during the evaluation of patients with reduced serum sodium levels. The main mechanism for the development of hyponatremia in patients with chronic hypothyroidism is the decreased capacity of free water excretion due to elevated antidiuretic hormone levels, which are mainly attributed to the hypothyroidism-induced decrease in cardiac output. However, recent data suggest that the hypothyroidism-induced hyponatremia is rather rare and probably occurs only in severe hypothyroidism and myxedema. Other possible causes and superimposed factors of hyponatremia (e.g. drugs, infections, adrenal insufficiency) should be considered in patients with mild/moderate hypothyroidism. Treatment of hypothyroidism and fluid restriction are usually adequate for the management of mild hyponatremia in patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with possible hyponatremic encephalopathy should be urgently treated according to current guidelines. Severe hypothyroidism may be the cause of hyponatremia. All hypothyroid patients with low serum sodium levels should be evaluated for other causes and superimposed factors of hyponatremia and treated accordingly. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Patient's Guide to Detecting and Treating Hypothyroidism Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and Treating Hypothyroidism Before, During, and After Pregnancy A Patient’s Guide Pregnancy causes major changes in the levels of hormones made by ... thyroid hormone, doctors call this underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism . Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is not common. However, the ...

  17. Influence of certain components of metabolic syndrome on renal function in hypothyroidism (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Didushko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of certain components of the metabolic syndrome, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, on renal function in hypothyroidism, causal relationship between these components and hypothyroidism and renal dysfunction. It has been shown that arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity, hyperleptinemia and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for renal dysfunction in hypothyroidism.

  18. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  19. Prevalence, associated risk factors and effects of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: a study from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Poonam; Kaur, Jasbinder; Saha, Pradip Kumar; Tandon, Rimpy; Devi, Lajjya

    2012-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding universal versus targeted screening for hypothyroidism during pregnancy. We studied the prevalence and the associated risk factors of hypothyroidism. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism. We screened 1,005 antenatal patients for hypothyroidism with a thyrotropin assay. Patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism were further tested for anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and free thyroxin to determine the cause and type (overt or subclinical) of hypothyroidism. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared in the overt, subclinical and euthyroid groups. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 6.3% (overt 2.9% and subclinical 3.4%). Thirty-four (3.4%) new hypothyroid cases could be detected by universal screening. The risk factors for thyroid dysfunction were not significantly different in the screen-positive versus screen-negative patients except for excessive weight gain (p = 0.00). Targeted screening could have missed one third of subclinical hypothyroid cases. Gestational hypertension was significantly greater in the overt hypothyroid group (p = 0.007), and more patients required induction in this group (p = 0.013) but other maternal complications and perinatal outcomes were similar. We recommend universal screening for hypothyroidism in pregnancy in our population, as the prevalence of hypothyroidism is high. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based casecontrol study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    , previous diseases, education, and family history of hypothyroidism. The association between alcohol intake and development of hypothyroidism was analyzed in conditional regression models. RESULTS: Hypothyroid cases had reported a lower alcohol consumption than controls (median units of alcohol (12 g) per...

  1. Frequent Occurrence of Faulty Practices, Misconceptions and Lack of Knowledge among Hypothyroid Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A; Shivaprasad, C; Kolly, A; Pulikkal, A A; Boppana, R; Dwarakanath, C S

    2017-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with a reported prevalence of 4%-10%. Previous studies have reported significant gaps in the basic knowledge about the condition in hypothyroid patients. It has also been observed that faulty practices prevail among these patients. There is paucity of data on the assessment of knowledge and practices among treated hypothyroid patients. The present study was aims to assess the knowledge, awareness and practices in treated hypothyroid patients. The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 244 consecutive hypothyroid patients, attending the Endocrinology Outpatient Department (OPD). The patients were asked to fill a structured questionnaire pertaining to knowledge and practices about various aspects of hypothyroidism. Only two-thirds of the participants correctly identified thyroid as a gland and 41% were aware that hypothyroidism is caused due to decreased function of the thyroid gland. The most common symptom attributed to hypothyroidism was weight gain (139 responses). Nearly 45% of the patients believed alternative forms of medicine can be used for treatment of hypothyroidism. It was believed by 42% of the patients that hypothyroidism runs in the family and about 10% believed it could be transferred to their spouses. Only 33% of the patients gave one hour gap between levothyroxine and food intake. The study demonstrates the lack of knowledge about basic aspects of hypothyroidism among the patients. In addition, there is a high prevalence of misconceptions and faulty practices. The study highlights the need for comprehensive patient education to improve therapeutic outcomes and compliance among hypothyroid patients.

