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  1. Both exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and short-term overt hypothyroidism affect myocardial strain in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulrahman, Randa M.; Delgado, Victoria; Hoftijzer, Hendrieke C.; Ng, Arnold C. T.; Ewe, See Hooi; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Holman, Eduard R.; Hovens, Guido C.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Smit, Johannes W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular effects of transitions from exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism to short-term overt hypothyroidism in patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma remain unclear. The present study aims at evaluating the changes in multidirectional myocardial strain using

  2. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

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    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  3. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in term pregnancies in North India

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    Bharti Kalra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is common in pregnancy. No study has determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in term pregnancies in India. Aim: This study aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of hypothyroidism in women who delivered at a center in Karnal, Haryana, North India. Results: Indoor records of all women who had delivered at this centre from April 2016 to March 2017 were reviewed. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 12.3%, of which 15.5% were diagnosed during pregnancy. The dose requirement of L-thyroxine ranged from 25 to 200 μg (mean 76.38 +- 43.02. With this, 80% were able to achieve trimester-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone targets. Hypothyroidism did not correlate with any medical or obstetric complications. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is common in term pregnancies. If treated adequately, healthy fetomaternal outcomes can be achieved.

  4. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to meet your body's needs. This condition is hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is more common in women, people with other ... cause. Other causes include thyroid nodules, thyroiditis, congenital hypothyroidism, surgical removal of part or all of the ...

  5. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, impaired fertility, and depression. • Women are much more likely than men to develop hypothyroidism. • Women with hypothyroidism should discuss ...

  6. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myxedema coma, the most severe form of hypothyroidism, is rare. It occurs when thyroid hormone levels get very ... or certain medicines in people with untreated hypothyroidism. Myxedema coma is a medical emergency that must be treated ...

  7. Time-dependent irisin concentration changes in patients affected by overt hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zybek-Kocik, Ariadna; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Sowiński, Jerzy; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Irisin, a cleaved and secreted part of the transmembrane protein FNDC5, is a recently discovered adipo-myokine that is said to have a significant influence on body metabolism. Changes in thyrometabolic state may also alter the serum irisin level. Since already reported data are not fully consistent, the aim of the present research is to evaluate the time-dependent changes in serum irisin level in patients affected by overt hypothyroidism. The study involved 36 subjects - two groups of 12 patients with long-lasting (AITD) and short-term (TC) overt hypothyroidism, and a control group (CG) of 12 subjects, matched for age and gender. Serum irisin level, thyrometabolic state, creatine kinase (CK - muscle damage marker), glucose, and insulin concentration were assessed and compared between groups. The irisin level was significantly lower in AITD than in TC and CG (p = 0.02; p 0.05). There was no significant difference between free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels in AITD and TC patients (p > 0.05). CK concentration was significantly higher in AITD than in CG patients (p 0.05) as well as TC and CG patients (p > 0.05). Additionally, the CK level negatively correlated with the irisin level (r = -0.58; p hypothyroidism have lower irisin levels that those with short-term disorder. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 476-480).

  8. Hypothyroidism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The rate ... and physical sluggishness. The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, which is a medical emergency.

  9. Subclinical Hypothyroid

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    Mohammad Reza Kalantar Hormozi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: subclnical hypothyroid (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a midly Elevated TSH, is common in adults. Subclinical hypothyroid is a risk factor for developing hypothyroidism complication . the goal of screening is to identify and treatment patients with sublinical hypothyroid before they develop these complication. Methods: The sample size of this study was the articles indexed in pubmed,ovid, tripdatabase, new spring link black coehrane, Elsevirer, Embase and contained the terms subclinical hypothyroid, Anti-tpo, Thyrotropin, levothyroxine trapy. Results: 831 articles were found that 75 articles were investigated for this issue. The results are discussed under. The subtile such as subclinical hypothyroid, screening for subclinical hypothyroid, Indication of treatment of Subclinical hypothyroid. Conclusion: In this summary, we tried to review the current literature about definition, Indection of screening and treatment of subclinical hypothyroid and reach a comprehensive guidline for practical significance of this subject in routines practice.

  10. Clinical research and long-term follow-up of early hypothyroidism after 131I treatment for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Zhang Youren; Xing Jialiu; Ye Genyao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical research and long-term follow-up results of early hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment for hyperthyroidism. Methods: One hundred and forty-five patients with hyperthyroidism who developed hypothyroidism within 12 months after 131 I therapy were evaluated by clinical symptoms and plasma T 3 , T 4 , thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). One year after treatment, 121 of 145 patients were divided into two groups according to the occurrence of hypothyroidism. Results: 1) Group 1: transient hypothyroidism (n=33), 64%(21/33) of the patients developed euthyroidism and 36%(12/33) patients had recurrent hyperthyroidism within 1 year after being diagnosed with hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment. The long-term follow-up showed 2 patients were with euthyroidism and 2 patients who were previously with hyperthyroidism developed permanent hypothyroidism after 3 months ∼6 years. Three patients who were previously with hyperthyroidism developed euthyroidism after 3 months ∼5 years. Group 2: permanent hypothyroidism (n=88), 82.95% (73/88) patients of group 2 were treated with low-dose 131 I, 86.36% (76/88) cases of this group were found with clinical hypothyroidism. Conclusions: 72.73% (88/121) patients of early hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy developed permanent hypothyroidism. The incidence of permanent hypothyroidism in the patients treated with low-dose 131 I was higher. Recovery of transient hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy did not predict future thyroid function. (authors)

  11. Increased Risk of Developing Affective Disorder in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Register-Based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Links between thyroid function and depression have been noted in many contexts. We assessed whether hospitalization with hypothyroidism was a risk factor for developing affective disorder. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using historical data from Danish registers....... The observational period was 1977-1999. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admittance with the resulting index discharge diagnoses hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, or nontoxic goiter. A later hospitalization with a resulting discharge diagnosis of affective disorder was used...... as event of interest, and rates of readmission were estimated and compared using competing risk models in survival analyses. FINDINGS: We identified 165,307 patients discharged with an index diagnosis. In the observational period, 1041 events occurred. An index diagnosis of hypothyroidism was associated...

  12. Abnormal expression of ephrin-A5 affects brain development of congenital hypothyroidism rats.

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    Suo, Guihai; Shen, Feifei; Sun, Baolan; Song, Honghua; Xu, Meiyu; Wu, Youjia

    2018-05-14

    EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats. Thyroxine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampus and triiodothyronine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampal neurons significantly improved ephrin-A5 expression but could not restore its expression to control levels. Hypothyroid hippocampal neurons in-vitro showed synaptogenesis disorder characterized by a reduction in the number and length of neurites. Furthermore, the synaptogenesis-associated molecular expressions of NMDAR-1 (NR1), PSD95 and CaMKII were all downregulated correspondingly. These results suggest that ephrin-A5 expression may be decreased in CH, and abnormal activation of ephrin-A5/EphA5 signaling affects synaptogenesis during brain development. Such findings provide an important basis for exploring the pathogenesis of CH genetically.

  13. Hypothyroidism and the Heart

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    Udovcic, Maja; Pena, Raul Herrera; Patham, Bhargavi; Tabatabai, Laila; Kansara, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a commonly encountered clinical condition with variable prevalence. It has profound effects on cardiac function that can impact cardiac contractility, vascular resistance, blood pressure, and heart rhythm. With this review, we aim to describe the effects of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism on the heart. Additionally, we attempt to briefly describe how hypothyroid treatment affects cardiovascular parameters. PMID:28740582

  14. Hypothyroidism and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovcic, Maja; Pena, Raul Herrera; Patham, Bhargavi; Tabatabai, Laila; Kansara, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a commonly encountered clinical condition with variable prevalence. It has profound effects on cardiac function that can impact cardiac contractility, vascular resistance, blood pressure, and heart rhythm. With this review, we aim to describe the effects of hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism on the heart. Additionally, we attempt to briefly describe how hypothyroid treatment affects cardiovascular parameters.

  15. Neonatal hypothyroidism affects testicular glucose homeostasis through increased oxidative stress in prepubertal mice: effects on GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43.

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    Sarkar, D; Singh, S K

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells. THs also modulate level of gap junctional protein such as connexin 43 (Cx43), a potential regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium. Although the role of transient neonatal hypothyroidism in adult testis in terms of testosterone production is well documented, the effect of THs deficiency in early developmental period and its role in testicular glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress with reference to Cx43 in immature mice remain unknown. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on testicular glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress at postnatal days (PND) 21 and 28 in relation to GLUT3, GLUT8 and Cx43. Hypothyroidism induced by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) markedly decreased testicular glucose level with considerable reduction in expression level of GLUT3 and GLUT8. Likewise, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and intratesticular concentration of lactate were also decreased in hypothyroid mice. There was also a rise in germ cell apoptosis with increased expression of caspase-3 in PTU-treated mice. Further, neonatal hypothyroidism affected germ cell proliferation with decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cx43. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters testicular glucose

  16. Primary and secondary hypothyroidism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism is a decreased activity of the thyroid gland which may affect all body functions. The rate ... and physical sluggishness. The most severe form of hypothyroidism is myxedema, a medical emergency. Hypothyroidism can be ...

  17. Hypothyroidism (primary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism is six times more common in women, affecting up to 40 in 10,000 each year (compared with 6/10,000 men). METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for clinical (overt......) hypothyroidism? What are the effects of treatments for subclinical hypothyroidism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We...

  18. Congenital hypothyroidism screening in term neonates using umbilical cord blood TSH values

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    Ravi Bhatia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism remains one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation among children. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism remains one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent mental retardation in the population. Umbilical cord blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels remain an attractive and a practical step for screening for congenital hypothyroidism. The aims of this study were as follows: (1 to find normative values of cord blood TSH for the study group and (2 to use cord blood TSH levels as a marker for screening of congenital hypothyroidism. Cord blood of 1824 neonates who were of term gestation, weighed >2.5 kg at birth, whose mothers were off thyroid medication were a part of the study group. Umbilical cord blood was collected at the time of delivery and TSH was estimated. All babies who had a cord blood TSH value of >20 mIU/L were called bay on day 7 of life for a full thyroid profile. Cord blood samples of 1824 neonates were tested for TSH. Male–female ratio was 979:845 = 1.15:1. The birth weights ranged between 2.5 and 4.5 kg with an average birth weight of 2.811 kg. Mean (standard deviation TSH value was 7.725 (8.99. TSH values ranged between 1.2 and 100 mIU/ml. TSH values corresponding to the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentile were 2.32, 4.05, 5.67, 7.5, 12, 20.63, and 30.88, respectively. Out of the 88 babies recalled for repeat testing, 80 babies only turned up; eventually one turned out to be hypothyroid on repeat testing. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in our study was 1 in 1824. To conclude, we can safely use a cutoff of cord blood TSH value of >20 mIU/L for the purpose of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. For logistic angles, a higher cutoff of >30 mIU/L can be used. Large population-based studies are required to establish normative values for cord blood TSH in our country.

  19. Verbal episodic memory in young hypothyroid patients

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    Vatsal Priyadarshi Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothyroidism affects cognitive functions especially memory. However, most of the previous studies have generally evaluated older hypothyroid patients and sample size of these studies varied in terms of age range. Aims: To see whether hypothyroidism affects memory in young patients. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 11 hypothyroid patients with an age of 18–49 and 8 healthy controls matched on age and education. Subjects and Methods: Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Hindi adaptation of Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Statistical Analysis Used: An independent t-test was used to see the difference between mean performance of the patient group and healthy control on memory measures. Results: Results indicated nonsignificant difference between verbal episodic memory of patient group and healthy controls. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that hypothyroidism may not affect younger patients in terms of episodic verbal memory the same way as it does in the older patients.

  20. Radioiodine-131 treatment of thyrotoxicosis: Dose required for and some factors affecting the early induction of hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevizaki, C.C.; Alevizaki-Harhalaki, M.C.; Ikkos, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The results of 131 I treatment of thyrotoxicosis in 1,168 patients (302 males, 866 females; 58.5% diffuse and 41.5% multinodular toxic goitre) are presented. At the end of the 1st year post-treatment, 54.4% were hypothyroid, and the incidence of hypothyroidism after the 2nd year increased by 3% per year. When the results were analysed according to the calculated radiation dose the thyroid, it was found that the cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism from 6 months to 2 years post-treatment rose almost proportionally to the dose in cases of doses of 1,500-15,0000 rad, but increased very little for higher doses; however, the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism was almost independent of the thyroid dose. Multivariate analysis showed that the results of 131 I therapy at 6 months depended also on sex (treatment being more effective in women), the consistency of the thyroid gland and the year of treatment, with the same radiation dose giving a higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated recently, in comparison to those treated in early in the period studied. Of the patients treated in the period 1978-1982 (mean dose, 300 μCi/g), 93.5% were cured with a single dose of 131 I, and 78% were hypothyroid at 6 months post-treatment. (orig.)

  1. Radioiodine-131 treatment of thyrotoxicosis: Dose required for and some factors affecting the early induction of hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevizaki, C C; Alevizaki-Harhalaki, M C; Ikkos, D G

    1985-05-01

    The results of /sup 131/I treatment of thyrotoxicosis in 1,168 patients (302 males, 866 females; 58.5% diffuse and 41.5% multinodular toxic goitre) are presented. At the end of the 1st year post-treatment, 54.4% were hypothyroid, and the incidence of hypothyroidism after the 2nd year increased by 3% per year. When the results were analysed according to the calculated radiation dose the thyroid, it was found that the cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism from 6 months to 2 years post-treatment rose almost proportionally to the dose in cases of doses of 1,500-15,0000 rad, but increased very little for higher doses; however, the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism was almost independent of the thyroid dose. Multivariate analysis showed that the results of /sup 131/I therapy at 6 months depended also on sex (treatment being more effective in women), the consistency of the thyroid gland and the year of treatment, with the same radiation dose giving a higher incidence of hypothyroidism in patients treated recently, in comparison to those treated in early in the period studied. Of the patients treated in the period 1978-1982 (mean dose, 300 ..mu..Ci/g), 93.5% were cured with a single dose of /sup 131/I, and 78% were hypothyroid at 6 months post-treatment.

  2. Short-term overt hypothyroidism induces sympathovagal imbalance in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, Karen A.; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone impacts on the cardiovascular system. (Subclinical) hyperthyroidism results in sympathovagal imbalance due to decreased vagal tone. However, conflicting data have been reported on the effects of hypothyroidism on the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In hypothyroidism,

  3. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

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    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. Bone health in children with long–term idiopathic subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Di Mase Raffaella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a relatively common condition characterized by a mild persistent thyroid failure. The management of children with SH is still a controversial issue and the decision to treat with L-thyroxine represents a clinical dilemma. Thyroid hormone and TSH play an important role in skeletal growth and bone mineral homeostasis. Aim To evaluate whether untreated idiopathic SH may affect bone health in childhood and to compare two different diagnostic tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA and quantitative ultrasound (QUS. Patients and Methods Twenty-five children and adolescents (11 males aged 9.8 ± 3.5 years (range 4.2-18.7 with untreated idiopathic SH were enrolled in the study. SH was diagnosed on the basis of normal FT4 levels with TSH concentrations between 4.2 and 10 mU/l. Children have been followed for 3.3 ± 0.3 years from the time of SH diagnosis. Twenty-five healthy children, age- and sex-matched, were enrolled as controls. Patients and controls underwent DXA to evaluate lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD and QUS at proximal phalanges of the non-dominant hand to assess bone quality, measured as amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS and bone transmission time (BTT. Results Mean BMD Z-score was −0.4 ± 1.36 in patients and −0.2 ± 1.2 in controls. Mean Ad-SoS Z-score was 0.01 ± 1.0 in patients and 0.1 ± 1.2 in controls and mean BTT Z-score was −0.03 ± 0.8 and 0.04 ± 1.1 respectively. All values were within the normal range, both in patients and in controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Bone health, evaluated by lumbar spine DXA and phalangeal QUS, is not impaired in our children, despite long-term duration of idiopathic SH. Data about bone status provided by QUS are comparable to those provided by DXA. Therefore, QUS may represent a good, cheaper and safe screening test for bone evaluation in children with SH.

  5. Inherited hypothyroidism.

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    Jackson, I M

    1976-03-01

    Familial hypothyroidism results from both thyroidal and extrathyroidal dysfunction. Specific intrathyroidal abnormalities in thyroid hormone synthesis causing goitrous hypothyroidism are iodide trap defect, organification defect, "coupling" defect, iodoprotein defect, and dehalogenase defect. The diagnostic studies for each are outlined utilizing radioiodine(131I) studies. Other causes of cretinism include failure of the thyroid gland to respond to TSH and lack of pituitary TSH (or hypothalamic TRH). The syndrome of peripheral resistance to thyroid hormone is discussed. The diagnosis of inherited hypothyrodism rests on an adequate family history and measurement of both T4 and TSH levels which can be determined in cord blood or peripheral blood from the infant. The importance of early treatment of hypothyroidism in the neonatal period to prevent brain damage is emphasized. The rec:nt discovery of the importance of reverse T3 (RT3) in fetal thyroid metabolism is described, and the possibility of amniocentesis as an aid in prenatal diagnosis is considered. The place of intrauterine administration of thyroid hormone to the fetus at risk from hypothyroidism is uncertain at this time and requires carefully controlled studies and long-term follow-up.

  6. Long-term outcome in levothyroxine treated patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and concomitant heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2016-01-01

    Context: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. Objective: This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. Design: This was a register-based historical cohort s...

  7. Hypothyroidism affects differentially the cell size of epithelial cells among oviductal regions of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Nicolás, L; Martínez-Gómez, M; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Castelán, F; Cuevas, E

    2015-02-01

    Oviductal regions show particular histological characteristics and functions. Tubal pathologies and hypothyroidism are related to primary and secondary infertility. The impact of hypothyroidism on the histological characteristics of oviductal regions has been scarcely studied. Our aim was to analyse the histological characteristics of oviductal regions in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of methimazole (MMI) for 30 days. For both groups, serum concentrations of thyroid and gonadal hormones were determined. Sections of oviductal regions were stained with the Masson's trichrome technique to analyse both epithelial and smooth muscle layers. The percentage of proliferative epithelial cells (anti-Ki67) in diverse oviductal regions was also quantified. Data were compared with Student t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, or Fischer's test. In comparison with the control group, the hypothyroid group showed: (i) a low concentration of T3 and T4, but a high level of TSH; (ii) similar values of serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone; (iii) a large size of ciliated cells in the ampulla (AMP), isthmus (IST) and utero-tubal junction (UTJ); (iv) a large size of secretory cells in the IST region; (v) a low percentage of proliferative secretory cells in the fimbria-infundibulum (FIM-INF) region; and (vi) a similar thickness of the smooth muscle layer and the cross-sectional area in the AMP and IST regions. Modifications in the size of the oviductal epithelium in hypothyroid rabbits could be related to changes in the cell metabolism that may impact on the reproductive functions achieved by oviduct. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Adult onset-hypothyroidism increases response latency and long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) influence central nervous system (CNS) function during both development and in adulthood. The hippocampus is critical for some types of learning and memory and is particularly sensitive to thyroid hormone deficiency. Hypothyroidism in adulthood has been ass...

  9. PROPYLTHIOURACIL (PTU)-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM: EFFECTS ON SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LONG TERM POTENTIATION IN HIPPOCAMPAL SLICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern has been raised over endocrine effects of some classes of environmental chemicals. Severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to alterations in hippocampal structure, learning deficits, yet neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus...

  10. Analysis of factors affecting the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Rong; Kuang Anren; Qin Weishi

    2001-01-01

    Objective: It is a retrospective study designed to evaluate the early therapeutic outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and determine whether the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyreo-stasis, therapeutic dosage, 131 I uptake, age, sex, and absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. Methods: One year after treatment, 342 patients were divided into two groups according to whether there was hypothyroidism, t test and x 2 test were used to compare the variable parameters between the two groups. Results: 92.1% were cured with a single dose of 131 I, and 21.2% contracted hypothyroidism at 12 months after treatment. The outcome of treatment at 12 months depended on the volume of thyroid and the absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. And pretreatment with thyreo-stasis did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of 131 I in hyperthyroidism if antithyroid drugs were discontinued at least 3 days before 131 I treatment. Conclusions: Since most hypothyroidism occurred in patients whose thyroid volume is small, appropriate reduction of target dose is recommended here for those patients

  11. Incidence of hypothyroidism occurring long after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.; Lundell, G.; Israelsson, A.; Dahlgvist, I.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in 4,473 formerly hyperthyroid patients given I-131 therapy between 1951 and 1975. The mean age at the first I-131 treatment was 56 yr. Six percent developed hypothyroidism within one year of therapy, and 72% within 26 yr. Prior antithyroid medication did not affect the incidence of hypothyroidism. Patients cured with one dose of I-131 had a lower cumulative long-term incidence of hypothyroidism than those requiring more than one dose

  12. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

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    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  13. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Resources MedlinePlus (NIH) Mayo Clinic What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  14. Long-Term Outcome in Levothyroxine Treated Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Concomitant Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Faber, Jens; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H; Selmer, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition that may lead to impaired cardiac function. This study sought to examine the effects of levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease. This was a register-based historical cohort study. The study was composed of Danish primary care patients and hospital outpatients age 18 years and older with established heart disease who were diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism in 1997-2011. Patients were stratified according to whether they claimed a subsequent prescription of levothyroxine. Event rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated by use of time-dependent multivariable Poisson regression models. Measures included all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), defined as cardiovascular death, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infaction and stroke, and all-cause hospital admissions. Of 61 611 patients with a diagnosis of cardiac disease having their first time thyroid function testing, 1192 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 73.6 [SD ± 13.3] y, 63.8% female) were included, of whom 136 (11.4%) were treated with levothyroxine. During a median follow-up time of 5.6 y (interquartile range, 6.5 y), 694 (58.2%) patients died. Patients treated with levothyroxine displayed no significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted IRR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-1.52), MACE (adjusted IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.80-1.45), or hospital admission (adjusted IRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.71-1.24), when compared with patients not treated with levothyroxine. Levothyroxine treatment in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and heart disease was not associated with a significant benefit nor risk of all-cause mortality, MACE, or hospital admission in this large real-world cohort study.

  15. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Teng, Weiping, E-mail: twpendocrine@yahoo.com.cn [Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Chen, Jie, E-mail: chenjie@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2013-09-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway – a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory – was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  16. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism in rats: Impairments of long-term potentiation are mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Song, Binbin; Min, Hui; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Neurotoxicity of iodine deficiency-induced hypothyroidism during developmental period results in serious impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. These impairments are largely irreversible, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In addition to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency may cause hypothyroxinemia, a relatively subtle form of thyroid hormone deficiency. Neurotoxicity of developmental hypothyroxinemia also potentially impairs learning and memory. However, more direct evidence of the associations between developmental hypothyroxinemia and impairments of learning and memory should be provided, and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism on long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular model of learning and memory, in the hippocampal CA1 region. The activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway – a pathway closely associated with synaptic plasticity and learning and memory – was also investigated. Wistar rats were treated with iodine deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency and developmental hypothyroidism caused by severe iodine deficiency or MMZ significantly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway was also observed in rats subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Our results may support the hypothesis that neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and hypothyroidism causes damages to learning and memory. Our results also suggest that decreased activation of the PI3K signaling pathway may contribute to impairments of LTP caused by neurotoxicity of both developmental hypothyroxinemia and

  17. Features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Combination with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The last decades are characterized by the considerable increase in the prevalence of endocrine disorders with the change of the structure, and first of all cases of polyendocrinopathy, the special place among which is occupied by combination of diabetes mellitus (DM and thyroid diseases. Increase in the incidence of DM type 2 associated with hypothyroidism affects the clinical course of this pathology, remains topical problem of modern medical science. The objective: to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 DM and to establish clinical features of DM type 2 in combination with hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. We have examined 179 patients with DM associated with primary hypothyroidism, including 64 patients with DM type 1 and 115 patients with type 2 DM. Comparison group consisted of 62 patients with DM without hypothyroidism (27 of them — with DM type 1, 35 — with DM type 2. Thyroid function was assessed by determining the basal concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine fraction. Results. It was found that patients with DM type 2 and hypothyroidism belonged to an older age group than patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism. Thus, the age of patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism was 35.3 ± 9.5 years, and in patients with type 2 DM and hypothyroidism — 47.6 ± 11.0 years. In all groups of patients, the percentage of women was much higher than men. The significant differences were detected in terms of the amplitude of glycemic index, namely its increase in patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism. When DM type 2 was combined with hypothyroidism, lipid metabolism indices were higher than in DM type 2 without thyroid disease. This confirms the effect of hypothyroidism on lipid metabolism and causes increased risk of progression of cardiovascular events at the presence of two diseases. Conclusions. Among examined patients, hypothyroidism occurred 2.4 times more often

  18. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Should we treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Christopher; Vaidya, Bijay

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (also known as compensated hypothyroidism or mild hypothyroidism) is a condition associated with a raised serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but a normal serum free thyroxine (FT4). It is common, affecting about 10% of women above the age of 55 years. Autoimmunity is the commonest cause of subclinical hypothyroidism. About 2.5% of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism progress to clinically overt hypothyroidism each year; the rate of progression is higher in patients with thyroid autoantibodies and higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels. However, thyroid function normalises spontaneously in up to 40% cases. Only a small minority of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism have symptoms, and the evidence to support that levothyroxine ameliorate the symptoms in these patients is weak. Subclinical hypothyroidism in younger patients (treatment can prevent these risks, although a large observational study of the UK general practice research database has shown that levothyroxine may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in younger patients (hypothyroidism should be made after careful consideration of the patient's age, the presence of symptoms, the presence of thyroid antibodies and other risk factors such as cardiovascular disease.

  19. Effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on the skeletal system and improvement with short-term thyroxine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cuixia; Wang, Yu; Li, Tingting; Huang, Jing; Tian, Limin

    2017-10-27

    The purpose of the study was to observe changes in the skeletal system of rats with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and to determine whether L-thyroxine (L-T4) administration suppresses those changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, SCH, and SCH+T4 groups. SCH was induced in rats by administration of methimazole (MMI), and rats in the SCH+T4 group were treated with L-T4 after 45 days of MMI administration. The SCH group had higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level than the control and SCH+T4 groups. There were no differences in serum thyroid hormone (FT4 and FT3) levels among the three groups. Bone mineral density; serum levels of BALP and TRACP-5b, two bone metabolic markers; and the biomechanical properties of the femurs were lower in the SCH group than in the control group. After L-T4 treatment, serum BALP and TRACP-5b levels and the femur biomechanical properties were higher in the SCH+T4 than the SCH group. Histopathological examination revealed damage to the structure of the femur trabecular bone network in rats with SCH, and L-T4 treatment improved this condition to some extent. These findings demonstrate that L-T4 treatment ameliorates the destructive effects of SCH on the skeletal system in rats.

  20. Central hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  2. Neonatal hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the first month or so usually have normal intelligence. Untreated mild hypothyroidism can lead to severe intellectual ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  3. Congenital hypothyroidism presenting with postpartum bradycardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, S.; Tayman, C.; Tonbul, A.; Tatli, M.; Andiran, N.; Turkay, S.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a clinical condition characterized by lack of thyroid hormone because of thyroid gland developmental and thyroid hormone biosynthesis disorders. The most common cause of permanent hypothyroidism is congenital factors. Prompt diagnosis is critical. However, overt signs of hypothyroidism are rarely present at birth, and 95% of affected babies are asymptomatic. Hypoxemia, apnea, acidosis, increased intracranial pressure, vagal stimulus and central nerve system abnormalities represent the most common causes of bradycardia in the neonate. Bradycardia associated with congenital hypothyroidism is very rare. In this paper, a case of severe congenital hypothyroidism, induced by maternal blocker antibodies, who presented with bradycardia, is reported. (author)

  4. Hypothyroidism in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma: standardised long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, J R; Basterra, J; Ferrer, J C; Santonja, F; Zapater, E

    2016-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common complication when radiotherapy is part of the treatment for head and neck tumours. This study aimed to show the incidence of hypothyroidism and possible risk factors in these patients. Factors related to the population, tumour, treatment and occurrence of hypothyroidism were analysed in 241 patients diagnosed with head and neck carcinoma. Approximately 53 per cent of patients were diagnosed with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. Its occurrence was related to: tumour location, laryngeal surgery type, neck dissection type, post-operative complications, cervical radiotherapy and radiotherapy unit type (linear particle accelerator or telecobalt therapy technology). Control of thyroid function should be standardised for several years after treatment, particularly in patients with risk factors, such as those treated with telecobalt therapy, those with post-operative complications and for whom the thyroid parenchyma is included in the irradiated area (laryngeal or pharyngeal location and bilateral cervical radiation).

  5. Electromyographic Findings in Overt Hypothyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oğuz Akarsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism may cause neurologic signs and symptoms as its effects neuromuscular system like many other systems. Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid dysfuntion, it may cause neuromuscular signs and symptoms. In this retrospective study, it is aimed to compare neuromuscular symptoms and electromyographic (EMG manifestations between hypothyroid patients and control group with normal thyroid function and without a disease causing polyneuropathy. METHODS: 31 overt hypothyroidic, 139 subclinic hypothyroidic patients and 50 individuals with normal thyroid function, without a disease causing polyneuropathy, as control group whom made EMG for another reason were included to the study. Neuromuscular symptoms, neurological examination and electrophysiological findings was obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: In our study, we observed frequent neuromuscular complaints such as fatigue, morning stiffness, cramp, general pain and paresthesia in favor of both for overt and subclinic hypothyroidism. Carpal Tunnel Syndrom(CTS, was statistically higher in overt hypothyroidism group than control group. CTS was also observed higher in subclinic hypothyroidism group when compared with control group but it didn't reach to statistical significance. We did not detect polyneuropathy in any group. Motor nerve velocity and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were found to be statistically significant difference between hypothyroid ve control group. CONCLUSION: Since motor fibres' and neuromuscular area's being affected in hypothyroidism, which we interpret to happen due to basal metabolism's slowing down, can show a significant recovery after thyroid replacement therapy. We consider that, in further studies, comparison of electrophysiological findings after treatment with the findings of pre -treatment is necessary

  6. The Natural History of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwaru, Lily L.; Rariy, Chevon M.; Arnold, Alice M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies of long-term outcomes of subclinical hypothyroidism have assessed only baseline thyroid function, despite natural transitions to euthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism over time. Objective: We provide estimates of persistence, resolution, and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism over 4 yr, stratified by baseline TSH, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status, age, and sex. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants were 3996 U.S. individuals at least 65 yr old enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected at baseline in 459 individuals not taking thyroid medication. Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid function was evaluated at 2 and 4 yr and initiation of thyroid medication annually. Results were stratified by baseline TSH, TPOAb status, age, and sex. Results: Persistence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 56% at 2 and 4 yr. At 2 yr, resolution was more common with a TSH of 4.5–6.9 mU/liter (46 vs. 10% with TSH 7–9.9 mU/liter and 7% with TSH ≥10 mU/liter; P hypothyroidism (P hypothyroidism were common between 2 and 4 yr. Age and sex did not affect transitions. Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism persists for 4 yr in just over half of older individuals, with high rates of reversion to euthyroidism in individuals with lower TSH concentrations and TPOAb negativity. Future studies should examine the impact of transitions in thyroid status on clinical outcomes. PMID:22438233

  7. Correlation of Hypothyroidism and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.Y. Yuzvenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and hypothyroidism are common diseases, and consequently clinicians should be particularly alert for the possible thyroid dysfunction in obese patients. The relationship between thyroid function and obesity is likely to be bidirectional, with hypothyroidism affecting weight, but obesity also influencing thyroid function. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and fT3 are typically increased in obese individuals, likely mediated by leptin. Following LT4 treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears due to water weight rather than fat. Selected thyroid analogs might be a means to improve weight loss by increasing energy expenditure in obese patients during lasting hypocaloric diet.

  8. Hypothyroidism coordinately and transiently affects myelin protein gene expression in most rat brain regions during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola, N; Rodríguez-Peña, A

    1997-03-28

    To assess the role of thyroid hormone on myelin gene expression, we have studied the effect of hypothyroidism on the mRNA steady state levels for the major myelin protein genes: myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) in different rat brain regions, during the first postnatal month. We found that hypothyroidism reduces the levels of every myelin protein transcript, with striking differences between the different brain regions. Thus, in the more caudal regions, the effect of hypothyroidism was extremely modest, being only evident at the earlier stages of myelination. In contrast, in the striatum and the cerebral cortex the important decrease in the myelin protein transcripts is maintained beyond the first postnatal month. Therefore, thyroid hormone modulates in a synchronous fashion the expression of the myelin genes and the length of its effect depends on the brain region. On the other hand, hyperthyroidism leads to an increase of the major myelin protein transcripts above control values. Finally, lack of thyroid hormone does not change the expression of the oligodendrocyte progenitor-specific gene, the platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha.

  9. Levothyroxine rescues the lead-induced hypothyroidism and impairment of long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 region of the developmental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chuanyun; Liu Bing; Wang Huili; Ruan Diyun

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development has been associated with impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). Hypothyroidism happening upon subjects with occupational exposure to Pb is suggestive of an adverse effect of Pb on thyroid homeostasis, leading to the hypothesis that Pb exposure may alter thyroid hormone homeostasis. Hippocampus is one of the targets of Pb exposure, and is sensitive to and dependent on thyroid hormones, leading us to explore whether levothyroxine (L-T 4 ) administration could alter the thyroid disequilibrium and impairment of LTP in rat hippocampus caused by Pb exposure. Our results show that Pb exposure caused a decrease in triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and tetraiodothyronine (T 4 ) levels accompanied by a dramatic decrease of TSH and application of L-T 4 restored these changes to about control levels. Hippocampal and blood Pb concentration were significantly reduced following L-T 4 treatment. L-T 4 treatment rescued the impairment of LTP induced by the Pb exposure. These results suggest that Pb exposure may lead to thyroid dysfunction and induce hypothyroidism and provide a direct electrophysiological proof that L-T 4 relieves chronic Pb exposure-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity. - Highlights: → Lead may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis and induce hypothyroidism. → Levothyroxine decreases the hippocampal and blood Pb concentration. → Levothyroxine amends the T 3 , T 4 and TSH levels in blood. → Levothyroxine rescues the impaired LTP in CA1.

  10. IMPAIRMENT IN SHORT-TERM BUT ENHANCED LONG-TERM SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION AND ERK ACTIVATION IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPAL AREA CA1 FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA must evaluate the risk of exposure of the developing brain to chemicals with the potential to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. The existing literature identifies morphological and neurochemical indices of severe neonatal hypothyroidism in the early postnatal period i...

  11. Evaluation and Management of the Child with Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander K C; Leung, Alexander A C

    2018-05-08

    Thyroid hormones are critical for early neurocognitive development as well as growth and development throughout childhood. Prompt recognition and treatment of hypothyroidism is therefore of utmost importance to optimize physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes. To review in depth the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of hypothyroidism in children. A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "hypothyroidism". Patents were searched using the key term "hypothyroidism" from www.freepatentsonline.com. Hypothyroidism may be present at birth (congenital hypothyroidism) or develop later in life (acquired hypothyroidism). Thyroid dysgenesis and dyshormonogenesis account for approximately 85% and 15% of permanent cases of congenital primary hypothyroidism, respectively. More than 95% of infants with congenital hypothyroidism have few, if any, clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism. Newborn screening programs allow early detection of congenital hypothyroidism. In developed countries, Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common cause of goiter and acquired hypothyroidism in children and adolescents. Globally, iodine deficiency associated with goiter is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism is uncommon and may be associated with other congenital syndromes and deficiencies of other pituitary hormones. Familiarity of the clinical features would allow prompt diagnosis and institution of treatment. Recent patents related to the management of childhood hypothyroidism are discussed. To optimize neurocognitive outcome in infants with congenital hypothyroidism, treatment with levothyroxine should be started as soon as possible, preferably within the first two weeks of life. Children with acquired hypothyroidism should also be treated early to ensure normal growth and development as well as cognitive outcome. The target is to keep serum TSH hypothyroidism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Cardiac function in acute hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghue, K.; Hales, I.; Allwright, S.; Cooper, R.; Edwards, A.; Grant, S.; Morrow, A.; Wilmshurst, E.; Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that chronic hypothyroidism may affect cardiac function by several mechanisms. It is not known how long the patient has to be hypothyroid for cardiac involvement to develop. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of a short period of hypothyroidism (10 days) on cardiac function. Nine patients who had had total tyroidectomy, had received ablative radioiodine for thyroid cancer and were euthyroid on replacement therapy were studied while both euthyroid and hypothyroid. Cardiac assessment was performed by X-ray, ECG, echocardiography and gated blood-pool scans. After 10 days of hypothyroidisms, the left-ventricular ejection fraction failed to rise after exercise in 4 of the 9 patients studied, which was significant (P<0.002). No significant changes in cardiac size or function at rest were detected. This functional abnormality in the absence of any demonstrable change in cardiac size and the absence of pericardial effussion with normal basal function suggest that short periods of hypothyroidism may reduce cardiac reserve, mostly because of alterations in metabolic function. (orig.)

  13. Central hypothyroidism - a neglected thyroid disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Rodari, Giulia; Giavoli, Claudia; Lania, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by a defect in thyroid hormone secretion in an otherwise normal thyroid gland due to insufficient stimulation by TSH. The disease results from the abnormal function of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, or both. Moreover, central hypothyroidism can be isolated or combined with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are mostly acquired and are rarely congenital. The clinical manifestations of central hypothyroidism are usually milder than those observed in primary hypothyroidism. Obtaining a positive diagnosis for central hypothyroidism can be difficult from both a clinical and a biochemical perspective. The diagnosis of central hypothyroidism is based on low circulating levels of free T 4 in the presence of low to normal TSH concentrations. The correct diagnosis of both acquired (also termed sporadic) and congenital (also termed genetic) central hypothyroidism can be hindered by methodological interference in free T 4 or TSH measurements; routine utilization of total T 4 or T 3 measurements; concurrent systemic illness that is characterized by low levels of free T 4 and normal TSH concentrations; the use of the sole TSH-reflex strategy, which is the measurement of the sole level of TSH, without free T 4 , if levels of TSH are in the normal range; and the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism based on TSH analysis without the concomitant measurement of serum levels of T 4 . In this Review, we discuss current knowledge of the causes of central hypothyroidism, emphasizing possible pitfalls in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.

  14. Hypothyroidism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Qari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease that was seen in the clinical practice especially for family physicians. Methods: This review article covered the important practical clinical issues for managing overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Conclusions: The clinical issues were addressed by clinical scenario followed by questions and stressed on the important clinical points.

  15. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Čaparević Zorica; Bojković Gradimir; Stojanović Dragoš Lj.; Ilić Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an increased serum TSH and normal serum FT4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies are frequently present. Subclinical hypothyroidism may have endogenous or exogenous causes. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is rather high. The number of patients progressing to overt hypothyroidism may be higher. These patients may be asymptomatic, or have only mild symptoms or a single sym...