  2. Hypothyroidism among former workers of a nuclear weapons facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Anna; Frank, Arthur L; Pinson, Barbara; Shepherd, Sara; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Ionizing radiation alters thyroid function, and workers at a nuclear weapons facility may be exposed to above environmental levels of radiation. Hypothyroid status was determined for 622 former workers of a nuclear weapons facility located in Texas, using a combination of measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid medication history, as part of an on-going health surveillance program. We classified 916 unique job titles into 35 job categories. According to the most stringent TSH definition used in this study (0.3-3.0 IU/ml), 174 (28.0%) former workers were considered to be hypothyroid; of these 66 (41.8%) were females and 108 (23.3%) were males. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and smoking status, only having worked as a material handler (n = 18) exhibited an elevated risk of developing hypothyroidism compared to other jobs (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.43-11.07). This is one of the jobs with suspected exposure to radiation. No excess risk of hypothyroidism was observed for any of the other job categories. There is suggestive evidence that only material handlers at this nuclear weapons facility may have elevated risk of hypothyroidism; further evaluation of thyroid health in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hypothyroidism improves random-pattern skin flap survival in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Sina; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Karimian, Negin; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Taleb, Shayandokht; Mirazi, Naser; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    The protective effect of hypothyroidism against ischemic or toxic conditions has been shown in various tissues. We investigated the effect of propylthiouracil (PTU)/methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism and acute local effect of MMI on the outcome of lethal ischemia in random-pattern skin flaps. Dorsal flaps with caudal pedicles were elevated at midline and flap survival was measured at the seventh day after surgery. The first group, as control, received 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution in the flap before flap elevation. In groups 2 and 3, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of either PTU 0.05% or MMI 0.04% in drinking water. The next four groups received local injections of MMI (10, 20, 50, or 100 μg/flap) before flap elevation. Local PTU injection was ignored due to insolubility of the agent. Hypothyroidism was induced in chronic PTU- and MMI-treated groups, and animals in these groups showed significant increase in their flap survival, compared to control euthyroid rats (79.47% ± 10.49% and 75.48% ± 12.93% versus 52.26% ± 5.75%, respectively, P hypothyroidism improves survival of random-pattern skin flaps in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, F; Cojocaru, Elena; Tamba, B; Leon, Maria-Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk in patients with hypothyroidism is related to an increased risk of functional cardiovascular abnormalities and atherosclerosis. AIMS--The purpose of the present study was to examine a possible association between subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The retrospective study, which covered a 12 months period, had the purpose to establish the prevalence of various risk factors for CVD, within subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. We have studied 64 subjects with subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital, in the Cardiovascular Clinic. They were divided by sex, age, living environment (urban, rural), value of cholesterol, heart rate, BMI, blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS--The study revealed an increased risk of cardiovascular abnormalities and an increased risk of atherosclerosis: 65,61% subjects were obese, 90,6% with high blood pressure, 62,5% had dyslipidaemia. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is common in older people. The identification of subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism earlier, pursuit of markers for subclinical atherosclerosis and deployment of lifestyle changes, are elements that can also be the key in improving clinical and paraclinical parameters.

  5. Controversies in the management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Phillip E; Samuels, Mary H; Trinidad, Rosen; Caughey, Aaron B

    2014-06-01

    In the last 3 years, we have witnessed the publication of multiple but conflicting guidelines on the management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in reproductive-age and pregnant women. Given the prevalence of thyroid disease, it is highly likely that obstetricians will encounter and provide care for pregnant women with thyroid disease. Therefore, a review of current guidelines and management options is clinically relevant. Our goals are to review the changes in thyroid function during pregnancy, the options for testing for thyroid disease, the different categories of thyroid dysfunction and surveillance strategies among subspecialty societies, and the obstetric hazards associated with thyroid dysfunction and review the evidence for benefit of treatment options for thyroid disease. We reviewed key subspecialty guidelines, as well as current and ongoing studies focused on the treatment of hypothyroidism during pregnancy. There are significant differences in the identification and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy among subspecialists. We present our recommendations based on the available evidence. Evidence exists that obstetricians struggle with the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism. According to recent surveys, the management of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is the number 1 endocrine topic of interest for obstetricians. A synopsis of recently published subspecialty guidelines is timely. Recent, evidence-based findings indicate that obstetricians should consider modifying their approach to the identification and treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy.