  16. Psychiatric and cognitive manifestations of hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Overt hypothyroidism has major effects on neuropsychiatric function, but patients with mild hypothyroidism may attribute unrelated neuropsychiatric symptoms to their thyroid condition. This review will summarize data on neuropsychiatric effects of hypothyroidism, and provide guidelines regarding the relationship between hypothyroidism and neuropsychiatric issues, and treatment indications. Recent findings Clinical investigations and functional imaging studies confirm that overt hypothyroidism is associated with affective and cognitive decrements, largely reversible with treatment. In contrast, subclinical hypothyroidism is not associated with major neuropsychiatric deficits, although studies utilizing sensitive measures show small deficits in memory and executive function. Neuropsychiatric complaints are more common when patients are aware of their thyroid disease, regardless of their thyroid function at the time of testing. Summary Neuropsychiatric dysfunction is common in overt hypothyroidism, and will improve (although perhaps not completely resolve) with therapy. On the other hand, deficits related to thyroid dysfunction are usually mild in subclinical hypothyroidism, and realistic expectations need to be set regarding symptom reversibility with treatment. Patients with mild hypothyroidism and significant distress related to neuropsychiatric symptoms most likely have independent diagnoses that should be evaluated separately. PMID:25122491

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...... clinically stable cyanotic congenital heart disease patients were examined with blood samples (thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and N-terminal pro-brain-natriuretic peptide) in a cross-sectional descriptive study. Second, a longitudinal follow-up study of 43 patients...... originating from the first study part, was carried out. These patients had thyroid function parameters (thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies) evaluated biannually. RESULTS: Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was present in 24% of the 90 screened patients. During...

  18. [Congenital hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Peón, María Fernanda

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a cause of preventable mental retardation; therefore, timely diagnosis and treatment by the primary care physician is very important. CH screening must be performed between the second and fifth days of life with capillary blood done with a heel prick and must be confirmed by measurement of thyroid hormones in venous blood. The most common cause of CH is thyroid dysgenesis, which may be identified by a thyroid scan carried out before initiating treatment. Treatment should be with levothyroxine (10-15μg/kg/day) and should not be delayed or suspended during the first 3 years of life due to the deleterious effect on neurodevelopment in case of low thyroid hormones during this time. Preterm or sick infants or those with Down syndrome require special consideration. This article provides diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for CH. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Medicines for Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T4 made by your body. What is the treatment for hypothyroidism? People who have hypothyroidism must take a pill ... Questions to ask your doctor • Do I have hypothyroidism? • What treatment do I need for it? • What are the ...

  20. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered ) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  1. Depression and anxiety in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demet, M M; Ozmen, B; Deveci, A; Boyvada, S; Adiguzel, H; Aydemir, O

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of depression and anxiety in patients with hypothyroidism and to compare this with euthyroid patients. Thirty patients with hypothyroidism and 30 euthyroid controls attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of Celal Bayar University, Medical Faculty were included in the study. The hormonal screening was done by immunoassay and haemagglutination methods. Then, for psychiatric assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were used. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of demographic features. Total scores obtained from the scales used in the study did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The frequency of items of both HAM-D and HAM-A did not show any differences in the two groups. By Wilks' Lambda discriminant analysis, depressive mood (HAM-D#1) was found to be the discriminating feature between the hypothyroid group and the euthyroid group. Therefore, depression and anxiety were not outstanding features in hypothyrodism. However, depression was more significant in the hypothyroid than euthyroid group.

  2. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the

  3. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Congenital hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function ...

  4. Myopathy in acute hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, JTC; Yu, YL; Kung, AWC

    1987-01-01

    Hypothyroid myopathy has so far been reported in long standing cases of hypothyroidism. We describe two adult patients with myopathy associated with acute transient hypothyroidism. Both presented with severe muscle aches and cramps, stiffness and spasms. Muscle enzymes were markedly elevated and electromyography in one patient showed myopathic features. Histological changes were absent in muscle biopsy, probably because of the short duration of metabolic disturbance. The myopathy subsided pro...

  5. Myopathy in acute hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, A. W.; Ma, J. T.; Yu, Y. L.; Wang, C. C.; Woo, E. K.; Lam, K. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Yeung, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    Hypothyroid myopathy has so far been reported in long standing cases of hypothyroidism. We describe two adult patients with myopathy associated with acute transient hypothyroidism. Both presented with severe muscle aches and cramps, stiffness and spasms. Muscle enzymes were markedly elevated and electromyography in one patient showed myopathic features. Histological changes were absent in muscle biopsy, probably because of the short duration of metabolic disturbance. The myopathy subsided pro...

  6. MENSTRUAL IRREGULARITIES IN HYPOTHYROIDISM

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani

    2015-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the effect of hypothyroidism, on the menstrual cycle of women in the reproductive age group. MATERIAL & METHODS: A total number of 50 cases of hypothyroidism patients recruited over a period of one year from the department of Nuclear Medicine K.G.H Visakhapatnam. All these subjects were evaluated clinically and the data recorded as per the proforma. RESULTS: In my study out of 50 hypothyroid women, 22% had normal menstrual cycle &...

  7. Hypothyroidism and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finora, Kevin; Greco, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs but is rare in cats. Lymphocytic thyroiditis and idiopathic thyroid atrophy are common causes of this condition. Specific thyroid function tests, in conjunction with clinical signs and physical examination findings, are used to help confirm a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. This disease can be managed with synthetic hormone supplementation and has an excellent prognosis. Myxedema coma is a rare and potentially fatal manifestation of severe hypothyroidism that can be successfully treated using intravenous levothyroxine.

  8. The Incidence of Hypothyroidism Following the Radioactive Iodine Treatment of Graves’ Disease and the Predictive Factors Influencing its Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseni, Maha Abd El-Kareem El-Sayed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the incidence of hypothyroidism following different fixed radioactive iodine-131 ( 131 I) activities in the treatment of Graves’ disease (GD) and to investigate the predictive factors that may influence its occurrence. This retrospective analysis was performed on 272 patients with GD who were treated with 131 I, among whom 125 received 370 MBq and 147 received 555 MBq. The outcome was categorized as hypothyroidism, euthyroidism, and persistent hyperthyroidism. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors that affect the development of hypothyroidism. The incidence of hypothyroidism following the first low activity was 24.8% with a high treatment failure rate of 58.4%, compared with 48.3% and 32% following high activity. The overall cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism following repeated activities was 50.7%, out of which 73.9% occurred after the first activity and 20.3% after the second activity. The higher 131 I activity (P < 0.001) and average and mild enlargement of the thyroid gland (P = 0.004) were identified as significant independent factors that increase the rate of incidence of hypothyroidism (Odds ratios were 2.95 and 2.59). No correlation was found between the development of hypothyroidism and the factors such as age, gender, presence of exophthalmos, previous antithyroid medications, and the durations, and Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate thyroid uptake. In view of the high treatment failure rate after first low activity and lower post high activity hypothyroid incidence, high activity is recommended for GD patients, reserving the use of 370MBq for patients with average sized and mildly enlarged goiter; this increases patient convenience by avoiding multiple activities to achieve cure and long-term follow-up

  9. Palpebral redundancy from hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, J; Wavak, P

    1980-01-01

    A patient is described with disabling palpebral edema. Primary hypothyroidism had been previously diagnosed and treated. Testing of thyroid function revealed persistence of the hypothyroidism. Treatment with L-thyroxine produced normalization of the biochemical parameters and resolution of palpebral edema. The search for hypothyrodism in patients with palpebral redundancy is emphasized.

  10. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Hypothyroidism: etiology, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Jaime P; Gharib, Hossein

    2012-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is the result of inadequate production of thyroid hormone or inadequate action of thyroid hormone in target tissues. Primary hypothyroidism is the principal manifestation of hypothyroidism, but other causes include central deficiency of thyrotropin-releasing hormone or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or consumptive hypothyroidism from excessive inactivation of thyroid hormone. Subclinical hypothyroidism is present when there is elevated TSH but a normal free thyroxine level. Treatment involves oral administration of exogenous synthetic thyroid hormone. This review presents an update on the etiology and types of hypothyroidism, including subclinical disease; drugs and thyroid function; and diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rhabdomyolysis case based on hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Katipoglu; Ihsan Ates; Fatih Acehan; Ayşenur Meteris; Nisbet Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hypothyroidism is a wide clinical spectrum disorder and only a few cases in literature show this. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal impairment can be seen concurrently in a hypothyroid state. We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with poor drug compliance leading to rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. Learning points: Hypothyroidism is a rare cause of acute kidney injury. In this case report, we studied a rare occurrence of acute renal impairment due to hypothyroidism with poor d...

  13. Hypothyroidism simulating as polymyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hina; Sayeed, Mohammad Ahsan; Qadeer, Rashid; Afsar, Salahuddin

    2015-05-01

    Polymyositis-like syndrome in hypothyroidism is a rare condition characterised by proximal muscle weakness and elevated muscle enzymes. Patients with this condition can initially be misdiagnosed as having polymyositis due to similar characteristics of both diseases; however a response to thyroxine is the main differentiating feature. This report highlights the case of a 30-year-old male who had severe myalgia and proximal muscle weakness. In addition to raised creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels, his biochemical profile showed hypothyroidism. Initially thought to be suffering from polymyositis, improvement in both clinical and biochemical profile with thyroxine led to the diagnosis of polymyositis-like syndrome associated with hypothyroidism.

  14. MOTOR AND COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM - A LONG-TERM EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF NEONATAL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOISTRA, L; LAANE, C; VULSMA, T; SCHELLEKENS, JMH; VANDERMEERE, JJ; KALVERBOER, AF

    Although neonatal thyroid screening programs have been of value in preventing cerebral damage, ii is still controversial whether patients with congenital hypothyroidism achieve normal motor and cognitive skills. We studied the motor and cognitive skills of 72 children with early-treated congenital

  15. The heart and hypothyroidism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... influenced by the thyroid disorder and vice versa. We recenrly ... hypothyroidism is a rare cause of heart failure other causes of heart failure must be excluded ... signs of cardiac tamponade and echocardiographic features of a.

  16. Macular amyloidosis and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53 year old woman presented with extensive pruritic hyperpigmented macules in interscapular area and extremities of four years duration.She was an established case of hypothyroidism on treatment for last four years.

  17. Hypothyroidism in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karwowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of a child from early foetal life. They have an impact on the development of the central nervous system, both prenatally and up to the age of 3 years, and regulate growth and most metabolic processes. Their importance has led to the introduction of screening for congenital hypothyroidism, which has been conducted in Poland for over 40 years. The diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism necessitates immediate levothyroxine implementation and strict treatment monitoring. Thanks to iodine prophylaxis, children in Poland do not require additional iodine administration. An isolated increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration without clinical signs of hypothyroidism and with negative antithyroid antibodies does not require treatment, but only monitoring of thyroidstimulating hormone levels. Children with positive antithyroid antibodies, genetic syndromes that predispose to hypothyroidism and history of thyroid irradiation require more frequent controls. The recommendations for suspected hypothyroidism presented in this article are based on the European Thyroid Association guidelines from 2014 on the management of subclinical hypothyroidism in children and pregnant women.

  18. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content

    OpenAIRE

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...

  19. Hypothyroidism: challenges when treating older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism frequently affects older adults' general sense of health, their cognitive abilities, and quality of life. Management decisions regarding when to start treatment and at what dosage to begin medication are influenced by both laboratory values and patient symptoms. Although specific guidelines regarding management of hypothyroidism in older adults do not exist, general recommendations include initiating hormone replacement with levothyroxine (Levoxyl(®), Synthroid(®), and others) at 12.5 mcg to 25 mcg and titrating the dose slowly based on response at 6-week intervals. Multiple medications and certain foods can interact with levothyroxine; therefore, the best dosage time is when a person is fasting or 4 hours postprandial. Using a consistent brand-name drug for hormone replacement with levothyroxine is important due to variations in the active ingredient in generic formulations. Providers need to be aware of the prevalence of hypothyroidism and management issues when caring for older adults. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms......: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search......, thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and could be categorized into two groups based on the exposure. The designs of the studies varied considerably, and there was heterogeneity related to lack of power, weak phenotype classifications and length of follow-up. Eight studies had glaucoma (5757...

  1. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Stephen, Charles; Paul, Thomas V; Thomas, Nihal; Oommen, Regi; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, (131)therapy for Graves' disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Consecutive adult patients with Graves' disease planned for I(131) therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi) I(131) administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3(rd) and 6(th) month subsequently. Forty seven patients (13M and 34F) were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21) and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00) among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3(rd) month were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64). Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43). Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13) required thyroxine replacement. There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I(131) therapy for Graves' disease.

  2. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  3. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  4. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  5. Lipid profile in hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.; Medeiros, F.; Campos, C.; Medeiros, N.; Kuklinsky-Sobral, J.; Araujo, E.

    1995-01-01

    The elevated levels of cholesterol (T-C), more specifically, the increase of carried cholesterol by low density protein (LDL-C), is the principal responsible to atheroma's plaque. This elevated levels had been associated with chronic renal disease, bile pathway obstruction and hypothyroidism; this pathology is an important and frequent cause of reversible hyperlipidaemia by hormonal treatment. In 50 hypothyroidism cases diagnosed by radioimmunoassay method, principally primary form, have been met elevated levels of TC (68%), triglyceride (14%), LDL-C (78%), HDL-C (66%) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, LDL-C/HDL-C (82%). These percentages showed that the low concentration of thyroid hormones conduct to high concentration of LDL-C, which represents the risk factor to CHD, despite the increase of HDL-C. Thereby, the hypothyroidism must be always searched in hyperlipemic patients without apparent cause. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  6. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassner, Ari J

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone has important physiologic functions in nearly every organ system. The critical role of thyroid hormone in growth and in physical and neurologic development lends particular importance to the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hypothyroidism in infants and children. Congenital hypothyroidism is common and has potentially devastating neurologic consequences. While the approach to diagnosis and treatment of severe congenital hypothyroidism is well established, data continue to emerge about the genetic causes, clinical significance, and prognosis of the milder forms of congenital hypothyroidism that are increasingly being diagnosed by newborn screening. Similarly, the diagnosis and treatment of severe acquired hypothyroidism is straightforward and clearly of clinical benefit, but uncertainty remains about the optimal management of mild subclinical hypothyroidism. This review summarizes current knowledge of the causes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of hypothyroidism in infants and children, with a focus on recent developments and areas of uncertainty in this field.

  8. Iatrogenic, sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a Labrador Retriever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, K; Harkin, K; Schermerhorn, T

    2009-12-01

    This case report describes a sulfonamide-induced hypothyroid crisis in a 4-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch. Empirical therapy with high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 10 days produced signs of weakness, ataxia and mental depression and the clinicopathological results supported hypothyroid-induced central nervous system depression. Short-term levothyroxine sodium therapy led to complete resolution of all clinical signs and follow-up thyroid hormone assays ruled out underlying thyroid pathology. This case report is the first to highlight this potentially life-threatening manifestation of sulfonamide-induced hypothyroidism. Sulfonamide combinations are widely used antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and early recognition of this syndrome is critical.

  9. Hypothyroidism masquerading as polymyositis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabili, Shaltiel; Kaplinsky, Naomi; Pines, Amos; Frankl, Otto

    1982-01-01

    A group of patients is described who presented with proximal muscle weakness and elevated muscle enzymes. They were initially believed to have polymyositis and one of them was even treated as such over a long period of time. The patients were subsequently found to have hypothyroidism and responded well to thyroid hormone replacement.

  10. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  11. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  12. Hypothyroidism causing paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaturaka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with severe hypothyroidism complicated by paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury. A 65 year old male patient, diagnosed with hypothyroidism one year ago was transferred to our unit in a state of drowsiness and confusion. He was severely hypothyroid and had paralytic ileus and impaired renal function at the time of transfer. Hypokalaemia was present, and was likely to have contributed to the paralytic ileus and this together with dehydration was likely to have contributed to renal injury. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism is very likely to have been the principal precipitant of both these complications, and both paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury improved with thyroxine replacement. Unfortunately, the patient died unexpectedly eight days after admission to the unit. Hypothyroidism may induce de novo acute kidney injury or it may exacerbate ongoing chronic kidney disease. This rare complication is assumed to be due to the hypodynamic circulatory state created by thyroid hormone deficiency. Paralytic ileus is an even rarer fatal manifestation of hypothyroidism and is thought to be due to an autonomic neuropathy affecting the intestines that is reversible with thyroxine replacement. To our knowledge, both these complications have not been observed in a single patient so far. It is important that clinicians are aware of these rare manifestations of hypothyroidism as in most occasions, thyroxine deficiency may be missed, and treatment can reverse the complications.

  13. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Faber, Jens; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Selmer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods and Results Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients of which 12,212 (1.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 55.2 [SD ± 18.8] years; 79.8% female). Within the first six months 2,483 (20.3%) patients claimed a prescription for levothyroxine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR: 5.2) years, 358 MI’s and 1,566 (12.8%) deaths were observed. Out of these, 766 of the deaths were cardiovascular related. No beneficial effects were found in levothyroxine treated patients on MI (IRR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.81 to 1.44]), cardiovascular death (IRR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.83 to 1.25]) or all-cause mortality (IRR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.90 to 1.19]), except in patients under the age of 65 years (IRR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40 to 0.99]). Conclusion Levothyroxine substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients does not indicate an association with lower mortality or decreased risk of MI. PMID:26069971

  14. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Nygaard Andersen

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients of which 12,212 (1.9% had subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 55.2 [SD ± 18.8] years; 79.8% female. Within the first six months 2,483 (20.3% patients claimed a prescription for levothyroxine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR: 5.2 years, 358 MI's and 1,566 (12.8% deaths were observed. Out of these, 766 of the deaths were cardiovascular related. No beneficial effects were found in levothyroxine treated patients on MI (IRR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.81 to 1.44], cardiovascular death (IRR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.83 to 1.25] or all-cause mortality (IRR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.90 to 1.19], except in patients under the age of 65 years (IRR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40 to 0.99].Levothyroxine substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients does not indicate an association with lower mortality or decreased risk of MI.

  15. Levothyroxine Substitution in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Faber, Jens; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Selmer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of levothyroxine treatment on myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Primary care patients aged 18 years and older that underwent thyroid function tests between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled. Participants were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism at baseline were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included a history of thyroid disease, related medication or medication affecting thyroid function. The total cohort comprised 628,953 patients of which 12,212 (1.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (mean age 55.2 [SD ± 18.8] years; 79.8% female). Within the first six months 2,483 (20.3%) patients claimed a prescription for levothyroxine. During a median follow-up of 5.0 (IQR: 5.2) years, 358 MI's and 1,566 (12.8%) deaths were observed. Out of these, 766 of the deaths were cardiovascular related. No beneficial effects were found in levothyroxine treated patients on MI (IRR 1.08 [95% CI: 0.81 to 1.44]), cardiovascular death (IRR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.83 to 1.25]) or all-cause mortality (IRR 1.03 [95% CI: 0.90 to 1.19]), except in patients under the age of 65 years (IRR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40 to 0.99]). Levothyroxine substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients does not indicate an association with lower mortality or decreased risk of MI.

  16. Factors affecting long-term integrity of transmission pipelines; Facteurs affectant l'integrite a long terme des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, N.; Masuda, T.; Oguchi, N. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For upgrading long-term integrity of transmission pipelines, two types of delayed fracture in regions of mechanical damage in pipelines were investigated. Experimental and numerical studies clarified factors affecting the fatigue behavior of line pipes containing an idealized flaw under fluctuating internal pressure. To investigate fatigue cracking at mechanical damage in pipelines, degradation of fracture toughness and fatigue properties due to plastic pre-strain was also evaluated. A fracture mechanics-based study revealed conditions necessarily for initiation of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) at a surface defect in line pipes under cathodic protection. (authors)

  17. Central hypothyroidism and its role for cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    limitations given vast difficulties in diagnosing the condition correctly biochemically, and difficulties monitoring the treatment because normal thyroid-pituitary feedback interrelationships are disrupted. The present review summarizes available studies of central adult hypothyroidism and its possible......Hypothyroidism is characterized by hypometabolism, and may be seen as a part of secondary failure due to pituitary insufficiency or tertiary due to hypothalamic disease. Secondary and tertiary failures are also referred to as central hypothyroidism. Whereas overt primary hypothyroidism has a well......-known affection on the heart and cardiovascular system, and may result in cardiac failure, cardiovascular affection is less well recognized in central hypothyroidism. Studies on central hypothyroidism and cardiovascular outcome are few and given the rarity of the diseases often small. Further, there are several...

  18. Central hypothyroidism and its role for cardiovascular risk factors in hypopituitary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is characterized by hypometabolism, and may be seen as a part of secondary failure due to pituitary insufficiency or tertiary due to hypothalamic disease. Secondary and tertiary failures are also referred to as central hypothyroidism. Whereas overt primary hypothyroidism has a well-known affection on the heart and cardiovascular system, and may result in cardiac failure, cardiovascular affection is less well recognized in central hypothyroidism. Studies on central hypothyroidism and cardiovascular outcome are few and given the rarity of the diseases often small. Further, there are several limitations given vast difficulties in diagnosing the condition correctly biochemically, and difficulties monitoring the treatment because normal thyroid-pituitary feedback interrelationships are disrupted. The present review summarizes available studies of central adult hypothyroidism and its possible influence on the cardiovascular system, describe differences from primary thyroid failure and seek evidence for performing guidelines for clinical management of this particular thyroid and hypothalamo-pituitary disorder.

  19. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  20. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism. A common complication of prolonged therapy: a report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, G.C.; Campbell, N.P.; Geddes, J.S.; Ferguson, W.R.; Postlethwaite, W.; Sheridan, B.; Atkinson, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Amiodarone is a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, which contains 75 mg of iodide per 200 mg of active substance. Eight patients receiving long-term amiodarone therapy became hypothyroid. Seven of these patients had no previous history of thyroid dysfunction or goiter. Antithyroid antibodies were absent, and standard perchlorate discharge tests were positive in seven patients when hypothyroidism was diagnosed. In one patient, amiodarone therapy was withdrawn; over the next nine months, the hypothyroidism resolved, and results of the perchlorate discharge test reverted to normal. The authors conclude that amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism is similar to previously described iodide-induced hypothyroidism. It may develop in the absence of a previous history of thyroid disease, and all patients receiving long-term amiodarone therapy should therefore be regularly monitored for hypothyroidism

  1. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  2. Renal function improves with the treatment of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulur, Oktay; Dal, Kursat; Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Eser, Murat; Kaplan Efe, Fatma; Karakaya, Serdar; Şahin, Kubilay; Baser, Salih; Ata, Naim; Aybal Kutlugun, Aysun; Beyan, Esin

    2017-08-01

    It has been known that thyroid hormones may affect renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of levothyroxine replacement on renal function in hypothyroid patients before and after treatment. We retrospectively investigated free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), TSH, creatinine, and eGFR measurements during both hypothyroid and euthyroid states of hypothyroid patients. The eGFR was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. fT3, fT4, and eGFR measurements increased, meanwhile creatinine and TSH levels decreased significantly after euthyroidism was achieved with levothyroxine treatment (p treatment (r: 0.288, p treatment (r: -0.272, p hypothyroidism and found out that renal function improved in most patients after euthyroidism was achieved. In some patients, above-normal creatinine levels completely returned to normal once the patients became euthyroid.

  3. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneela Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of CH in neonates. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted in neonatal units of the Department of Pediatrics Unit-I, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore and Lady Willington Hospital Lahore in 6 months (January-June 2011. Materials and Methods: Sample was collected by non-probability purposive sampling. After consent, 550 newborn were registered for the study. Demographic data and relevant history was recorded. After aseptic measures, 2-3 ml venous blood analyzed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level by immunoradiometric assay. Treatment was started according to the individual merit as per protocol. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and Chi-square test was applied to find out the association of CH with different variables. Results: The study population consisted of 550 newborns. Among 550 newborns, 4 (0.8% newborns had elevated TSH level. CH had statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism (P value 0.000 and mother′s drug intake during the pregnancy period (P value 0.013. Conclusion: CH is 0.8% in neonates. It has statistically significant association with mother′s hypothyroidism and mother′s drug intake during pregnancy.

  5. [Management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Functional thyropathies present significant health risks for patients. Advanced functional thyropathies are always treated while indications for therapy of subclinical thyropathies are individual and often controversial. It is widely agreed that these disorders should be diagnosed and individuals should be followed. The drug of choice in substitution therapy of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine, in the treatment of hyperthyroidism it is methimazole. Administration of propylthiouracil should be limited to the first trimester of pregnancy, because its serious hepatotoxicity has been described. Hyperthyroidism based on thyroid nodules and immunogenic hyperthyroidism not reaching long-term remission, need to be treated radically: by surgery or radioiodine treatment. When radiation protection requirements are met, radioiodine can also be administered on an outpatient basis. Exceptionally, small doses of methimazole can be administered over an extended period of time in individual cases.

  6. Hypothyroidism caused by 131I treatment for Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shouzhen; Lin Xiangtong; He Wanting; Zhang Kaili; Zhang Jinming; Kuai Dayu

    1991-01-01

    The refollow-up has been carried out in hypothyroidism caused by 131 I treatment for Graves disease. The serum HS-TSH(IRMA), FT3, TSH(RIA), TT3, TT4, FT4I, MCA, TGA, Cholesterol and Triglyceride has been measured in 26 patient after 131 I treatment for 9.5 years in average. At the same time TRH stimulation test was also performed, and the clinical symptoms and signs assessed. The results showed that TSH is the most sensitive criterion for hypothyroidism, followed by Cholesterol and FT 4 I. The occurence of hypothyroidism may be related to the presence of thyroid antibody as demonstrated by the elevation of serum MCA, TGA. Therefore measurement of serum TSH, FT 4 I and Cholesterol during long term follow-up is beneficial for early diagnosis of hypothyroidism and evaluating the effect of substitution treatment

  7. Do long-term tongue piercings affect speech quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Esther; Birkholz, Peter; Willmes, Klaus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency. We found no statistically significant differences for any of the speech quality dimensions between the pierced and non-pierced individuals, neither for the read nor for the spontaneous speech. In addition, neither length nor position of piercing had a significant effect on speech quality. The removal of tongue piercings had no effects on speech performance either. Rating differences between laypersons and speech-language pathologists were not dependent on the presence of a tongue piercing. People are able to perfectly adapt their articulation to long-term tongue piercings such that their speech quality is not perceptually affected.

  8. Binaural auditory beats affect long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Argibay, Miguel; Santed, Miguel A; Reales, José M

    2017-12-08

    The presentation of two pure tones to each ear separately with a slight difference in their frequency results in the perception of a single tone that fluctuates in amplitude at a frequency that equals the difference of interaural frequencies. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binaural auditory beats, and it is thought to entrain electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and memory. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of binaural auditory beats on long-term memory. Participants (n = 32) were kept blind to the goal of the study and performed both the free recall and recognition tasks after being exposed to binaural auditory beats, either in the beta (20 Hz) or theta (5 Hz) frequency bands and white noise as a control condition. Exposure to beta-frequency binaural beats yielded a greater proportion of correctly recalled words and a higher sensitivity index d' in recognition tasks, while theta-frequency binaural-beat presentation lessened the number of correctly remembered words and the sensitivity index. On the other hand, we could not find differences in the conditional probability for recall given recognition between beta and theta frequencies and white noise, suggesting that the observed changes in recognition were due to the recollection component. These findings indicate that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively, depending on the frequency used.

  9. Recent Advances in Central Congenital Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenmakers, Nadia Adham; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, Vengalil Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Central Congenital Hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated ne...

  10. Recent advances in central congenital hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16?000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated n...

  11. Congenital Hypothyroidism and Goitre in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Albert J.; Curtis, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The problems of congenital hypothyroidism and goitre are relatively common in childhood. The investigation and treatment of these disorders requires a knowledge of their various causes, appropriate investigation, and referral for specialist consultation as necessary, as well as involvement of the family physician in the monitoring of effectiveness of and compliance with treatment. Many of these disorders have life-long implications for the individual affected.

  12. Hypertrichosis due to primary hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, S R; Kelnar, C J

    1985-01-01

    A 10 year old girl with hypertrichosis associated with primary hypothyroidism that resolved after 6 months' replacement treatment with thyroxine is reported. It is important to consider the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children with abnormal hairiness or distribution of body hair.

  13. [Hypothyroidism incidence after multimodal treatment for laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Gutiérrez, César; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Herrera Gómez, Angel; Téllez-Palacios, Daniela; Contreras-Buendía, Marlen

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism following total laryngectomy or radiotherapy treatment for laryngeal cancer is not a rare event, especially in advanced stages. There are no reports on the incidence of hypothyroidism in patients who received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of thyroid dysfunction in a group of patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent surgery as sole treatment, total laryngectomy or radiotherapy alone, and patients with combined treatment: surgery plus radiotherapy, concomitant chemoradiation therapy and chemoradiation therapy plus salvage surgery. A prospective study of patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer whose serum TSH and T4 levels were evaluated in a serial fashion. 70 patients with laryngeal cancer were studied; the average age at diagnosis was 70.2 years. Male patients were more affected, with a men-women ratio of 3.6:1. Glottic localization was the most frequent (44%). 64% of tumors were locally advanced carcinomas and 51% received multimodal treatment. 45 patients (63%) were diagnosed with hypothyroidism; 49% of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 51% with clinical hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a complication following treatment for laryngeal cancer. It is recommended to evaluate the thyroid function periodically for timely detection.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  15. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter N; Albrecht, Diana; Scholz, Anna; Gutierrez-Buey, Gala; Lazarus, John H; Dayan, Colin M; Okosieme, Onyebuchi E

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common conditions with potentially devastating health consequences that affect all populations worldwide. Iodine nutrition is a key determinant of thyroid disease risk; however, other factors, such as ageing, smoking status, genetic susceptibility, ethnicity, endocrine disruptors and the advent of novel therapeutics, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, also influence thyroid disease epidemiology. In the developed world, the prevalence of undiagnosed thyroid disease is likely falling owing to widespread thyroid function testing and relatively low thresholds for treatment initiation. However, continued vigilance against iodine deficiency remains essential in developed countries, particularly in Europe. In this report, we review the global incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, highlighting geographical differences and the effect of environmental factors, such as iodine supplementation, on these data. We also highlight the pressing need for detailed epidemiological surveys of thyroid dysfunction and iodine status in developing countries.

  16. Overview of Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroopnick, Jeffrey M; Kim, Caroline S

    2016-11-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy, defined as an elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and reduced serum free thyroxine or a TSH >10 mIU/L, is known to have adverse effects on pregnancy. Subclinical hypothyroidism is typically defined as an elevated TSH and normal FT4 levels. There remains much controversy on the benefit of starting levothyroxine for mothers diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. Recent studies are redefining the normal range for TSH in pregnancy, and the data on whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes for the mother and fetus are unclear. One confounding variable is the presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies, as it may be a surrogate marker for other autoimmune disorders detrimental to pregnancy. If levothyroxine treatment is initiated, the dosing and monitoring strategy is different from nonpregnant individuals. Randomized clinical trials are underway that may better elucidate whether treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is warranted. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Diural TSH variations in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeke, J; Laurberg, P

    1976-07-01

    There is a circadian variation in serum TSH in euthyroid subjects. A similar diurnal variation has been demonstrated in patients with hypothyroidism. In the present study the 24-hour pattern of serum TSH was investigated in eight patients with hypothyroidism of varying severity and in five hypothyroid patients treated with thyroxine (T4). There was a circadian variation in serum TSH in patients with hypothyroidism of moderate degree, and in patients treated for severe hypothyrodism with thyroxine. The pattern was similar to that found in normal subjects, i.e., low TSH levels in the daytime and higher levels at night. In severely hypothyroid patients, no diurnal variation in serum TSH was observed. A practical consequence is that blood samples for TSH measurements in patients with moderately elevated TSH levels are best taken after 1100 h, when the low day levels are reached.

  18. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, D.

    1983-09-12

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

  19. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, D.

    1983-01-01

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.) [de

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  1. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Pitfalls on the replacement therapy for primary and central hypothyroidism in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Gisah Amaral; Paz-Filho, Gilberto; Mesa Junior, Cleo; Graf, Hans

    2018-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH. The standard treatment of primary and central hypothyroidism is hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium (LT4). Treatment guidelines of hypothyroidism recommend monotherapy with LT4 due to its efficacy, long-term experience, favorable side effect profile, ease of administration, good intestinal absorption, long serum half-life and low cost. Despite being easily treatable with a daily dose of LT4, many patients remain hypothyroid due to malabsorption syndromes, autoimmune gastritis, pancreatic and liver disorders, drug interactions, polymorphisms in DIO2 (iodothyronine deiodinase 2), high fiber diet, and more frequently, non-compliance to LT4 therapy. Compliance to levothyroxine treatment in hypothyroidism is compromised by daily and fasting schedule. Many adult patients remain hypothyroid due to all the above mentioned and many attempts to improve levothyroxine therapy compliance and absorption have been made. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Recent advances in central congenital hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16 000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated neonatal hypothyroidism. Alternatively, coexisting growth hormones or ACTH deficiency may pose additional risks, such as life threatening hypoglycaemia. Genetic ascertainment is possible in a minority of cases and reveals mutations in genes controlling the TSH biosynthetic pathway (TSHB, TRHR, IGSF1) in isolated TSH deficiency, or early (HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, SOX3, OTX2) or late (PROP1, POU1F1) pituitary transcription factors in combined hormone deficits. Since TSH cannot be used as an indicator of euthyroidism, adequacy of treatment can be difficult to monitor due to a paucity of alternative biomarkers. This review will summarize the normal physiology of pituitary development and the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, then describe known genetic causes of isolated central hypothyroidism and combined pituitary hormone deficits associated with TSH deficiency. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of these conditions will then be discussed. PMID:26416826

  3. Hypothyroidism in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MetS and hypothyroidism are well established forerunners of atherogenic cardiovascular disease. Considerable overlap occurs in the pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance has been studied as the basic pathogenic mechanism in metabolic syndrome. [1] This cross sectional study intended to assess thyroid function in patients with metabolic syndrome and to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with metabolic syndrome who fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program- Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria [ 3 out of 5 criteria positive namely blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm hg or on antihypertensive medications, fasting plasma glucose > 100 mg/dl or on anti-diabetic medications, fasting triglycerides > 150 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 102 cms in men and 88 cms in women] were included in the study group. [2] Fifty patients who had no features of metabolic syndrome (0 out of 5 criteria for metabolic syndrome were included in the control group. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions and lipid levels and those who are under treatment for any thyroid related disorder were excluded from the study. Acutely ill patients were excluded taking into account sick euthyroid syndrome. Patients were subjected to anthropometry, evaluation of vital parameters, lipid and thyroid profile along with other routine laboratory parameters. Students t-test, Chi square test and linear regression, multiple logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the 100 patients in study group, 55 were females (55% and 45 were males (45%. Of the 50

  4. Risks and safety of combination therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Hypothyroidism is currently a condition that can be treated, but not cured. Although levothyroxine reverses stigmata of hypothyroidism in most individuals, some patients feel dissatisfied with 'monotherapy', and this has stimulated interest in 'combination therapy' with both levothyroxine and liothyronine. A search of PubMed was conducted using terms including hypothyroidism, treatment, benefits, risks, and safety. Based on the articles identified, the body of evidence regarding the efficacy of traditional levothyroxine is reviewed. Concerns with levothyroxine therapy including impaired quality of life in treated patients, thyroxine-predominant hormone ratios, and inadvertent iatrogenic thyroid disease are discussed. The trials of combination therapy performed since 1999 were reviewed. The heterogeneity of these trials, both in terms of design and results, is discussed. The potential for new trials to determine whether combination therapy can reverse the dissatisfaction associated with monotherapy, while avoiding non-physiologic hormone ratios, inadvertent thyrotoxicosis, and unacceptable side effects is discussed. Expert commentary: Research regarding which therapy fully reverses hypothyroidism at a tissue and cellular level is ongoing. The field would be advanced by the development of an extended release preparation of liothyronine. In the future regeneration of functional thyroid follicles from stem cells may offer hope for curing hypothyroidism.

  5. Hypothyroidism in Filipino neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevarra, R.; Torres, J.F.; Estrada, F.A.; San Luis, T.O.L.

    1988-01-01

    Thyroid hormone determination (T4, T3, rT3, TSH) in cord blood of 3,897 newborns was carried out in Metro Manila (non-endemic) and central, Northern and Southern Luzon (endemic for goiter). The objective is to detect congenital hypothyroidism and establish its incidence in new born Filipinos. This was done by radioimmunoassay, using commercial kits from Abbott Laboratories. The results obtained as mean values for non-endemic regions are: T4: 10.96 +- 2.25 ug/dl; T3: 60-64 +- 13.82 ng/dl; rT3: 250.4 +- 64.9 ng/dl; and TSH 5.89 +- 2.58 uU/ml, n=200. Mean values in endemic regions (n = 205) are T4: 9.46 +- 2.18 ug/dl; T3: 67.8 +- 12.05 ng/dl; rT3: 184.3 +- 32.7 ng/dl and TSH: 6.65 +- 3.13 uU/ml. From the above data, nomograms were drawn where the values obtained from each case were plotted. From non-endemic regions 28 positive cases were recalled and in the endemic regions 16 positive cases were also recalled for re-examination but most of them turned out to be false positive. As of now, four positive cases were found in Metro Manila, i.e. 4/2, 441 births and five in endemic regions out of 1,456 births so the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism is 9/3,897 births. This is 9 times higher than most reports abroad which is about 1/4000 births. (Auth.). 36 refs; 10 tabs; 10 figs

  6. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  7. A Clinical Study on Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Jo; Park, Sun Yang; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1976-01-01

    A clinical study was made on 263 patients of hypothyroidism among the 5,970 patients of Various thyroid diseases diagnosed and treated at the Radioisotope Clinic and Laboratory, Seoul National University Hospital from May, 1960 to Aug, 1975. The results obtained with this study are as follows: 1) The etiological classification of hypothyroidism revealed 244 cases (93%) of primary hypothyroidism and 19 cases (7%) of secondary hypothyroidism. 2) The most frequent cause of the thyroprivic primary hypothyroidism was post radioiodine therapy with 109 cases (41.4%). 3) There were 37 cases (14%) of male and 226 cases (86%) of female, showing a ratio of 1 : 6. 4) The majority of patients were between the ages of 30 and 60 with the peak incidence (87 cases, 33%) in their fourth decades of lives. 5) The major symptoms and signs were weakness (97%), edema of face and extremities (92%); Decreased Achilles tendon reflex (87%), cold intolerance (82%), gain in weight (76%), constipation (58%) and cold skin (51%). 6) The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism in patient treated with 131 I (3-8 mci) was 7.2% at first year, 33.3% at tenth year and the 50% at fourteenth year and the annual increment was 2.9%. 7) The incidence of hypothyroidism related to the numbers of 131 I therapy was not linear. 8) The diagnostic compatibilities of the various tests to hypothyroidism were TSH (100%), T 4 (93.8%), 24-hour-RNIU (91.5%), ATR (86.7%), T 3 RU (66.1%) and BMR (64.9%).

  8. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  9. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Amit; Reddy Amareesh P.; Malleswara Rao G.; Reddy V. Umamaheswara

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  10. A Clinical Study on Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Jo; Park, Sun Yang; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-03-15

    A clinical study was made on 263 patients of hypothyroidism among the 5,970 patients of Various thyroid diseases diagnosed and treated at the Radioisotope Clinic and Laboratory, Seoul National University Hospital from May, 1960 to Aug, 1975. The results obtained with this study are as follows: 1) The etiological classification of hypothyroidism revealed 244 cases (93%) of primary hypothyroidism and 19 cases (7%) of secondary hypothyroidism. 2) The most frequent cause of the thyroprivic primary hypothyroidism was post radioiodine therapy with 109 cases (41.4%). 3) There were 37 cases (14%) of male and 226 cases (86%) of female, showing a ratio of 1 : 6. 4) The majority of patients were between the ages of 30 and 60 with the peak incidence (87 cases, 33%) in their fourth decades of lives. 5) The major symptoms and signs were weakness (97%), edema of face and extremities (92%); Decreased Achilles tendon reflex (87%), cold intolerance (82%), gain in weight (76%), constipation (58%) and cold skin (51%). 6) The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism in patient treated with {sup 131}I (3-8 mci) was 7.2% at first year, 33.3% at tenth year and the 50% at fourteenth year and the annual increment was 2.9%. 7) The incidence of hypothyroidism related to the numbers of {sup 131}I therapy was not linear. 8) The diagnostic compatibilities of the various tests to hypothyroidism were TSH (100%), T{sub 4} (93.8%), 24-hour-RNIU (91.5%), ATR (86.7%), T{sub 3}RU (66.1%) and BMR (64.9%).