  6. Thyroid peroxidase antibody in hypothyroidism: it's effect on pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mandakini; Anand, Bhavna; Singh, Neeta; Mehrotra, Manasi

    2013-04-01

    To find out the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) in pregnant women with hypothyroidism and to analyze its effect on pregnancy outcome. The prospective study was conducted on well-controlled hypothyroid pregnant patients attending the antenatal clinic at Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India from July 2009 to June 2011 and has delivered. The women were grouped into two groups depending on presence or absence of TPO antibody. Maternal complications during pregnancy and perinatal outcome were noted and compared between these two groups. During the study period, 2479 women attended the high-risk pregnancy clinic. Among which 196 women were found to be hypothyroidism making prevalence of hypothyroidism as 7.91%. A total of 140 were found to be well controlled (5.6%) and included for study. Amongst the women with hypothyroidism, 40% were TPO positive. Complications like threatened abortion, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, fetal malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, and adverse fetal outcomes like poor apgar scores and prolonged nursery admissions were more in patients with positive TPO antibodies. TPO positivity is considered as high risk for pregnancy complications and hence those patients should be monitored more carefully.

  7. Diagnosis and management of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Roberto; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2014-10-06

    In prospective studies, the prevalence of undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women ranges from 3% to 15%. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and decreased IQ in the offspring. Only two prospective studies have evaluated the impact of levothyroxine therapy in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, and the results were mixed. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as raised thyrotropin combined with a normal serum free thyroxine level. The normal range of thyrotropin varies according to geographic region and ethnic background. In the absence of local normative data, the recommended upper limit of thyrotropin in the first trimester of pregnancy is 2.5 mIU/L, and 3.0 mIU/L in the second and third trimester. The thyroid gland needs to produce 50% more thyroid hormone during pregnancy to maintain a euthyroid state. Consequently, most women on levothyroxine therapy before pregnancy require an increase in dose when pregnant to maintain euthyroidism. Ongoing prospective trials that are evaluating the impact of levothyroxine therapy on adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus in women with subclinical hypothyroidism will provide crucial data on the role of thyroid hormone replacement in pregnancy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2014.

  8. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Rare acute kidney injury secondary to hypothyroidism-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ying; Tang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by hypothyroidism-induced rhabdomyolysis is a rare and potentially life-threatening syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of such patients. We retrospectively analyzed five patients treated at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University with AKI secondary to hypothyroidism- induced rhabdomyolysis from January 2006 to December 2010. Of the five cases reviewed (4 males, age range of 37 to 62 years), adult primary hypothyroidism was caused by amiodarone (1 case), chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (1 case), and by uncertain etiologies (3 cases). All patients presented with facial and lower extremity edema. Three patients presented with weakness, while two presented with blunted facies and oliguria. Only one patient reported experiencing myalgia and proximal muscle weakness, in addition to fatigue and chills. Creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and renal function normalized after thyroid hormone replacement, except in two patients who improved through blood purification. Hypothyroidism should be considered in patients presenting with renal impairment associated with rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, further investigation into the etiology of the hypothyroidism is warranted.

  10. Hypothyroidism among SLE patients: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Gertel, Smadar; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothyroidism in SLE patients varies considerably and early reports were mainly based on small cohorts. To investigate the association between SLE and hypothyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of hypothyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age and sex-matched controls. The proportion of hypothyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (15.58% and 5.75%, respectively, Phypothyroidism (odds ratio 2.644, 95% confidence interval 2.405-2.908). Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of hypothyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism with seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Vivian Sproul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is defined as thyroid hormone deficiency, present at birth. It is seen in 1:4,000 births and is caused by an anatomical defect, known as thyroid dysgenesis (underdevelopment or unusual location of the thyroid gland, by abnormal biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones (dyshormogenesis, inborn errors of metabolism, genetic mutations or iodine deficiency. If untreated, severe neurological impairment develops. However, newborn screening programs have improved outcomes greatly, through early diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are often subtle at birth, due to the placental transfer of thyroxine (T4, thus making diagnosis in the first few days of life difficult. Increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and low levels of T4 are confirmatory for this disorder. We describe the case of a baby with CH who presented with neonatal seizures: a rare clinical presentation. Our case highlights the need to eliminate CH, as a cause of seizures, so that treatment can be initiated even more promptly to optimize neurological sequelae and outcome.

  12. A STUDY ON CASSAVA [TAPIOCA] CAUSING HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durairaj Balajee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland which secretes Thyroxine which is important for day-to-day metabolism, growth, etc. Certain foods interfere with production of thyroid hormones. Here, we are going to discuss one important food compound which interferes with thyroid hormone synthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty seven cases of hypothyroidism with or without goitre were studied in the Department of Surgery, Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences. Four males and forty three females were studied in detail and investigated. Detailed family history, dietary habits, personal history was taken in all forty seven cases. Among them, forty persons were consuming Tapioca. RESULTS Four males and forty three females were studied in detail and investigated. Two were suffering from Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. Minimal age was 20 years, and maximal age was 69 years. There were two cases of malignancy of Thyroid and another two cases of calcifications. All the forty seven cases were thoroughly investigated. CONCLUSION Plenty of Iodine rich foods like Dry Sea Weeds, Egg, Milk, Cod liver fish, Yoghurt, Turkey breast, Navy Beans, Tuna, etc., should be taken in people who are eating Tapioca.

  13. High prevalence of DUOX2 mutations in Japanese patients with permanent congenital hypothyroidism or transient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Mukai, Tokuo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Tajima, Toshihiro; Azuma, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) mutations are a cause of dyshormonogenesis (DH) and have been identified in patients with permanent congenital hypothyroidism (PH) and with transient hypothyroidism (TH). We aimed to elucidate the prevalence and phenotypical variations of DUOX2 mutations. Forty-eight Japanese DH patients were enroled and analysed for sequence variants of DUOX2, DUOXA2, and TPO using polymerase chain reaction-amplified direct sequencing. Fourteen sequence variants of DUOX2, including 10 novel variants, were identified in 11 patients. DUOX2 variants were more prevalent (11/48, 22.9%) than TPO (3/48, 6.3%) (p=0.020). The prevalence of DUOX2 variants in TH was slightly, but not significantly, higher than in PH. Furthermore, one patient had digenic heterozygous sequence variants of both DUOX2 and TPO. Our results suggest that DUOX2 mutations might be the most common cause of both PH and TH, and that phenotypes of these mutations might be milder than those of other causes.

  14. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities, stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Results: Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Conclusions: Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  15. Structural changes in socio-affective networks: Multi-modal MRI findings in long-term meditation practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Haakon G; Bernhardt, Boris C; Skottnik, Leon; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania

    2017-08-31

    Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k h, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices. To identify functional networks relevant for the generation of socio-affective states, structural imaging analysis were complemented by fMRI analysis in LTMs, showing amplitude increases during a loving-kindness meditation session relative to non-meditative rest in multiple prefrontal and insular regions bilaterally. Importantly, functional findings partially overlapped with regions of cortical thickness increases in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula, suggesting that these regions may play a central role in the generation of emotional states relevant for the meditative practice. Our multi-modal MRI approach revealed structural changes in LTMs who have cultivated loving-kindness and compassion for a significant period of their life in functional networks activated by these practices. These preliminary cross-sectional findings motivate future longitudinal work studying brain plasticity following the regular practice of skills aiming at enhancing human altruism and prosocial motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest affects quality in hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian Yong; Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhang, Ying Peng; Zhou, Yuan Qing; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qiu Hui; Zhang, Yong Song; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-03-30

    Quality-associated problems, such as excessive in planta accumulation of oxalate, often arise in soillessly cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Maintaining a higher level of ammonium (NH₄⁺) compared to nitrate (NO₃⁻) during the growth period can effectively decrease the oxalate content in hydroponically cultivated vegetables. However, long-term exposure to high concentrations of NH₄⁺ induces toxicity in plants, and thus decreases the biomass production. Short-term application of NH₄⁺ before harvesting in soilless cultivation may provide an alternative strategy to decrease oxalate accumulation in spinach, and minimise the yield reduction caused by NH₄⁺ toxicity. The plants were pre-cultured in 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ nutrient solution. Next, 6 days before harvest, the plants were transferred to a nutrient solution containing 4 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ and 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺. This new mix clearly reduced oxalate accumulation, increased levels of several antioxidant compounds, and enhanced antioxidant capacity in the edible parts of spinach plants, but it did not affect biomass production. However, when the 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ was shifted to either nitrogen-free, 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ or 8 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ treatments, although some of the quality indexes were improved, yields were significantly reduced. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest significantly affects quality and biomass of spinach plants, and we strongly recommend to simultaneously use NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in hydroponic cultivation, which improves vegetable quality without decreasing biomass production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Chia; Chu, Chiao-Lee; Ho, Ching-Sung; Lan, Shou-Jen; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2014-01-17

    The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members' decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members' personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members' experiences with LTC facilities. This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and used a structured questionnaire to perform face-to-face interviews. This study used nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) to categorize the decision-making factors affecting family members' choices of LTC facilities. The results showed that when making decisions about the placement of family members, spouses chose facilities according to their own life experiences, children considered medical treatment convenience, grandchildren preferred to collect relevant information on facilities, and other relatives preferred to decide based on introductions from government departments. These results help clarify how different family roles affect decision-making processes regarding the choice of LTC facilities. In particular, spouses and female relatives require an interventional service mechanism that provides consultation or referral information.