  11. How Do Observer's Responses Affect Visual Long-Term Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    How does responding to an object affect explicit memory for visual information? The close theoretical relationship between action and perception suggests that items that require a response should be better remembered than items that require no response. However, conclusive evidence for this claim is lacking, as semantic coherence, category size,…

  12. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  13. Hypothyroidism After a Cancer Diagnosis: Etiology, Diagnosis, Complications, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer’s clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients. PMID:24309982

  14. Hypothyroidism after a cancer diagnosis: etiology, diagnosis, complications, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer's clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients.

  15. A link between hypothyroidism, obesity and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiceles, Veronica; da Fonte Ramos, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the serum levels of thyroid hormones are below that necessary to carry out physiological functions in the body. Hypothyroidism is related to obesity as an increase in body weight gain is seen in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, an inverse correlation between free thyroxine values and body mass index has been reported. Leptin, a polypeptide hormone produced by adipocytes, was originally thought to be an antiobesity hormone due its anorexic effects on hypothalamic appetite regulation. However, nowadays it is known that leptin conveys information about the nutritional status to the brain being considered a crucial endocrine factor for regulating several physiological processes including reproduction. Since the identification of thyroid hormone and leptin receptors on the testes, these hormones are being recognized as having important roles in male reproductive functions. A clear link exists among thyroid hormones, leptin and reproduction. Both hormones can negatively affect spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility ranging from 8 to 15%. The fact that 30% of couples' inability to conceive is related to a male factor and that the longer hypothyroidism persisted, the greater the damage to the testes, strongly suggest that more studies attempting to clarify both hormones actions directly in the testes need to be conducted specially in cases of congenital hypothyroidism. Therefore, the goal of this review is to highlight the relationship of such hormones in the reproductive system.

  16. Interest of the thyroid scintigraphy in the hypothyroidism of children affected by Downs Syndrome; Interet de la scintigraphie thyroidienne dans l'hypothyroidie des enfants atteints de trisomie 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimi, S.; Slim, I.; Yeddes, I.; El Ajmi, W.; Rmadi, S.; Ltaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, institut Salah Azeiz, Tunis, (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    The corrected hypothyroidism for the trisomic children can have diverse etiologies. the thyroid scintigraphy allows to precise the stage of the thyroiditis in case of auto-immune disease and to comfort the hypothesis of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis immaturity in the case of negative immunological evaluation. (N.C.)

  17. Pregnancy Complications Associated With Maternal Hypothyroidism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Danielle Rosani; Santos, Thais da Silva; de Carvalho, Hayalla Corrêa; Lopes, Laíza Cristina Bahls; Günther, Luciene Setsuko Akimoto; Aristides, Sandra Mara Alessi; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2018-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most prevalent diseases in pregnancy, but there is no consensus about its management in pregnant women. In this systematic review, we evaluated the association between pregnancy complications and treated or untreated maternal hypothyroidism. PubMed and reference lists were searched for the Medical Subject Headings terms "pregnancy complications" and "hypothyroidism." The eligibility criteria for inclusion in the study were an original study published between 2002 and 2013. Six reviewers independently selected the studies, and 3 extracted the data. Two reviewers assessed the risk of bias and quality of the studies. Eighteen studies were included in the systematic review. The most prevalent complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism were abortion, intrauterine fetal death, preterm delivery, and preeclampsia. The pregnancy outcome depended on the treatment that was received by the patient. Strong evidence indicates that maternal hypothyroidism is associated with maternal-fetal complications, but no consensus was found among the studies reviewed herein. The dose of levothyroxine that is required to maintain euthyroidism is still questioned, but studies have suggested that levothyroxine should be adjusted according to the gestational period and laboratory profile.

  18. Prepregnancy hypothyroidism versus gestational hypothyroidism: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Ulhas Kaduskar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism managed inadequately in pregnancy may have grave outcomes for both mother and baby. Understanding pregnancy outcomes in our country with low awareness about thyroid diseases is important. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate demographic features and biochemical parameters in patients with prepregnancy hypothyroidism versus patients diagnosed to have primary hypothyroidism during pregnancy and to assess pregnancy outcomes. Study Design: Prospective design Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in Bengaluru for 2 years. The patients were divided into two groups - Group I: Prepregnancy hypothyroidism and Group II: Hypothyroid during pregnancy. They were further staged according to ESI guidelines as subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square and Mann–Whitney test. Results: A total of 452 pregnant women with hypothyroidism were analyzed. The data of 371 delivered pregnancies were available. Group I and II had 196 (43.36% and 256 (56.64% patients, respectively. Age at presentation (years was 27.09 ± 4.19 in Group I versus 25.74 ± 4.29 in Group II (P = 0.003; gestational age (weeks was 9.04 ± 5.41 in Group I versus 13.81 ± 9.12 in Group II (P = 0.000. There was one case of congenital hypothyroidism in baby in each group. Mean birth weight was 2.90 ± 0.39 kg in Group I versus 2.88 ± 0.36 kg in Group II; P = 0.608. There were four abortions in Group I versus ten in Group II (P = 0.231, 104 cesarean sections in Group I compared to 133 in Group II; (P = 0.382. There was no difference in number of cesarean sections, abortions and low birth weight babies between overt and subclinical hypothyroidism subgroups. Conclusions: Group I patients presented earlier for testing suggesting awareness was good in this group. There was no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two groups. Overt versus subclinical status did not have any different

  19. Features of the nervous system lesion in primary hypothyroidism (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Bilous

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the pathogenetic mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system pathology in primary hypothyroidism. Lack of thyroid hormones leads to changes in the organization of the central nervous system, decrease in the energy supply of neurons, changes in the synthesis of some specific proteins of the nervous system that cause the development of cretinism in children. The role of hypothyroidism in the development of cognitive impairment in adults, such as decreased cognitive function, memory and attention, has been proved. The impairment of logical thinking is found already in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Disorders in mediation exchange lead to the development of depression. Neuromuscular disorders (hypothyroid myopathy and myotonic phenomenon and affection to the peripheral nerves are best studied in hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism may be masked by tunnel neuropathy, polyneuropathy and atactic syndrome. Despite the existing papers on the problem of hypothyroidism and its neurological complications, some issues of pathogenesis, diagnosis, course and treatment of neurological pathology in primary hypothyroidism require further research.

  20. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  1. Thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: is hypothyroidism inevitable?

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, M.; Talbot, C. H.

    1989-01-01

    The outcome of 234 patients with Graves' disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy over a 12-year period is analysed with specific reference to hypothyroidism. Of definite hypothyroid cases, 98% occurred within 2 years. Failure to develop hypothyroidism was statistically related to large remnant size and a large goitre preoperatively. Histological review showed that any degree of lymphocytic infiltration was associated with the development of hypothyroidism (50% vs 22%). Late onset hypothyroi...

  2. Hypothyroidism associated with parathyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Elli, Francesca Marta; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders. Hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism may also follow endocrine glands' damages due to autoimmunity or chronic iron overload in thalassemic disorders, both genetically determined conditions. Finally, besides PTH deficiency, hypocalcemia can be due to PTH resistance in pseudohypoparathyroidism; when hormone resistance is generalized, patients can suffer from hypothyroidism due to TSH resistance. In evaluating patients with hypothyroidism and hypocalcemia, physical examination and clinical history are essential to drive the diagnostic process, while routine genetic screening is not recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Congenital hypothyroidism: insights into pathogenesis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cherella, Christine E.; Wassner, Ari J.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism occurs in approximately 1 in 2000 newborns and can have devastating neurodevelopmental consequences if not detected and treated promptly. While newborn screening has virtually eradicated intellectual disability due to severe congenital hypothyroidism in the developed world, more stringent screening strategies have resulted in increased detection of mild congenital hypothyroidism. Recent studies provide conflicting evidence about the potential neurodevelopmental risks...

  4. Preliminary investigation of processes that affect source term identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickliff, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

    1991-09-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 is known to be a significant source of contaminants, especially tritium ( 3 H), to the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. For example, Solomon et al. (1991) estimated the total 3 H discharge in Melton Branch (most of which originates in SWSA 5) for the 1988 water year to be 1210 Ci. A critical issue for making decisions concerning remedial actions at SWSA 5 is knowing whether the annual contaminant discharge is increasing or decreasing. Because (1) the magnitude of the annual contaminant discharge is highly correlated to the amount of annual precipitation (Solomon et al., 1991) and (2) a significant lag may exist between the time of peak contaminant release from primary sources (i.e., waste trenches) and the time of peak discharge into streams, short-term stream monitoring by itself is not sufficient for predicting future contaminant discharges. In this study we use 3 H to examine the link between contaminant release from primary waste sources and contaminant discharge into streams. By understanding and quantifying subsurface transport processes, realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge, along with an evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial action alternatives, will be possible. The objectives of this study are (1) to characterize the subsurface movement of contaminants (primarily 3 H) with an emphasis on the effects of matrix diffusion; (2) to determine the relative strength of primary vs secondary sources; and (3) to establish a methodology capable of determining whether the 3 H discharge from SWSA 5 to streams is increasing or decreasing

  5. Dose-volumetric parameters for predicting hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young; Yu, Tosol; Wu, Hong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate predictors affecting the development of hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, focusing on radiation dose-volumetric parameters, and to determine the appropriate radiation dose-volumetric threshold of radiation-induced hypothyroidism. A total of 114 patients with head and neck cancer whose radiotherapy fields included the thyroid gland were analysed. The purpose of the radiotherapy was either definitive (n=81) or post-operative (n=33). Thyroid function was monitored before starting radiotherapy and after completion of radiotherapy at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. A diagnosis of hypothyroidism was based on a thyroid stimulating hormone value greater than the maximum value of laboratory range, regardless of symptoms. In all patients, dose volumetric parameters were analysed. Median follow-up duration was 25 months (range; 6-38). Forty-six percent of the patients were diagnosed as hypothyroidism after a median time of 8 months (range; 1-24). There were no significant differences in the distribution of age, gender, surgery, radiotherapy technique and chemotherapy between the euthyroid group and the hypothyroid group. In univariate analysis, the mean dose and V35-V50 results were significantly associated with hypothyroidism. The V45 is the only variable that independently contributes to the prediction of hypothyroidism in multivariate analysis and V45 of 50% was a threshold value. If V45 was <50%, the cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism at 1 year was 22.8%, whereas the incidence was 56.1% if V45 was ≥50%. (P=0.034). The V45 may predict risk of developing hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and a V45 of 50% can be a useful dose-volumetric threshold of radiation-induced hypothyroidism. (author)

  6. Hypothyroid myopathy. A clinical and pathologaical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeran, R O; Slavin, G; Ward, P; Paul, E; Mair, W G

    1980-09-01

    Ten patients with varying degrees of hypothroid myopathy were studied clinically and by serial percutaneous needle muscle biopsies before and during treatment with L-thyroxine. The biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism was related to the severity of the myopathic and signs before treatment. The severity of myopathic symptoms before and during treatment correlated with the biochemical evidence of hypothyrodism, a type II fibre atrophy and increased central nuclear counts. Likewise, the clinical evidence of a myopathy before and during treatment was correlated with both a type II fibre atrophy and loss and increased central nuclear counts but was not related to the biochemical parameters of hypothyroidism, except the level of thyroid stimulating hormone. In the muscle, before and during treatment, of the two most severely affected patients, intracellular glycogen inclusions were seen in scattered muscle fibres. On light microscopy and on electronmicroscopy, numerous mitochondria were seen responding to L-thyroxine with accumulations of subsarcolemmal honey-combing. Vesicular abnormalities, an electron dense matrix or occasional crystalline deposits were seen in muscle mitochondria from less severely azffected patients. Severely myopathic muscle contained excessive glycogen, membrane bound glycogen and excess lipid in a mainly perinuclear distribution. Occasional myelin and membranous bodies were seen and satellite cells during the recovery phase. A group of patients with hypothyroid myopathy who are likely to have a delayed recovery of full muscle strength on L-thyroxine may be recognised by the presence of severe proximal muscle weakness and characteristic changes on histochemical and electronmicroscopic examination of muscle. The spectrum of histochemical and electronmicroscopic abnormalities of muscle revealed with increasing degree of hypothyrodism, suggests that a generally reversible acquired glycogen storage and mictochondrial disorder is an important feature

  7. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Joo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Kyung [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Kwang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Moore, David D., E-mail: moore@bcm.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice.

  8. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR −/− mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR −/− mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR −/− hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR −/− mice and in and CAR −/− PXR −/− double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR −/− mice and lowest in WT and PXR −/− mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR −/− mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR −/− and CAR −/− PXR −/− mice died, with CAR −/− PXR −/− mice surviving longer than CAR −/− mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice. ► Hypothyroidism sensitizes CAR null mice to toxic effects of carbamazepine.

  9. Hypothyroidism and obesity: Cause or Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.; Jayaraman, M.; Kumar, Hari K.V.S.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in March 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism. (author)

  10. Hypothyroidism and obesity: An intriguing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity. However, linking them causally is controversial. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain, but there is a lack of clarity regarding subclinical hypothyroidism. Novel view indicates that changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH could well be secondary to obesity. The increasing prevalence of obesity further confounds definition of normal TSH range in population studies. Thyroid autoantibody status may help in establishing the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism in obesity. High leptin levels may play a role in the hyperthyrotropinemia of obesity and also increase susceptibility to thyroid autoimmunity and subsequent hypothyroidism. There is at most a modest effect of L-T4 treatment in overt hypothyroidism in inducing weight loss; benefit in subclinical hypothyroidism is not established with no data supporting thyroid hormone use in euthyroid obese patients.

  11. An Online Survey of Hypothyroid Patients Demonstrates Prominent Dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah J; Cappola, Anne R; Castro, M Regina; Dayan, Colin M; Farwell, Alan P; Hennessey, James V; Kopp, Peter A; Ross, Douglas S; Samuels, Mary H; Sawka, Anna M; Taylor, Peter N; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Bianco, Antonio C

    2018-04-05

    Approximately 15% more patients taking levothyroxine (LT4) report impaired quality of life compared to controls. This could be explained by additional diagnoses independently affecting quality of life and complicating assignment of causation. This study sought to investigate the underpinnings of reduced quality of life in hypothyroid patients and to provide data for discussion at a symposium addressing hypothyroidism. An online survey for hypothyroid patients was posted on the American Thyroid Association Web site and forwarded to multiple groups. Respondents were asked to rank satisfaction with their treatment for hypothyroidism and their treating physician. They also ranked their perception regarding physician knowledge about hypothyroidism treatments, need for new treatments, and life impact of hypothyroidism on a scale of 1-10. Respondents reported the therapy they were taking, categorized as LT4, LT4 and liothyronine (LT4 + LT3), or desiccated thyroid extract (DTE). They also reported sex, age, cause of hypothyroidism, duration of treatment, additional diagnoses, and prevalence of symptoms. A total of 12,146 individuals completed the survey. The overall degree of satisfaction was 5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 3-8). Among respondents without self-reported depression, stressors, or medical conditions (n = 3670), individuals taking DTE reported a higher median treatment satisfaction of 7 (IQR = 5-9) compared to other treatments. At the same time, the LT4 treatment group exhibited the lowest satisfaction of 5 (IQR = 3-7), and for the LT4 + LT3 treatment group, satisfaction was 6 (IQR = 3-8). Respondents taking DTE were also less likely to report problems with weight management, fatigue/energy levels, mood, and memory compared to those taking LT4 or LT4 + LT3. A subset of patients with hypothyroidism are not satisfied with their current therapy or their physicians. Higher satisfaction with both treatment and physicians is reported by those

  12. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents: a single-center retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Monteiro

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: The mild form of subclinical hypothyroidism was the most common typepf disease and, among patients managed conservatively, the majority presented normal thyroid function after one year of follow-up and none progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Our results reinforce the idea that, in most patients, subclinical hypothyroidism is a benign condition with a low risk of progression to overt thyroid dysfunction. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the potential long-term effects of the condition in untreated patients and to clarify the best clinical approach and follow-up strategy.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant rats impaired learning and memory of their offspring by promoting the p75NTR signal pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect the neurodevelopment of their offspring. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH on spatial learning and memory, and its relationship with the apoptotic factors in cerebral cortex of the offspring. Methods: Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group: control (CON group, SCH group and overt hypothyroidism (OH group. Spatial learning and memory in the offspring were evaluated by long-term potentiation (LTP and Morris water-maze (MWM test. The protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and Bax were detected by Western blotting. Results: The Pups in the SCH and OH groups showed longer escape latencies in the MWM and decreased field-excitatory post synaptic potentials in LTP tests compared with those in the CON group. p75NTR, p-JNK, p53 and Bax expression levels in the cerebral cortex increased in pups in the SCH and OH groups compared with those in the CON group. Conclusions: Maternal SCH during pregnancy may impair spatial learning and memory in the offspring and may be associated with the increased apoptosis in the cerebral cortex.

  14. Hypothyroidism in Cancer Patients on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors with anti-PD1 Agents: Insights on Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusseini, M; Samantray, J

    2017-04-01

    Background: Immune therapy using monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) for various cancers have been reported to cause thyroid dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and the course of hypothyroidism that subsequently develops. In this report, we use the change in thyroglobulin and thyroid antibody levels in patients on immune therapy who develop hypothyroidism to better understand its pathogenesis as well as examine the status of hypothyroidism in the long term. Methods: We report a case series of 10 patients who developed hypothyroidism after initiation of immune therapy (either anti-PD-1 alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4). Available thyroid antibodies including anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) were noted during the initial thyroiditis phase as well as the hypothyroid phase. Persistence or remission of hypothyroidism was noted at 6 months. Summary: During the thyroiditis phase, 50% of the patients had elevated Tg titers, 40% had elevated anti-Tg, and 40% had elevated TSI. All of these titers decreased during the hypothyroid phase. Permanent hypothyroidism was noted in 80% of the cases. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism following initiation of immune therapy has immunologic and non-immunologic mediated mechanisms and is likely to be persistent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Genetics of Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; van Trotsenburg, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common preventable forms of mental retardation and since the implementation of neonatal screening programs in the mid-1970s, early detection and treatment have proven to be very successful in preventing brain damage. CH may be of thyroidal (=

  16. Hypothyroid myopathy: A peculiar clinical presentation of thyroid failure. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindoni, Alessandro; Rodolico, Carmelo; Pappalardo, Maria Angela; Portaro, Simona; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities in thyroid function are common endocrine disorders that affect 5-10 % of the general population, with hypothyroidism occurring more frequently than hyperthyroidism. Clinical symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, particularly in hypothyroidism. Muscular symptoms (stiffness, myalgias, cramps, easy fatigability) are mentioned by the majority of patients with frank hypothyroidism. Often underestimated is the fact that muscle symptoms may represent the predominant or the only clinical manifestation of hypothyroidism, raising the issue of a differential diagnosis with other causes of myopathy, which sometimes can be difficult. Elevated serum creatine kinase, which not necessarily correlates with the severity of the myopathic symptoms, is certainly suggestive of muscle impairment, though it does not explain the cause. Rare muscular manifestations, associated with hypothyroidism, are rhabdomyolysis, acute compartment syndrome, Hoffman's syndrome and Kocher-Debré-Sémélaigne syndrome. Though the pathogenesis of hypothyroid myopathy is not entirely known, proposed mechanisms include altered glycogenolytic and oxidative metabolism, altered expression of contractile proteins, and neuro-mediated damage. Correlation studies of haplotype, muscle gene expression and protein characterization, could help understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of this myopathic presentation of hypothyroidism.

  17. Hypothyroidism leads to increased collagen-based stiffness and re-expression of large cardiac titin isoforms with high compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Peng, Jun; Campbell, Kenneth B; Labeit, Siegfried; Granzier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Because long-term hypothyroidism results in diastolic dysfunction, we investigated myocardial passive stiffness in hypothyroidism and focused on the possible role of titin, an important determinant of diastolic stiffness. A rat model of hypothyroidism was used, obtained by administering propylthiouracil (PTU) for times that varied from 1 month (short-term) to 4 months (long-term). Titin expression was determined by transcript analysis, gel electrophoresis and immunoelectron microscopy. Diastolic function was measured at the isolated heart, skinned muscle, and cardiac myocyte levels. We found that hypothyroidism resulted in expression of a large titin isoform, the abundance of which gradually increased with time to become the most dominant isoform in long-term hypothyroid rats. This isoform co-migrates on high-resolution gels with fetal cardiac titin. Transcript analysis on myocardium of long-term PTU rats, provided evidence for expression of additional PEVK and Ig domain exons, similar to what has been described in fetal myocardium. Consistent with the expression of a large titin isoform, titin-based restoring and passive forces were significantly reduced in single cardiac myocytes and muscle strips of long-term hypothyroid rats. Overall muscle stiffness and LV diastolic wall stiffness were increased, however, due to increased collagen-based stiffness. We conclude that long term hypothyroidism triggers expression of a large cardiac titin isoform and that the ensuing reduction in titin-based passive stiffness functions as a compensatory mechanism to reduce LV wall stiffness.

  18. The emergence of levothyroxine as a treatment for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, James V

    2017-01-01

    To describe the historical refinements, understanding of physiology and clinical outcomes observed with thyroid hormone replacement strategies. A Medline search was initiated using the search terms, levothyroxine, thyroid hormone history, levothyroxine mono therapy, thyroid hormone replacement, combination LT4 therapy, levothyroxine Bioequivalence. Pertinent articles of interest were identified by title and where available abstract for further review. Additional references were identified in the course of review of the literature identified. Physicians have intervened in cases of thyroid dysfunction for more than two millennia. Ingestion of animal thyroid derived preparations has been long described but only scientifically documented for the last 130 years. Refinements in hormone preparation, pharmaceutical production and regulation continue to this day. The literature provides documentation of physiologic, pathologic and clinical outcomes which have been reported and continuously updated. Recommendations for effective and safe use of these hormones for reversal of patho-physiology associated with hypothyroidism and the relief of symptoms of hypothyroidism has documented a progressive refinement in our understanding of thyroid hormone use. Studies of thyroid hormone metabolism, action and pharmacokinetics have allowed evermore focused recommendations for use in clinical practice. Levothyroxine mono-therapy has emerged as the therapy of choice of all recent major guidelines. The evolution of thyroid hormone therapies has been significant over an extended period of time. Thyroid hormone replacement is very useful in the treatment of those with hypothyroidism. All of the most recent guidelines of major endocrine societies recommend levothyroxine mono-therapy for first line use in hypothyroidism.

  19. Using electrophysiology to demonstrate that cueing affects long-term memory storage over the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcey, Ashleigh M; Fukuda, Keisuke; Song, Won S; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-10-01

    As researchers who study working memory, we often assume that participants keep a representation of an object in working memory when we present a cue that indicates that the object will be tested in a couple of seconds. This intuitively accounts for how well people can remember a cued object, relative to their memory for that same object presented without a cue. However, it is possible that this superior memory does not purely reflect storage of the cued object in working memory. We tested the hypothesis that cues presented during a stream of objects, followed by a short retention interval and immediate memory test, can change how information is handled by long-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by using a family of frontal event-related potentials believed to reflect long-term memory storage. We found that these frontal indices of long-term memory were sensitive to the task relevance of objects signaled by auditory cues, even when the objects repeated frequently, such that proactive interference was high. Our findings indicate the problematic nature of assuming process purity in the study of working memory, and demonstrate that frequent stimulus repetitions fail to isolate the role of working memory mechanisms.

  20. Hypothyroidism: The Thyroid and You | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism The Thyroid and You: Coping with a Common ... is made by the pituitary gland. What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid ...

  1. Hypothyroidism:Symptoms,Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2012 Table ... of its symptoms are seen in other diseases, hypothyroidism usually cannot be diagnosed based on symptoms alone. ...

  2. Incidence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Frida Hosseini; Johansson, Bengt; Möllerström, Gunnar; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Skjöldebrand-Sparre, Lottie

    2017-11-01

    Untreated and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy complications such as increased risk of miscarriage, hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. However, in Sweden, screening for thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is only recommended for women with a high risk of thyroid disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of clinical and SCH in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this prospective study, 1298 pregnant women were divided into three groups: one unselected general screening group (n = 611), one low-risk group comprising women without risk factors for thyroid disorder (n = 511), and one high-risk group comprising women with an inheritance or suspicion of thyroid disease or undergoing treatment for thyroid disease (n = 88). Serum was obtained up to gestational week 13, and thyrotropin (TSH) was analyzed. The incidences of thyroid dysfunction in the three screening groups were 9.8% in the general screening group, 9.6% in the low-risk group, and 10.2%, p = 0.948, in the high-risk group. In the women with known hypothyroidism on levothyroxine treatment, 50.6% had serum TSH levels above 2.0 mIU/L. High-risk screening is not useful in predicting which women are at risk of thyroid disease in early pregnancy since ∼10% of women with SCH or hypothyroidism could not be diagnosed in this way.

  3. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  4. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian female...

  5. [Treatment of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Pasi; Metso, Saara; Moilanen, Leena; Niskanen, Leo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the findings of an increased serum TSH (above the reference range) and decreased serum free T4 (below the reference range) concentration. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is indicated if serum THS is above 10 mU/l. For less severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, the treatment should be individually tailored. The treatment of choice is synthetic human levothyroxine. The goals for treatment are amelioration of symptoms and normalization of TSH and free T4 concentrations.

  6. Hypothyroidism - new aspects of an old disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kostoglou-Athanassiou, I; Ntalles, K

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is divided in primary, caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary (central) due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. Secondary hypothyroidism can be differentiated in pituitary and hypothalamic by the use of TRH test. In some cases, failure of hormone action in peripheral tissues can be recognized. Primary hypothyroidism may be clinical, where free ...

  7. The Treatment of Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu; Mihai Andrada Doina

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a pathologic condition generated by the thyroid hormone deficiency. The American Thyroid Association advises for the screening of hypothyroidism beginning at 35 years and thereafter every 5 years in people at high risk for this condition: females older than 60 years, pregnant women, patients with other autoimmune disease or patients with a history of neck irradiation. In pregnant women, hypothyroidism can been associated with adverse effect for both mother and child. The „Gu...

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  9. Clinical presentation of primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.; Hussain, T.; Memon, A. R.; Solangi, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical preparation of primary hypothyroidism at the time of diagnosis. Design: It was an observational and prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Civil Hospital, Karachi from 1st January 1997 to 31st December 1997. Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight consecutive cases of primary hypothyroidism were included. A detailed history with special emphasis on symptoms and signs was conducted and the findings observed were noted in previously made proforma. Results: Primary hypothyroidism was found to be 5 times more common in female patients, with male to female ratio 1:5, majority of cases (33.33%) were between 41 to 50 years of age. The common symptoms at the time of presentation were tiredness (95.8%), weakness (91.6%), weight gain (85.4%), hoarseness of voice (83.3%), cold intolerance (77.0%) and constipation (75.0%) in patients. Physical signs observed were delayed relaxation of ankle jerk (93.7%), periorbital edema (83.3%), thick tongue (62.5%), goiter (50.0%), dry and coarse skin (47.9%) in patients. Serum, TSH, T4 and T3 were performed in all cases through immunoradiometric technique. Serum TSH was markedly elevated, with normal to reduced T4 and T3 levels in all cases. Conclusion: Primary hypothyroidism was found more common in female than male of the age group 41-50 years. Weakness, tiredness, hoarseness of voice and constipation were the common symptoms noted. The diagnosis is almost certain on clinical grounds if the patient happens to have delayed relaxation of ankle jerks and periorbital puffiness. (author)

  10. Recurrent thyrotoxicosis after I-131 induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Borowski, G.D.; Shtasel, P.; Rose, L.I.

    1984-01-01

    The first clinically and biochemically documented case of recurrent thyrotoxicosis after I-131 induced hypothyroidism in a patient with Graves' disease is reported. Two months after the administration of 9.2 mCi of I-131, the subject developed hypothyroidism. One month later, the patient became euthyroid. Then, nine months following ablation, the patient again developed thyrotoxicosis. A second dose of I-131 of 12.5 mCi was required to finally produce permanent hypothyroidism. This case illustrates the recurrence of hypothyroidism after what had seemed to have been adequate I-131 radiation

  11. Hemostasis in Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D

    2017-04-01

    There are contradictory results on the effect of hypothyroidism on the changes in hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This paper reviews the studies on laboratory and population-based findings regarding hemostatic changes and risk of VTE in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hypothyroidism; thyroiditis, autoimmune; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation tests; hemostasis, blood coagulation disorders; thyroid hormones; myxedema; venous thromboembolism; fibrinolysis, receptors thyroid hormone. The papers that were related to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorder and hemostasis are used in this review. Overt hypothyroidism is more associated with a hypocoagulable state. Decreased platelet count, aggregation and agglutination, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, several coagulation factors such as factor VIII, IX, XI, VII, and plasminogen activator-1 are detected in overt hypothyrodism. Increased fibrinogen has been detected in subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease rendering a tendency towards a hypercoagulability state. Increased factor VII and its activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are among several findings contributing to a prothrombotic state in subclinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with a hypocoagulable state and subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders may induce a prothrombotic state. However, there are contradictory findings for the abovementioned thyroid disorders. Prospective studies on the risk of VTE in various levels of hypofunctioning of the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid disorders are warranted.

  12. Experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumedo, G S; Sanz, C R; Olguín, H J

    2012-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a systemic disease resulting from either thyroid gland's anatomical and functional absence or lack of hypophyseal stimulation, both of which can lead to deficiency in thyroid hormone (TH) production. TH is essential for human and animal development, growth, and function of multiple organs. Children with deficient TH can develop alterations in central nervous system (CNS), striated muscle, bone tissue, liver, bone marrow, and cardiorespiratory system. Among the clinical outlook are signs like breathing difficulty, cardiac insufficiency, dysphagia, and repeated bronchial aspiration, constipation, muscle weakness, cognitive alterations, cochlear dysfunction, reduced height, defects in temperature regulation, anaemia, jaundice, susceptibility to infection, and others. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that TH is very essential for normal brain development. Other research work based on mice pointed out that a reduced level of TH in pregnant mother leads to congenital hypothyroidism in animal models and it is associated with mental retardation, deep neurologic deficiency that impacts on cognitive, learning, and memory functions. The principal experimental model studies that have focused on hypothyroidism are reviewed in this study. This is important on considering the fact that almost all animal species require thyroid hormones for their metabolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Reversible hypothyroidism and Whipple's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Huy A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major cause of primary hypothyroidism is autoimmune mediated with progressive and permanent destruction of the thyroid gland resulting in life-long replacement therapy. Treatable and reversible hypothyroidism is unusual and here forth is such a case due to infection of the thyroid gland with Tropheryma whippleii, Whipple disease. Case presentation A 45 year-old female presented with symptoms and signs consistent with primary hypothyroidism, which was also confirmed biochemically. Her response to thyroxine replacement therapy was poor however, requiring a significantly elevated amount. Further investigation revealed the presence of Whipple's disease involving the gastrointestinal trace and possibly the thyroid gland. Her thyroxine requirement decreased drastically following appropriate antimicrobial therapy for Whipple's disease to the extent that it was ceased. Thyrotropin releasing hormone testing in the steady state suggested there was diminished thyroid reserve due to Whipple's disease. Conclusion This is the first ante-mortem case report studying the possible involvement of the thyroid gland by Whipple's disease. Despite the normalization of her thyroid function test biochemically after antibiotic therapy, there is diminished thyroid reserve thus requiring close and regular monitoring.

  14. Association of Van Wyk Grumbach and Debre Semelaigne Syndromes with Severe Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden Akman, Alkim; Tayfun, Meltem; Demirel, Fatma; Ucakturk, Seyit Ahmed; Gungor, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS) and Kocher-Debre Semelaigne syndrome (KDSS) are rare forms of pseudo-precocious puberty and myopathy in patients with longstanding untreated hypothyroidism. We present the case of an adolescent girl who developed pseudo-precocious puberty and myopathy caused by long-term untreated hypothyroidism. A 17-year-old female patient was referred to our outpatient clinic due to menstrual irregularities. She had muscle pain and multiple cystic ovaries in addition to clinical signs of severe congenital hypothyroidism. High levels of creatinine and creatinine kinase and accompanying muscle hypertrophy were present. After the initiation of L-thyroxine therapy, the symptoms were alleviated in a short time. Congenital and acquired hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pseudo-precocious puberty and myopathy that presents with muscle pain, muscle hypertrophy, and elevated creatinine kinase levels. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  16. Features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Combination with Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-01-01

    Background. The last decades are characterized by the considerable increase in the prevalence of endocrine disorders with the change of the structure, and first of all cases of polyendocrinopathy, the special place among which is occupied by combination of diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid diseases. Increase in the incidence of DM type 2 associated with hypothyroidism affects the clinical course of this pathology, remains topical problem of modern medical science. The objective: to study the...

  17. The Italian National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism: twenty years of surveillance and study of congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Antonella

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All the Italian Centres in charge of screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of infants with congenital hypothyroidism participate in the Italian National Registry of affected infants, which performs the nationwide surveillance of the disease. It was established in 1987 as a program of the Health Ministry and is coordinated by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The early diagnosis performed by the nationwide newborn screening programme, the prompt treatment and the appropriate clinical management of the patients carried out by the Follow-up Centres, and the surveillance of the disease performed by the National Register of infants with congenital hypothyroidism are the components of an integrated approach to the disease which has been successfully established in our country. The aim of the Register is to monitor efficiency and effectiveness of neonatal screening, to provide disease surveillance and to allow identification of possible aetiological risk factors for the disease. During the past twenty years the active and continuous collaboration between the Register and the Italian Screening and Follow up Centres for Congenital Hypothyroidism allowed to perform a standardization of screening procedures and considerable improvements in the time at starting treatment and in the dose of therapy. Furthermore, the large amount and the high quality of information collected in the Register provided a unique opportunity for research into the disease. This because data collected in the Register are highly representative as referred to the entire Italian population with congenital hypothyroidism. The results derived from the epidemiological studies performed in these years, by using the Register database, contributed to deepen the knowledge of congenital hypothyroidism, to start identifying the most important risk factors for the disease, and to orient molecular studies aimed at identifying new genes involved in the aetiology of this condition.

  18. Lack of CRH Affects the Behavior but Does Not Affect the Formation of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejkova, Eva; Plananska, Eva; Myslivecek, Jaromir

    2018-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is involved in modification of synaptic transmission and affects spatial discrimination learning, i.e., affects the formation of memory in long-term aspect. Therefore, we have focused on CRH effect on short-term memory. We have used stress task avoidance (maze containing three zones: entrance, aversive, and neutral) and compared the behavior and short-term memory in wild-type mice and mice lacking CRH (CRH KO) experiencing one 120-min session of restraint stress. As control, non-stressed animals were used. As expected, the animals that experienced the stress situation tend to spend less time in the zone in which the restraint chamber was present. The animals spent more time in the neutral zone. There were significant differences in number of freezing bouts in the aversive and entrance zones in CRH KO animals. CRH KO control animals entered the neutral zone much more faster than WT control and spent more time immobile in the neutral zone than WT control. These data give evidence that lacking of CRH itself improves the ability of mice to escape away from potentially dangerous area (i.e., those in which the scent of stressed animal is present).

  19. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  20. Post-external radiotherapy hypothyroidism: 15 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaffel, N.; Mnif, M.; Abid, M.; Daoud, J.

    2001-01-01

    Post-external radiotherapy hypothyroidism: 15 cases. Hypothyroidism frequency is estimated to be between 10 and 45% after radiotherapy alone, and 40 to 67% after radiotherapy associated with thyroidectomy. This hypothyroidism is infra-clinical in 60% of the cases. Our study concerned 15 cases of hypothyroidism after external radiotherapy delivered between and 1991 and 1999. An irradiation of the cervical, cerebral and thorax regions was indicated for different types of cancers. Larynx carcinoma epidermoid was the most frequent cancer (seven cases); the radiation treatment used cobalt 60 with conventional fractionation, i.e., 2 Gy per treatment, five treatments a week. In nine cases, the hypothyroidism was discovered during a systematic examination; it was clinically evident in the six remaining cases. Hypothyroidism appeared after an irradiation dose average of 50 Gy (extremes 30-65 Gy). The average duration of the irradiation was about 7 weeks and the hypothyroidism appeared in a mean 22 months. In all cases, the substituting treatment was initiated with a favorable progression. Faced with the risk of hypothyroidism, it is necessary to check patients who have undergone external irradiation of the neck. (authors)

  1. Hypothyroidism in the elderly: diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Olmos, Rodrigo D; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are highly prevalent, occurring most frequently in aging women. Thyroid-associated symptoms are very similar to symptoms of the aging process; thus, improved methods for diagnosing overt and subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly people are crucial. Thyrotropin measurement is considered to be the main test for detecting hypothyroidism. Combined evaluations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free-thyroxine can detect overt hypothyroidism (high TSH with low free-thyroxine levels) and subclinical hypothyroidism (high TSH with normal free-thyroxine levels). It is difficult to confirm the diagnosis of thyroid diseases based only on symptoms, but presence of symptoms could be an indicator of who should be evaluated for thyroid function. The most important reasons to treat overt hypothyroidism are to relieve symptoms and avoid progression to myxedema. Overt hypothyroidism is classically treated using L-thyroxine; elderly patients require a low initial dose that is increased every 4 to 6 weeks until normalization of TSH levels. After stabilization, TSH levels are monitored yearly. There is no doubt about the indication for treatment of overt hypothyroidism, but indications for treatment of subclinical disease are controversial. Although treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism may result in lipid profile improvement, there is no evidence that this improvement is associated with decreased cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in elderly patients. In patients with a high risk of progression from subclinical to overt disease, close monitoring of thyroid function could be the best option. PMID:22573936

  2. Rhabdomyolysis in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Nooshin; Agoston, Endre; Munir, Iqbal; Thompson, Gary J.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 52 Final Diagnosis: Hypothyroidism induced rhabdomyolysis Symptoms: Bilateral leg pain ? fatigue Medication: Levothyroxine ? Calcitriol ? Calcium Gluconate Clinical Procedure: ? Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Muscular symptoms, including stiffness, myalgia, cramps, and fatigue, are present in the majority of the patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism, but rhabdomyolysis, the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle, is a rare...

  3. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Schneider

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  4. Rhabdomyolysis in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nooshin; Agoston, Endre; Munir, Iqbal; Thompson, Gary J.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 52 Final Diagnosis: Hypothyroidism induced rhabdomyolysis Symptoms: Bilateral leg pain • fatigue Medication: Levothyroxine • Calcitriol • Calcium Gluconate Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Muscular symptoms, including stiffness, myalgia, cramps, and fatigue, are present in the majority of the patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism, but rhabdomyolysis, the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle, is a rare manifestation. In most patients with hypothyroidism who develop rhabdomyolysis, precipitating factors, such as strenuous exercise or use of lipid-lowering drugs, can be identified. Case Report: We report a case of a 52-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with fatigue, severe generalized weakness, bilateral leg pain, and recurrent falls. She reported poor medication compliance for the preceding month. Initial laboratory testing showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, indicating uncontrolled hypothyroidism with associated rhabdomyolysis. Supportive treatment with intravenous fluids and intravenous levothyroxine were initiated and resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. Conclusions: We report a case of rhabdomyolysis, which is a rare but potentially serious complication of hypothyroidism. Screening for hypothyroidism in patients with elevated muscle enzymes should be considered, since an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypothyroidism is essential to prevent rhabdomyolysis and its consequences. PMID:28827517

  5. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha Krishnan; Soumini; Adithya

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ) and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of ...