  18. Combined Treatment with Myo-Inositol and Selenium Ensures Euthyroidism in Subclinical Hypothyroidism Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Nordio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, is the most common form of thyroiditis affecting more than 10% of females and 2% of males. The present study aims to evaluate the beneficial effect of a combined treatment, Myo-Inositol plus selenomethionine, on subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods. The study was designed as a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Eligible patients were women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism having Tg antibodies (TgAb titer higher than 350 IU/mL. Outcome measures were Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH levels, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb and TgAb titer, selenium, and Myo-Inositol plasma concentration. Results. In the present paper, we demonstrated that the beneficial effects obtained by selenomethionine treatment on patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism, likely due to the presence of autoantibody (TPOAb and TgAb, are further improved by cotreatment with Myo-Inositol. Conclusions. Indeed, due to its action as TSH second messenger, Myo-Inositol treatment reduces TSH levels closer to physiological concentrations.

  19. Gestational and early postnatal hypothyroidism alters VGluT1 and VGAT bouton distribution in the neocortex and hippocampus, and behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eNavarro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are fundamental for the expression of genes involved in the development of the CNS and their deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological diseases including mental retardation, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders. We examined in rat whether developmental and early postnatal hypothyroidism affects the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGluT1; glutamatergic and vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VGAT; GABAergic immunoreactive (ir boutons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex, and the behavior of the pups. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.02% methimazole (MMI and 1% KClO4 to the drinking water starting at embryonic day 10 (E10; developmental hypothyroidism and E21 (early postnatal hypothyroidism until day of sacrifice at postnatal day 50. Behavior was studied using the acoustic prepulse inhibition (somatosensory attention and the elevated plus-maze (anxiety-like assessment tests. The distribution, density and size of VGlut1-ir and VGAT-ir boutons in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex was abnormal in MMI pups and these changes correlate with behavioral changes, as prepulse inhibition of the startle response amplitude was reduced, and the percentage of time spent in open arms increased. In conclusion, both developmental and early postnatal hypothyroidism significantly decreases the ratio of GABAergic to glutamatergic boutons in dentate gyrus leading to an abnormal flow of information to the hippocampus and infragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex, and alter behavior in rats. Our data show cytoarchitectonic alterations in the basic excitatory hippocampal loop, and in local inhibitory circuits of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus that might contribute to the delayed neurocognitive outcome observed in thyroid hormone deficient children born in iodine deficient areas, or suffering from congenital hypothyroidism.

  20. [Causes of death in congenital hypothyroidism. An autopsy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridaura-Sanz, C; López-Corella, E

    1995-01-01

    Children with congenital hypothyroidism are prone to die unexpectedly. In order to test this hypothesis, the primary and contributing causes of death were studied in a case series of sixteen consecutive children coming to autopsy. Four patients with absent thyroid died undiagnosed and untreated. The remaining twelve cases had documented hypothyroidism with low T3 and T4 levels. Diagnosis was established after the age of two months. Nine of the sixteen cases died unexpectedly, three while in the hospital and six at home. Autopsy findings suggested bronchoaspiration in five and heart failure in four. The remaining seven cases died under predictable circumstances with serious infections. Children with congenital hypothyroidism with delayed treatment may die unexpectedly as a result of the organic dysfunction caused by their primary disease.

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Altamirano Ufion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  2. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  3. Treating Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine/Triiodothyronine Combination Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsson, Luba Freja; Medici, Bjarke Borregaard; la Cour, Jeppe Lerche

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded as experime......BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded...... after a patient published a book describing her experiences with hypothyroidism and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate current Danish trends in the use of T4/T3 combination therapy. METHODS: We used an Internet-based questionnaire, distributed as a link via two Danish patient fora. Further...

  4. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, David J.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Kearney, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older personswith this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving...... 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg...... if the body weight was Hypothyroid Symptomsscore and Tiredness score on a thyroid...

  5. Which parameters affect medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrs, Christian; Kühle, Luise; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Stöckle, Ulrich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Freude, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Very little information on medium- to long-term results is available for surgically treated proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this prospective treatment study was to present long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures and to detect which specific patient- and fracture-related parameters affect the clinical outcome. We performed a prospective clinical and radiologic evaluation of 77 patients with a displaced proximal humeral fracture (28 Neer 2-part, 38 3-part, and 11 4-part fractures; 28 AO A fractures, 30 AO B fractures, and 19 AO C fractures) treated with angular stable plate fixation after a mean follow-up period of 96 months (range, 74-133 months). We assessed outcomes with the Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores and evaluated specific patient- and fracture-related parameters including complications. The mean Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were 79, 31, and 12 points. Reasons for revisions were implant-related impingement (n = 13), screw perforation (n = 10), infection (n = 4), and secondary fracture displacement (n = 1). There was a significant association between worse score results and occurrence of secondary fracture displacement, screw perforation, residual bone deformities, and a rotator cuff defect at follow-up. Good medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fracture can be expected. A reconstruction within a range of 15° in both anteroposterior and axillary views and fracture displacement and screw perforation, and a less favorable long-term result. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movvahedi, M M; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, A; Mortazavi, S A R; Haghani, M; Razi, Z; Shojaie-Fard, M B; Zare, M; Mina, E; Mansourabadi, L; Nazari-Jahromi; Safari, A; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, S M J