  6. Prognostic Role of Hypothyroidism in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ning; Gao, Dengfeng; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Iacoviello, Massimo; Mitchell, Judith E.; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Yan; Kou, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypothyroidism is a risk factor of heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the relationship between hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with established HF is still inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association of hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases for studies of hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes in patients with HF published up to the end of January 2015. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. We included 13 articles that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hypothyroidism with outcomes in patients with HF. For the association of hypothyroidism with all-cause mortality and with cardiac death and/or hospitalization, the pooled RR was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.29–1.61) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.22–1.55), respectively. However, the association disappeared on adjustment for B-type natriuretic protein level (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.90–1.52) and in studies of patients with mean age hypothyroidism associated with increased all-cause mortality as well as cardiac death and/or hospitalization in patients with HF. Further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for hypothyroidism may be needed for patients with HF. PMID:26222845

  7. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Armada-Dias

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  8. Is the infertility in hypothyroidism mainly due to ovarian or pituitary functional changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armada-Dias L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether hypothyroidism affects the reproductive system of adult female rats by evaluating ovarian morphology, uterus weight and the changes in serum and pituitary concentrations of prolactin and gonadotropins. Three-month-old female rats were divided into three groups: control (N = 10, hypothyroid (N = 10, treated with 0.05% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU in drinking water for 60 days, and T4-treated group (N = 10, receiving daily sc injections of L-thyroxine (0.8 µg/100 g body weight during the last 10 days of the experiment. At the end of 50 days of hypothyroidism no hypothyroid animal showed a regular cycle, while 71% of controls as well as the T4-treated rats showed regular cycles. Corpora lutea, growing follicles and mature Graafian follicles were found in all ovaries studied. The corpora lutea were smaller in both the hypothyroid and T4-replaced rats. Graafian follicles were found in 72% of controls and only in 34% of hypothyroid and 43% of T4-treated animals. Serum LH, FSH, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ among the three groups. Serum prolactin concentration and the pituitary content of the three hormones studied were higher in the hypothyroid animals compared to control. T4 treatment restored serum prolactin concentration to the level found in controls, but only partially normalized the pituitary content of gonadotropins and prolactin. In conclusion, the morphological changes caused by hypothyroidism can be a consequence of higher prolactin production that can block the secretion and action of gonadotropins, being the main cause of the changes observed.

  9. Hypothyroidism in patients after thyroid elimination by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, S.; Nemec, J.; Reisenauer, R.

    1979-01-01

    Patients after elimination of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I develop hypothyroidism only slowly, the peripheral parameters lagging behind the protein bound iodine especially till the fiftieth day after elimination. In young patients the Achilles tendon reflex and the preejection period lag behind symmetrically, in older patients the effect of the supply of thyroid hormones to the skeletal muscles disappear faster, whereas the heart retains the reserves of the thyroid hormones or systems dependent on thyroid hormones affecting the rapidity of myocardial contraction for a relatively longer period of time. Thus, in older patients after elimination of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I the Achilles tendon reflex is a better criterion of hypothyroidism than the preejection period of heart contraction. (author)

  10. Transient hypothyroidism following radioiodine therapy for thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.M.C.; McCruden, D.C.; Alexander, W.D.; Hilditch, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective study of thyroid function including serial tracer radioisotope uptake measurements in 55 patients treated with 131 I therapy is described. Five patients had an episode of transient hypothyroidism within eight months of treatment: in three of these patients this was due to impaired organification of iodide, with normal iodide trapping by the thyroid (as measured by a twenty minute 123 I uptake) being preserved. In contrast, in all patients who developed permanent hypothyroidism, iodide trapping was markedly diminished and did not recover. It is suggested that hypothyroidism due to organification failure following 131 I therapy is potentially short-lived; where hypothyroidism is associated with gross impairment of iodide trapping, recovery is unlikely. Early iodine uptake measurements may be of value in selecting those patients whose hypothyroidism is transient and who do not require permanent thyroid hormone replacement. (author)

  11. Radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone in hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieszczyk, S.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone was performed in 18 women with primary hypothyroidism and 15 women with secondary hypothyroidism. The results of determinations were compared with LH values found in healthy women at reproductive age and after menopause. It was observed that in primary hypothyroidism the level of LH is normal, in young women it was from 6 to 25 m IU/ml, while in the postmenopausal period it increased to 70 to 200 m IU/ml. In secondary hypothyroidism due to pituitary hypofunction the LH level is undetectable or lies in the range of lowest values observed in healthy subjects, not exceeding 8 m IU/ml. Determinations of serum LH may be useful for differential diagnosis of primary and secondary hypothyroidism. (author)

  12. Excess mortality in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from...... January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over...... a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0-30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  13. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  14. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  15. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Forder

    Full Text Available The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry, detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d' and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  16. Dosimetric predictors of hypothyroidism in oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyan, Arthur; Chen, Josephine; Shugard, Erin; Lambert, Louise; Quivey, Jeanne M; Yom, Sue S

    2014-01-01

    Radiation to the neck has long been associated with an elevated risk of hypothyroidism development. The goal of the present work is to define dosimetric predictors of hypothyroidism in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Data for 123 patients, with a median follow up of 4.6 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels or with a clinical diagnosis were categorized as hypothyroid. Patient demographic parameters, thyroid volume, mean thyroid dose, the percent of thyroid volume receiving minimum specified dose levels (VxxGy), and the absolute thyroid volume spared from specified dose levels (VSxxGy) were analyzed. Normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) was also calculated using several recently published models. Thyroid volume and many radiation dosimetric parameters were statistically different in the hypothyroid group. For the patients with initial thyroid volumes of 8 cc or greater, several dosimetric parameters were found to define subgroups at statistically significant lower risk of developing hypothyroidism. Patients with VS45 Gy of at least 3 cc, VS50 Gy at least 5 cc, VS50 Gy at least 6 cc, V50 Gy below 45%, V50 Gy below 55%, or mean thyroid dose below 49 Gy had a 28-38% estimated risk of hypothyroidism at 3 years compared to a 55% risk for the entire study group. Patients with a NTCP of less than 0.75 or 0.8, calculated using recently published models, were also observed to have a lower risk of developing hypothyroidism. Based on long-term follow up data for OPC patients treated with IMRT, we recommend plan optimization objectives to reduce the volume of thyroid receiving over 45 Gy to significantly decrease the risk of developing hypothyroidism. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-014-0269-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  17. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma: a critical review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-12-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search, thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and could be categorized into two groups based on the exposure. The designs of the studies varied considerably, and there was heterogeneity related to lack of power, weak phenotype classifications and length of follow-up. Eight studies had glaucoma (5757 patients) as exposure and hypothyroidism as outcome. Among these, we found a non-significantly increased risk of hypothyroidism associated with glaucoma (RR 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-2.82). Based on five studies (168 006 patients) with hypothyroidism as exposure and glaucoma as outcome, we found the risk of glaucoma to be significantly increased (RR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13-1.58). Based on these meta-analyses, there seems to be an association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, which does not seem to be the case between glaucoma and hypothyroidism. However, larger scale studies with better phenotype classification, longer follow-up and taking comorbidity and other biases into consideration are needed to address a potential causal relationship. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  19. Hypothyroidism and Mortality among Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M.; Alexander, Erik K.; Bhan, Ishir

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hypothyroidism is highly prevalent among ESRD patients, but its clinical significance and the benefits of thyroid hormone replacement in this context remain unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the association between hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality among 2715 adult dialysis patients with baseline thyrotropin levels measured between April of 2005 and April of 2011. Mortality was ascertained from Social Security Death Master Index and local registration systems. The association between hypothyroidism (thyrotropin greater than assay upper limit normal) and mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. To reduce the risk of observing reverse-causal associations, models included a 30-day lag between thyrotropin measurement and at-risk time. Results Among 350 (12.9%) hypothyroid and 2365 (87.1%) euthyroid (assay within referent range) patients, 917 deaths were observed during 5352 patient-years of at-risk time. Hypothyroidism was associated with higher mortality. Compared with thyrotropin in the low-normal range (0.4–2.9 mIU/L), subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >upper limit normal and ≤10.0 mIU/L) was associated with higher mortality; high-normal thyrotropin (≥3.0 mIU/L and ≤upper limit normal) and overt hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >10.0 mIU/L) were associated with numerically greater risk, but estimates were not statistically significant. Compared with spontaneously euthyroid controls, patients who were euthyroid while on exogenous thyroid replacement were not at higher mortality risk, whereas patients who were hypothyroid were at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analyses indicated that effects on cardiovascular risk factors may mediate the observed association between hypothyroidism and death. Conclusions These data suggest that hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients, which may be ameliorated by thyroid hormone replacement

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  1. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  2. The secondary hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy and the replacement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ying; Xu Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    The secondary hypothyroidism is the most important intercurrent disease after radioiodine therapy. The early hypothyroidism and the late hypothyroidism are incompletely different in pathogenesis. It needs researching further. there has not yet been an affirmable answer to choose the distillates from animal hypothyroid extract or complex preparation of levo-thyroxine in replacement treatment. (authors)

  3. The heart and hypothyroidism | Bennett | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of hypothyroidism with heart disease is reviewed. The. relative rarity of cardiac failure due to hypothyroidism is stressed, and structural abnormalities of the heart due to hypothyroidism are discussed. The clinical management of hypothyroid patients with heart disease is described.

  4. Patient affect experiencing following therapist interventions in short-term dynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Joel M; Hardy, Gillian E; McCullough, Leigh; Stride, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between therapist interventions and patient affect responses in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (STDP). The Affect Experiencing subscale from the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS) was adapted to measure individual immediate affect experiencing (I-AES) responses in relation to therapist interventions coded within the preceding speaking turn, using the Psychotherapy Interaction Coding (PIC) system. A hierarchical linear modelling procedure was used to assess the change in affect experiencing and the relationship between affect experiencing and therapist interventions within and across segments of therapy. Process data was taken from six STDP cases; in total 24 hours of video-taped sessions were examined. Therapist interventions were found to account for a statistically significant amount of variance in immediate affect experiencing. Higher levels of immediate affect experiencing followed the therapist's use of Confrontation, Clarification and Support compared to Questions, Self-disclosure and Information interventions. Therapist Confrontation interventions that attempted to direct pressure towards either the visceral experience of affect or a patient's defences against feelings led to the highest levels of immediate affect experiencing. The type of therapist intervention accounts for a small but significant amount of the variation observed in a patient's immediate emotional arousal. Empirical findings support clinical theory in STDP that suggests strategic verbal responses promote the achievement of this specific therapeutic objective.

  5. Predictors of short-term and long-term memory of sensory and affective dimensions of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Jeffrey J; Logan, Henrietta; Baron, Robert S

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish predictors of the dimensions of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness recalled at 1 week and 18 months after an invasive therapeutic procedure, root canal therapy (RCT). Pretreatment measures of mood state and RCT-related expectations of sensory and affective dimensions of pain by using a visual analog scale (VAS) format were obtained. VAS measures of experienced pain intensity and unpleasantness were obtained immediately after treatment. Patients[apos ] memory of their RCT-related pain intensity and unpleasantness was assessed by phone call. Regression analysis showed that after controlling for age, experienced pain intensity predicts 1-week memory of pain intensity (adjusted R(2) [equals].34, P [lt ].01), whereas patients[apos ] pretreatment affective state predicts the memory of pain intensity at 18 months (adjusted R(2) [equals].24, P [lt ].01) and the memory of pain unpleasantness at 1 week (adjusted R(2) [equals].40, P [lt ].01) and 18 months (adjusted R(2) [equals].62, P [lt ].01). These findings point to the contribution of preexisting affective state to the sensory and affective dimensions of pain recollection and illustrate the importance of anxiety management for minimizing patient[apos ]s long-term recollection of the aversiveness of outpatient medical and dental procedures. 2003 by the American Pain Society

  6. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  7. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  8. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Banu T; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Dikbas, Oguz; Pekel, Hamiyet; Gonen, Mustafa S

    2009-12-29

    To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus) and cup to disc ratio (C/D), mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1(st), 3(rd )and 6(th )months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 +/- 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 +/- 3.85 mu initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 +/- 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 +/- 19.49 mu initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  9. [Hypothyroidism in patients with heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Jan

    Hypothyroidism is frequently found in patients with heart disease. It is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease and has a direct negative effect on both the left and right ventricular functions (hypothyroidism-induced cardiomyopathy). The confirmed manifest hypothyroidism is always a reason for replacement therapy with levothyroxine; regarding patients with heart disease, we always begin treatment with a small dose and increase it gradually. The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart disease is disputable and its benefits probably depend on age. At a higher age, the therapy-related risks often outweigh its benefits, so we make do with the target levels of the thyroid stimulating hormone being within the upper band of the normal range, or even slightly above it, rather than overdosing the patient. To summarize in a simplified way, the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with heart disease is the most effective in younger individuals, mainly those aged below 65, while at a higher age > 80 years the risk usually outweighs the benefit.Key words: cardiovascular risk - hypothyroidism - ischemic heart disease - left ventricular dysfunction - right ventricular dysfunction - subclinical hypothyroidism - thyroid peroxidase antibodies.

  10. Rhabdomyolysis in a Patient with Severe Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nooshin; Agoston, Endre; Munir, Iqbal; Thompson, Gary J

    2017-08-22

    BACKGROUND Muscular symptoms, including stiffness, myalgia, cramps, and fatigue, are present in the majority of the patients with symptomatic hypothyroidism, but rhabdomyolysis, the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle, is a rare manifestation. In most patients with hypothyroidism who develop rhabdomyolysis, precipitating factors, such as strenuous exercise or use of lipid-lowering drugs, can be identified. CASE REPORT We report a case of a 52-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with fatigue, severe generalized weakness, bilateral leg pain, and recurrent falls. She reported poor medication compliance for the preceding month. Initial laboratory testing showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, indicating uncontrolled hypothyroidism with associated rhabdomyolysis. Supportive treatment with intravenous fluids and intravenous levothyroxine were initiated and resulted in dramatic clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS We report a case of rhabdomyolysis, which is a rare but potentially serious complication of hypothyroidism. Screening for hypothyroidism in patients with elevated muscle enzymes should be considered, since an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypothyroidism is essential to prevent rhabdomyolysis and its consequences.

  11. Hypothyroidism after radiotherapy to the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoden, Eisaku; Soejima, Toshinori; Maruta, Tsutomu; Demizu, Yusuke; Nishimura, Hideki; Ejima, Yasuo; Sasaki, Ryohei; Yamada, Kazunari; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and possible predictors of hypothyroidism after radiotherapy to the neck, focusing on radiation dose-volume factors. Thyroid function was measured in 169 patients treated with radiation ports including the thyroid, between 1989 and 2000. Hypothyroidism was determined with an endpoint of elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >10.0 μU/ml. In 60 patients, radiation dose-volume factors were calculated; e.g., total volume of the thyroid, mean radiation dose to the thyroid, and %-volume of the thyroid which received radiation doses of no less than 10-70 Gy (V 10 -V 70 ). The evaluated risk factors for hypothyroidism included these dose-volume factors, sex, age, primary disease, combined chemotherapy, and follow-up period. Hypothyroidism was detected in 33 (19.5%) of the 169 patients. None of them had clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. V 10 , V 20 , and V 30 seemed to be possible predictors of hypothyroidism and had a significant impact on the peak level of serum TSH. Radiation dose-volume factors of the thyroid seemed to correlate with the incidence of hypothyroidism, and V 10 , V 20 , and V 30 had a significant impact on the peak level of serum TSH. (author)

  12. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-08-03

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone.

  13. [Cardiac myopathy due to overt hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, B; Berndt, M J; Lehnert, H

    2014-03-01

    A 51-year-old man presented with progressive tiredness, proximal muscle weakness, hair loss and weight gain for months. The patient showed mild pretibial myxedema and dry skin. Laboratory findings revealed strongly elevated cardiac enzymes as well as marked hypothyroidism. The electrocardiogram, echocardiography, abdominal sonography and chest X-ray were unremarkable. Thyroid ultrasound demonstrated features of Hashimoto thyroiditis. The findings supported the diagnosis of an overt hypothyroidism with myxedema and rhabdomyolysis. After starting levothyroxine and volume substitution laboratory parameters and clinical condition slowly normalized. Severe overt hypothyroidism may rarely present primarily as myopathy with myositis and cardiac involvement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for early glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Motoyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Nozue, Masashi; Kawai, Hiroaki; Takai, Michikatsu; Kaneko, Masao; Nishi, Shigeo

    1993-01-01

    Reported is the case of a 46-year-old male with hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for early glottic cancer, T1N0M0, Stage I. Six months after 60 Co irradiation 66 Gy with the radiation field size of 5 x 5 cm was given, the clinical signs of acute hypothyroidism was presented. Retrospective CT examinations proved that over 80% of the total dose was irradiated to about 10% of whole thyroid volume. Since laboratory examinations revealed high serum level of thyrogobrin antibody, we postulated immunological mechanism was associated with the onset of hypothyroidism. (author)

  15. Epidemiology of subtypes of hypothyroidism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2006-01-01

    in the cohort; the incidence rate was 32.8 per 100 000 person-years (standardised to the Danish population). Nosological types of hypothyroidism were: spontaneous (presumably autoimmune) 84.4%, post-partum 4.71%, amiodarone-associated 4.0%. subacute thyroiditis 1.8%. previous radiation or surgery 1.......8%. congenital 1.6% and lithium-associated 1.6%. Crude incidence rates were 29.0 around Aalborg and 40.6 in an area of Copenhagen. The higher incidence rate of hypothyroidism in the area with higher iodine intake was caused solely by more cases of spontaneous (presumably autoimmune) hypothyroidism, whereas...

  16. Gender differences in symptoms of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures......OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...

  17. Etiological evaluation of primary congenital hypothyroidism cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Diğdem; Dilek, Emine; Torun, Neşe; Tütüncüler, Filiz

    2017-06-01

    Primary congenital hypothyroidism is frequently seen endocrine disorder and one of the preventable cause of mental retardation. Aim of study was to evaluate the frequency of permanent/transient hypothyrodism, and to detect underlying reason to identfy any marker which carries potential to discriminate permanent/transient form. Forty eight cases older than 3 years of age, diagnosed as primary congenital hypothyroidism and started thyroxin therapy in newborn-period, and followed up between January 2007-June 2013 were included in the study. Thyroid hormon levels were evaluated and thyroid ultrasonography was performed in cases who are at the end of their 3 years of age, after 6 weeks of thyroxine free period. Thyroid sintigraphy was performed if serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was high (≥ 5 mIU/mL) and perchlorate discharge test was performed if uptake was normal or increased on sintigraphy. Cases with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels ≥ 5 mIU/mL were defined as permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism group and as transient primary congenital hypothyroidism group with normal thyroid hormones during 6 months. The mean age was 3.8±0.7 years. Mean diagnosis age was 16.6±6.5 days and 14 cases (29.2%) were diagnosed by screening program of Ministry of Health. There were 23 cases (14F, 9M) in permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism group and 12 (52.2%) of them were dysgenesis (8 hypoplasia, 4 ectopia), and 11 (47.8%) dyshormonogenesis. In transient primary congenital hypothyroidism group, there were 25 cases (17M, 8F). The mean thyroid-stimulating hormone levels at diagnosis were similar in two groups. The mean thyroxin dose in permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism group was significantly higher than transient group at the time of thyroxin cessation (2.1±0.7, 1.5±0.5 mg/kg/d, respectively, p=0.004). Thyroxin dose ≥1.6 mcg/kg/d was 72% sensitive and 69.6% specific for predicting permenant primary congenital hypothyroidism. Transient primary

  18. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  19. [Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Major Psychiatric Disorders in Hospitalised Patients in Montserrat Hospital During the period March to October 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María

    Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental hypothyroidism modulates the expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor by the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabottolo, Lia; Trezzi, Ermanno; Roma, Paola; Catapano, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of exprimental hypothyroidism of the catabolism of plasma lipoproteins and on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptors by the liver was investigated in rats made hypothyroid by surgery. The animals developed mild hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to an increase of plasma low density lipoprotein, while other lipoprotein classes were only marginally affected. Kinetic studies using ( 125 I)LDL indicated that a decreased fractional catabolic rate of the lipoprotein was responsible for this finding in agreement with the in vitro observation of a reduced binding of lipoproteins to liver membranes from hyperthyroid rats and with the demonstrations, by ligand blotting analysis, of a decreasd expression of lipoprotein receptors in liver membranes. These data suggest that hypothyroidism affects lipoprotein distribution also by decreasing the catabolism of low density lipoproteins by the liver (author)

  1. Central Bank Communication Affects the Term-Structure of Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chague

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We empirically analyze how the Brazilian Central Bank (BCB communication affects the term structure of future interest rates. Using principal components analysis, we construct a measure of the Monetary Policy Committee Minutes content that reflects policy makers optimism about the economic conditions. We call this measure the Optimism Factor (OF. When policy makers are more optimistic, reflected by increments in the OF, markets expectations respond and long-term future interest rates drop. Furthermore, when policy makers are pessimistic, reflected by a decrease in the OF, volatility on future interest rates increases. Our result indicates that policy maker communication has an effective impact on market expectations.

  2. The conceptualization of terms: ?Mood? and ?affect? in academic trainees of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Ram, Dushad

    2009-01-01

    Background: The management of psychiatric disorders should ideally be carried out by a multidisciplinary team that consists of mental health professionals from different disciplines. All mental health professionals are expected to learn similar basic clinical skills during their training, despite the difference in their graduation. Objective: To compare the conceptualization of the terms ?mood? and ?affect? in all academic trainees of mental health in the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP)...

  3. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may notice that you feel colder, you tire more easily, your skin is getting drier, you’ ... to the thyroid. Keeping thyroid hormone production in balance requires the right amount of iodine. Taking in ...

  4. Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the front of your neck, below your Adam’s apple. The thyroid makes hormones that control how your ... Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition ...

  5. Thyroid function in neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, J H; Letarte, J; Guyda, H; Laberge, C

    1976-10-01

    Various aspects of the thyroid function have been measured in 28 cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected by means of the Quebec Screening Program for Metabolic Diseases. In all instances the T4 value in the blood of filter paper spot was below 2 SD of the mean of the day, averaging 0.39 +/- 0.04 ng/40 mul (mean +/- SEM) of eluted blood. The T4 value of a second similar sample averaged 0.22 +/- 0.04 ng/mul of eluted blood; this value was significantly lower than the first one. The serum T4 concentration was decreased in all the infants, whereas three of them had a normal serum TSH concentration. At least three groups of patients could be identified: (1) patients with primary thyroid failure, (2) those with secondary or tertiary hypothyrodism, and (3) those with abnormal synthesis of thyroid hormone.

  6. Hypothyroidism: Does It Cause Joint Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help, adequate thyroid hormone replacement is the primary treatment and often helps dramatically. When to see your doctor Keep in mind that people with the most common form of hypothyroidism have an increased risk of developing other autoimmune ...

  7. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. PMID:27779276

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  9. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  11. Antithyroid drug-induced fetal goitrous hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs can induce fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. This condition can have a critical effect on pregnancy outcome, as well as on fetal growth and neurological development. The purpose of this Review is to clarify if and how fetal goitrous hypothyroidism can...... be prevented, and how to react when prevention has failed. Understanding the importance of pregnancy-related changes in maternal thyroid status when treating a pregnant woman is crucial to preventing fetal goitrous hypothyroidism. Maternal levels of free T(4) are the most consistent indication of maternal...... and fetal thyroid status. In patients with fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, intra-amniotic levothyroxine injections improve fetal outcome. The best way to avoid maternal overtreatment with antithyroid drugs is to monitor closely the maternal thyroid status, especially estimates of free T(4) levels....

  12. Primary congenital hypothyroidism complicated by persistent severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-24

    Dec 24, 2013 ... hypothyroidism, there is a general paucity of studies on anaemia in infants ... a physiological adaptation to the decreased tissue ..... patients with Sheehan's syndrome: response to replacement of glucocorticoids and thyroxine ...

  13. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Observational Study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Mathrubootham; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Vishwanathan, Latha; Subbarayan, Anbezhil

    2018-03-15

    To assess the natural history and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism and to study factors which help predict evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism into overt hypothyroidism. Longitudinal study in 40 children (2-16 yrs) presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism in a tertiary care unit in Chennai, India. Patients showing evidence of overt hypothyroidism or thyroid stimulating hormone ≥15 mIU/mL during follow-up were started on thyroxine. Others were followed up with 3-monthly thyroid function tests up to one year. At the end of our study period 3 (7.5%) were overtly hypothyroid, 16 (40%) remained as subclinical hypothyroid, and 21 (52.5%) became euthyroid. Evidence of auto- immunity at baseline was a significant (Phypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children, with thyroid stimulating hormone upto 15 mIU/L and irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity, needs only periodic clinical and biochemical follow up. Thyroid autoimmunity may point to an increased probability of progression to overt hypothyroidism.

  14. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  15. Leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), melatonin and zinc levels in experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism: relation with melatonin and the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2018-03-02

    Background Melatonin, an important neurohormone released from the pineal gland, is generally accepted to exercise an inhibitor effect on the thyroid gland. Zinc mediates the effects of many hormones and is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors. Aim The present study aims to examine the effect of melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy on leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), melatonin and zinc levels in rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Methods This study was performed on the 70 male rats. Experimental animals in the study were grouped as follows: control (C); hypothyroidism (PTU); hypothyroidism + melatonin (PTU + M); hypothyroidism + pinealectomy (PTU + Pnx); hyperthyroidism (H); hyperthyroidism + melatonin (H + M) and hyperthyroidism + pinealectomy (H + Pnx). Blood samples collected at the end of 4-week procedures were analyzed to determine melatonin, leptin, NPY and zinc levels. Results It was found that thyroid parameters thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total T3 (TT3) and total T4 (TT4) decreased in hypothyroidism groups and increased in the groups with hyperthyroidism. The changes in these hormones remained unaffected by melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy. Melatonin levels rose in hyperthyroidism and fell in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels increased in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and pinealectomy, but increased in hyperthyroidism. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect leptin, NPY, melatonin and zinc values in different ways in rats. However, melatonin supplementation and pinealectomy do not have any significant influence on the changes occurring in leptin, NPY and zinc levels in thyroid dysfunction.

  16. Hypothyroidism in late-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joseph; Burmeister, Lynn A; Rudser, Kyle; Whitley, Chester B; Jarnes Utz, Jeanine

    2016-09-01

    In Pompe disease, a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase enzyme activity leads to pathologic accumulation of glycogen in tissues. Phenotype heterogeneity in Pompe includes an infantile form and late-onset forms (juvenile- and adult-onset forms). Symptoms common to all phenotypes include progressive muscle weakness and worsening respiratory function. Patients with late-onset forms of Pompe disease commonly complain of chronic fatigue and generalized muscle weakness prior to being diagnosed with Pompe disease, and this may lead to consideration of hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in the adult-onset form of Pompe disease. Electronic chart review was performed at the Advanced Therapies Clinic at the University of Minnesota Medical Center (UMMC) to identify patients with late-onset Pompe disease. The identified charts were reviewed for a co-diagnosis of hypothyroidism. A query was made to the clinical data repository at UMMC searching diagnosis ICD9 code 244.9 (hypothyroidism not otherwise specified) and/or presence of levothyroxine from 2011 to 2014 in patients 18 years of age and older. The clinical data repository found a prevalence of hypothyroidism of 3.15% (56,072 of 1,782,720 patients) in the adult patient population at UMMC. Ten adult patients with Pompe disease were identified, five with the diagnosis of hypothyroidism (50%, 95% CI: 23.7, 76.3, p Hypothyroidism was found at a higher prevalence in patients with late-onset Pompe disease compared to the general adult population at UMMC. Studies in larger populations of patients with Pompe disease would be needed to confirm an association of Pompe disease and hypothyroidism. Challenges include finding an adequate sample size, due the rarity of Pompe disease.

  17. High androgen levels protect against hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Dahlgren, Eva; Bryman, Inger; Berntorp, Kerstin; Trimpou, Penelope; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder, appearing mainly in women although less frequently found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective was to test the hypothesis that hyperandrogenism might protect against hypothyroidism. The data from three prospective follow-up studies (up to 21 years) and one register study were compared: women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria), n = 25, women with Turner syndrome, n = 217, a random population sample of women, n = 315, and men, n = 95 (the WHO MONICA study). Findings were to be verified or rejected in all females, n = 553 716, from the same region. The proportion of hypothyroidism was calculated and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO) in serum were measured. Hypothyroidism at >50 years of age was found in 8% of women with PCOS, 4% in men (PCOS vs. men; ns), 43% of women with Turner syndrome, irrespective of karyotype (p Hypothyroidism increased with age in all groups except PCOS women and men. In the register study, hypothyroidism was less common in women with PCOS >25 years (5.5%) than in women without PCOS (6.8%) from the same region (p Hypothyroidism was less frequently seen in women with PCOS and in men compared with women in the general population and among women with Turner syndrome. This was not explained by altered autoimmunity or the Y-chromosome. Androgens seem to protect against hypothyroidism. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Hemostasis in Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hypothyroidism on the changes in hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This paper reviews the studies on laboratory and population-based findings regarding hemostatic changes and risk of VTE in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. T...

  19. Massive pericardial effusion associated with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Simona Daniela; Tănase, Daniela Maria; Ouatu, Anca; Ambăruş, V; Dosa, Anca; Arsenescu-Georgescu, Cătălina

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is difficult because hypothyroidism in adults and especially the elderly, classic, has an insidious onset with a range of nonspecific symptoms which may delay diagnosis for months or even years. Old age seems to represent trigger factor for autoimmune diseases, including hypothyroidism. Clinical features in hypothyroidism, such as weight gain, fatigue, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, edema and muscle weakness, and decreased osteo-tendinous reflexes are usually subtle and can be overlooked. Thyroid dysfunction may be associated with a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Pericardial, pleural and peritoneal effusions are common findings in hypothyroidism. This case report represents a typical primary hypothyroidism (autoimmune) and shows the clinical features of this disease. Basically we talked about a severe myxedema with the involvement of internal organs in an elderly woman and the euthyroidism restoration, under thyroid replacement therapy, was correlated with the clinical improvement and cardiovascular and neurological status, with radiographic remission and regression to extinction of pericardial effusion at repeated echocardiographic evaluations.

  20. Hypothyroidism and Hyponatremia: Rather Coincidence Than Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Beiglböck, Hannes; Smaijs, Sabina; Wrba, Thomas; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Susanne; Marculescu, Rodrig; Gessl, Alois; Luger, Anton; Winhofer, Yvonne; Krebs, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is referred to be a rare but possible cause of hyponatremia. However, there is only poor evidence supporting this association. Since hyponatremia and hypothyroidism are both common conditions themselves, co-occurrence does not have to be causal. To address a potential relationship, a retrospective analysis of data from the Division of Endocrinology of the Medical University of Vienna from April 2004 to February 2016 was performed. A total of 8053 hypothyroid patients (48 ± 18 years of age; 71% female) with thyrotropin >4.0 μIU/mL and available blood tests for free thyroxine and sodium (Na + ) within maximal ± seven days were included and screened for hyponatremia. Patients' records were searched for concomitant disease and medication when Na + concentration was causes of hyponatremia in 442/448 (98.88%) patients (i.e., side effects of medication, concomitant underlying disease, or other endocrine disorders). This distribution did not differ between patients suffering from clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism. No case of clinically relevant hyponatremia (Na + hypothyroidism. There was a very weak but statistically significant trend toward a positive association between thyroid function and serum Na + levels (Na + /thyrotropin: R = 0.022, p = 0.046; Na + /free thyroxine: R = -0.047, p hypothyroid patients with moderate to severe hyponatremia often have other potential explanations for their low serum Na + concentrations in routine care.

  1. Hypothyroidism in the adult rat causes incremental changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis, gliosis, and deterioration of postsynaptic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Claudia; Eugenin, Eliseo; Aliaga, Esteban; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; Gonzalez, Pablo A; Gayol, Silvina; Naranjo, David; Noches, Verónica; Marassi, Michelle P; Rosenthal, Doris; Jadue, Cindy; Ibarra, Paula; Keitel, Cecilia; Wohllk, Nelson; Court, Felipe; Kalergis, Alexis M; Riedel, Claudia A

    2012-09-01

    Adult hypothyroidism is a highly prevalent condition that impairs processes, such as learning and memory. Even though tetra-iodothyronine (T(4)) treatment can overcome the hypothyroidism in the majority of cases, it cannot fully recover the patient's learning capacity and memory. In this work, we analyzed the cellular and molecular changes in the adult brain occurring with the development of experimental hypothyroidism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) for 20 days to induce hypothyroidism. Neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the hippocampus of control and hypothyroid adult rats by confocal microscopy. The content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in situ hybridization. The glutamatergic synapse and the postsynaptic density (PSD) were analyzed by electron microscopy. The content of PSD proteins like tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), p75, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) were analyzed by immunoblot. We observed that the hippocampus of hypothyroid adult rats displayed increased apoptosis levels in neurons and astrocyte and reactive gliosis compared with controls. Moreover, we found that the amount of BDNF mRNA was higher in the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats and the content of TrkB, the receptor for BDNF, was reduced at the PSD of the CA3 region of hypothyroid rats, compared with controls. We also observed that the glutamatergic synapses from the stratum radiatum of CA3 from hypothyroid rats, contained thinner PSDs than control rats. This observation was in agreement with a reduced content of NMDAr subunits at the PSD in hypothyroid animals. Our data suggest that adult hypothyroidism affects the hippocampus by a mechanism that alters the composition of PSD, reduces neuronal and astrocyte survival, and alters the content of the signaling neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF.

  2. Long-term Postoperative Nutritional Status Affects Prognosis Even After Infectious Complications in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Jun; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Otsuji, Eigo

    2018-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the clinical impact of postoperative serum albumin level on severe postoperative complications (SPCs) and prognosis. Data for a total of 728 consecutive patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2004 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. From these patients, a propensity score-matched analysis was performed based on 14 clinicopathological and surgical factors. Short-term decrease in postoperative serum albumin level was not associated with the occurrence of SPCs. Regarding long-term decrease in serum albumin level, a decrease of ≥0.5 g/dl at 3 months did not affect the long-term survival of patients without SPCs, but was related to a significantly poorer prognosis in patients with SPCs. By multivariate analysis, long-term decrease of serum albumin level was an independent prognostic factor in patients with SPCs. Long-term postoperative nutritional status as shown by a low level of albumin was related to prognosis in patients with SPCs. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  4. Subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass or strength in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, You Jin; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Jae-Young; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2010-08-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass, affects the muscle strength and muscle quality, and these changes decrease functional capacity. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction increases with age, and changes in thyroid hormone level lead to neuromuscular deficits. We investigated the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on the muscle mass, strength or quality in elderly people. One thousand one hundred eighteen subjects aged > or = 65 yr were randomly selected from a local population and classified into a euthyroid (280 men and 358 women), subclinically hypothyroid (61 men and 75 women), or overtly hypothyroid (7 men and 16 women) group. Although women with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, defined according to the ratio of appendicular skeletal muscle mass to the square of height, muscle mass, strength or quality did not differ in relation to thyroid status in men or in women. Multivariate analysis including age, diabetes, hypertension, acute coronary event, alcohol, smoking, presence of pain, physical activity score, and lipid profile, showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone level was not associated with muscle mass, strength or quality. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass, strength or quality, and may not be associated with sarcopenia.

  5. [Subclinical and manifested hypothyroidism as a consequence of thyroid autoimmune disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Dragoslav P; Djurica, Snezana; Davidović, Mladen; Stević, Radmila; Rajić, Miodrag; Marković, Natasa

    2005-10-01

    Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) is a slowly developing persistent inflamation of the thyroid gland, which frequently leads to hypothyroidism. Some of the up-to-date knowledge about hypothyroidism, both subclinical and manifested, caused by autoimmune disease, was presented. Autoimmune thyroid gland disease can occur at any age, but predominantly affects women after periods of high emotional and physical stress or accidents, as well as during periods of hormonal changes. It can also develop in families, and having an autoimmune disease slightly increases the risk of developing another. This paper showed an increasing incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism (4.17%) in elderly, and, at the same time, the incidence of primary hypothyroidism accounting for 1%. It is very usefull to estimate the stimulated thyrotropin (TSH) response, as well as the value of fast, short time thyroid gland reserves, analyzed by T3 and T4 serum level at 60th minute after TRH stimulation. Treatment of choice for HT (hypothyroidism of any cause) is thyroid hormone replacement. Drug of choice is orally administered levothyroxine sodium, usually for life-time. The standard dose is 1.6-1.8 mcg/kg body weight per day, but is in most cases patient dependent. Elderly patients usually require smaller replacement dose of levothyroxine, sometimes less than 1 mcg/kg body weight per day with coronary dilatator at the same time.

  6. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  7. Transient Hypothyroidism During Lactation Arrests Myelination in the Anterior Commissure of Rats. A Magnetic Resonance Image and Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Federico S; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; González-Granero, Susana; Canals, Santiago; Obregón, María-Jesús; García-Verdugo, José M; Berbel, Pere

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency at early postnatal ages affects the cytoarchitecture and function of neocortical and telencephalic limbic areas, leading to impaired associative memory and in a wide spectrum of neurological and mental diseases. Neocortical areas project interhemispheric axons mostly through the corpus callosum and to a lesser extent through the anterior commissure (AC), while limbic areas mostly project through the AC and hippocampal commissures. Functional magnetic resonance data from children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and abnormal verbal memory processing, suggest altered ipsilateral and contralateral telencephalic connections. Gestational hypothyroidism affects AC development but the possible effect of transient and chronic postnatal hypothyroidism, as occurs in late diagnosed neonates with congenital hypothyroidism and in children growing up in iodine deficient areas, still remains unknown. We studied AC development using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy in hypothyroid and control male rats. Four groups of methimazole (MMI) treated rats were studied. One group was MMI-treated from postnatal day (P) 0 to P21; some of these rats were also treated with L-thyroxine (T4) from P15 to P21, as a model for early transient hypothyroidism. Other rats were MMI-treated from P0 to P150 and from embryonic day (E) 10 to P170, as a chronic hypothyroidism group. The results were compared with age paired control rats. The normalized T2 signal using magnetic resonance image was higher in MMI-treated rats and correlated with the number and percentage of myelinated axons. Using electron microscopy, we observed decreased myelinated axon number and density in transient and chronic hypothyroid rats at P150, unmyelinated axon number increased slightly in chronic hypothyroid rats. In MMI-treated rats, the myelinated axon g-ratio and conduction velocity was similar to control rats, but with a decrease in conduction delays. These

  8. Transient Hypothyroidism During Lactation Arrests Myelination in the Anterior Commissure of Rats. A Magnetic Resonance Image and Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico S. Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone deficiency at early postnatal ages affects the cytoarchitecture and function of neocortical and telencephalic limbic areas, leading to impaired associative memory and in a wide spectrum of neurological and mental diseases. Neocortical areas project interhemispheric axons mostly through the corpus callosum and to a lesser extent through the anterior commissure (AC, while limbic areas mostly project through the AC and hippocampal commissures. Functional magnetic resonance data from children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and abnormal verbal memory processing, suggest altered ipsilateral and contralateral telencephalic connections. Gestational hypothyroidism affects AC development but the possible effect of transient and chronic postnatal hypothyroidism, as occurs in late diagnosed neonates with congenital hypothyroidism and in children growing up in iodine deficient areas, still remains unknown. We studied AC development using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy in hypothyroid and control male rats. Four groups of methimazole (MMI treated rats were studied. One group was MMI-treated from postnatal day (P 0 to P21; some of these rats were also treated with L-thyroxine (T4 from P15 to P21, as a model for early transient hypothyroidism. Other rats were MMI-treated from P0 to P150 and from embryonic day (E 10 to P170, as a chronic hypothyroidism group. The results were compared with age paired control rats. The normalized T2 signal using magnetic resonance image was higher in MMI-treated rats and correlated with the number and percentage of myelinated axons. Using electron microscopy, we observed decreased myelinated axon number and density in transient and chronic hypothyroid rats at P150, unmyelinated axon number increased slightly in chronic hypothyroid rats. In MMI-treated rats, the myelinated axon g-ratio and conduction velocity was similar to control rats, but with a decrease in conduction

  9. Technetium 99m pertechnetate scans in congenital hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, R.A.; Bode, H.H.; Hayek, A.; Crawford, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Goiters are rarely palpable in infants with congenital hypothyroidism except in the case of maternal ingestion of iodide. The presence or absence of glandular tissue is, however, important for genetic and prognostic counseling and for acceleration of diagnosis in other affected siblings. The detection of thyroid tissue by /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans in a significant number of our patients heretofore considered athyreotic establishes that physical findings and traditional laboratory data are not adequate to determine whether or not thyroid tissue is present

  10. Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-07-01

    Levothyroxine therapy is the traditional lifelong replacement therapy for hypothyroid patients. Over the last several years, new evidence has led clinicians to evaluate the option of combined T(3) and T(4) treatment to improve the quality of life, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action in hypothyroidism. The aim of this review is to assess the physiological basis and the results of current studies on this topic. We searched Medline for reports published with the following search terms: hypothyroidism, levothyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid, guidelines, treatment, deiodinases, clinical symptoms, quality of life, cognition, mood, depression, body weight, heart rate, cholesterol, bone markers, SHBG, and patient preference for combined therapy. The search was restricted to reports published in English since 1970, but some reports published before 1970 were also incorporated. We supplemented the search with records from personal files and references of relevant articles and textbooks. Parameters analyzed included the rationale for combination treatment, the type of patients to be selected, the optimal T(4)/T(3) ratio, and the potential benefits of this therapy on symptoms of hypothyroidism, quality of life, mood, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action. The outcome of our analysis suggests that it may be time to consider a personalized regimen of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. Further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify this important issue. Innovative formulations of the thyroid hormones will be required to mimic a more perfect thyroid hormone replacement therapy than is currently available.

  11. Effects of hypothyroidism on the sensitivity of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis to insulin in the soleus muscle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, G D; Leighton, B; Parry-Billings, M; West, D; Newsholme, E A

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of hypothyroidism on the sensitivity of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis to insulin were investigated in the isolated, incubated soleus muscle of the rat. 2. Hypothyroidism, which was induced by administration of propylthiouracil to the rats, decreased fasting plasma levels of free fatty acids and increased plasma levels of glucose but did not significantly change plasma levels of insulin. 3. The sensitivity of the rates of glycogen synthesis to insulin was increased at physiological, but decreased at supraphysiological, concentrations of insulin. 4. The rates of glycolysis in the hypothyroid muscles were decreased at all insulin concentrations studied and the EC50 for insulin was increased more than 8-fold; the latter indicates decreased sensitivity of this process to insulin. However, at physiological concentrations of insulin, the rates of glucose phosphorylation in the soleus muscles of hypothyroid rats were not different from controls. This suggests that hypothyroidism affects glucose metabolism in muscle not by affecting glucose transport but by decreasing the rate of glucose 6-phosphate conversion to lactate and increasing the rate of conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to glycogen. 5. The rates of glucose oxidation were decreased in the hypothyroid muscles at all insulin concentrations. PMID:2649073

  12. Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis In A Child With Congenital Hypothyroidism : Association Or Co - Incidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthraj G R

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD is a chronic benign relapsing, pustular eruption with distinctive histology1 affecting usually the females in the age group of 40 yrs. Recently, its association with hyperthyroidism has been reported2. We describe a child with congenital hypothyroidism and SCPD.

  13. Diabetes mellitus may affect short-term outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Stojan; Bozovic, Ivo; Bjelica, Bogdan; Berisavac, Ivana; Stojiljkovic, Olivera; Basta, Ivana; Beslac-Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Rakocevic-Stojanovic, Vidosava; Lavrnic, Dragana; Stevic, Zorica

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine influence of diabetes mellitus on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) course and short-term prognosis. Among the 257 GBS patients included in this retrospective study, diabetes mellitus was present in 17%. The degree of disability at admission and on discharge was assessed according to the GBS Disability Scale (mild disability = 0-3, severe disability = 4-6). Even after correction for age, diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with more severe disability at nadir (odds ratio, OR = 3.4, p diabetes were significant predictors of severe disability at nadir (adjusted R 2 = 0.21, p diabetes mellitus affects short-term prognosis of GBS, independent of age. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed El Kholy

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... In children with subclinical hypothyroidism, The American. Thyroid Association ... reflects mild hypothyroidism that could harm brain growth and development in the ... results in a normal cognitive development [9]. In conclusion ...

  15. Levothyroxine substitution in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of myocardial infarction and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Nygaard; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors, yet only limited data exist on long-term outcome of levothyroxine treatment of this condition with respect to hard end-points. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine effects of ...

  16. Intellectual and motor development of young adults with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by neonatal screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M.J.E.; van der Sluijs-Veer, L.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Kooistra, L.; Wiedijk, B.M.; Faber, I.R.; Last, B.F.; Vijlder, J.J. de; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Vulsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Long-term follow-up data on cognitive and motor functioning in adult patients with congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed by neonatal screening, are scarce. Hence, it is still unclear whether the frequently reported cognitive and motor deficits observed during childhood persist in adulthood.

  17. Coexistence of hypothyroidism with inflammatory arthritis is associated with cardiovascular disease in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raterman, H.G.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Peters, M.J.L.; Verheij, R.A.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypothyroidism and inflammatory arthritis tend to coexist, but data on this association are sparse. In terms of cardiovascular risk, this association may have clinical relevance as this coexistence may carry an additional cardiovascular risk. This study calculates, first, the prevalence

  18. Intellectual and motor development of young adults with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed by neonatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, M. J. E.; van der Sluijs Veer, L.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Kooistra, L.; Wiedijk, B. M.; Faber, I.; Last, B. F.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Vulsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term follow-up data on cognitive and motor functioning in adult patients with congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed by neonatal screening, are scarce. Hence, it is still unclear whether the frequently reported cognitive and motor deficits observed during childhood persist in adulthood. The

  19. Synthetic prevention and treatment for hypothyroidism after radioiodine therapy hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiyun

    2004-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is main complication after 131 I therapy for hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease. The hypothyroidism restricts its popular application that 131 I treatment for Graves' disease. In clinic practice, different factors of every patient, involved case selection, sensitivity estimation, unite using medicine before 131 I therapy are analysed, and synthetic measures for posttreatment examination, transient hypothyroidism and permanent hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy are discussed

  20. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  1. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-08-28

    Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFalpha) values showed overexpression (198%). Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  2. Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greco, D.S.; Peterson, M.E.; Cho, D.Y.; Markovits, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Juvenile-onset hypothyroidism was diagnosed in an adult mixed-breed dog examined because of quadraparesis. Unusual clinical signs attributable to juvenile-onset or congenital hypothyroidism included disproportionate dwarfism; enlarged, protruding tongue; mental dullness; and retention of a 'puppy' coat, which was soft and fluffy, without guard hairs. Radiography of the vertebral column and long bones revealed multiple areas of delayed epiphyseal closure and epiphyseal dysgenesis. Myelography demonstrated several intervertebral disk protrusions in the cervical and lumbar regions. Hypothyroidism was confirmed on the basis of a low basal serum thyroxine concentration that failed to increase after the administration of thyroid stimulating hormone. Other laboratory abnormalities included nonregenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia; mild hypercalcemia; and an impaired growth hormone (GH) secretory response after xylazine administration. At necropsy, the thyroid gland was small and weighed only 0.2g. Microscopic examination of the thyroid gland revealed a loss of glandular tissue, which was replaced by adipose tissue along its periphery. Gross or microscopic abnormalities were not noted in the pituitary gland, and immunohistochemical staining of the pituitary gland revealed a normal number of GH-containing acidophils. This suggests that primary hypothyroidism may result in an impaired secretion of growth hormone, and that pituitary dwarfism or GH deficiency may be difficult to differentiate from hypothyroid dwarfism on the basis of provocative GH testing alone

  3. Update on the treatment of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is a malignancy that is rapidly increasing in frequency. As thyroidectomy plays a central role in the treatment of thyroid cancer, it is incumbent on physicians treating this patient group to be well versed in the intricacies of treating hypothyroidism. Treatment of hypothyroidism may be refined by careful attention to dose selection, monitoring of therapy and achievement of thyrotropin goals that are specific to the individual patient's overall clinical situation. These goals are common not only to patients with a sole diagnosis of hypothyroidism, as discussed in the recent American Thyroid Association Guidelines, but also to patients with hypothyroidism in the setting of thyroid cancer. Several recent studies have illuminated our understanding of the benefits and risks of thyrotropin suppression therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Multiple studies of combination therapy with levothyroxine and liothyronine for treating hypothyroidism have not led to a clear conclusion about its benefits over levothyroxine monotherapy. Animal studies have advanced our understanding of the altered serum and tissue milieu that characterizes levothyroxine monotherapy. Crossing the bridge from this translational research into clinical research using sustained release triiodothyronine preparations may ultimately enhance the health of our patients. Continued refinement of our understanding of thyroid status and our ability to flawlessly implement thyroid hormone replacement is an active area of research.

  4. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  5. The conceptualization of terms: 'Mood' and 'affect' in academic trainees of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Ram, Dushad

    2009-01-01

    The management of psychiatric disorders should ideally be carried out by a multidisciplinary team that consists of mental health professionals from different disciplines. All mental health professionals are expected to learn similar basic clinical skills during their training, despite the difference in their graduation. To compare the conceptualization of the terms 'mood' and 'affect' in all academic trainees of mental health in the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP), Ranchi, India. The 'modified mood and affect questionnaire' administered to all mental health trainees of CIP, Ranchi, India, in this study. The participants were requested to mark one response (either 'true', 'false' or 'not sure') for each item. The completed questionnaire was collected on the spot. The statistical analysis was done for the data from psychiatric residents and trainees of clinical psychology. The statistical differences were observed between these two groups in response to the items-'Mood is the moment to moment emotional tone' and items of 'sign/symptom dimension'. The observed statistical difference in items could be the reflection of the differences in the description of 'mood' and 'affect' in textbooks of psychopathology, as well as, the difference in their graduation. The trainees of clinical psychology may be benefitted with more exposure in medical knowledge during their training.

  6. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    in hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid patients suffered mostly from tiredness (81%), dry skin (63%), and shortness of breath (51%). Highest DORs (95% CI) were reported for tiredness (5.94 (3.70-9.60)), hair loss (4.58 (2.80-7.51)), and dry skin (4.09 (2.73-6.16)). A hypothyroidism-component-score was defined as the number...

  7. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez-Castelán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT. Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood.

  8. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Méndez-Tepepa, M; Carrillo-Portillo, Y; Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Antolín, J; Zambrano, E; Castelán, F; Cuevas-Romero, E

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood.

  9. [Changes in muscle tissue in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, J

    2001-09-01

    This article offers a synopsis of detailed analysis of the functional and structural changes in muscle tissue in manifest and subclinical hypothyroidism. There is a brief overview of the division between mypathy and myositis, with emphasis on endocrinological and metabolic disorders. The necessity of endocrinological examination in each case of myopathy the etiology of which is indefinite is stressed, and this especially before the instigation of non-specific immunosuppressive treatment (e.g., corticosteroids) as this treatment has the risk of undesirable side-effects. In conclusion, it emphasises the negative influence of the nexus of hypothyroidism and the administering of a hypolipidemic in tandem on muscle tissue, as in rare cases this can lead to the disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e., rhabdomyolysis. The administering of hypolipidemic drugs to patients with hypothyroidism is indicated only in those cases where persists hyperlipoproteinemia after the normalisation of the thyroid function by substitutional treatment.

  10. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Farias Moeller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has been described in military recruits, trained athletes and daily runners. Statin use, quail ingestion, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and hypothyroidism, though rare, are risk factors for the development of rhabdomyolysis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female who presented with myalgias, weakness, and pigmenturia following marching band practice. Laboratory tests confirmed an elevated creatine kinase (CK level as well as a profound hypothyroid state. Muscle biopsy revealed severe muscle necrosis and myositis. Treatment with levothyroxine resulted in obtaining an euthyroid state and regain of muscle strength as well as decrease in CK levels. Although rare, hypothyroidism should be considered as a potential cause of rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients undergoing a myopathy workup.

  11. Primary Hypothyroidism With Markedly High Prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD SALEEM ANSARI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Pituitary enlargement due to primary hypothyroidism is not a common manifestation. The loss of thyroxin feedback inhibition in primary hypothyroidism causes overproduction of thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH, which results in secondary pituitary enlargement.TRH has a weak stimulatory effect on lactotroph cells of pituitary, so mild to moderate rise in prolactin (PRL level is expected. We report a 67 years old female who presented with a large pituitary mass and very high level of TSH with a significant rise in PRL level. In this case the diagnosis of seller mass was challenging, it was difficult to distinguish between pituitary prolactinoma and primary hypothyroidism with secondary pituitary hyperplasia. The thyroid hormone replacement proved that hyperprolactinemia was due to hyperplasia of the pituitary gland.Hence, the correct diagnosis and thyroid hormone therapy can prevent unnecessary treatment with dopamine agonist.

  12. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  13. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukthomya, V.

    1985-08-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) determination by a radioimmunoassay on dried blood spots was selected as the screening method for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand. Blood from the infant's heel was obtained in 7814 newborns on the fifth day of life. Infants with TSH values greater than 25 mU/L were recalled for a more careful clinical examination and to have their T4 (thyroxine) and TSH re-estimated. Fifty-four infants with TSH values between 25 and 50 mU/L were found to be normal at re-evaluation. These are still being followed longitudinally for full confirmation. Two with values above 50 mU/L, although clinically euthyroid, were found to be hypothyroid by T3, T4, thyroid scintigraphy and bone age on roentgenography. Replacement therapy has been started. We have shown that a screening program for neonatal hypothyroidism can be done, and is probably worthwhile and perhaps even cost-effective

  14. Pulmonary functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulfidan; Saler, Tayyibe; Saglam, Zuhal Aydan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Esra; Demir, Tuncalp; Temiz, Levent Umit

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether alterations in pulmonary function takes place in subclinical hypothyroidism by examining the diffusion lung capacity and muscle strength of such patients. This is a descriptive study conducted in 2009 at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Hundred and twenty-six patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 58 age and sex matched individuals were recruited. Simple spirometry tests were performed, and pulmonary diffusion capacity (DLco) and muscle strength were measured. ScH patients showed a significant reduciton of the following pulmonary function tests (% predicted value) as compared with control subjects: FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, DLco, DLco/VA, Pimax, Pimax% and Pemax%. These data indicate that pulmonary functions are effected in subclinical hypothyrodism. Therefore patients with or who are at high risk of having subclinical hypothyroidism, should be subjected to evaluation of pulmonary functions with simple spirometry.

  15. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in Primary Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat H; P, Madhu Vijay; Rather, Tanveer A; Laway, Bashir A

    2017-01-30

    Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy. Thirty-one patients of primary hypothyroidism and 15 euthyroid healthy controls were evaluated for esophageal transit time using 15-20 MBq of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid diluted in 10-15 mL of drinking water. Time activity curve was generated for each study and esophageal transit time was calculated as time taken for clearance of 90% radioactive bolus from the region of interest encompassing the esophagus. Esophageal transit time of more than 10 seconds was considered as prolonged. Patients of primary hypothyroidism had a significantly increased mean esophageal transit time of 19.35 ± 20.02 seconds in comparison to the mean time of 8.25 ± 1.71 seconds in healthy controls ( P < 0.05). Esophageal transit time improved and in some patients even normalized after treatment with thyroxine. A positive correlation ( r = 0.39, P < 0.05) albeit weak existed between the serum thyroid stimulating hormone and the observed esophageal transit time. A significant number of patients with primary hypothyroidism may have subclinical esophageal dysmotility with prolonged esophageal transit time which can be reversible by thyroxine treatment. Prolonged esophageal transit time in primary hypothyroidism may correlate with serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels.

  16. Experimental hypothyroidism increases content of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, J; Ciosek, J; Slotwinska, D; Stempniak, B; Zukowska, D; Marczynski, A; Tosik, D; Bartel, H; Dabrowski, R; Szczepanowska, A

    2009-09-01

    The connective tissue matrix of the heart remains under regulatory influence of the thyroid hormones. Some conflicting data describe the connective tissue changes in subjects with thyroid gland disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the changes of the connective tissue accumulation in the heart of rats in the state of hypothyroidism and to answer the question whether TSH is involved in mechanism of the observed phenomena. Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by methylotiouracil treatment or by thyreoidectomy. The thyroid hormones [freeT3 (fT3), freeT4 (fT4)] and pituitary TSH were measured in plasma with radioimmunological method. The glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and total collagen were measured in heart muscle of both left and right ventricles. Cells from the rat's heart were isolated and cultured. The cells were identified as myofibroblasts by electron microscopy method. The effects of TSH in concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 20 mIU/ml, on connective tissue accumulation in heart myofibroblasts cultures were tested. The primary hypothyroidism was developed both in groups with thyroidectomy and with methylthiouracil. The levels of fT3 and fT4 both in rats with thyreoidectomy and animals treated with methylthiouracil were decreased and TSH level in these two experimental groups was elevated. In the heart of the rats with experimental hypothyroidism increased content of both GAG and collagen was found. Myofibroblast number in culture was increased by TSH. Regardless of the method of its induction, hypothyroidism increased collagen and GAG contents in the heart. TSH is not involved in regulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycans accumulation in the heart of rats affected with primary hypothyroidism.

  17. Hypophysiary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jorge; Polania, Diana Ligia; Builes, Carlos Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    This is a 43 years old woman, complaining of galactorhea, headache and hyperprolactinaemia. A large macro adenoma of the pituitary with extensive suprasellar extension and displacement of the optic chiasm was detected on MRI and primary hypothyroidism was found. After treatment with levothyroxine for four months, her TSH and prolactin levels returned to normal, her symptoms improved and a marked shrinkage of the selar lesion was observed. The visual fields returned to normal. This is a case of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

  18. Neonatal hypothyroidism detection with locally produced reactives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, H.; Robles, A.; Nappa, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Congenital hypothyroidism is the endocrinopathy of frequency lives in the childhood together with the Diabetes Mellitus. It has estimated in other countries that approximately a boy for each 4500 has probability of being born with this pathology.It is detected by radioinmuno essay RIA.In 1990 it forms to multidisciplinary group for the hypothyroidism congenital studies, integrate for the Nuclear Investigations Center of (CIN), Nuclear Medicine Center (CMN), the Neonatology Department of the Medicine College and the Cathedra of Radioquimica of the Chemistry College with the aim for implement the programme [es

  19. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total chol...

  20. Hypothyroidism following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinger, Michael; Zeiter, Deborah; Heim, Dominik; Halter, Jörg; Gerull, Sabine; Tichelli, André; Passweg, Jakob; Nigro, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Hypothyroidism may complicate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT); we therefore analyzed risk factors in this study. We studied 229 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent an allo-HSCT between 2003 and 2013 with different conditioning regimens (myeloablative, reduced-intensity, chemotherapy-based, or total body irradiation-based). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine levels (fT4) were available in 104 patients before and after allo-HSCT. The median age at transplantation (n=104) was 47 (IQR 40-59)], 37 (35.6%) patients were female, and the overall mortality was 34.6% (n=36). After a median follow-up period of 47 (IQR 25-84) months, overt hypothyroidism (basal TSH>4.49mIU/l, FT4hypothyroidism (basal TSH>4.49mIU/l, normal fT4) was observed in 20 patients (19.2%). Positive thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies were found in 5 (4.8%) patients. A total of 13 patients (12.5%) were treated with thyroid hormone replacement. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) ≥grade 2 occurred in 55 (52.9%) and chronic GvHD (cGvHD) in 74 (71.2%) of the patients. The risk of developing hypothyroidism was higher in the patients with repeated allo-HSCTs (P=0.024) and with positive TPO antibodies (P=0.045). Furthermore, the development of overt hypothyroidism was inversely proportional to age (P=0.043). No correlation was found with GvHD, HLA-mismatch, total body irradiation, and gender. After allo-HSCT, a significant number of patients experience thyroid dysfunction, including subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Long-term and continuous follow-up for thyroid function after HSCT is important to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people with hypothyroidism who are biochemically euthyroid on levothyroxine replacement there is a significant proportion who report poorer quality of life. This review explores the historical and current treatment options for hypothyroidism, reasons for and potential solutions to suboptimal treatment, and future possibilities in the treatment of hypothyroidism. PMID:22291465

  2. Short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Stone, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J; Crowther, Janis H

    2018-04-01

    Many bariatric surgery candidates report body image concerns before surgery. Research has reported post-surgical improvements in body satisfaction, which may be associated with weight loss. However, research has failed to comprehensively examine changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive body image. This research examined (1) short-term changes in affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of body image from pre-surgery to 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, and (2) the association between percent weight loss and these changes. Participants were recruited from a private hospital in the midwestern United States. Eighty-eight females (original N = 123; lost to follow-up: n = 15 at 1-month and n = 20 at 6-months post-surgery) completed a questionnaire battery, including the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, Body Checking Questionnaire, Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire, and Body Shape Questionnaire, and weights were obtained from patients' medical records before and at 1- and 6-months post-surgery. Results indicated significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness, and body image avoidance at 1- and 6-months after bariatric surgery, with the greatest magnitude of change occurring for body image avoidance. Change in feelings of fatness was significantly correlated with percent weight loss at 6-months, but not 1-month, post-surgery. These findings highlight the importance of examining short-term changes in body image from a multidimensional perspective in the effort to improve postsurgical outcomes. Unique contributions include the findings regarding the behavioral component of body image, as body image avoidance emerges as a particularly salient concern that changes over time among bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of lymphangiography on the development of hypothyroidism in patients irradiated for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Steven R; Fein, Douglas A; Hanlon, Alexandria L; Corn, Benjamin W; Curran, Walter J; Coia, Lawrence R

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Lymphangiography has been a routine part of Hodgkin's disease staging over the past 3 decades and has an accepted role in assessing pelvic and paraaortic lymph node involvement, adequately staging patients as well as planning radiation fields. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the role of lymphangiography in promoting hypothyroidism in individuals with Hodgkin's disease irradiated with a mantle field. We sought to analyze the onset and rate of hypothyroidism in patients who received irradiation to the thyroid gland during treatment of Hodgkin's disease, as well as possible factors related to its development. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated between June 1967 and October 1993. All patients were treated with curative intent with radiation therapy utilizing a mantle field. Following exclusion of patients without available thyroid function tests, < 200 days of follow-up, or no radiation to the thyroid 104 patients were eligible for analysis. Follow-up ranged from 7-170 months (median 43 months). Sixty-seven patients had a lymphangiogram. 73 patients were treated with radiation alone and 31 patients with radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. All patients were treated with continuous course, once daily external beam radiotherapy using megavoltage equipment. The median external beam dose to the mantle field was 39.6 Gy while the median dose to the thyroid was 41.5 Gy. Multivariate analysis was used to determine factors affecting hypothyroidism. Results: The actuarial 2-, and 5-year rates of biochemical hypothyroidism for all 104 patients were 18% and 37%, respectively. 40 patients developed hypothyroidism: 9 (23%) at {<=} 1 year, 18 (45%) at {<=} 2 years and 33 (83%) at {<=} 5 years. 35 patients developed chemical hypothyroidism and 5 patients developed both clinical and chemical hypothyroidism. The actuarial 2-, and 5-year rates of biochemical hypothyroidism for patients who underwent a

  4. The influence of lymphangiography on the development of hypothyroidism in patients irradiated for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Steven R.; Fein, Douglas A.; Hanlon, Alexandria L.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.; Coia, Lawrence R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Lymphangiography has been a routine part of Hodgkin's disease staging over the past 3 decades and has an accepted role in assessing pelvic and paraaortic lymph node involvement, adequately staging patients as well as planning radiation fields. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the role of lymphangiography in promoting hypothyroidism in individuals with Hodgkin's disease irradiated with a mantle field. We sought to analyze the onset and rate of hypothyroidism in patients who received irradiation to the thyroid gland during treatment of Hodgkin's disease, as well as possible factors related to its development. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with Hodgkin's disease were treated between June 1967 and October 1993. All patients were treated with curative intent with radiation therapy utilizing a mantle field. Following exclusion of patients without available thyroid function tests, < 200 days of follow-up, or no radiation to the thyroid 104 patients were eligible for analysis. Follow-up ranged from 7-170 months (median 43 months). Sixty-seven patients had a lymphangiogram. 73 patients were treated with radiation alone and 31 patients with radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. All patients were treated with continuous course, once daily external beam radiotherapy using megavoltage equipment. The median external beam dose to the mantle field was 39.6 Gy while the median dose to the thyroid was 41.5 Gy. Multivariate analysis was used to determine factors affecting hypothyroidism. Results: The actuarial 2-, and 5-year rates of biochemical hypothyroidism for all 104 patients were 18% and 37%, respectively. 40 patients developed hypothyroidism: 9 (23%) at ≤ 1 year, 18 (45%) at ≤ 2 years and 33 (83%) at ≤ 5 years. 35 patients developed chemical hypothyroidism and 5 patients developed both clinical and chemical hypothyroidism. The actuarial 2-, and 5-year rates of biochemical hypothyroidism for patients who underwent a

  5. Methylphenidate during early consolidation affects long-term associative memory retrieval depending on baseline catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Bovy, Leonore; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-02-01

    Synaptic memory consolidation is thought to rely on catecholaminergic signaling. Eventually, it is followed by systems consolidation, which embeds memories in a neocortical network. Although this sequence was demonstrated in rodents, it is unclear how catecholamines affect memory consolidation in humans. Here, we tested the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on synaptic and subsequent systems consolidation. We expected enhanced memory performance and increased neocortical engagement during delayed retrieval. Additionally, we tested if this effect was modulated by individual differences in a cognitive proxy measure of baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Fifty-three healthy males underwent a between-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure across 2 days. On day 1, subjects studied and retrieved object-location associations and received 20 mg of methylphenidate or placebo. Drug intake was timed so that methylphenidate was expected to affect early consolidation but not encoding or retrieval. Memory was tested again while subjects were scanned three days later. Methylphenidate did not facilitate memory performance, and there was no significant group difference in activation during delayed retrieval. However, memory representations differed between groups depending on baseline catecholamines. The placebo group showed increased activation in occipito-temporal regions but decreased connectivity with the hippocampus, associated with lower baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. The methylphenidate group showed stronger activation in the postcentral gyrus, associated with higher baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Altogether, methylphenidate during early consolidation did not foster long-term memory performance, but it affected retrieval-related neural processes depending on individual levels of baseline catecholamines.

  6. Prognostic Factors Affecting Long-Term Survival after Resection for Noncolorectal, Nonneuroendocrine, and Nonsarcoma Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Uggeri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate feasibility and long-term outcome after hepatic resection for noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine, and nonsarcoma (NCNNNS liver metastases in a single center. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience on patients who underwent surgery for NCNNNS liver metastases from 1995 to 2015. Patient baseline characteristics, tumor features, treatment options, and postoperative outcome were retrieved. Results. We included 47 patients. The overall 5-year survival (OS rate after hepatectomy was 27.6%, with a median survival of 21 months. Overall survival was significantly longer for patients operated for nongastrointestinal liver metastases when compared with gastrointestinal (41 versus 10 months; p=0.027. OS was significantly worse in patients with synchronous metastases than in those with metachronous disease (10 versus 22 months; p=0.021. The occurrence of major postoperative complication negatively affected long-term prognosis (OS 23.5 versus 9.0 months; p=0.028. Preoperative tumor characteristics (number and size of the lesions, intraoperative features (extension of resection, need for transfusions, and Pringle’s maneuver, and R0 at pathology were not associated with differences in overall survival. Conclusion. Liver resection represents a possible curative option for patients with NCNNNS metastases. The origin of the primary tumor and the timing of metastases presentation may help clinicians to better select which patients could take advantages from surgical intervention.

  7. Inhibition of connexin43 hemichannels impairs spatial short-term memory without affecting spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Walrave

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are active players in higher brain function as they can release gliotransmitters, which are essential for synaptic plasticity. Various mechanisms have been proposed for gliotransmission, including vesicular mechanisms as well as non-vesicular ones, for example by passive diffusion via connexin hemichannels (HCs. We here investigated whether interfering with connexin43 (Cx43 HCs influenced hippocampal spatial memory. We made use of the peptide Gap19 that blocks HCs but not gap junction channels and is specific for Cx43. To this end, we microinfused transactivator of transcription linked Gap19 (TAT-Gap19 into the brain ventricle of male NMRI mice and assessed spatial memory in a Y maze. We found that the in vivo blockade of Cx43 HCs did not affect the locomotor activity or spatial working memory in a spontaneous alternation Y maze task. Cx43 blockade did however significantly impair the spatial short-term memory in a delayed spontaneous alternation Y maze task. These results indicate that Cx43 HCs play a role in spatial short-term memory.

  8. A multilevel analysis of long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, G P; Baker, J A; Falkner, K; Chegerova, T; Pryshchepava, A; Chegerov, V; Zevon, M; Bromet, E; Havenaar, J; Valdismarsdottir, H; Moysich, K B

    2008-11-01

    Radiation contamination and sociopolitical instability following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster have had a profound impact on Belarus. To investigate the factors that impact long-term mental health outcomes of this population almost 20 years after the disaster. Cross-sectional study. In-person interviews were conducted with 381 men and women from two geographic areas of differing radiation contamination within Belarus. Participants completed surveys of demographics, psychosocial factors and psychological distress. Individual-level characteristics were combined with household-level measures of radiation contamination exposure and family characteristics to create multilevel predictive models of psychological distress. Between-household effects accounted for 20% of variability in depression and anxiety scores, but only 8% of variability in somatization scores. Degree of chronic daily stressors showed a significant positive relationship with psychological distress, whereas mastery/controllability showed a significant inverse relationship with distress. At household level, perceived family problems, but not level of residential radiation contamination, was the best predictor of distress. Multilevel modelling indicates that long-term psychological distress among Belarusians affected by the Chernobyl disaster is better predicted by stress-moderating psychosocial factors present in one's daily life than by level of residential radiation contamination.

  9. Does hospital readmission following colorectal cancer resection and enhanced recovery after surgery affect long term survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, N J; Noble, E; Salib, E; Hipkiss, R; Meachim, E; Dalton, R; Allison, A; Ockrim, J; Francis, N K

    2017-08-01

    Hospital readmission is undesirable for patients and care providers as this can affect short-term recovery and carries financial consequences. It is unknown if readmission has long-term implications. We aimed to investigate the impact of 30-day readmission on long-term overall survival (OS) following colorectal cancer resection within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) care and explore the reasons for and the severity and details of readmission episodes. A dedicated, prospectively populated database was reviewed. All patients were managed within an established ERAS programme. Five-year OS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The number, reason for and severity of 30-day readmissions were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) system, along with total (initial and readmission) length of stay (LoS). Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors predicting readmission. A total of 1023 consecutive patients underwent colorectal cancer resection between 2002 and 2015. Of these, 166 (16%) were readmitted. Readmission alone did not have a significant impact on 5-year OS (59% vs 70%, P = 0.092), but OS was worse in patients with longer total LoS (20 vs 14 days, P = 0.04). Of the readmissions, 121 (73%) were minor (CD I-II) and 27 (16%) required an intervention of which 16 (10%) were returned to theatre. Gut dysfunction 32 (19%) and wound complications 23 (14%) were the most frequent reasons for readmission. Prolonged initial LoS, rectal cancer and younger age predicted for hospital readmission. Readmission does not have a significant impact on 5-year OS. A broad range of conditions led to readmission, with the majority representing minor complications. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Mitotane treatment in patients with adrenocortical cancer causes central hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marco; Scollo, Claudia; Pellegriti, Gabriella; Cotta, Oana Ruxandra; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Frasca, Francesco; Cannavò, Salvatore; Gullo, Damiano

    2016-04-01

    Mitotane, a steroidogenesis inhibitor with adrenolytic properties used to treat adrenocortical cancer (ACC), can affect thyroid function. A reduction of FT4 levels with normal FT3 and TSH has been described in these patients. Using an in vitro murine model, the secretory capacity of thyrotrophic cells has been shown to be inhibited by mitotane. To investigate the pathogenesis of thyroid abnormalities in mitotane-treated patients with ACC. In five female patients with ACC (median age 47; range 31-65) treated with mitotane (dosage 1·5 g/day; 1·0-3·0), we analysed the pattern of TSH and thyroid function index (FT4, FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio) compared to an age- and gender-matched control group. The in vivo secretory activity of the thyrotrophic cells was evaluated using a standard TRH test (200 μg), and the response was compared to both a group of age-matched female controls (n = 10) and central hypothyroid patients (n = 10). Basal TSH (median 1·54 mU/l; range 1·20-2·17) was normal and scattered around our median reference value, FT3 levels (median 3·80 pmol/l; 3·30-4·29) were normal but below the median reference value of 4·37 pmol/l and FT4 levels were below the normal range in all patients (median 8·40 pmol/l; 7·6-9·9). FT3/FT4 ratio was in the upper range in 4 patients and higher than normal in one patient. A blunted TSH response to TRH was observed in mitotane-treated patients. ΔTSH (absolute TSH response, peak TSH minus basal TSH) was 3·65 (range 3·53-5·26), 12·37 (range 7·55-19·97) and 1·32 mU/l (range 0·52-4·66) in mitotane-treated patients, controls and central hypothyroid patients, respectively. PRL secretion was normal. Mitotane-treated patients with ACC showed low FT4, normal FT3 and TSH and impaired TSH response to TRH, characteristic of central hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the elevated FT3/FT4 ratio of these subjects reflects an enhanced T4 to T3 conversion rate, a compensatory mechanism characteristic of thyroid function changes

  11. Proceedings of the National Training Workshop on Neonatal Hypothyroidism Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.O.A.

    2002-05-01

    The National Training Workshop on Neonatal Hypothyroidism screening project was conceived in 2000 and was held at the University of Ibadan from May 5 - May 8, 2002. The National Neonatal Hypothyroidism Screening project is a Technical Cooperation Project between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Federal Government of Nigeria. The Workshop was organized to raise the awareness to the Health related professionals and Policy makers on the importance of screening for Neonatal Hypothyroidism in our country. Neonatal Hypothyroidism is a result of lack of the thyroid hormones in the neonates and this is mostly due to iodine deficiency in our environment - both in the soil and water. This lack of thyroid hormones in the neonates if not treated leads to a serious disease known as Cretinism. Cretinism affects both the mental and physical developments of these children. This Training Workshop focussed on the importance of the Screening programme for all urgent treatment. The Workshop also showed clearly that lack of care and treatment of such neonates in Nigeria so as to identify the neonates that need urgent treatment. The Workshop also showed clearly that lack of care and treatment of such neonates would have a profound detrimental effect on the social and economical development of Nigeria. The spread of Iodine Deficiency in our country is nation wide. It is not based on political zoning system. Rather, Cretinism is a problem in our country and the participants are convinced that it can be prevented by the support of the Federal Government in the form of the provision of Transportation for the three centres in the country - Ibadan, Jos and Port-Harcourt, for collection of blood specimens and regular Counterpart Funding for this IAEA project. The organizers of this Workshop will like to express their sincere thanks to International Atomic Energy Agency who not only supplies all the equipment and reagents for this national project but also funded this National

  12. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  13. Asymptomatic myotonia congenita unmasked by severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, Elena; Sansone, Valeria A; Verdelli, Chiara; Mendola, Marco; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2014-04-01

    Myotonia congenita is an inherited muscle disorder sustained by mutations in the skeletal muscle chloride channel gene CLCN1. Symptoms vary from mild to severe and generalized myotonia and worsen with cold, stressful events and hormonal fluctuations. Here we report the case of a young woman who sought medical attention because of subacute onset of diffuse and severe limb myotonia. CLCN1 gene sequencing showed a heterozygous transversion (T550M), two polymorphisms and one silent mutation. Thyroid function screening revealed severe hypothyroidism. She was placed on l-thyroxine replacement therapy which dramatically improved myotonia. We conclude that hypothyroidism unmasked a genetically determined, clinically asymptomatic chloride channelopathy. Diagnostic work-up in patients with clinically isolated myotonia should not be limited to genetic screening of non-dystrophic or dystrophic myotonias. Considering the high prevalence of hypothyroidism in females, systematic thyroid function screening by looking for additional hypothyroid symptoms and serum TSH levels measurement is mandatory in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Central Diabetes Insipidus, Central Hypothyroidism, Renal Tubular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    readmitted to the hospital because of jaundice and failure to thrive, for which he was investigated and diagnosed to have central congenital hypothyroidism. Shortly thereafter, he was admitted to our institute with a history of vomiting, decreased oral intake, polyuria, and dehydration having lasted 5 days. He was investigated ...

  15. Recurrent Pericardial Effusion Associated with Hypothyroidism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The complex of Down Syndromehypothyroidism-pericardial effusion is largely unreported in sub-Sahara. Objective: To present and highlight an unusual manifestation of hypothyroidism. Methods: A 16-year-old girl with confirmed Down Syndrome presented with complaints of generalised body swelling of eight ...

  16. Effects of Hypothyroidism and Exogenous Thyroxine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Thyroxine (T4) is important in gut development and maturation, and its use in treating hypothyroidism is becoming more popular. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of thyroidectomy and thyroxine replacement on some gastrointestinal organs. Ten out of 20 thyroidectomised rats received 100pg/kgbw ...

  17. Severe hypothyroidism masquerading as renal impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Kvetny, J

    1996-01-01

    A case of severe hypothyroidism in a 51-year old male is presented. The patient was especially complaining of weakness, stiffness and moderate pain in the proximal muscle groups together with rhinorrhea and nasal stenosis. Because of severely elevated S-creatine-kinase combined with reduced...

  18. NEOCORTICAL HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential to the normal development of the brain. Although severe congenital hypothyroidism has long been associated with mental retardation and motor defects, it has only recently been established that even subtle decreases in maternal TH alter fetal br...

  19. Congenital Hypothyroidism in Yazd: Is It Really Prevalent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Hazar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most frequent type of endocrine disorders which presents at birth. It plays a major role in developing the most common preventable type of mental retardation around the world. In this study, we aimed to investigate CH incidence and its predictive factors among newborns in Yazd province. This cohort study was conducted in 38 health centers of 10 cities in Yazd province which is located in the center of Iran, from March 2008 to February 2015. All neonates, as the audiences of this program, were evaluated using heel prick or Guthrie test according to the national protocol of CH screening. During 7 years of screening for CH from March 2008 to February 2015, 143190 neonates were screened. Among them, 434 neonates were diagnosed as affected cases by CH, and the 7-year incidence of this disease was 303/ 100,000 live births. First, cousin consanguinity, hospitalization, male sex and low birth weight had a significant relationship with congenital hypothyroidism. Logistic regression analysis revealed that aforementioned variables in addition to delivery type (cesarean section were significant predictor of CH. CH is more prevalent in Yazd compared to the other provinces in Iran. It is recommended that the effects of probable risk factors are evaluated through additional longitudinal studies and effective preventive strategies are designed according to the results.