    2014-05-01

    Now-a-days, children are exposed to mobile phone radiation at a very early age. We have previously shown that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz, Iran use mobile phones. Furthermore, we have indicated that the visual reaction time (VRT) of university students was significantly affected by a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone. We found that these exposures decreased the reaction time which might lead to a better response to different hazards. We have also revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure of elementary school students to radiofrequency (RF) radiation leads to changes in their reaction time and short-term memory. A total of 60 elementary school children ages ranging from 8 to 10 years studying at a public elementary school in Shiraz, Iran were enrolled in this study. Standardized computer-based tests of VRT and short-term memory (modified for children) were administered. The students were asked to perform some preliminary tests for orientation with the VRT test. After orientation, to reduce the random variation of measurements, each test was repeated ten times in both real and sham exposure phases. The time interval between the two subsequent sham and real exposure phases was 30 min. The mean ± standard deviation reaction times after a 10 min talk period and after a 10 min sham exposure (switched off mobile) period were 249.0 ± 82.3 ms and 252.9 ± 68.2 ms (P = 0.629), respectively. On the other hand, the mean short-term memory scores after the talk and sham exposure periods were 1062.60 ± 305.39, and 1003.84 ± 339.68 (P = 0.030), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that short-term exposure of elementary school students to RF radiation leads to the better performance of their short-term memory.

  7. Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    Because of the longstanding controversy regarding whether hypothyroid patients can be optimally replaced by treatment with levothyroxine (L-T4) alone, numerous studies have addressed potential benefits of combined therapy of triiodothyronine (T3) with L-T4. Results of these studies have failed to support a potential benefit of combined therapy. A strong argument for the addition of L-T3 to L-T4 monotherapy has been lacking until recent genetic studies indicated a rationale for such therapy among a small fraction of the hypothyroid patient population. Interest in this issue has focused on the importance of the deiodinases in maintaining the euthyroid state and the role of genetic polymorphisms in the deiodinase genes that would affect thyroid hormone concentrations in both blood and tissues. One such polymorphism in the D2 gene, Thr92Ala, is associated with reduced T4 to T3 activation in skeletal muscle and thyroid, linked to obesity and alterations in thyroid-pituitary feedback, and in responses to thyroid hormone treatment. Although our professional organizations continue to recommend L-T4 alone for the treatment of hypothyroidism, the possibility of a D2 gene polymorphism should be considered in patients on L-T4 monotherapy who continue to complain of fatigue in spite of dosage achieving low normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. A suggestive clue to the presence of this polymorphism could be a higher than normal free T4/free T3 ratio. Clinicians could consider adding T3 as a therapeutic trial in selected patients. Future well controlled clinical trials will be required to more fully resolve the controversy.

  8. Children with congenital hypothyroidism are at risk of adult obesity due to early adiposity rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S C; Ng, S M; Didi, M

    2004-10-01

    There is some evidence that children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are heavier than their reference population. There are few data on adults with CH. The timing of adiposity rebound (AR) in childhood has been shown to have strong correlations with adult obesity. Our aims were to study the timing of AR and factors affecting AR in children with CH. The timing of AR was examined in a retrospective study of children with CH with growth data at least up to 5 years of age. The proportion of children with CH who reached AR by 37 months and by 49 months of age were compared with healthy children and children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) described in the literature. Correlation of timing of AR with body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at 10 years, initial severity of hypothyroidism and age at normalization of TSH were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent factors associated with BMI > or = 20 (overweight) at 10 years of age. The study included 53 children (34 females and 19 males). AR had occurred by 37 months in 37.7% children with CH, in 42.7% children treated for ALL (CH vs. ALL, P = 0.58) and in 4.5% healthy British children (CH vs. normal, P or = 20 at 10 years of age (P = 0.04). Children with CH showed significantly earlier AR compared to normal British children. This showed significant negative correlation with BMI SDS at 10 years. AR in CH does not appear to be directly related to the initial severity of hypothyroidism or to treatment factors.