  20. Prolonged Ileus in an Infant Presenting with Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common endocrine disorder affecting the newborn. Universal newborn screening (NBS has virtually eliminated the static encephalopathy and devastating neurodevelopmental syndrome known as cretinism. This report describes the presentation of an infant referred by the primary pediatrician to our hospital at 12 days of age for confirmatory testing after the NBS was consistent with CH. The infant had hypoglycemia secondary to lethargy and poor feeding and required transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit for worsening abdominal distension despite normalization of serum thyroid function tests following hormone replacement. In particular, the recalcitrant ileus and secondary bowel obstruction resulted in an additional diagnostic workup and lengthened hospital day. Our report highlights the acute gastrointestinal consequences of hypothyroidism despite evidence of effective treatment. We believe that the preclinical detection and immediate therapy for CH have lessened the prevalence of this presentation in general practice, and hence practitioners are less likely to be familiar with its natural history and management.

  1. Language Profile in Congenital Hypothyroid Children Receiving Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hend; Abdel Hady, Aisha Fawzy; Abdel Hamid, Asmaa; Mahmoud, Heba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate receptive and expressive language skills in children with congenital hypothyroidism receiving early hormonal replacement treatment before the age of 3 months and to identify any subtle areas of weaknesses in their language development to check the necessity for future language intervention. The study was conducted on 30 hypothyroid children receiving hormonal replacement. They were subdivided into group I (5-8 years 11 months; 12 cases) and group II (9-12 years 11 months; 18 cases). All patients were subjected to a protocol of assessment applied in the Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU) and evaluation of language skills by the REAL scale. The younger group reached average Arabic language scores, while the older group showed moderate language delay. Early replacement therapy supports language development in young children. However, longitudinal and follow-up studies are required to identify difficulties presenting at older ages that may affect children in the academic settings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hypothyroidism and depression: Are cytokines the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimal S Tayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Primary hypothyroidism has been thought of as an inflammatory condition characterized by raised levels of cytokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Depression is also well known to occur in hypothyroidism. Depression is also characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines. We planned to study whether cytokines play an important part in linking these two conditions. Objectives: (1 To know the prevalence of depression in overt hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroid disease. (2 To correlate the levels of inflammatory markers with the occurrence of depression. (3 To study the effect of levothyroxine on inflammatory markers and depression. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal, case–controlled study, 33 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone >10 uIU/ml were included with 33 age-, sex-, and body max index-matched healthy controls. Individuals were tested for Serum TNF-α, IL-6, high-sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP. They were assessed for depression using Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and World Health Organization Quality of Life (QOL Scale. Patients received L Thyroxine titrated to achieve euthyroidism and were reassessed for inflammatory markers and cognitive dysfunction. Results: Nineteen patients (57% had mild to moderate depression (MADRS >11. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients (42% had remission of depression with significant improvement in QOL scores (P < 0.05. TNF-α, IL-6, and hs-CRP were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls and reduced with therapy but did not reach baseline as controls. The change in inflammatory markers correlated with improvement in QOL scores in social and environmental domains (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Primary autoimmune hypothyroidism is an inflammatory state characterized by elevated cytokines which decline with LT4 therapy. It is associated with depression and poor

  3. Soil composition and nutritional status of apple as affected by long-term application of gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Nava

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum does not affect the soil negative charges and maintains sulfate in the soil solution, making it one of the cheapest products to increase Ca activity in soil solution, especially in the deeper soil layers. Higher Ca levels in the soil solution can increase the uptake of this nutrient by apple trees, reducing the risk of physiological disorders caused by Ca deficiency. This study assessed the effect of long-term gypsum application on some soil properties and on the chemical composition of leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to fruit disorders associated with low Ca. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, in the South of Brazil, from 2001 to 2009. Gypsum rates of 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 t ha-1 were annually broadcast over the soil surface, without incorporation, in an apple orchard with cultivar ´Catarina´, planted in 1997. Gypsum application over eight consecutive years had no effect on soil exchangeable K and Al to a depth of 80 cm, but increased exchangeable Ca in the sampled layers (0-10, 10-20, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, while exchangeable Mg decreased only in the surface layer (0-20 cm. Gypsum did not affect the concentration of any nutrient in the fruits, including Ca. The same was verified in the leaves, except for Mg which decreased with increased gypsum rate. Despite increasing the availability of Ca in the soil profile to a depth of 80 cm, gypsum was not effective to increase the Ca content in leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to Ca deficiency grown in an appropriately limed soil.

  4. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  5. Sonographic evaluation of children with congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise de Almeida Sedassari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:To establish benchmarks and study some sonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in a group of euthyroid children aged up to 5 years as compared with age-matched children with congenital hypothyroidism.Materials and Methods:Thirty-six children (17 female and 19 male aged between 2 months and 5 years were divided into two groups – 23 euthyroid children and 13 children with congenital hypothyroidism – and were called to undergo ultrasonography.Results:In the group of euthyroid children (n = 23, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 1.12 mL (minimum, 0.39 mL; maximum, 2.72 mL; a homogeneous gland was found in 17 children (73.91% and 6 children (26.08% had a heterogeneous gland. In the group of children with congenital hypothyroidism (n = 13, mean total volume of the thyroid gland was 2.73 mL (minimum, 0.20 mL; maximum, 11.00 mL. As regards thyroid location, 3 patients (23.07% had ectopic thyroid, and 10 (69.23% had topic thyroid, and out of the latter, 5 had a homogeneous gland (50% and 5, a heterogeneous gland (50%. In the group with congenital hypothyroidism, 6 (46.15% children had etiological diagnosis of dyshormoniogenesis, 3 (23.07%, of ectopic thyroid, and 4 (30.76%, of thyroid hypoplasia.Conclusion:Thyroid ultrasonography is a noninvasive imaging method, widely available, easy to perform and for these reasons could, and should, be performed at any time, including at birth, with no preparation or treatment discontinuation, to aid in the early etiological definition of congenital hypothyroidism.

  6. Hypothyroidism and Glaucoma in The United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, Caitlin; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Wang, Sophia Y.; Singh, Kuldev; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira; Lin, Shan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included all subjects above the age of 40 years from two nationwide surveys: the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) as well as the 2007 and 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The presence or absence of glaucoma, thyroid disease and other demographic and health-related information including comorbidities was ascertained via interview. Blood samples were collected from NHANES subjects and analyzed for thyrotropin (TSH). Results A total of 13,599 and 3,839 NHIS and NHANES participants respectively were analyzed to assess for a possible relationship between self-reported glaucoma, and self-reported hypothyroidism as well as self-reported thyroid disease. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for NHIS showed a significant association between self-reported glaucoma and self-reported hypothyroidism (OR 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, race, comorbidities, and health-related behavior, however, showed no association between self-reported glaucoma and hypothyroidism or thyroid disease in both surveys (OR 1.60, 95%CI 0.87-2.95 for NHIS; OR 1.05, 95%CI 0.59-1.88 for NHANES). Conclusion A previously reported association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease was not confirmed in two large U.S. health survey populations. While such an association was noted in the univariate analysis for the NHIS survey, such a relationship was not found in the multivariate analysis after adjustment for potential confounding variables. PMID:26230664

  7. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T 4 were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T 4 as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r 2 = 0.84) and free T 4 (r 2 = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r 2 = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females

  8. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Messeih, P. L. [Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T{sub 4} were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T{sub 4} as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r{sup 2} = 0.84) and free T{sub 4} (r{sup 2} = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females.

  9. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Word position affects stimulus recognition: evidence for early ERP short-term plastic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironelli, Chiara; Galfano, Giovanni; Umiltà, Carlo; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the short-term plastic changes that follow word learning at a neurophysiological level. The main hypothesis was that word position (left or right visual field, LVF/RH or RVF/LH) in the initial learning phase would leave a trace that affected, in the subsequent recognition phase, the Recognition Potential (i.e., the first negative component distinguishing words from other stimuli) elicited 220-240 ms after centrally presented stimuli. Forty-eight students were administered, in the learning phase, 125 words for 4s, randomly presented half in the left and half in the right visual field. In the recognition phase, participants were split into two equal groups, one was assigned to the Word task, the other to the Picture task (in which half of the 125 pictures were new, and half matched prior studied words). During the Word task, old RVF/LH words elicited significantly greater negativity in left posterior sites with respect to old LVF/RH words, which in turn showed the same pattern of activation evoked by new words. Therefore, correspondence between stimulus spatial position and hemisphere specialized in automatic word recognition created a robust prime for subsequent recognition. During the Picture task, pictures matching old RVF/LH words showed no differences compared with new pictures, but evoked significantly greater negativity than pictures matching old LVF/RH words. Thus, the priming effect vanished when the task required a switch from visual analysis to stored linguistic information, whereas the lack of correspondence between stimulus position and network specialized in automatic word recognition (i.e., when words were presented to the LVF/RH) revealed the implicit costs for recognition. Results support the view that short-term plastic changes occurring in a linguistic learning task interact with both stimulus position and modality (written word vs. picture representation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Long-term follow-up of Norwegian horses affected with acquired equine polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanche-Olsen, S; Kielland, C; Ihler, C F; Hultin Jäderlund, K

    2017-09-01

    Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP), a neurological disease clinically characterised by knuckling of metatarsophalangeal joints, has been described in numerous Nordic horses during the last 20 years. Although clinical recovery has been reported, large-scale data on long-term follow-up of survivors have been lacking. To describe long-term survival of AEP affected horses registered in Norway, with a focus on athletic performance and possible residual clinical signs connected to the disease. A retrospective cohort study. The study includes 143 horses recorded with AEP in Norway from 2000 to 2012, with the follow-up period continuing until 2015. Participating owners of survivors completed a standardised questionnaire, providing information on disease and convalescence, management, performance-level and possible residual clinical signs. To investigate the follow-up of survivors, we performed 2 multivariable linear regression models. The follow-up time of survivors was 1.0-14.5 years (median 5.3, interquartile range 2.5-7.2). Fifty-seven horses survived and all but 3 horses returned to previous or higher level of performance. However, possible disease-related residual clinical signs were reported in 14/57 horses. Forty-nine of the survivors were in athletic use at time of contact. The majority of survivors were categorised with low severity-grades at time of diagnosis and the initial grade was significantly associated with time to resumed training. Only 3 horses had experienced relapse/new attack during the follow-up period. Athletic performance was judged by owners, which renders a possible source of bias. Although AEP is a potential fatal disease, most survivors will recover and return to minimum previous level of athletic performance. Some horses display residual clinical signs, but often without negative effect on performance and relapse of disease is rare. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Hippocampal Focal Knockout of CBP Affects Specific Histone Modifications, Long-Term Potentiation, and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ruth M; Malvaez, Melissa; Kramar, Eniko; Matheos, Dina P; Arrizon, Abraham; Cabrera, Sara M; Lynch, Gary; Greene, Robert W; Wood, Marcelo A

    2011-01-01

    To identify the role of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB-binding protein (CBP) in neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus during memory formation, we examine the effects of a focal homozygous knockout of CBP on histone modifications, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We show that CBP is critical for the in vivo acetylation of lysines on histones H2B, H3, and H4. CBP's homolog p300 was unable to compensate for the loss of CBP. Neurons lacking CBP maintained phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, yet failed to activate CREB:CBP-mediated gene expression. Loss of CBP in dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus resulted in selective impairments to long-term potentiation and long-term memory for contextual fear and object recognition. Together, these results suggest a necessary role for specific chromatin modifications, selectively mediated by CBP in the consolidation of memories. PMID:21508930

  13. Effects of hyper- and hypothyroidism on acetylcholinesterase, (Na(+), K (+))- and Mg ( 2+ )-ATPase activities of adult rat hypothalamus and cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carageorgiou, Haris; Pantos, Constantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Cokkinos, Dennis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are recognized as key metabolic hormones, and the metabolic rate increases in hyperthyroidism, while it decreases in hypothyroidism. The aim of this work was to investigate how changes in metabolism induced by THs could affect the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na(+), K(+))- and Mg(2+)-ATPase in the hypothalamus and the cerebellum of adult rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by subcutaneous administration of thyroxine (25 microg/100 g body weight) once daily for 14 days, while hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of propylthiouracil (0.05%) for 21 days. All enzyme activities were evaluated spectrophotometrically in the homogenated brain regions of 10 three-animal pools. Neither hyper-, nor hypothyroidism had any effect on the examined hypothalamic enzyme activities. In the cerebellum, hyperthyroidism provoked a significant decrease in both the AChE (-23%, p activities (-26%, p activities: AChE (-17%, p activity was found unaltered in both the hyper- and the hypothyroid brain regions. neither hyper-, nor hypothyroidism had any effect on the examined hypothalamic enzyme activities. In the cerebellum, hyperthyroidism provoked a significant decrease in both the AChE and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities. The decreased (by the THs) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities may increase the synaptic acetylcholine release, and thus, could result in a decrease in the cerebellar AChE activity. Moreover, the above TH-induced changes may affect the monoamine neurotransmitter systems.

  14. Correction of Hypothyroidism Leads to Change in Lean Body Mass without Altering Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigiri, Sangeetha; Vaikkakara, Suresh; Sachan, Alok; Srinivasarao, P V L N; Epuri, Sunil; Anantarapu, Sailaja; Mukka, Arun; Chokkapu, Srinivasa Rao; Venkatanarasu, Ashok; Poojari, Ravi

    2016-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abnormal body composition. This study assessed changes in body composition and insulin resistance after thyroxine (T 4 ) replacement in overt hypothyroidism. In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care center, adult nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism were rendered euthyroid on T 4 . Anthropometry including skinfold thickness (SFT) at the triceps and subscapularis was recorded. Patients underwent testing for fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, serum insulin, T 4 , thyrotropin (TSH) and body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) both before and at 2 months after restoration to the euthyroid state. Twenty-seven patients (20 female and 7 male) aged 35.3 ± 11.0 years (min-max: 17-59 years) with overt hypothyroidism were recruited. Serum T 4 at the time of recruitment was 48.9 ± 24.6 nmol/l (normal range = 64.4-142 nmol/l). All patients had TSH ≥50 µIU/l. Following treatment, there was a mean body weight reduction of 1.7 kg (p = 0.01). Waist circumference as well as triceps and subscapularis SFT decreased significantly (p change in fat mass (FM), percentage of fat (%FM) or bone mineral content in any of the specified regions or in the body as a whole. In contrast, mean lean body mass (LBM) decreased significantly by 0.8 kg (p resistance and level of glycemia were not affected by treatment with T 4 . LBM decreases significantly without affecting FM after correction of hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance was not influenced by T 4 treatment.

  15. Does Shortened Application Time Affect Long-Term Bond Strength of Universal Adhesives to Dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, P; Matsumoto, M; Chowdhury, Afma; Carvalho, R M; Sano, H

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the effect of shortened application time on long-term bond strength with universal adhesives. Three universal adhesives were used: Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) or G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty molars were cut to expose midcoronal dentin and prepared with a regular diamond bur. Each adhesive was applied either according to the manufacturer's instruction or with shortened time. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then cut into resin-dentin sticks. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was tested after either 24 hours or 1 year of water storage. Data were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA and Duncan tests ( α=0.05). Fracture modes were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One dentin stick per group was selected after fracture mode analysis and further observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Six additional dentin discs were prepared and conditioned with each adhesive under the different application time to observe the adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM. Shortened application time affected the μTBS ( puniversal adhesives to bur-cut dentin. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised when applied using a shortened application time.

  16. A kinase-dependent feedforward loop affects CREBB stability and long term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Tseng; Lin, Guang; Lin, Wen-Wen; Diao, Fengqiu; White, Benjamin H; Bellen, Hugo J

    2018-02-23

    In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning. Remarkably, memory is lost upon removal of the MP protein in adult MB but restored upon its reintroduction. Overexpression of MP in MB significantly increases LTM in wild-type flies showing that MP is a limiting factor for LTM. We show that PKA phosphorylates MP and that both proteins synergize in a feedforward loop to control CREBB levels and LTM. key words: Drosophila, Mushroom bodies, SBK1, deGradFP, T2A-GAL4, MiMIC.

  17. An investigation of family environmental alteration affecting short-term recovery from Schizophrenia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-Min Chen, R M

    1995-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that change in the family environment affects short-term recovery from schizophrenia. Observation and study of 210 schizophrenic patients who were influenced by family environmental alteration show that the prognosis of schizophrenia caused suddenly by family environmental alteration is better than that of schizophrenia caused by a persistently unfavourable family environment. Hence, we think sudden family environmental alterations do not cause psychorrhoea, but slow family environmental alteration may cause change in the mental state of patients. The prognosis is worse in the countryside than in the city. From the study group, we conclude that the first cure rate was 28%, and that 26% of patients were able to work. This indicates that there were no typical cases of the core pattern of schizophrenia, and that there was a certain potential for recovery. In the future, the emphasis of prevention and treatment must be placed on the countryside, and attention should be paid to the improvement of living and working conditions there, to the correct administration of patients, and to the improvement of recovery measures and therapy. We advocate that efforts should be made in the countryside to raise the national educational and cultural level.

  18. Stress within a Restricted Time Window Selectively Affects the Persistence of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Chai, Ning; Zhao, Li-Yan; Xue, Yan-Xue; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui; Lu, Lin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Ji-Shi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM) formation (tested 24 h later), but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later) are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress) during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h) after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h) after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23544051

  19. Nitric oxide affects short-term olfactory memory in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Stephanie L; Daly, Kevin C; Nighorn, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in olfaction. We are using the hawkmoth Manduca sexta to investigate the function of NO signaling in the antennal lobe (AL; the primary olfactory network in invertebrates). We have found previously that NO is present at baseline levels, dramatically increases in response to odor stimulation, and alters the electrophysiology of AL neurons. It is unclear, however, how these effects contribute to common features of olfactory systems such as olfactory learning and memory, odor detection and odor discrimination. In this study, we used chemical detection and a behavioral approach to further examine the function of NO in the AL. We found that basal levels of NO fluctuate with the daily light cycle, being higher during the nocturnal active period. NO also appears to be necessary for short-term olfactory memory. NO does not appear to affect odor detection, odor discrimination between dissimilar odorants, or learning acquisition. These findings suggest a modulatory role for NO in the timing of olfactory-guided behaviors.

  20. The issue of neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was assessment of thyroid function in patients with psychiatric and psychological assistance; to study the structure of AR in patients with hypothyroidism, to reveal alexithymical identifying of personality characteristics of patients with hypothyroidism and AP Materials and Methods. 406 patients with AR at the age of 51.3±4.7 years. To verify the useofTSH hypothyroidism rate and to assess depressive disorder — Hamilton Scale and the Montgomery— Asberg; with clinical and psychopathological study: 1 the scale of self-BH alarm Spielberger (Y. L. Hanin, 2 questionnaire G. Shmisheka 3 Toronto alexithymia scale. Results. Hypothyroidism is set at 116 (28.6% of 406 patients suffering from RA. Among the 374 patients with depressive disorders hypothyroidism was observed in 116: subclinical — in 76 patients (65.5%, symptomatic — in 40 (34.5%. The first group consisted of 258 patients with the presence of depressive disorders and without hypothyroidism; second — 116 patients with the presence of depression and hypothyroidism. TSH in patients suffering AR, without thyroid dysfunction was 5.2 times lower than in patients with the presence of hypothyroidism. Among AP comorbid with hypothyroidism, are predominant depressive with a predominance of mild and moderate forms. Dominating are anxious-depressive, dysphoric, adynamic, sad, depressive disorders. Conclusion. In patients with AR and hypothyroidism predominant types of personality accentuation are dysthymic, anxious, demonstrative and meticulous.

  1. [Transient congenital hypothyroidism due to biallelic defects of DUOX2 gene. Two clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enacán, Rosa E; Masnata, María E; Belforte, Fiorella; Papendieck, Patricia; Olcese, María C; Siffo, Sofía; Gruñeiro-Papendieck, Laura; Targovnik, Héctor; Rivolta, Carina M; Chiesa, Ana E

    2017-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1:2000-3000 newborns detected by neonatal screening programs. Dual oxidases, DUOX1 and 2, generate hydrogen peroxide needed for the thyroid hormone synthesis. Hipotiroidismo congénito transitorio por defectos bialélicos del gen DUOX2. Dos casos clínicos Transient congenital hypothyroidism due to biallelic defects of DUOX2 gene. Two clinical cases Mutations in the DUOX2 gene have been described in transient and permanent congenital hypothyroidism. Two brothers with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening with eutopic gland and elevated thyroglobulin are described. They were treated with levothyroxine until it could be suspended in both during childhood, assuming the picture as transient. Organification disorder was confirmed. Both patients were compounds heterozygous for a mutation in exon 9 of the paternal allele (c.1057_1058delTT, p.F353PfsX36 or p.F353fsX388) and in exon 11 of the maternal allele (c.1271T > G, p.Y425X) of DUOX2 gene. Our finding confirms that the magnitude of the defect of DUOX2 is not related to the number of inactivated alleles, suggesting compensatory mechanisms in the peroxide supply. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid hormones determination on rats progeny with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Maria F.G.; Danda, Karina P.N.; Luna, Taciana F.; Souza, Grace M.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Moura, Egberto G.

    2002-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism which occur during gestation provokes alteration, the hormonal modification in the newborn rats was analyzed. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with methimazole (in the of 0,03 % in drinking water) before mating. The hyperthyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 2 days with T 4 (2μg per 100 g body wt/day) before mating. It was seen that the rat which was born from hypothyroid or hyperthyroid dams suffered alteration on its T 4 levels concerning the days 10,20,30 and 60 after birth. The administration of methimazole or thyroxine affects the fetal thyroid gland function, causing alteration of both T 4 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism influence on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  3. Hypothyroidism in Pancreatic Cancer: Role of Exogenous Thyroid Hormone in Tumor Invasion—Preliminary Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Sarosiek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the epidemiological studies, about 4.4% of American general elderly population has a pronounced hypothyroidism and relies on thyroid hormone supplements daily. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in our patients with pancreatic cancer was much higher, 14.1%. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure or distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy (DPS at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, from 2005 to 2012. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism was correlated with clinicopathologic parameters including tumor stage, grade, and survival. To further understand how thyroid hormone affects pancreatic cancer behavior, functional studies including wound-induced cell migration, proliferation, and invasion were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1. We found that hypothyroid patients taking exogenous thyroid hormone were more than three times likely to have perineural invasion, and about twice as likely to have higher T stage, nodal spread, and overall poorer prognostic stage (P<0.05. Pancreatic cancer cell line studies demonstrated that exogenous thyroid hormone treatment increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion (P<0.05. We conclude that exogenous thyroid hormone may contribute to the progression of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby P. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. Materials and Methods A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100–200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia ( T -score: −2.26 ± 0.5 among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T -score. Conclusion Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years.

  5. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani, E-mail: arianiinaira@yahoo.com.br; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moraes, Rosana Nogueira [Pontifícia Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ramos, Helton Estrela [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5{sup th} and 10{sup th} days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity.

  6. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf; Moraes, Rosana Nogueira; Ramos, Helton Estrela; Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Objective Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Methods Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5th and 10th days of T3 treatment. Results In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Conclusions Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity. PMID:24676225

  7. Short-Term Thyroid Hormone Excess Affects the Heart but Does not Affect Adrenal Activity in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkudlarek, Ariani Cavazzani; Aldenucci, Bruno; Miyagui, Nelson Itiro; Silva, Ilana Kassouf; Moraes, Rosana Nogueira; Ramos, Helton Estrela; Fogaça, Rosalva Tadeu Hochmuller

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (Hy) exerts a broad range of influences on a variety of physiological parameters. Its disruptive effect on cardiovascular system is one of its most remarkable impacts. Moreover, Hy has been clinically associated with stress - induced hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Evaluate the impact of short-term Hy on cardiac performance and adrenal activity of rats. Induction of Hy in Wistar rats through injections of T3 (150 µg/kg) for 10 days (hyperthyroid group - HG) or vehicle (control group). The cardiovascular performance was evaluated by: echocardiography (ECHO); heart weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio; contractility of isolated papillary muscles (IPM) and direct measurement of blood pressures. Adrenal activity was evaluated by adrenal weight/body weight (mg/gr) ratio and 24-hour fecal corticosterone (FC) levels on the, 5 th and 10 th days of T3 treatment. In HG, the ECHO showed reduction of the End Systolic and End Diastolic Volumes, Ejection, Total Diastolic and Isovolumic Relaxation Times, Diastolic and Systolic Areas and E/A ratio. Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and Cardiac Output increased. The heart weight/body weight ratio was higher. Similarly, in IPM, the maximum rate of force decay during relaxation was higher in all extracellular calcium concentrations. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were higher. (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, there was no difference in the adrenal weight/body weight ratio or in the 24-hour FC levels. Hy induces positive inotropic, chronotropic and lusitropic effects on the heart by direct effects of T3 and increases SBP. Those alterations are not correlated with changes in the adrenal activity

  8. Transient hypothyroidism after 131I treatment of Graves disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Fang Yi; Zhang Xiuli; Ye Genyao; Xing Jialiu; Zhang Youren

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of the transient hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment of Graves disease. Methods: A total of 32 transient hypothyroidism patients treated with 131 I for Graves disease were studied and followed up. Results: Transient hypothyroidism occurred within 2-6 months after 131 I treatment and 19 patients were symptomatic. At diagnosis of transient hypothyroidism, T 3 and T 4 levels were decreased had normal, TSH levels were increased, normal or low. Follow-up examination found that 20 patients were normal and 12 patients had relapse of hyperthyroidism. Conclusions: Therapy of Graves disease with low doses of 131 I causes a high incidence of transient hypothyroidism. After recovery of transient hypothyroidism, some patients have relapse of hyperthyroidism

  9. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders...... is ambiguous. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism is associated with psychiatric morbidity. Methods: Observational cohort study. Based on record-linkage between different Danish health registers, 2822 hypothyroid singletons each matched with 4 non......-hypothyroid controls were identified and followed over a mean period of 6 years (range 1-13). Additionally, we included 385 same sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders as well as treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics were recorded. Logistic and cox...

  10. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    by LT(4) (p treatment in SH results in changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should......In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH......) and T(3) estimates) LT(4) treatment resulted in 6% reduction in supine MAP (p treatment (p

  12. Polymyositis-like syndrome caused by hypothyroidism, presenting as camptocormia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Min; Song, Eun Joo; Seo, Jae Seok; Nam, Eon Jeong; Kang, Young Mo

    2009-01-01

    Polymyositis-like syndrome characterized by proximal muscle weakness and elevation of muscle enzymes may be a presenting manifestation of hypothyroidism. Camptocormia, which can be caused by myopathy of the paraspinal muscles, is an involuntary truncal flexion of the thoracolumbar spine while standing or walking. Among various neuromuscular disorders, hypothyroidism has not been reported in the literature as a cause of camptocormia. This is the first report of polymyositis-like syndrome with camptocormia caused by hypothyroidism.

  13. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  14. Improvement in subclinical cognitive dysfunction with thyroxine therapy in hypothyroidism: A study from tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Paladugu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical on cognitive function using latencies of P300 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs. P300 latency suggests that shorter latency times are related to better cognitive performance. P300 latencies were also done after thyroxine replacement to see the effect of treatment on cognitive function. Materials and Methods: Biochemically proven new onset cases with hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical were enrolled into the study, AEPs of these two groups when compared with matched controls. After detailed history and physical examination, P300 potentials were recorded at two points Cz and Pz (Cz: On the midline of the head at the vertex, Pz: On the midline of the head between the vertex and occipital protuberance using a Nicolet Viking Select neuro diagnostic system version 10.0. The study was done in electrophysiology lab in Osmania Medical College. Results: A patient characteristics of both cases and controls were comparable. The cases consisted of two groups, overt hypothyroid cases 24, mean thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH values in them was 94, subclinical cases 21 in whom mean TSH value was 12.3. Mean P300 latencies of all cases at Cz was 342.42 ± 29.5 ms, and at Pz was 345.4 ± 30 ms. Mean P300 latencies of controls at Cz was 296.4 ± 34 ms and at Pz was 297.9 ± 33 ms (difference in P < 0.001. Mean P300 values in overt cases were 362.6 ± 32.9 ms at Cz, and at Pz it was 362.5 ± 33.9 ms. Mean P300 values in subclinical cases were 319.3 ± 30.9 ms at Cz, and at Pz it was 316.4 ± 27.9 ms. P300 values in overt cases were highly significant as compared to controls, and P300 values in the subclinical cases versus controls were also significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: P300 latency prolongation in both clinical and subclinical hypothyroid cases shows that cognitive function is affected adversely in hypothyroidism including the subclinical hypothyroid cases. Larger studies evaluating

  15. Postpartum follow-up in women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Neelaveni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management guidelines about the thyroid disease in pregnancy are silent about the postpartum course of new onset subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Hence, we analyzed the 2 years outcome of SCH diagnosed during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: We conducted this retrospective study using the medical records of patients with new onset SCH during pregnancy between 2010 and 2013 (n = 718. Patients who stopped their levothyroxine after delivery with a 2-year follow-up record were included. We excluded patients with known thyroid disorders and continuous use of drugs that affect the thyroid results. The patients were divided into two groups (Group 1 – euthyroid and Group 2 – hypothyroid based on the final outcome after 2 years. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods and a P < 0.05 was considered statically significant. Results: A total of 559 (77.8% women stopped levothyroxine after delivery, and the final follow-up data were available for 467 patients only. At the end of 2 years, 384 (82.2% remained euthyroid, and the remaining 83 (17.8% developed hypothyroidism. SCH and overt hypothyroidism were seen in 22 and 61 patients, respectively. Group 2 patients had higher mean age (25.5 vs. 23.6 years, goiter (51 vs. 2%, initial thyroid stimulating hormone (7.9 vs. 5.1 μIU/mL, and thyroid antibody positivity (76 vs. 13% (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The majority of patients with SCH during pregnancy remain euthyroid after delivery. Advanced age, goiter, positive family history, and thyroid autoimmunity increase the future risk of hypothyroidism in patients with SCH diagnosed during pregnancy.

  16. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-09-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (Phypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.

  17. A review on cardiovascular diseases originated from subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2012-01-15

    Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders.

  18. The effect of substitution therapy on symptoms in patients with hypothyroidism following treatment for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Galbo, A M; Verdonck-De Leeuw, I M; Lips, P; Kuik, D J; Leemans, C R; De Bree, R

    2013-08-01

    Hypothyroidism is a well-known complication following treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinomas, and may cause various psychological and physical problems that negatively affect quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substitution therapy on symptoms in patients with hypothyroidism. A study-specific questionnaire on physical and psychological problems (before and after substitution therapy) was sent to 70 patients who had been treated between 1977 and 2008 with clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism. Ninety-four percent returned the questionnaire. Symptoms on energy levels were reported most often (67% always tired and 70% lack of energy). Moodiness and emotional and physical symptoms were reported more often in substituted (sub)clinical hypothyroidism. Substitution therapy resulted in an improvement of energy (P = 0.013), sense of general interest and enjoyment (P = 0.022) and a reduction of puffy face (P = 0.041). Most symptoms in patients with thyroid dysfunction do not improve after substitution therapy. Nevertheless, due to its impact on health-related quality of life and the low burden of substitution therapy, screening for hypothyroidism and subsequent substitution therapy remains important.

  19. Hypothyroidism following 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kondo, Makoto; Kinoshita, Fumio; Maekawa, Akira; Okamoto, Jiro.

    1977-01-01

    Of 890 patients who received 131 I therapy for hyperthyroidism, the results of therapy were examined on 584 who could be followed up. Of these 502 (86%), were sured including 3 patients who had been completely healed after recurrence, 9 patients are still under medical treatment, and 10 died. The incidence of hypothyroidism following 131 I therapy was 1.6% after 1 year, 2.3% after 2 years, 4.7% after 5 years, 15.0% after 10-12 years, 22.1% after 13-15 years and 27.5% after 16-20 years. The incidence increased constantly with the passage of time. Factors influencing the response to treatment have been investigated. As a consequence, the number of rads delivered to the thyroid gland, the gland size, and previous surgery correlated with the incidence of hypothyroidism. The number of doses of 131 I, uptake and half-life of 131 I in the thyroid, previous antithyroid medication, time between the onset of hyperthyroid symptoms and 131 I therapy, and the age or sex of the patients appeared unrelated. The times taken to become euthyroid following a single dose of 131 I were 5.6 months with 2000-4000 rads, 4.4 months with 4001-7000 rads, 4.2 months with 7001-10000 rads and 3.5 months with more than 10001 rads. The time was prolonged with decrease of rads delivered to the thyroid gland. It was found that the patients who passed through a transient hypothyroid phase in the period of three to four months after administration of 131 I had a high incidence of late permanent hypothyroidism. (Evans, J.)

  20. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in Primary Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shoukat H; Madhu, Vijay P; Rather, Tanveer A; Laway, Bashir A

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in pati...

  1. Adolescent with Rhabdomyolysis due to Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Moeller, Raquel; Zecavati, Nassim; Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Rosa; Aleinikoff, Shoshana; Rennert, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis has been described in military recruits, trained athletes and daily runners. Statin use, quail ingestion, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hypothyroidism, though rare, are risk factors for the development of rhabdomyolysis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old female who presented with myalgias, weakness, and pigmenturia following marching band practice. Laboratory tests confirmed an elevated creatine kinase (CK) level as well as a profound hypothyro...

  2. Respiratory Manifestations of Hypothyroidism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Godballe, Christian; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2016-11-01

    Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. A systematic review was conducted to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with the following study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; intervention, observational, or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed, and Cochrane's risk of bias tool was used. A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full-text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. Possible mechanisms explaining respiratory problems at multiple physiological levels were identified, such as the ventilator control system, diaphragmatic muscle function, pulmonary gas exchange, goiter caused upper airway obstruction, decreased capacity for energy transduction, and reduced glycolytic activity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was found among 30% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above-mentioned areas was only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any strong conclusions on any of these themes. Moreover, most studies were hampered by considerable risk of bias due for example to small numbers of patients, lack of control groups, randomization and blinding, and differences in body mass index, sex, and age between subjects and controls. Mechanistic data linking hypothyroidism and respiratory function are at best limited. This area of research is therefore

  3. [Pregnancy (conception) in hyper- or hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corssmit, E P; Wiersinga, W M; Boer, K; Prummel, M F

    2001-04-14

    Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in thyroid function. Due to the increased synthesis of thyroid binding globulin and the thyroid-stimulating effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), serum concentrations of thyroid hormones will increase in the first trimester of pregnancy (total T4, T3). Free T4 levels decrease during the latter half of pregnancy. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is usually due to Graves' disease. Definitive therapy may be considered for cases prior to pregnancy, although a medical management as would be given during pregnancy is an equally good option. The medical management of hyperthyroidism consists of a monotherapy with thyreostatics in which the recommended dose needs to be adjusted on the basis of free T4 in the high-normal and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the low-normal area so as to minimise the risk of foetal hypothyroidism. The transplacental passage of maternal TSH receptor stimulating antibodies may cause foetal hyperthyroidism. Another cause of maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is 'gestational transient thyrotoxicosis', which is associated with high hCG levels during the first trimester of pregnancy. It is nearly always accompanied by hyperemesis gravidarum. Hypothyroidism in pregnancy has negative consequences for the foetus. If the hypothyroidism is apparent prior to pregnancy, it should be corrected before conception (target TSH value of 1 mU/l). If discovered during pregnancy, treatment with levothyroxine should be started as soon as possible. In the case of a pre-existing hypothyroidism a 25-50% increase in the levothyroxine dosage is often needed during the first trimester of pregnancy. This is possibly due to an increased requirement. An adequate serum concentration of T4 is necessary for foetal brain development.

  4. Acute mania after thyroxin supplementation in hypothyroid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature variedly ascribes depressive and manic symptoms to hypo- and hyperthyroid state, respectively, reporting mania in hypothyroidism as an unusual entity. More unusual is precipitation of manic state in hypothyroid subjects after thyroxine supplementation for which studies report otherwise treating manic symptoms in hypothyroid state with thyroxine. We report a case of a patient whose acute mania appears to have been precipitated by thyroxine supplementation in hypothyroidism state. This case underscores the importance of thyroid screening in patients with mood and psychotic disorders, as well as the potency of thyroxine in producing manic symptoms.

  5. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase atrial fibrillation inducibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y; Pol, Christine J; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A Martin

    2013-10-01

    Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Thyroidectomized rats with serum-confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (N=9), euthyroid (N=9), and hyperthyroid (N=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3-mg l-thyroxine (T4), or 20-mg T4 pellets (60-day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, whereas hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all Phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF.

  6. Frequency of hypothyroidism in patients of beta-thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.A.; Syed, S.; Ahmed, N.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients suffering from homozygous-thalassaemia. This descriptive study included 70 diagnosed thalassaemia major patients aged 5-14 years. Demographic data as well as history of blood transfusion and chelation therapy was collected. Random blood samples were drawn and thyroid profile (serum thyroxine [T4], triiodothyronine [T3] and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations [TSH]) was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Primary hypothyroidism was defined by a TSH level >4 macro IU/ml. Results were analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Primary hypothyroidism was seen in 18 (25.7%) patients. Of these, 17 had normal T4 levels with elevated TSH levels consistent with a diagnosis of compensated primary hypothyroidism whereas only one patient showed a decreased T4 level with elevated TSH (uncompensated primary hypothyroidism). Mean age of hypothyroid patients was 9.2 +- 2.6 years. Frequency of hypothyroidism was associated with increased serum ferritin levels. Primary hypothyroidism occurs in a significant proportion of thalassaemia major patients in the absence of obvious clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Regular follow-up for early detection and timely treatment of such complications could improve the quality of life of these patients (JPMA 60:17; 2010). (author)

  7. Both Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism Increase Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I.; Teplitsky, Diana; Weltman, Nathan Y.; Pol, Christine J.; Rajagopalan, Viswanathan; Lee, Bianca; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure (HF) progression. It is also known that HF is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). While it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats. Methods and Results Thyroidectomized rats with serum confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (n=9), euthyroid (n=9) and hyperthyroid (n=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3mg L-thyroxine (T4), or 20 mg T4 pellets (60 day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic function, while hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all phyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF. PMID:24036190

  8. Pattern of clinical features in patients with hypothyroidism presenting to Khartoum hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Salwa Babiker

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: to determine the pattern of clinical manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism and to document the clinical state, the laboratory findings and the effect of therapy on those who restrict themselves to the long term medication and follow up. Design: a prospective study on all patients in whom a clinical suspicious of being hypothyroidism,this was during a period from the first of june 1997 to the end of december 1998 (18 months). Subjects: the study population comprised two groups of patients: a) patients presenting for the first time (n:20). b) patients previously known to be hypothyroidism but stopped the medication for a while from 6 months up to one year or more (n:16). Methods: data was collected through a questionnaire detailing the medical history, medical examination and the laboratory investigations which were performed. Results: hypothyroidism is a disease of female although it's rare but can be encountered, the diagnosis is delayed because of the wide range of symptoms, the commonest were fatigue (88.9%), myalgia (75%), hoarseness of voice (72.2%), dry skin (63.9%), these patients may present with constipation (44.4%) or to the gyne because of menorrhagia (47.2%),or to the psychiatry because of change in mood (41.7%) signs such as delayed relaxation of the knee jerk (83.3%),proximal myopathy (38.9%), perorbital swelling (50%) or loss of eye brows (27.8%) can help in the diagnosis. Conclusion: hypothyroidism is rare in the Sudan, for the diagnosis not to be delayed one should be familiar with the different manifestations in order to be able to elicit appropriate signs. The treatment is satisfactory, responsive to thyroxine which should be life long therapy

  9. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this parad...

  10. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M J

    1992-04-01

    Thyroid disease in the elderly can be easily overlooked. Symptoms too often are explained away as normal processes of aging. Development of unstable illness, especially cardiac disease, is a frequent mode of presentation. One symptom or one clinical feature of thyroid disease in the elderly may be overwhelming in its presentation, as in apathetic hyperthyroidism, thyroid myopathy, depression and dementia. Physical examination of the thyroid gland can be helpful but in a high percentage of older patients the gland is normal to palpation. The treatment of hypothyroidism is straightforward. Only myxedema coma requires large doses of levothyroxine parenterally; all other forms of hypothyroidism are treated with oral levothyroxine. The dose is started very low and increased gradually over months. The euthyroid state is achieved gradually and safely. Hyperthyroidism can be treated by several modalities. In the unstable elderly patient, antithyroid medication can quickly produce a euthyroid state. When the patient is stable, further decisions can be made regarding definitive therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy is well-tolerated and effective. On occasion, a second course of therapy is needed to suppress hyperthyroidism. Close follow-up of all patients ever having received this therapy is needed to identify the development of hypothyroidism. Surgical thyroid ablation may be necessary in patients who fail to respond to radioactive iodine therapy. Abnormalities associated with unresolved thyromegaly, dysphagia, or tracheal compression may require surgical intervention. If suspicion exists that the gland is cancerous, surgical intervention is warranted.

  11. Congenital Hypothyroidism: Increased Incidence in Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noori-Shadkam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. Its worldwide incidence is estimated to be one in 2500-5500 births. Assessment of thyroid gland in neonates is critical. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the incidence of CH in neonates born in Yazd province, Iran in 1389 (2010 and compare the results with other reported studies and investigate biochemical characteristics of affected infants. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted on all infants (13022 births born in 1389 (March 2010-March 2011. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was measured using ELISA technique. Results: Forty five infants suffered from congenital hypothyroidism with an overall incidence of one in 289 live births. Twenty five of the diagnosed infants were males (incidence 1:261 and twenty were females (incidence 1:325. The incidence of CH in boys was more than girls (P-value = 0.295. The highest incidence of CH was observed in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter (P-value=0.000. Conclusion: The CH incidence was 10.3 to 13.8 times more than other countries. The highest CH incidence was in spring followed by summer and the lowest incidence was in autumn followed by winter. It is important that a larger size of cases need to be screened and more information on the aetiology of the affected infants to be obtained

  12. The threshold of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A retrospective analysis of 116 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Odawara, Soichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for developing thyroid disorders based on a dose–volume histograms (DVHs) analysis. Data from a total of 116 consecutive patients undergoing 3D conformal radiation therapy for head and neck cancers was retrospectively evaluated. Radiation therapy was performed between April 2007 and December 2010. There were 108 males and 8 females included in the study. The median follow-up term was 24 months (range, 1–62 months). The thyroid function was evaluated by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. The mean thyroid dose, and the volume of thyroid gland spared from doses ≥10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy (VS10, VS20, VS30 and VS40) were calculated for all patients. The thyroid dose and volume were calculated by the radiotherapy planning system (RTPS). The cumulative incidences of hypothyroidism were 21.1% and 36.4% at one year and two years, respectively, after the end of radiation therapy. In the DVH analyses, the patients who received a mean thyroid dose <30 Gy had a significantly lower incidence of hypothyroidism. The univariate analyses showed that the VS10, VS20, VS30 and VS40 were associated with the risk of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was a relatively common type of late radiation-induced toxicity. A mean thyroid dose of 30 Gy may be a useful threshold for predicting the development of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. (author)

  13. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 (micro)m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 (micro)m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 (micro)m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 (micro)m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  14. Short-term sleep disturbance-induced stress does not affect basal pain perception, but does delay postsurgical pain recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Po-Kai; Cao, Jing; Wang, Hongzhen; Liang, Lingli; Zhang, Jun; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance-induced stress is known to increase basal pain sensitivity. However, most surgical patients frequently report short-term sleep disturbance/deprivation during pre- and post-operation periods and have normal pain perception pre-surgery. Whether this short-term sleep disturbance affects postsurgical pain is elusive. We here reported that pre- or post-exposure to rapid eye movement sleep disturbance (REMSD) 6 h daily for 3 consecutive days did not alter basal responses t...

  15. Long-term follow-up study of the therapeutic effect after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changjiang; Li Long; Gao Jianqing; Xu Sumei; Chen Linna; Zhou Jianming

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect through long-term visit and analyze the affecting factors of cure rate after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, a long-term follow-up has been undertaken for the patients with hyperthyroidism after iodine-131 treatment. The following results have been obtained. (1) The cure rate of iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism is 74.4%, and the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism is 7.5%. (2) There is no significant difference in the cure rate and incidence of hypothyroidism between the groups of male and female or 'not take ATD' and 'ATD withdrawn longer than 2 weeks' (P>0.05). (3) The difference of the cure rate among the groups of the courses of disease 3 a are significant (P 55 g are significant (P 0.05). The course of disease, age and thyroid mass are the major factors which influence the cure rate. Meanwhile, age and thyroid mass are the major factors which influence the incidence of hypothyroidism. To get high cure rate, the patients with hyperthyroidism should be treated with iodine-131 as early as possible. In the meantime, the incidence of permanent hypothyroidism must be paid attention to. (authors)

  16. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Mangesh R.; Zein, Claudia O.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Yerian, Lisa; Lopez, Rocio; McCullough, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypothyroidism has been suggested. Possible explanations for this association are the recognized links between hypothyroidism and various elements of the metabolic syndrome which is often present in NAFLD. To further explore this association, we determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of patients with NAFLD and analyzed the potential factors associated with hypothyroidism in this patient population. Methods Two hundred and forty six patients with biopsy proven NAFLD attending hepatology clinics at the Cleveland Clinic between October 2006 to June 2009 and 430 age, gender, race and BMI matched control subjects seen in the general internal medicine clinic were included. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism who were on thyroid replacement therapy were considered to be hypothyroid. Results Hypothyroidism was more frequent among patients with NAFLD (21%vs 9.5%.; Phypothyroidism were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.9,P=0.02)) and 3.8 (95% CI:2,6.9, Phypothyroidism. NAFLD subjects who reported mild alcohol consumption were less likely to have hypothyroidism compared to those who reported complete abstinence (OR 0.37, P=0.008). Conclusions A higher prevalence of hypothyroidism was demonstrated in patients with NAFLD compared to controls. Patients with hypothyroidism were more likely to have NASH. Among subjects with NALFD, female gender, increased BMI and history of abstinence from alcohol were associated with hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed in order to confirm and better characterized these findings as well as the described associations and their pathogenesis. PMID:22183820

  17. Symptomatic Overt Hypothyroidism Post Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-21

    American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting 2017 (ASA), Boston MA 21-24 Oct 2017 14. ABSTRACT 1 S. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...morbid obesity , CKD undergoing L4 -LS posterior lumbar interbodyfusion. Surgical history: LS-51 PUF 󈧆, Right TKA 󈧑, Left TKA 󈧑 w/o anesthesia

  18. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families.

  19. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  20. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (ploss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short-term

  1. The History and Future of Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than a century to treat hypothyroidism. Natural thyroid preparations (thyroid extract, desiccated thyroid, or thyroglobulin), which contain both thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), were the first pharmacologic treatments available and dominated the market for the better part of the 20th century. Dosages were adjusted to resolve symptoms and to normalize the basal metabolic rate and/or serum protein-bound iodine level, but thyrotoxic adverse effects were not uncommon. Two major developments in the 1970s led to a transition in clinical practice: 1) The development of the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) radioimmunoassay led to the discovery that many patients were overtreated, resulting in a dramatic reduction in thyroid hormone replacement dosage, and 2) the identification of peripheral deiodinase-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion provided a physiologic means to justify l-thyroxine monotherapy, obviating concerns about inconsistencies with desiccated thyroid. Thereafter, l-thyroxine mono-therapy at doses to normalize the serum TSH became the standard of care. Since then, a subgroup of thyroid hormone–treated patients with residual symptoms of hypothyroidism despite normalization of the serum TSH has been identified. This has brought into question the inability of l-thyroxine monotherapy to universally normalize serum T3 levels. New research suggests mechanisms for the inadequacies of l-thyroxine monotherapy and highlights the possible role for personalized medicine based on deiodinase polymorphisms. Understanding the historical events that affected clinical practice trends provides invaluable insight into formulation of an approach to help all patients achieve clinical and biochemical euthyroidism. PMID:26747302

  2. Pleiotropic Effects of Thyroid Hormones: Learning from Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism induces several metabolic changes that allow understanding some physiopathological mechanisms. Under experimental hypothyroid conditions in rats, heart and kidney are protected against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. An increased resistance to opening of the permeability transition pore seems to be at the basis of such protection. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate of hypothyroid kidney is low as a result of adenosine receptors-induced renal vasoconstriction. The vascular tone of aorta is also regulated by adenosine in hypothyroid conditions. In other context, thyroid hormones regulate lipoprotein metabolism. High plasma level of LDL cholesterol is a common feature in hypothyroidism, due to a low expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol plasma levels are variable in hypothyroidism; several proteins involved in HDL metabolism and structure are expressed at lower levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Based on the positive influence of thyroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism, thyromimetic drugs are promising for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In summary, hypothyroid status has been useful to understand molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia reperfusion, regulation of vascular function and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins.

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. I. Prevalence and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has a prevalence of approx. 6% in the general population; it is more common in females and in the elderly. The incidence of progression to overt hypothyroidism is 5-15% per year; women with positive thyroid antibodies are especially at risk. The biological significance

  4. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. ... hypothyroidism (SCH) and vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. ... However, gender (p = 0.076), BMI (p = 0.092), and smoking (P = 0.715) were not ...

  6. Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to hypothyroidism in an adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiel, Carlos A. h; Bouzas, Carlos A.; Mondino, Ana

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 14 years old patient with growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. MR revealed pituitary enlargement simulating macro adenoma. Thyroid replacement therapy resulted in regression of the pituitary size. Awareness of MR appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children and juvenile patients with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor. (author)

  7. Effect of levothyroxine therapy on dyslipidemia in hypothyroid patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    hypothyroidism (both subclinical and overt hypothyroidism), its association with ... with dyslipidemia, replacement therapy with levothyroxine resulted in reversal to .... aseptically after 12 hours overnight fasting for lipid ..... Workers in the field also observed that restoration ... between SCH and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and.

  8. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  9. Association between different degrees of hypothyroidism and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between overt hypothyroidism (OH) and altered lipid profile is well known, however the significance of dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) remain controversial. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine any association between lipid profile and different degrees of thyroid dysfunction.

  10. Unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common endocrinological disorder in children. Genetic and intrauterine factors have been implicated in its aetiology. The aim of this study was to describe an unusual occurrence of congenital hypothyroidism in a set of same sex triplets and challenges associated with the diagnosis.

  11. Hypertension in Hypothyroidism; a Rare Association in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Minhaji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The association of hypothyroidism with hypertension is an uncommon phenomenon.   Hypertension adds to cardiovascular risk in any population and hypertension due to hypothyroidism is reversible with hormonal replacement. Although there are various case studies exists in adults but such reports are rare in children.

  12. Pituitary function and morphology in dogs with primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Espineira, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have effect on almost every organ system in the body. This explains the wide range of clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism in dogs. The signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and the disease onset is insidious. It may therefore take a long time before hypothyroidism

  13. High radio-isotope uptakes in patients with hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, J.; Kalk, W.J.; Ganda, C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1982-12-04

    Hypothyroidism is usually associated with a low radio-isotope uptake by the thyriod gland. We report 8 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism and with borderline high or overtly increased technetium-99m pertechnetate and/or iodine-131 uptakes.

  14. Photobiomodulation laser improves the early repair process of hypothyroid rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzêda e Silva, V. D.; Rodriguez, T. T.; Xavier, F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. N.; Vasconcelos, R. M.; Ramalho, L. M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Delay in wound healing has been observed in the hypothyroidism disfunction. Laser light can modulate various biological phenomena acting on different cell types. However, there are few reports in the literature regarding the effects of laser on wound healing of hypothyroid models. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in reepithelialization process of cutaneous wounds on hypothyroid and euthyroid rats treated with laser phototherapy. Forty-eight rats were divided into two main groups: euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (HYPO). Hypothyroidism was induced by Thyroidectomy. Each group was divided into subgroups: control (without laser) and laser groups. Standard surgical wound was created on the dorsum of each rat. The irradiation protocols (λ660 nm, 40 mW, CW; 10 J/cm2) was carried out immediately after wounding and repeated every 24h during 3 and 7 days. After animal death, specimens were taken, routinely processed, cut, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and underwent histological analysis. Three days after the surgery, it was possible to observe initial reepithelialization in more advanced stages in the wound area of the irradiated hypothyroid group when compared to control hypothyroid group (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the experimental period of 7 days among the groups. It was concluded that the laser light did influence reepithelialization process on hypothyroid rats in early stages of healing process.

  15. Thyroid V50 Highly Predictive of Hypothyroidism in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Sean; Refaat, Tamer; Bacchus, Ian D; Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Mittal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced hypothyroidism affects a significant number of patients with head-and-neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We examined detailed dosimetric and clinical parameters to better determine the risk of hypothyroidism in euthyroid HNSCC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). From 2006 to 2010, 75 clinically euthyroid patients with HNSCC were treated with sequential IMRT. The cohort included 59 men and 16 females with a median age of 55 years (range, 30 to 89 y) who were treated to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 60 to 75 Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy in nearly all (95%) cases. Detailed thyroid dosimetric parameters including maximum dose, mean dose, and other parameters (eg, V50-percent volume receiving at least 50 Gy) were obtained. Freedom from hypothyroidism was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using Cox regression. After a median follow-up period of 50 months, 25 patients (33%) became hypothyroid. On univariate analysis, thyroid V50 was highly correlated with developing hypothyroidism (P=0.035). Other dosimetric paramaters including mean thyroid dose (P=0.11) and maximum thyroid dose (P=0.39) did not reach statistical significance. On multivariate analysis incorporating patient, tumor, and treatment variables, V50 remained highly statistically significant (P=0.037). Regardless of other factors, for V50>60%, the odds ratio of developing hypothyroidism was 6.76 (P=0.002). In HNSCC patients treated with IMRT, thyroid V50 highly predicts the risk of developing hypothyroidism. V50>60% puts patients at a significantly higher risk of becoming hypothyroid. This can be a useful dose constraint to consider during treatment planning.

  16. A Rare Manifestation of Hypothyroid Myopathy: Hoffmann's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Won Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroid myopathy is observed frequently and the resolution of the clinical manifestations of myopathy following thyroid hormone replacement is well known. However, a specific subtype of hypothyroid myopathy, Hoffmann's syndrome, characterized by increased muscular mass (pseudohypertrophy, proximal muscle weakness, muscle stiffness and cramps, is rarely reported. Herein, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with proximal muscle weakness and non-pitting edema of the lower extremities. He initially visited the neurology department where he was suspected of having polymyositis. Additional laboratory evaluation revealed profound autoimmune hypothyroidism and elevated muscle enzymes including creatine kinase. The patient was started on levothyroxine treatment and, subsequently, clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters resolved with the treatment. The present case highlights that hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of musculoskeletal symptoms even in the absence of overt manifestations of hypothyroidism. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Korea.

  17. Evaluation of olfactory function in adults with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günbey, Emre; Karlı, Rıfat; Gökosmanoğlu, Feyzi; Düzgün, Berkan; Ayhan, Emre; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ünal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    Sufficient clinical data are not available on the effect of hypothyroidism on olfactory function in adults. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the olfactory function of adult patients diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism. Forty-five patients aged between 18 and 60 years who were diagnosed with clinical primary hypothyroidism and 45 healthy controls who had normal thyroid function tests were included in the study. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test results of the 2 groups were compared. The relationships between thyroid function tests and olfactory parameters were evaluated. Odor threshold, identification, and discrimination scores of the hypothyroid group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p adults with hypothyroidism. FT3 levels were found to have a more significant relationship with olfactory parameters than TSH or FT4 levels. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  18. Affective Load and Engagement in Second Life: Experiencing Urgent, Persistent, and Long-Term Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahl, Diane

    2010-01-01

    New users of virtual environments face a steep learning curve, requiring persistence and determination to overcome challenges experienced while acclimatizing to the demands of avatar-mediated behavior. Concurrent structured self-reports can be used to monitor the personal affective and cognitive struggles involved in virtual world adaptation to…

  19. Effective visual short-term storage capacity and speed of encoding are affected by arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    of encoding into visual short-term memory (VSTM) increased with the level of arousal in a single-stimulus identification experiment. Here we present a whole-report experiment corroborating the finding that speed of encoding stimulus items (letters) into VSTM increases with the level of arousal. However....... Thus, in terms of the TVA model (Bundesen, 1990), partial report experiments should show that, at high levels of arousal, parameter a (the ratio of the attentional weight of a distractor to the attentional weight of a target) increases....

  20. DOES SHORT TERM DEBT AFFECT PROFITABILITY? EVIDENCE FROM THE ROMANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŞ LAURA RAISA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at providing new empirical evidence on the influence of debt (both on short and long term on corporate profitability, with application to the Romanian companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Panel data are analyzed for 50 companies belonging to different fields of activity during 2003-2014 using a fixed effect regression model. After we control for size, growth, liquidity, and tangibility of assets, the results reveal that short-term debt has a negative influence on corporate profitability.

  1. Short- and long-term perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies affected by weight discordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Oldenburg, Anna; Worda, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective was to investigate the association between chorionicity-specific intertwin birthweight discordance and adverse outcomes including long-term follow up at 6, 18, and 48-60 months after term via Ages and Stages Questionnaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this secondary analysis...... outcomes. Ages and Stages Questionnair scores were compared using the method of generalized estimating equation to account for the correlation within twins. RESULTS: The 75th and 90th percentiles for birthweight discordance were 14.8 and 21.4% for monochorionic and 16.0 and 23.8% for dichorionic twins...

  2. Thyroid antibody status, subclinical hypothyroidism, and the risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bauer, Douglas C; Cappola, Anne R; Asvold, Bjørn O; Weiler, Stefan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Bremner, Alexandra; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Maciel, Rui M B; Vanderpump, Mark P J; Cornuz, Jacques; Dörr, Marcus; Wallaschofski, Henri; Newman, Anne B; Sgarbi, José A; Razvi, Salman; Völzke, Henry; Walsh, John P; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly with thyrotropin levels of 10.0 mIU/L or greater. The measurement of thyroid antibodies helps predict the progression to overt hypothyroidism, but it is unclear whether thyroid autoimmunity independently affects CHD risk. The objective of the study was to compare the CHD risk of subclinical hypothyroidism with and without thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). A MEDLINE and EMBASE search from 1950 to 2011 was conducted for prospective cohorts, reporting baseline thyroid function, antibodies, and CHD outcomes. Individual data of 38 274 participants from six cohorts for CHD mortality followed up for 460 333 person-years and 33 394 participants from four cohorts for CHD events. Among 38 274 adults (median age 55 y, 63% women), 1691 (4.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, of whom 775 (45.8%) had positive TPOAbs. During follow-up, 1436 participants died of CHD and 3285 had CHD events. Compared with euthyroid individuals, age- and gender-adjusted risks of CHD mortality in subclinical hypothyroidism were similar among individuals with and without TPOAbs [hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.53 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.58, P for interaction = .62], as were risks of CHD events (HR 1.16, CI 0.87-1.56 vs HR 1.26, CI 1.02-1.56, P for interaction = .65). Risks of CHD mortality and events increased with higher thyrotropin, but within each stratum, risks did not differ by TPOAb status. CHD risk associated with subclinical hypothyroidism did not differ by TPOAb status, suggesting that biomarkers of thyroid autoimmunity do not add independent prognostic information for CHD outcomes.

  3. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ezzi, Asmahan; Hachem, Hoda

    1999-01-01

    Full text.National programs of neonatal screening were introduced in most countries and have proved their effectiveness against different types of retardation in children. Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common causes of physical and mental retardation in children. Programs of screening have shown that the incidence of this disorder is ethnic-background: it is low in Africans: 1-32000 whereas it is 1-3500 and 1-5000 in Hispanic and European newborns respectively. No previous mass screening programs were done in Lebanon. For this purpose, this program was introduced in collaboration with the IAEA. Cord blood is spotted into circles on filter paper just after delivery. These samples are air-dried at room temperature and kept at 4 degree C. They are then collected from hospitals to be screened. In the laboratory, all samples are assayed for IRMA TSH first. Those showing high or borderline TSH level (20mU/L) are then assayed for RIA TT4. Only those showing straight forward high TSH and low TT4 are considered as congenital hypothyroidism cases. For IRMA and RIA, the technique of coated beads is used. We started the program by using reagents from NETRIA, but actually, we start preparing most of our reagents with the exception pf the tracer. A total of 7500 babies have been up now. One case was detected as possible case of congenital hypothyroidism: straight forward high TSH and borderline TT4: this case is now under treatment by endocrinologist and is supposed to have a problem at the pituitary level

  4. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  5. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  6. Factors affecting long-term mortality of residential shade trees: evidence from Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Urban tree survival is essential to sustain the ecosystem services of urban forests and monitoring is needed to accurately assess benefits. While some urban forestry studies have reported street tree survival, little is known about the factors influencing residential yard tree survival, especially over the long-term. We assessed residential shade tree survival in...

  7. Short-Term Upper Limb Immobilization Affects Action-Word Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Meugnot, Aurore; Beauprez, Sophie-Anne; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether well-established associations between action and language can be altered by short-term upper limb immobilization. The dominant arm of right-handed participants was immobilized for 24 hours with a rigid splint fixed on the hand and an immobilization vest restraining the shoulder, arm, and forearm. The…

  8. Orthographic Structure and Reading Experience Affect the Transfer from Iconic to Short Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Lester A.; Spragins, Anne B.

    1974-01-01

    The basic hypothesis of these experiments was that the processing strategy for the transfer of alphabetic material from iconic storage to short-term memory involves a sequential left-to-right factor that develops with increases in experience with reading. (Author)

  9. Determination of congenital hypothyroidism in neonatal by immunoradiometric assays of thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras P, E.

    1998-01-01

    The congenital hypothyroidism is the endocrine illness more frequent of the childhood, it is the one that produce the devastating effects on the growth and the development. It represent one of the few causes of mental delay that it could be prevented if it is diagnosed and treaty on time. The infants affected with congenital hypothyroidism, could be detected for the apparent presence of some physical abnormalities, which comes the first days of the birth. Unfortunately, in the moment in which the classical manifestations are made present, it is very probable that cerebral damage already exists, for what the affected children should be tried before the three months of life administering them thyroid hormones. In Mexico the incidence of the congenital hypothyroidism is of one for each 1612 births for that is very important in the area of Public Health diagnose in early form and with certainty the congenital hypothyroidism. The TSH hormone or thyrotropin is formed in the hypophysis and intervenes in the synthesis of the thyroid hormones (T3, T4) when the concentration of these is adapted, the formation of TSH is inhibited, for that upon lacking the thyroid hormones the concentration of TSH in the blood is high. For these reasons the shot metabolic state of a newborn could be determined, quantifying the TSH in blood obtained by heel stab of the neonatal, or in coming blood from the umbilical cord, after 48 hours of being born. However because the TSH is similar to other hormones and is in extremely low concentrations, it is made necessary appeal analytic techniques of very sensitive and specific laboratory like the Immunoradiometric assays (Irma) in order to could determine the levels of this hormone in the blood. (Author)

  10. Visual evoked potentials in overt hypothyroid patients before and after achievement of euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual evoked potential (VEP measures the time taken for visual stimulus to travel from the eye to the occipital cortex. Hypothyroidism affects the central nervous system (CNS through its role in gene expression, myelin production, axonal transportation, and neurotransmitters. Delay in the conduction of impulses results in abnormal VEP. Objective: Correlate the electrophysiological findings of VEP in newly diagnosed treatment-naive hypothyroid patients before and after 3 months of treatment and to find the correlation with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Materials and Methods: VEP was measured using Recorders and Medicare Systems Electromyograph Evoked Potential Mark II machine in 30 patients (serum TSH ≥10 mIU/L between 18 and 50 years of age who were followed up after 3 months of treatment. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation of the patients was 31.8 (±8.3 years. There was prolongation of VEP latencies which tends to decrease following hormone replacement therapy. It was found to be most significant for P100 (ms waveform (P < 0.001. The amplitude (P100-N75 mV which was decreased in hypothyroid patients showed improvement following achievement of euthyroidism. Significant positive correlation was found between P100, N75 latency and pretreatment serum TSH levels. Conclusion: Hypothyroid patients may have changes in the latencies and the amplitude of VEP which are reversible to a great extent with thyroxine replacement therapy. VEP thus acts as a dependable marker for CNS affection in thyroid diseases to detect subtle early changes and to assess the response to treatment in correlation with the clinical improvement.

  11. Hypothyroidism after Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Peter D; Veiga, Lene H S; Brenner, Alina V; Sigurdson, Alice J; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Chow, Eric J; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Sklar, Charles A; Lubin, Jay H

    2018-05-15

    While thyroid cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation early in life are well characterized quantitatively, the association of radiation with nonmalignant, functional thyroid disorders has been less studied. Here, we report on a risk analysis study of hypothyroidism with radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis among survivors of childhood cancer. Utilizing data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of 14,364 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at 26 hospitals in the U.S. and Canada between 1970 and 1986 and followed through 2009, the occurrence of hypothyroidism was ascertained among 12,015 survivors through serial questionnaires. Radiation doses to the thyroid gland and pituitary gland were estimated from radiotherapy records. Binary outcome regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios for hypothyroidism at five years from diagnosis of childhood cancer and Poisson regression to model incidence rate ratios (RR) after the first five years. A total of 1,193 cases of hypothyroidism were observed, 777 (65%) of which occurred five or more years after cancer diagnosis. The cumulative proportion affected with hypothyroidism (prevalence at five years after cancer diagnosis plus incidence through 30 years after cancer diagnosis) was highest among five-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (32.3%; 95% CI: 29.5-34.9) and cancers of the central nervous system (17.7%; 95% CI: 15.2-20.4). The incidence rate was significantly associated with radiation dose to the thyroid and pituitary. The joint association of hypothyroidism with thyroid and pituitary dose was sub-additive for pituitary doses greater than 16 Gy. In particular, a very strong thyroid radiation dose dependence at low-to-moderate pituitary/hypothalamic doses was diminished at high pituitary doses. Radiation-related risks were higher in males than females and inversely associated with age at exposure and time since exposure but remained elevated

  12. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  13. Electrodiagnostic studies in presumptive primary hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy in dogs with reevaluation during hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Elżbieta Gabriela; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef Marian; Wrzosek, Marcin Adam

    2016-05-21

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological manifestation of canine hypothyroidism. Data concerning electrodiagnostic studies in hypothyroid associated polyneuropathy in dogs are very limited and usually lack a reevaluation after hormone replacement therapy. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed, retrospective analysis of electromyographic (EMG), motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), F-wave and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) findings in 24 dogs with presumptive primary hypothyroidism and polyneuropathy with a comparison of the results before and after initiation of levothyroxine treatment with the assessment of the clinical outcome. The results obtained from hypothyroid dogs showed a significant reduction in MNCV at a proximal-distal and middle-distal stimulation, decreased amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), an increased CMAP duration and a prolonged distal latency prior to treatment. Fifty percent of the dogs had an increased F-wave latency. A normal BAER recording was found in 78 % of the hypothyroid patients without vestibular impairment. Bilaterally increased peak V latencies and increased interpeak I-V latencies were found in the remaining individuals. Dogs with concurrent vestibular impairment had ipsilaterally increased peak latencies with normal interpeak latencies and decreased amplitudes of wave I and II. A comparison of the findings before and after 2 months of treatment revealed a decrease in the pathological activity on EMG, an improvement of proximal, middle and distal CMAP amplitudes and an increase in the proximal-distal conduction velocity in all dogs. F-wave latency improved in 38 % of dogs. The BAER reexamination revealed a persistent prolongation of peak I, II, III and V latencies and decreased wave I amplitude on the affected side in all dogs manifesting vestibular signs. Conversely, in dogs without vestibular signs, the peak V and interpeak I-V latencies decreased to normal values

  14. Internet search term affects the quality and accuracy of online information about developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Peter D; Dy, Christopher J; Patel, Ronak M; Blanco, John S; Doyle, Shevaun M

    2013-06-01

    The recent emphasis on shared decision-making has increased the role of the Internet as a readily accessible medical reference source for patients and families. However, the lack of professional review creates concern over the quality, accuracy, and readability of medical information available to patients on the Internet. Three Internet search engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) were evaluated prospectively using 3 difference search terms of varying sophistication ("congenital hip dislocation," "developmental dysplasia of the hip," and "hip dysplasia in children"). Sixty-three unique Web sites were evaluated by each of 3 surgeons (2 fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedic attendings and 1 orthopaedic chief resident) for quality and accuracy using a set of scoring criteria based on the AAOS/POSNA patient education Web site. The readability (literacy grade level) of each Web site was assessed using the Fleisch-Kincaid score. There were significant differences noted in quality, accuracy, and readability of information depending on the search term used. The search term "developmental dysplasia of the hip" provided higher quality and accuracy compared with the search term "congenital hip dislocation." Of the 63 total Web sites, 1 (1.6%) was below the sixth grade reading level recommended by the NIH for health education materials and 8 (12.7%) Web sites were below the average American reading level (eighth grade). The quality and accuracy of information available on the Internet regarding developmental hip dysplasia significantly varied with the search term used. Patients seeking information about DDH on the Internet may not understand the materials found because nearly all of the Web sites are written at a level above that recommended for publically distributed health information. Physicians should advise their patients to search for information using the term "developmental dysplasia of the hip" or, better yet, should refer patients to Web sites that they have

  15. Hypothyroidism in Patients with Psoriasis or Rosacea: A Large Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sara M; Hill, Dane E; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-10-15

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease, and there may be a link between hypothyroidism and inflammatory skin disease. The purpose of this study is to assess whether hypothyroidism is more prevalent in psoriasis or rosacea patients. We utilized a large claims-based database to analyze rates of hypothyroidism in patients with psoriasis and rosacea compared to other patients with skin diseases. Participants were patients between 20-64 years of age with ICD-9 diagnosis codes for psoriasis, rosacea, and hypothyroidism. We found that rates of hypothyroidism in rosacea and psoriasis patients were similar to rates of hypothyroidism in those without rosacea or psoriasis.

  16. Does grafting coronary arteries with only moderate stenosis affect long-term mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Joseph F.; Olivares, Gabriel; Raza, Sajjad; Lytle, Bruce W.; Houghtaling, Penny L.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stenting coronary arteries with non–ischemia-producing moderate stenosis leads to worse outcomes than leaving them unstented. We sought to determine whether grafting coronary arteries with angiographically moderate stenosis is associated with worse long-term survival than leaving them ungrafted. Methods From 1972 to 2011, 55,567 patients underwent primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); 8531 had a single coronary artery with moderate (50%-69%) stenosis, bypassed in 6598 (77%) and not bypassed in 1933 (23%). These arteries were grafted with internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) in 1806 patients (27%) and with saphenous veins (SVs) in 4625 (70%). Mean follow-up for all-cause mortality was 13.0 ± 9.7 years. Results Survival was similar for patients with and without a graft to the moderately stenosed coronary artery (P = .3): 97%, 76%, 43%, and 18% at 1, 10, 20, and 30 years among patients receiving no graft; 97%, 74%, 41%, and 18% among those receiving an SV graft; and 98%, 82%, 51%, and 23% among those receiving an ITA graft. After adjusting for patient characteristics, SV grafting versus nongrafting of moderately stenosed coronary arteries was associated with similar long-term mortality (P = .2), whereas ITA grafting was associated with 22% lower long-term mortality (hazard ratio 0.78; 68% confidence interval 0.75–0.82; P<.0001). Conclusions Grafting coronary arteries with angiographically moderate stenosis is not harmful. Instead, ITA grafting of such coronary arteries is associated with lower long-term mortality. Thus, after placing the first ITA to the left anterior descending, the second ITA should be placed to the second most important coronary artery, even if it is moderately stenosed. PMID:26611750

  17. Risk Factors Affecting the Severity of Full-Term Neonatal Retinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying clinical factors associated with the degree of retinal hemorrhage (RH in full-term newborns. Methods. A total of 3054 full-term infants were included in this study. Eye examinations were performed with RetCamIII within one week of birth for all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were compared between newborns with RH and controls. The RH group was divided into three sections (I, II, and III based on the degree of RH. Results. RH was observed in 1202 of 3054 infants (39.36% in this study. The quantity and proportion of newborns in groups I, II, and III were 408 (13.36%, 610 (19.97%, and 184 (6.03%, respectively. Spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD, prolonged duration of second stage of labor, advanced maternal age, and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage positively correlated with aggravation of the degree of RH in newborns. Conversely, cesarean section was protective against the incidence of RH. Conclusions. SVD, prolonged duration of second stage of labor, advanced maternal age, and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage were potential risk factors for aggravation of the degree of RH in full-term infants. Accordingly, infants with these risk factors may require greater attention with respect to RH development.

  18. Does developmental hypothyroidism produce lasting effects ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DO) of the adult hippocampus generates new neurons throughout life. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, but impaired neurogenesis with adult hypothyroidism has also been reported. We investigated the role of milder degrees of TH disruption on adult neurogenesis following hypothyroidism induced during development, in adulthood, or both. Pregnant dams were administered the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU, 0 or 3ppm in drinking water) from gestational day 6 and pups were weaned to control water on postnatal day (PN)2 I. On PN6O, offspring from control or PTU dams were either re-exposed to PTU (3ppm) for I month or maintained on control. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU 50 mg/kg, ip, twice daily) was administered to all animals on the last 5 days of the re-exposure period, and animals sacrificed 28 d later. Animals were perfused intracardially, the brains were removed, embedded in a MultiBrain (NSA) array and freeze sectioned. Every 8th section throughout the hippocampus was stained with an antibody against BrdU to mark actively dividing cells. The volume of the DO and the number of BrdUpositive cells were assessed from images captured on a Nikon microscope (200X) and Nikon Elements software. Preliminary findings indicate that developmental exposure to PTU produced a persistent reduction in the volume of the adult DO. BrdU cell counts were reduced similarly in all P11J-exposed groups. These data

  19. Effect of neonatal hemoglobin concentration on long-term outcome of infants affected by fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadooka, Mizuho; Kato, Hiromi; Kato, Akihiko; Ibara, Satoshi; Minakami, Hisanori; Maruyama, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can cause severe morbidity. However, perinatal risk factors for long-term poor outcome due to FMH have not been extensively studied. To determine which FMH infants are likely to have neurological sequelae. A single-center retrospective observational study. Perinatal factors, including demographic characteristics, Kleihauer-Betke test, blood gas analysis, and neonatal blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), were analyzed in association with long-term outcomes. All 18 neonates referred to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Kagoshima City Hospital and diagnosed with FMH during a 15-year study period. All had a neonatal [Hb] neonates tested had Kleihauer-Betke test result >4.0%. Poor long-term outcome was defined as any of the following determined at 12 month old or more: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Nine of the 18 neonates exhibited poor outcomes. Among demographic characteristics and blood variables compared between two groups with poor and favorable outcomes, significant differences were observed in [Hb] (3.6±1.4 vs. 5.4±1.1g/dL, P=0.01), pH (7.09±0.11 vs. 7.25±0.13, P=0.02) and base deficits (17.5±5.4 vs. 10.4±6.0mmol/L, P=0.02) in neonatal blood, and a number of infants with [Hb]≤4.5g/dL (78%[7/9] vs. 22%[2/9], P=0.03), respectively. The base deficit in neonatal arterial blood increased significantly with decreasing neonatal [Hb]. Severe anemia causing severe base deficit is associated with neurological sequelae in FMH infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term fructose ingestion affects the brain independently from establishment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Maldonado, Alberto; Ying, Zhe; Byun, Hyae Ran; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Chronic fructose ingestion is linked to the global epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and poses a serious threat to brain function. We asked whether a short period (one week) of fructose ingestion potentially insufficient to establish peripheral metabolic disorder could impact brain function. We report that the fructose treatment had no effect on liver/body weight ratio, weight gain, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, was sufficient to reduce several aspects of hippocampal plasticity. Fructose consumption reduced the levels of the neuronal nuclear protein NeuN, Myelin Basic Protein, and the axonal growth-associated protein 43, concomitant with a decline in hippocampal weight. A reduction in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II by fructose treatment is indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the GLUT5 fructose transporter was increased in the hippocampus after fructose ingestion suggesting that fructose may facilitate its own transport to brain. Fructose elevated levels of ketohexokinase in the liver but did not affect SIRT1 levels, suggesting that fructose is metabolized in the liver, without severely affecting liver function commensurable to an absence of metabolic syndrome condition. These results advocate that a short period of fructose can influence brain plasticity without a major peripheral metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  2. Effect of Combination Treatment for Hypothyroidism on Renal Function in Patients with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Didushko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve known methods of diagnosing kidney damage in patients suffering from hypothyroidism with elements of metabolic syndrome, to study the effect of combined treatment on renal function. Materials and methods. The study included 240 patients with primary hypothyroidism (among them — 130 patients with primary hypothyroidism with components of the metabolic syndrome. All patients were divided into 2 groups: the I group included 42 patients with hypothyroidism without obesity (age 44.8 ± 5.7 years; body mass index (BMI 21.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; group II — 45 patients with hypothyroidism and abdominal obesity (age 43.8 ± 6.1 years; BMI 33.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2. The control group included 20 healthy individuals (age 43.5 ± 5.9 years; BMI 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Kidney damage was detected in violation of glomerular filter permeability — occurrence of albuminuria and parameters of glomerular filtration rate (GFR were determined using CKD-EPI formulas. The concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, leptin, insulin was determined by immunoenzyme assay. Results. During the correlation analysis, between GFR in patients of group I we have established: moderate inverse correlation between the level of GFR and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH (r = 0.571, GFR and vascular endothelial growth factor (r = –0.616, GFR anf interleukin-6 (IL-6 (r = –0.418, total cholesterol (ChS (r = –0.311, GFR and insulin resistance index (IIR (r = –0.606 and weak inverse relationship between level of GFR and MCP-1 (r = –0.2917. In the II group of patients, a strong direct correlation between the level of GFR and IIR (r = 0.819, Caro index (r = 0.793 and a strong inverse correlation between GFR and TSH (r = –0.782, GFR and HOMA index (r = –0.875, moderate inverse correlation between the levels of GFR and ChS (r = –0.577, leptin (r = –0.476, GFR and IL-6 (r = –0.418, GFR and glucose (r = –0.436 and vascular endothelial growth factor (r

  3. Physical activity enhances long-term quality of life in older adults: efficacy, esteem, and affective influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; Marquez, David X; Hu, Liang; Jerome, Gerald J; Diener, Ed

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been effective in enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults over relatively short periods of time. However, little is known about the long-term effects of physical activity and even less about the possible mediators of this relationship. We examined the mediating effects of psychological variables on the relationship between physical activity and global QOL (satisfaction with life) in older adults over a 4-year period. Participants (N = 174, M age = 66.7 years) completed a battery of psychosocial measures at 1 and 5 years following enrollment in a 6-month randomized controlled exercise trial. Panel analysis conducted within a covariance modeling framework indicated that physical activity was related to self-efficacy, physical self-esteem, and positive affect at 1 year, and in turn, greater levels of self-efficacy and positive affect were associated with higher levels of QOL. Analyses indicated that changes in physical activity over the 4-year period were related to increases in physical self-esteem and positive affect, but only positive affect directly influenced improvements in QOL. The findings lend support to the position that physical activity effects on QOL are in part mediated by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term effects on well-being.

  4. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1987-08-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was <30%. Straight lines were used to fit the relation between heat production and force. Hypothyroidism significantly decreases tension-independent heat during contraction of EDL and soleus muscle. Because the tension-independent heat is considered to be related to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca{sup 2+} cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-uptake activity and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}-loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state.