  9. Perinatal hypothyroidism increases play behaviors in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer G; Northcutt, Katharine V

    2017-11-21

    Thyroid hormones play an instrumental role in the development of the central nervous system. During early development, the fetus is dependent on maternal thyroid hormone production due to the dysfunction of its own thyroid gland. Thus, maternal thyroid dysfunction has been shown to elicit significant abnormalities in neural development, neurochemistry, and behavior in offspring. Previous reports have suggested that human maternal hypothyroidism may increase the chances of having children with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, very few studies have evaluated social behaviors in animal models of perinatal hypothyroidism. To evaluate the possibility that hypothyroidism during development influences the expression one of the most commonly observed non-reproductive social behaviors, juvenile play, we used the validated rat model of perinatal hypothyroidism by methimazole administration (MMI; 0.025% in drinking water) from GD12-PD23. Control animals had regular drinking water. During adolescence (PD33-35), we tested subjects for juvenile play behavior by introducing them to a same-sex, unfamiliar (since weaning) littermate for 30min. Play behaviors and other behaviors (sleep, social contact, locomotion) were then scored. MMI-treated subjects played more than twice as much as control animals, and the increase in some behaviors was particularly dramatic in males. Locomotor and other affiliative social behaviors were unaffected. These data suggest that perinatal hypothyroidism may alter the organization of the neural networks regulating play behaviors, but not other social behaviors. Moreover, this implicates perinatal hypothyroidism as a potential etiological factor in the development of neurobehavioral disorders, particularly those characterized by heightened social interactions and impulsivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  11. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metformin reduces thyrotropin levels in obese, diabetic women with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, M Luisa; Penín, Manuel A; Nemiña, Rosa; Cordido, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    Context It has been reported that metformin might modify thyroid hormone economy. In two retrospective studies, initiation of treatment with metformin caused suppression of TSH to subnormal levels. Objective To prospectively evaluate if administration of metformin to obese, diabetic patients with primary hypothyroidism on stable thyroxine replacement doses modifies TSH levels. Patients and methods Eight obese, diabetic postmenopausal women with primary hypothyroidism participated in the study. They received 1,700 mg of metformin daily for 3 months. Weight, TSH, free T4, and free T3 levels were measured at baseline, 3 months after metformin initiation and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results After 3 months of on metformin, mean TSH was significantly lower than basal TSH (3.11 +/- 0.50 microUI/ml vs. 1.18 +/- 0.36 microUI/ml; P = 0.01). Mean TSH 3 months after metformin withdrawal was 2.21 +/- 0.37 microUI/ml, significantly higher than TSH after metformin (P = 0.05), but not different from basal TSH. Mean fT4 level increased during metformin administration (basal fT4: 1.23 +/- 0.06 ng/dl, fT4 after metformin: 1.32 +/- 0.04 ng/dl; P = ns), and decreased after its withdrawal (fT4 3 months after metformin withdrawal: 1.15 +/- 0.05 ng/dl; vs. 3 months after metformin, P = 0.04; vs. basal; P = ns). Conclusions In obese, diabetic patients with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement treatment, short-term metformin administration is associated with a significant fall in TSH.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children and adolescents after hematopoietic stem cells transplantation without irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although total body irradiation (TBI was considered to be the primary cause of thyroid dysfunction following hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT, a significant prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism after HSCT with chemotherapy-only conditioning regimens has been observed in several studies. The aim of this study was to assess changes in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels in children after HSCT, without the use of irradiation at any time in the course of the treatment. Methods. Our cohort consisted of 41 children and adolescents who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT and were available for follow-up for at least one year after transplantation. Irradiation was not performed in any of the subjects, neither during pretransplatation therapy, nor during conditioning. The median duration of follow-up was 2.9 years. The indications for HSCT were hematologic malignancy (41.5%, solid malignant tumor (34.1%, and other disorders (24.4%. The thyroid status of all the subjects was assessed prior to HSCT and after follow-up period. Results. Thyroid dysfunction after HSCT was present in 27 (65.8% subjects. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the most common abnormality, presenting in 23 (56.1% patients, primary hypothyroidism was present in one (2.4% patient, while 3 (7.3% subjects had low free T4 with normal TSH values. Significantly (p < 0.01 higher elevations in TSH levels were present in the patients who received chemotherapy for the underlying disease prior to HSCT. Conclusion. Our findings emphasize the need for long-term monitoring of thyroid function following HSCT, regardless of whether or not irradiation was used.

  14. Impact of congenital calcitonin deficiency due to dysgenetic hypothyroidism on bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daripa M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic calcitonin deficiency on bone mass development. The results of 11 patients with thyroid dysgenesis (TD were compared to those of 17 normal individuals (C and of 9 patients with other forms of hypothyroidism (OH: 4 with hypothyroidism due to inborn errors of thyroid hormone synthesis and 5 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The subjects received an intravenous calcium stimulus and blood was collected for the determination of ionized calcium (Ca2+, calcitonin, and intact parathyroid hormone. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After calcium administration the levels of Ca2+ in the two groups of hypothyroidism were significantly higher than in the normal control group (10 min after starting calcium infusion: C = 1.29 ± 0.08 vs TD = 1.34 ± 0.03 vs OH = 1.34 ± 0.02 mmol/l; P < 0.05, and only the TD group showed no calcitonin response (5 min after starting calcium infusion: C = 27.9 ± 5.8 vs TD = 6.6 ± 0.3 vs OH = 43.0 ± 13.4 ng/l. BMD values did not differ significantly between groups (L2-L4: C = 1.116 ± 0.02 vs TD = 1.109 ± 0.03 vs OH = 1.050 ± 0.04 g/cm². These results indicate that early deficiency of calcitonin secretion has no detrimental effect on bone mass development. Furthermore, the increased calcitonin secretion observed in patients with inborn errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis does not confer any advantage in terms of BMD.

  15. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    S. TAŞ

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C), control+U. rigida extract (C+UR), hypothyroid (H) and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR). U. rigida (2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as refl...

  16. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  17. Therapeutic exploration of betulinic acid in chemically induced hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Semwal, Susmita; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Anwar, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production. The decreased serum level (>5.1 mIU/l) of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in blood indicates hypothyroidism. The study was an attempt to access the effect of betulinic acid on chemically induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid, which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as anticancer potential, by inhibiting topoisomerase. Hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats using propylthiouracil (PTU) at a dose of 60 μg/kg body weight orally for 1 month. Induction of hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH level. At the end of second month, blood was collected, centrifuged and serum was analyzed for TSH, T3, and T4 level and protocol was terminated by killing of animals. The animals exposed to PTU were treated with pure standard drug thyroxine at a dose of 10 μg/kg of body weight by oral route and the test drug betulinic acid 20 mg/kg by oral route through force feeding in their respective groups. Treatment was carried out for a period of 2 months. Group with PTU-induced hypothyroidism showed an elevation in serum TSH and reduction level, which was restored by the betulinic acid in treated female albino rats. Betulinic acid also reduced the damage caused in the thyroid tissues by PTU, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Histopathological examinations of the thyroid tissue showed changes in the thyrocytes of PTU-treated group while thyroxine group showed normal thyroid follicles cell architecture and the group treated with betulinic acid also showed marked improvement in the follicles integrity which shows that betulinic acid has some protective activity. This study shows that the betulinic acid has thyroid-enhancing potential by lowering down the TSH levels and reducing the damage caused in the thyroid tissues, thus minimizing the

  18. Hoffmann's disease: MR imaging of hypothyroid myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jeewon; Ahn, Kyung-Sik; Kang, Chang Ho [Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Suk-Joo [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beak Hyun [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Hoffmann's syndrome is a hypothyroid myopathy presenting as muscle stiffness and hypertrophy. It is a rare complication of hypothyroidism. MRI features of this syndrome have seldom been described in the literature. We present a case of Hoffmann's syndrome in a 34-year-old man who underwent lower extremity contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI can demonstrate the hypertrophic configuration, T2 hyperintensity, and enhancement of the involved muscles in Hoffmann's syndrome. Along with clinical, laboratory, and electromyography findings, MRI may be helpful in distinguishing between inflammatory myopathy, myonecrosis, subacute muscle denervation, and infectious myositis. (orig.)

  19. Low vitamin D status does not adversely affect short-term functional outcome after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnanuntana, Aasis; Saleh, Anas; Nguyen, Joseph T; Sculco, Thomas P; Cornell, Charles N; Mancuso, Carol A; Lane, Joseph M

    2013-02-01

    We prospectively measured functional performances (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Short Form-36, 2-minute walk test, and timed get-up-and-go test) of patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) and had serum vitamin D levels tested during the preoperative evaluation. Of 219 patients, 102 (46.6%) had low vitamin D levels (25-hydroxyvitamin Dvitamin D status did not adversely affect short-term function at 6 weeks after THA. In addition, there was no association between serum vitamin D levels and the within-patient changes of scores of each outcome measurement. Because this 6-week period is generally adequate to correct vitamin D deficiency, orthopedic surgeons can safely perform THA without delay. Nevertheless, because vitamin D deficiency impairs bone quality, patients with low vitamin D levels should be treated once identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…