  5. Hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hideyuki; Inagaki, Kouji; Mizutari, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    We report two cases of hypothyroidism with clinical symptoms that occurred after radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck. The first patient underwent total laryngectomy without thyroidectomy for laryngeal cancer and partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Radiation of the neck was carried out postoperatively. Two years later, he developed chest pain and pericardial effusion was detected, leading to a diagnosis of myxedema due to hypothyroidism. The second patient received radiotherapy alone for laryngeal carcinoma. Two months later, a low serum sodium concentration and anemia were detected, both of which proved difficult to correct. The cause of these changes was found subsequently to be hypothyroidism. From the experience of these 2 cases, we measured thyroid function in 37 patients who had received neck radiation for head and neck cancers at our hospital over the past 10 years. In 13 of the 37 patients (35%), hypothyroidism was observed. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher in the 13 patients treated with both radiation and surgery, with 6 (46%) showing this condition, compared with 7 of the 24 patients (29%) who received radiation alone. The risk factor responsible for hypothyroidism was not evident from statistical analysis of these cases. We consider that thyroid function should be evaluated periodically in patients who have received neck radiotherapy, as it is often difficult to diagnose hypothyroidism from clinical symptoms. (author)

  6. Altered fructosamine and lipid fractions in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Sridevi V; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Udupa, Vinit A; Vivian, D'Souza

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (phypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the subsequent response after the initiation of the therapy.

  7. Sleep deprivation accelerates delay-related loss of visual short-term memories without affecting precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Asplund, Christopher L; Chee, Michael W L

    2013-06-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is an important measure of information processing capacity and supports many higher-order cognitive processes. We examined how sleep deprivation (SD) and maintenance duration interact to influence the number and precision of items in VSTM using an experimental design that limits the contribution of lapses at encoding. For each trial, participants attempted to maintain the location and color of three stimuli over a delay. After a retention interval of either 1 or 10 seconds, participants reported the color of the item at the cued location by selecting it on a color wheel. The probability of reporting the probed item, the precision of report, and the probability of reporting a nonprobed item were determined using a mixture-modeling analysis. Participants were studied twice in counterbalanced order, once after a night of normal sleep and once following a night of sleep deprivation. Sleep laboratory. Nineteen healthy college age volunteers (seven females) with regular sleep patterns. Approximately 24 hours of total SD. SD selectively reduced the number of integrated representations that can be retrieved after a delay, while leaving the precision of object information in the stored representations intact. Delay interacted with SD to lower the rate of successful recall. Visual short-term memory is compromised during sleep deprivation, an effect compounded by delay. However, when memories are retrieved, they tend to be intact.

  8. Factors affecting long-term-care residents' decision-making processes as they formulate advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather C; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E D

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a long-term-care facility were interviewed by use of a semistructured format. Open and axial coding of interview transcripts were carried out and the factors contributing to the decision process were defined. Elders based their decisions primarily on information gathered from personal experiences with death and illness. They obtained very little information from professionals or the media. Major factors considered by elders as they weighed information included spiritual, emotional, and social considerations. The factors considered during the decision-making process were oriented more toward the individual's experiences and less on contributions from objective sources than anticipated. Decision making for advance directives is a highly personalized process. The approach of health professionals when assisting with end-of-life decision making should be planned with these contributing factors in mind, so that the services offered to the individuals in this population best meet their needs.

  9. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Lorenzo; Frascarelli, Flaminia; Morasso, Pietro; Di Rosa, Giuseppe; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo

    2011-05-21

    It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be related not only to disturbance in

  10. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rosa Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA, during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF, and a wash-out phase (WO in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected

  11. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, S.; Alvarez, E.; Barba, E.

    2016-07-01

    Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population. (Author)

  12. Factors affecting fledgling output of great tits, Parus major, in the long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population.

  13. Enriched but not depleted uranium affects central nervous system in long-term exposed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpert, Pascale; Lestaevel, Philippe; Bussy, Cyrill; Paquet, François; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is well known to induce chemical toxicity in kidneys, but several other target organs, such as central nervous system, could be also affected. Thus in the present study, the effects on sleep-wake cycle and behavior were studied after chronic oral exposure to enriched or depleted uranium. Rats exposed to 4% enriched uranium for 1.5 months through drinking water, accumulated twice as much uranium in some key areas such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus and adrenals than did control rats. This accumulation was correlated with an increase of about 38% of the amount of paradoxical sleep, a reduction of their spatial working memory capacities and an increase in their anxiety. Exposure to depleted uranium for 1.5 months did not induce these effects, suggesting that the radiological activity induces the primary events of these effects of uranium.

  14. Hypothyroidism as a risk factor for statin intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Craig D; Bair, Tami L; Horne, Benjamin D; McCubrey, Ray O; Lappe, Donald L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Anderson, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of medications because of their proven cardiovascular benefits. However, statin intolerance occurs in 5% to 20% of patients. Understanding the basis for statin intolerance remains a key issue in preventive medicine. To evaluate the association of statin intolerance with hypothyroidism in a large integrated health care system, including its sex-specific relationship and subsequent statin rechallenge and prescription history. The Intermountain Healthcare electronic medical record database identified patients (n = 2686; males = 1276, females = 1410) with a documentation of intolerance ("allergy") to at least 1 statin. Age and sex similar controls (n = 8103; males = 3892, females = 4211) were identified among patients prescribed statins without documented intolerance. Patients were evaluated for a history of hypothyroidism, development of hypothyroidism, and statin prescription history up to 5 years of follow-up. A total of 30.2% patients (210 males, 16.5%; 602 females, 42.7%) with statin intolerance had a history of hypothyroidism compared with 21.5% of statin-tolerant patients (475 males, 12.2%; 1266 females, 30.1%), for an odds ratio (OR) in the total population of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.65; P intolerance and hypothyroidism were less likely to be on a statin than their statin-intolerant counterparts without hypothyroidism (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.75-0.94; P = .002). Hypothyroidism is more prevalent in those with statin intolerance, both in males and, especially, in females. People with hypothyroidism are less likely to have a prescription for a statin at follow-up than those without hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the choroidal thickness in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ulas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effect of hypothyroidism on the choroidal thickness (CT was investigated in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism, and biochemically and clinically euthyroid patients receiving levothyroxine treatment. The patients were compared with healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: One eye of 71 hypothyroid and 22 healthy subjects between 20 and 40 years of age were included in this study. CT measurements were taken at the fovea and at 2 points that were 1500 μm nasal and temporal to the fovea using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Independent sample t-test′s and was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: The CT was significantly thicker in hypothyroid patients compared to healthy subjects (P values were 0.013 for subfoveal, 0.015 for temporal and 0.020 for nasal segments. The intraocular pressure (IOP and body mass index (BMI were also significantly higher in hypothyroid patients (P values were 0.021 and 0.003, respectively. There was not a statistically significant difference in the BMI and IOP measurements between healthy subjects and euthyroid patients (P > 0.05. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the subfoveal, temporal and nasal CT measurements between healthy subjects and euthyroid patients (P values were 0.006, 0.031 and 0.013, respectively. Conclusions: All subgroups of hypothyroid patients had thicker CT compared to healthy subjects. Euthyroid patients receiving levothyroxine treatment had lower IOP, BMI levels, and serum lipid levels than patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism.

  16. Hypothyroidism Is Associated With Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Jaskanwal D; Zhang, Ming; Gharib, Hossein; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, beyond that which can be explained by its association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events, and may account for some of the increased risk in patients with hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between epicardial and microvascular coronary endothelial dysfunction and hypothyroidism. Methods and Results In 1388 patients (mean age 50.5 [12.3] years, 34% male) presenting with stable chest pain to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for diagnostic coronary angiography, and who were found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (hypothyroidism, defined as a documented history of hypothyroidism or a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >10.0 mU/mL, n=188, and euthyroidism, defined as an absence of a history of hypothyroidism in the clinical record and/or 0.3hypothyroidism had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (48.26 [80.66] versus 64.58 [128.30]) compared to patients with euthyroidism, while the % Δ CAD Ach did not vary significantly between groups. After adjusting for covariates, females with hypothyroidism still had a significantly lower % Δ CBF Ach (estimated difference in % Δ CBF Ach [SE]: −16.79 [8.18]). Conclusions Hypothyroidism in women is associated with microvascular endothelial dysfunction, even after adjusting for confounders, and may explain some of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. PMID:26224049

  17. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in a public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, F.; Mohsin, S.N.; Mukhtar, S.; Hussain, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism if left untreated results in growth failure, irreversible mental retardation, and cretinism. National neonatal screening programs are therefore, launched to diagnose congenital hypothyroidism and manage it timely. Objectives: To screen new borns for congenital hypothyroidism in two public sector hospitals of Lahore. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional descriptive study conducted at departments of Gynae/Obs and Pediatric Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from February 2010 to November 2011. Subjects and Methods: Awareness brochures for congenital hypothyroidism were developed and attached with the antenatal card of each pregnant case attending antenatal clinic at Gynae/Obs OPD. Newborns who had stayed in hospital for more than 24 hour, and whose parents consented for heal prick were tested for blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone. Results were reported within four days and thyroid-stimulating hormone >= 20mIU/L was taken as high value. Parents of those neonates who had high value were contacted to give a fresh sample for confirmation. Confirmed results were provided within next 4-5 days to the parents and treating pediatrician for appropriate treatment. Results: A total of 1357 samples were screened using blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone and out of these 1330 were normal ( =20mIU/L). These 27 neonates were further tested using confirmatory tests For serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3 and T4. After confirmatory tests only one case had congenital hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. Three cases were suspected to have subclinical hypothyroidism and these were retested after six months which, picked another case of confirmed subclinical hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was 2 out of 1357 cases. Conclusion: The screening could pick 2 cases of hypothyroidism from a total of 1357 cases which is high when compared to global rates

  18. Content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle during experimental hypothyroidism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołyński Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6 - experimental males, E2 (n = 6 - experimental females, C1 (n = 6 - control males, and C2 (n = 6 control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.

  19. Towards the pre-clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism caused by iodotyrosine deiodinase (DEHAL1) defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ainhoa; García-Nimo, Laura; Cocho de Juan, José A; Moreno, José C

    2014-03-01

    DEHAL1 (also named IYD) is the thyroidal enzyme that deiodinates mono- and diiodotyrosines (MIT, DIT) and recycles iodine, a scarce element in the environment, for the efficient synthesis of thyroid hormone. Failure of this enzyme leads to the iodotyrosine deiodinase deficiency (ITDD), characterized by hypothyroidism, compressive goiter and variable mental retardation, whose diagnostic hallmark is the elevation of iodotyrosines in serum and urine. However, the specific diagnosis of this type of hypothyroidism is not routinely performed, due to technical and practical difficulties in iodotyrosine determinations. A handful of mutations in the DEHAL1 gene have been identified as the molecular basis for the ITDD. Patients harboring DEHAL1 defects so far described all belong to consanguineous families, and psychomotor deficits were present in some affected individuals. This is probably due to the lack of biochemical expression of the disease at the beginning of life, which causes ITDD being undetected in screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism, as currently performed. This worrying feature calls for efforts to improve pre-clinical detection of iodotyrosine deiodinase deficiency during the neonatal time. Such a challenge poses questions of patho-physiological (natural history of the disease, environmental factors influencing its expression) epidemiological (prevalence of ITDD) and technical nature (development of optimal methodology for safe detection of pre-clinical ITDD), which will be addressed in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of paediatric hyperthyroidism but not hypothyroidism has a significant effect on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Melissa K; Kaplowitz, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in metabolic regulation, but the degree to which they affect body weight and body mass index (BMI) in children is unclear. We examined the effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on weight and BMI at the time of diagnosis and after appropriate treatment. Prospective and retrospective case series. Children referred for thyroid dysfunction were enrolled prospectively if their total or free T4 was elevated with TSH 20 (N = 29). Almost all patients had at least 2 classic signs or symptoms including goitre, but hyperthyroid patients had more symptoms. Mean BMI z scores at the time of diagnosis did not significantly differ between the two groups. Males with hyperthyroidism complained of weight loss more frequently and had a lower pretreatment BMI z score than hyperthyroid females. Hypothyroid patients lost a minimal amount of weight by the first follow-up (mean of 0·3 kg) and on average gained weight by the second follow-up visit. In contrast hyperthyroid patients gained a mean of 3·4 kg at the first follow-up visit and a mean of 7·1 kg by the second. Correction of hypothyroidism resulted in minimal weight loss, suggesting that hypothyroidism does not cause significant weight gain in children. In contrast, correction of the hyperthyroid state had a somewhat greater impact on weight status. These results are consistent with prior reports but surprising given the opposite metabolic effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Treatment of pediatric hyperthyroidism but not hypothyroidism has a significant effect on weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Kaplowitz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective Thyroid hormones are involved in metabolic regulation, but the degree to which they affect body weight and body mass index (BMI) in children is unclear. We examined the effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on weight and BMI at the time of diagnosis and after appropriate treatment. Design Prospective and retrospective case series Patients Children referred for thyroid dysfunction were enrolled prospectively if their total or free T4 was elevated with TSH 20 (N=29). Results Almost all patients had at least 2 classic signs or symptoms including goiter, but hyperthyroid patients had more symptoms. Mean BMI z scores at the time of diagnosis did not significantly differ between the two groups. Males with hyperthyroidism complained of weight loss more frequently and had a lower pretreatment BMI z score than hyperthyroid females. Hypothyroid patients lost a minimal amount of weight by the first follow-up (mean of 0.3 kilograms (kg)) and on average gained weight by the second follow-up visit. In contrast hyperthyroid patients gained a mean of 3.4 kg at the first follow-up visit and a mean of 7.1 kg by the second. Conclusions Correction of hypothyroidism resulted in minimal weight loss, suggesting that hypothyroidism does not cause significant weight gain in children. In contrast, correction of the hyperthyroid state had a somewhat greater impact on weight status. These results are consistent with prior reports but surprising given the opposite metabolic effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. PMID:20874768

  2. Self-construal priming affects speed of retrieval from short-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A Macdonald

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of collective or individual self-construal priming on recall in a short-term memory (STM task. We primed participants to either their individual or their collective self-construals or a neutral control condition. Participants then completed a STM retrieval task using either random or patterned digit strings. Findings revealed that priming an individual self-construal resulted in faster retrieval of information from STM for both stimulus types. These results indicate that individual self-accessibility improves retrieval speed of digits from STM, regardless of set configuration. More broadly, the present findings extend prior research by adding further evidence of the effects of self-construal priming on cognitive information processing.

  3. Does Workplace Bullying Affect Long-Term Sickness Absence Among Co-Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To examine if non-bullied employees at work units (WUs) with workplace bullying have more long-term sickness absence (LTSA) than employees in non-bullying WUs. METHODS: We included 7229 public health employees from 302 WUs and 3158 responders to a questionnaire on working conditions and health...... in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs; 1) no bullying (0% bullied); 2) moderate prevalence of bullying (bullied); and 3) high prevalence of bullying (≥10% bullied). LTSA (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence) during the following two years was obtained by linkage to the Danish...... register of sickness absence compensation benefits and social transfer payments. RESULTS: Non-bullied co-workers in WUs, where bullying was reported had 15 to 22% more LTSA compared with non-bullying WUs. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying may be associated with LTSA in the entire WU....

  4. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  5. Concomitant Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, presenting as primary hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Hypothyroidism in patients with Graves\\' disease is usually the result of ablative treatment. We describe a 58 year old man with Graves\\' ophthalmopathy and pre-tibial myxoedema, who presented with spontaneous primary hypothyroidism. Circulating TSH receptor antibody activity was increased, while thyroid microsomal antibody was detectable in titres greater than one in one hundred thousand. It is likely that the TSH receptor antibody of Graves\\' disease was ineffective in stimulating hyperthyroidism because of concomitant thyroid destruction due to Hashimoto\\'s disease. Alternatively, primary hypothyroidism could have resulted from the effects of a circulating TSH receptor blocking antibody.

  6. Changes of cardiac function in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Junichi; Okuzumi, Ichio; Muto, Toshinori; Wakakura, Manabu; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Irie, Minoru; Inoue, Kazuko.

    1988-01-01

    Changes of cardiac parameters in patients with 21 hyperthyroidisms and 11 primary hypothyroidisms were studied administered by methimazole or 1-thyroxine using radionuclide method. In hyperthyroidisms, cardiac parameter (CI, EF, PEP/LVET, PEP) normalized 4 - 6 week delayed compared with hormonal level (T 3 , T 4 ) recovery period. On the other hand, in hypothyroidism PEP/LVET delayed about 2 weeks compared with hormonal level, however, other cardiac parameters were maintained within normal level, relatively. Correlation between T 3 and LVET was significant statistically (r = -0.59, p 3 and PEP was significant (r = -0.60, p < 0.01) in hypothyroidisms, respectively. (author)

  7. Hypercalcaemia in a dog with primary hypothyroidism : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lobetti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year old female beagle was evaluated for symptomatic hypercalcaemia and primary hypothyroidism. Clinical findings were typical for hypothyroidism. Plasma parathyroid hormone was low and obvious causes for the hypercalcaemia were ruled out by means of abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands, survey thoracic radiographs, and fine needle aspirate cytology of the spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes. Treatment with thyroxine resulted in resolution of the hypercalcaemia after approximately 9 weeks of therapy. This is the 1st report of primary adult-onset hypothyroidism associated with symptomatic hypercalcaemia in a dog.

  8. Impact of long-term meditation practice on cardiovascular reactivity during perception and reappraisal of affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Sergei V; Reva, Natalia V; Loktev, Konstantin V; Korenyok, Vladimir V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2015-03-01

    Meditation has been found to be an efficient strategy for coping with stress in healthy individuals and in patients with psychosomatic disorders. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological mechanisms of beneficial effects of meditation on cardiovascular reactivity. We examined effects of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation on cardiovascular reactivity during affective image processing under "unregulated" and "emotion regulation" conditions. Twenty two experienced meditators and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Under "unregulated" conditions participants were shown neutral and affective images and were asked to attend to them. Under "emotion regulation" conditions they down-regulated negative affect through reappraisal of negative images or up-regulated positive affect through reappraisal of positive images. Under "unregulated" conditions while anticipating upcoming images meditators vs. controls did not show larger pre-stimulus total peripheral resistance and greater cardiac output for negative images in comparison with neutral and positive ones. Control subjects showed TPR decrease for negative images only when they consciously intended to reappraise them (i.e. in the "emotion regulation" condition). Both meditators and controls showed comparable cardiovascular reactivity during perception of positive stimuli, whereas up-regulating of positive affect was associated with more pronounced cardiac activation in meditators. The findings provide some insight into understanding the beneficial influence of meditation on top-down control of emotion and cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. HISTORICAL AND CURRENT PERSPECTIVE IN THE USE OF THYROID EXTRACTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, James V

    2015-10-01

    To describe the history, refinements, implementation, physiology, and clinical outcomes achieved over the past several centuries of thyroid hormone replacement strategies. A Medline search was initiated using the following search terms: bioidentical thyroid hormone, thyroid hormone extract, combination thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) therapy, homeopathic thyroid hormone therapy, and thyroid hormone replacement. Pertinent articles of interest were identified by title (and where available abstract) for further review. Additional references were identified during a review of the identified literature. A rich history of physician intervention in thyroid dysfunction was identified dating back more than 2 millennia. Although not precisely documented, thyroid ingestion from animal sources had been used for centuries but was finally scientifically described and documented in Europe over 130 years ago. Since the reports by Bettencourt and Murray, there has been a continuous documentation of outcomes, refinement of hormone preparation production, and updating of recommendations for the most effective and safe use of these hormones for relieving the symptoms of hypothyroidism. As the thyroid extract preparations contain both levothyroxine (LT4) and liothyronine (LT3), current guidelines do not endorse their use as controlled studies do not clearly document enhanced objective outcomes compared with LT4 monotherapy. Among current issues cited, the optimum ratio of LT4 to LT3 has yet to be determined, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not appear to be monitoring the thyroid hormone ratios or content in extract preparations on the market. Taken together, these limitations are important detriments to the use of thyroid extract products. The evolution of thyroid hormone therapies has been significant over the extended period of time they have been in use to treat hypothyroidism. Although numerous websites continue to advocate the use of thyroid hormone

  10. Long-term contamination in a recovered area affected by a mining spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Peinado, F J; Romero-Freire, A; García Fernández, I; Sierra Aragón, M; Ortiz-Bernad, I; Simón Torres, M

    2015-05-01

    Soil pollution from the spill of Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) was monitored by analysing polluted soils in 1998, 1999, and 2004. Following the methodology used in previous studies, in 2013 we conducted a new sampling and analysis of the soils affected by the spill and the data were compared with those of 2004. The results confirm that the pH tended to rise and concentration of pollutants tended to diminish over time. In 2013, the total concentration of pollutants was within the normal range for uncontaminated soils and close to the background concentration of the soils prior to the spill; while the soluble concentration of pollutants was clearly below the toxic level. These results indicate that remediation measures implemented have been effective. However, the removal of tailings (first remediation measure applied) was deficient and in many places the tailings were mixed with the soil. The high concentration of sulphides and metal(loid)s in the tailings gave rise to spots with very acidic and highly polluted soils devoid of vegetation. In 2013, fifteen years after the spill, these spots of bare soils remain a major source of pollution from which pollutants are scattered through the solid and liquid phases of runoff water, requiring action to immobilize pollutants and encourage the restoration of vegetation on these soils. In this type of pollution in a Mediterranean environment, the complete removal of tailings is more important than the speed at which they are removed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Norway's ongoing, long-term management of Chernobyl affected rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.

    2004-01-01

    Norway was the country outside the former Soviet Union that received most radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The deposition was over 100 kBq/m 2 for Cs-137 is the most affected area. In addition, the extended use of unimproved pastures in the food production system resulted in high activity concentrations in foodstuffs. The effective ecological half-times in the Norwegian terrestrial systems have proven longer than earlier anticipated, and the Norwegian authorities still impose countermeasures for livestock at a large scale, even 18 years after the accident. We envisage the need for countermeasures for at least another decade to produce milk and meat that comply with food intervention limits. Specific measures, e.g. dietary advice and whole body counting, are used for the most vulnerable population groups. This talk presents the on-going management of contaminated areas in Norway and topics such as activity concentration levels, countermeasures used, compliance with regulations and financial issues are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Rewarming affects EEG background in term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birca, Ala; Lortie, Anne; Birca, Veronica; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Veilleux, Annie; Gallagher, Anne; Dehaes, Mathieu; Lodygensky, Gregory A; Carmant, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    To investigate how rewarming impacts the evolution of EEG background in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We recruited a retrospective cohort of 15 consecutive newborns with moderate (9) and severe (6) HIE monitored with a continuous EEG during TH and at least 12h after its end. EEG background was analyzed using conventional visual and quantitative EEG analysis methods including EEG discontinuity, absolute and relative spectral magnitudes. One patient with seizures on rewarming was excluded from analyses. Visual and quantitative analyses demonstrated significant changes in EEG background from pre- to post-rewarming, characterized by an increased EEG discontinuity, more pronounced in newborns with severe compared to moderate HIE. Neonates with moderate HIE also had an increase in the relative magnitude of slower delta and a decrease in higher frequency theta and alpha waves with rewarming. Rewarming affects EEG background in HIE newborns undergoing TH, which may represent a transient adaptive response or reflect an evolving brain injury. EEG background impairment induced by rewarming may represent a biomarker of evolving encephalopathy in HIE newborns undergoing TH and underscores the importance of continuously monitoring the brain health in critically ill neonates. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global temperature definition affects achievement of long-term climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Millar, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    The Paris Agreement on climate change aims to limit ‘global average temperature’ rise to ‘well below 2 °C’ but reported temperature depends on choices about how to blend air and water temperature data, handle changes in sea ice and account for regions with missing data. Here we use CMIP5 climate model simulations to estimate how these choices affect reported warming and carbon budgets consistent with the Paris Agreement. By the 2090s, under a low-emissions scenario, modelled global near-surface air temperature rise is 15% higher (5%–95% range 6%–21%) than that estimated by an approach similar to the HadCRUT4 observational record. The difference reduces to 8% with global data coverage, or 4% with additional removal of a bias associated with changing sea-ice cover. Comparison of observational datasets with different data sources or infilling techniques supports our model results regarding incomplete coverage. From high-emission simulations, we find that a HadCRUT4 like definition means higher carbon budgets and later exceedance of temperature thresholds, relative to global near-surface air temperature. 2 °C warming is delayed by seven years on average, to 2048 (2035–2060), and CO2 emissions budget for a >50% chance of <2 °C warming increases by 67 GtC (246 GtCO2).

  14. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be

  15. The affective value of faces in patients achieving long-term seizure freedom after temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletti, Stefano; Picardi, Angelo; De Risi, Marco; Monti, Giulia; Esposito, Vincenzo; Grammaldo, Liliana G; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo

    2014-07-01

    We investigated different aspects of facial expression evaluation in a homogeneous cohort of 42 seizure-free patients with 5 or more years of follow-up after temporal lobectomy (TL), with the aim of further characterizing the impairment in emotion and social cognition among patients. A group of healthy subjects matched for sex, age, and education served as controls. Four tasks of facial expression evaluation were used: (a) facial expression recognition, (b) rating of the intensity of facial expression, and (c) rating of valence (pleasantness) and (d) rating of arousal induced by facial expressions. Patients had a worse performance in the recognition task for all negative emotions, while no differences in intensity ratings were found. They also reported lower arousal ratings than controls for faces showing fear, anger, disgust, and neutral expressions, as well as lower valence ratings for all facial expressions except those showing happiness. Longer epilepsy duration before TL was negatively associated with ratings of arousal and intensity and positively associated with valence ratings for fearful facial expressions. This study showed that patients who become seizure-free after TL present long-term deficits in several aspects of facial expression evaluation. Longitudinal, prospective studies are needed to evaluate if social cognition improves or declines after TL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term treatment effect of trauma-affected refugees with flexible cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck; Nordentoft, Merete; Ekstroem, Morten; Carlsson, Jessica; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-04-04

    Few studies exist on the long-term effect of treatment of trauma-affected refugees. The purpose of this study was to estimate the long-term treatment effects of cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants (sertraline and mianserin) in trauma-affected refugees. Follow-ups were conducted 6 and 18 months after a randomised controlled clinical trial. The included patients were refugees with war-related traumatic experiences, PTSD and without psychotic disorders. We found a small improvement over time in PTSD, depression and anxiety symptoms and level of functioning, but the improvement was not associated with any specific treatment. Personality change after catastrophic experiences and life events influenced the symptom level at all follow-ups while depression at completion of treatment was associated with a steeper decline in symptom load at the follow-ups. In spite of the limited decline in symptom scores and treatment effects immediately after treatment, the condition of the treated trauma-affected refugees was significantly improved 6 and 18 months after treatment although the improvement was small. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term toxicity assessment of soils in a recovered area affected by a mining spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Freire, A.; García Fernández, I.; Simón Torres, M.; Martínez Garzón, F.J.; Martín Peinado, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Residual pollution in the Guadiamar Green Corridor still remains after Aználcollar mine spill in 1998. The polluted areas are identified by the absence of vegetation, soil acidic pH and high concentrations of As, Pb, Zn and Cu. Soil toxicity was assessed by lettuce root elongation and induced soil respiration bioassays. In bare soils, total As and Pb concentrations and water-extractable levels for As, Zn and Cu exceeded the toxicity guidelines. Pollutants responsible for toxicity were different depending on the tested organism, with arsenic being most toxic for lettuce and the metal mixture to soil respiration. Soil properties, such as pH or organic carbon content, are key factors to control metal availability and toxicity in the area. According to our results, there is a risk of pollution to living organisms and the soil quality criteria established in the area should be revised to reduce the risk of toxicity. - Highlights: • 15 years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill residual pollution remains in some areas. • Toxic levels were exceeded for total As and Pb and for soluble As, Zn and Cu. • Metals responsible for soil toxicity are different depending on the tested organism. • pH and organic carbon content reduce metal availability and therefore soil toxicity. • Regulatory guidelines in the area should be revised to reduce the risk of toxicity. - Residual pollution in the Guadiamar Green Corridor remains in some areas after long-term stabilization, with some risk of pollution according to toxicity bioassays.

  18. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  19. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  20. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Datta, Soma; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  1. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal Graves' Disease with Maternal Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akangire, Gangaram; Cuna, Alain; Lachica, Charisse; Fischer, Ryan; Raman, Sripriya; Sampath, Venkatesh

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal Graves' disease presenting as conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a diagnostic challenge because the differential includes a gamut of liver and systemic diseases. We present a unique case of neonatal Graves' disease in a premature infant with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia born to a mother with hypothyroidism during pregnancy and remote history of Graves' disease. Infant was treated with a combination of methimazole, propranolol, and potassium iodide for 4 weeks. Thyroid function improved after 8 weeks of treatment with full recovery of thyroid function, disappearance of thyroid-stimulating antibodies, and resolution of failure to thrive and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. This case provides several clinical vignettes as it is a rare, severe, presentation of an uncommon neonatal disease, signs, symptoms, and clinical history presented a diagnostic challenge for neonatologists and endocrinologists, normal newborn screen was misleading, and yet timely treatment led to a full recovery.

  3. [Myocardial contractility and hemodynamics in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivonenko, V G

    1977-01-01

    The author determined the phasic structure of the systole of the left ventricle by the method of polycardiography and hemodynamics in 20 patients suffering from hypothyrodism. Blood plasma and erythrocyte electrolytes were examined at the same time. Patients with hypothyroidism displayed a phasic syndrome of hypodynamia and a marked correlation between the phase of the synchronous contraction, the period of ejection, the strength of contraction of the left ventricle and the electrolyte content. Sodium and magnesium produced the greatest influence on the phasic structure of the systole; potassium and calcium had a lesser effect. The heart stroke volume diminished; as to the cardiac index, expenditure of the energy of cardiac contractions directed to the maintenance of movement of 1 litre of the minute blood volume; the external work, and the peripheral vascular resistance displayed no significant change.

  4. The multiple genetic causes of central hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persani, Luca; Bonomi, Marco

    2017-03-01

    An insufficient stimulation by thyrotropin (TSH) of an otherwise normal thyroid gland represents the cause of Central Hypothyrodism (CeH). CeH is about 1000-folds rarer than Primary Hypothyroidism and often represents a real challenge for the clinicians, mainly because they cannot rely on adequately sensitive parameters for diagnosis or management, as it occurs with circulating TSH in PH. Therefore, CeH diagnosis can be frequently missed or delayed in patients with a previously unknown pituitary involvement. A series of genetic defects have been described to account for isolated CeH or combined pituitary hormone defects (CPHDs) with variable clinical characteristics and degrees of severity. The recently identified candidate gene IGSF1 appears frequently involved. This review provides an updated illustration of the different genetic defects accounting for CeH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  6. Hypothyroidism and acute kidney injury: an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Precil Diego Miranda de Menezes; Bridi, Ramaiane Aparecida; Balbi, André Luis; Ponce, Daniela

    2013-08-09

    Association between severe hypothyroidism and acute kidney injury (AKI) is rare. A 40-year-old woman presented with 15 days history of generalised muscle pain, weakness, weight gain and oedema. hypertension and hypothyroidism. dry skin, peripheral/periorbital oedema, slow thought and speaking, thyroid increased. Laboratory examinations: high levels of creatine kinase , creatinine, uric acid and lactate dehydrogenase. Free T4 was very low (hypothyroidism-induced rhabdomyolysis. Intravenous fluids were started, urinary alkalisation and increased l-thyroxine dose replacement. On the day after admission, forced diuresis with furosemide was introduced leading to a progressive improvement of symptoms. Although hypothyroidism and AKI is unusual, it should be suspected in patients presenting decrease of renal function and high creatine kinase in the absence of other causes of rhabdomyolysis.

  7. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  8. SEMDSA/ACE-SA Guideline for the Management of Hypothyroidism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-19

    Oct 19, 2014 ... assumes no responsibility for personal or other injury, loss or damage that may result .... (UNICEF) and the International Council for Control of Iodine. Deficiency .... 74 years.7 The main causes of hypothyroidism in older adults.

  9. SEMDSA/ACE-SA Guideline for the Management of Hypothyroidism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypothyroidism is a common clinical condition confronting all healthcare practitioners yet there remains uncertainty about the optimal medication and optimum treatment targets. In addition, many patients remain symptomatic despite using recommended medications and attaining recommended treatment ...

  10. No evidence of a causal relationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2018-01-01

    Background An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate......-hypothyroid controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0±17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Results Overall, we...... found a higher prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with hypothyroidism as compared to controls (4.6% vs. 4.3%, p glaucoma [1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.13]. Based on the Cox regression...

  11. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES IN HIPPOCAMPUS AS A FUNCTION OF DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones are essential for maturation and function of the mammalian central nervous system. Severe congenital hypothyroidism results in irreversible structural damage and mental retardation in children. Although a variety of environmental contaminants have been demonstrat...

  12. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PTU-INDUCED HYPOTHYROIDISM IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propylthiouracil (PTU) exposure results in depletion of thyroid hormone by blocking its synthesis. It often is used to study the effects of hypothyroidism in the brain, where deficits during critical periods lead to neuroanatomical, molecular and neurochemical alterations. Decre...

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IMPAIRS HIPPOCAMPAL LEARNING AND SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of environmental chemicals have been reported to alter thyroid hormone (TH) function. It is well established that severe hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain development leads to alterations in hippocampal structure and learning deficits, yet evaluation of ...

  14. Short-term visual deprivation reduces interference effects of task-irrelevant facial expressions on affective prosody judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eFengler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested that neuroplasticity can be triggered by short-term visual deprivation in healthy adults. Specifically, these studies have provided evidence that visual deprivation reversibly affects basic perceptual abilities. The present study investigated the long-lasting effects of short-term visual deprivation on emotion perception. To this aim, we visually deprived a group of young healthy adults, age-matched with a group of non-deprived controls, for 3 hours and tested them before and after visual deprivation (i.e., after 8 h on average and at 4 week follow-up on an audio-visual (i.e., faces and voices emotion discrimination task. To observe changes at the level of basic perceptual skills, we additionally employed a simple audio-visual (i.e., tone bursts and light flashes discrimination task and two unimodal (one auditory and one visual perceptual threshold measures. During the 3 h period, both groups performed a series of auditory tasks. To exclude the possibility that changes in emotion discrimination may emerge as a consequence of the exposure to auditory stimulation during the 3 h stay in the dark, we visually deprived an additional group of age-matched participants who concurrently performed unrelated (i.e., tactile tasks to the later tested abilities. The two visually deprived groups showed enhanced affective prosodic discrimination abilities in the context of incongruent facial expressions following the period of visual deprivation; this effect was partially maintained until follow-up. By contrast, no changes were observed in affective facial expression discrimination and in the basic perception tasks in any group. These findings suggest that short-term visual deprivation per se triggers a reweighting of visual and auditory emotional cues, which seem to possibly prevail for longer durations.

  15. Growth hormone action in hypothyroid infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, J T; Bergad, P L; Masha, O; Stolz, A M; Kaul, S; Berry, S A

    2000-02-01

    In neonatal rats, expression of serine protease inhibitors 2.1 and 2.3 mRNA peaks on d 2 of life and declines shortly thereafter, coinciding with levels of circulating GH. To evaluate the role of GH in this increase and to test the hypothesis that GH is active in perinatal life, we studied GH action in a model of GH deficiency. Maternal/neonatal hypothyroidism with consequent GH deficiency was induced by methimazole administration to pregnant dams. The resultant hypothyroid neonates were treated at d 2 or 7 of age with GH or saline for 1 h before exsanguination. In d-7 neonates, but not at d 2, GH administration resulted in significant serine protease inhibitors 2.1 and 2.3 mRNA induction. This treatment did not result in increased production of either GH receptor or IGF-I mRNA at either age. There was a slight GH-independent increase in GH receptor and IGF-I mRNA expression by d 7. Electromobility shift assays using hepatic nuclear extracts from these neonates and the GH response element from the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 promoter showed signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) binding in response to GH in extracts from d-7 rats only. Immunoblots of these extracts showed twice as much Stat5 in the nuclei of d-7 treated neonates compared with d-2 treated neonates. We conclude that there is apparent insensitivity to GH treatment in d-2 neonates that remits by d 7 and that this remission correlates with increased abundance of GH receptor and Stat5.

  16. Short-Term Sleep Disturbance-Induced Stress Does not Affect Basal Pain Perception, but Does Delay Postsurgical Pain Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Kai; Cao, Jing; Wang, Hongzhen; Liang, Lingli; Zhang, Jun; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance-induced stress is known to increase basal pain sensitivity. However, most surgical patients frequently report short-term sleep disturbance/deprivation during the pre- and postoperation periods and have normal pain perception presurgery. Whether this short-term sleep disturbance affects postsurgical pain is elusive. Here, we report that pre- or postexposure to rapid eye movement sleep disturbance (REMSD) for 6 hours daily for 3 consecutive days did not alter basal responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli, but did delay recovery in incision-induced reductions in paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and paw withdrawal latencies to heat and cold stimuli on the ipsilateral side of male or female rats. This short-term REMSD led to stress shown by an increase in swim immobility time, a decrease in sucrose consumption, and an increase in the level of corticosterone in serum. Blocking this stress via intrathecal RU38486 or bilateral adrenalectomy abolished REMSD-caused delay in recovery of incision-induced reductions in behavioral responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Moreover, this short-term REMSD produced significant reductions in the levels of mu opioid receptor and kappa opioid receptor, but not Kv1.2, in the ipsilateral L4/5 spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia on day 9 after incision (but not after sham surgery). Our findings show that short-term sleep disturbance either pre- or postsurgery does not alter basal pain perception, but does exacerbate postsurgical pain hypersensitivity. The latter may be related to the reductions of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia caused by REMSD plus incision. Prevention of short-term sleep disturbance may help recovery from postsurgical pain in patients. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypothyroidism in diabetes mellitus patients in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Maskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM with hypothyroidism is a known clinical observation. Aims: To estimate prevalence and co-relate that of hypothyroidism in patients with DM in relation to the age and sex, the lipid profile, body mass index visiting diabetes clinic and inpatients in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Settings and Design: The hospital-based descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one known or newly detected cases of DM aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from September 2012 to September 2013 and subjected to evaluation for thyroid function - clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done. Statistical Analysis Used: For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, percentage, proportion were calculated. For inferential statistics following test were carried out at the level of significant 0.05 where confidence interval is 95%. The statistical operations were done through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 10. Results: Of 271 subjects, the prevalence of hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical in diabetics was, 4.05% (11/271 with females preponderance, of which 7 (30.4% were clinically hypothyroid and 4 (17.4% were subclinical hypothyroid. One (4.3% patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 DM was 51-60 years. 8.69% of diabetics with primary hypothyroids were having morbid obesity. High-density lipoprotein among different thyroid status were statistically significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is not uncommon in diabetes, and we found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism.

  18. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2011-01-01

    Ali J Chakera1, Simon HS Pearce2, Bijay Vaidya11Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital and Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, 2Endocrine Unit, Royal Victoria Infirmary and Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people ...

  19. Clinical outcomes of patients with hypothyroidism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Sara, Jaskanwal D.S.; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Gharib, Hossein; Bell, Malcolm R.; Gulati, Rajiv; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results Two thousand four hundred and thirty patients who underwent PCI were included. Subjects were divided into two groups: hypothyroidism ( n = 686) defined either as a history of hypothyroidism or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥5.0 mU/mL, and euthyroidism ( n = 1744) defined as no history of hypothyroidism and/or 0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH hypothyroidism were further categorized as untreated ( n = 193), or those taking thyroid replacement therapy (TRT) with adequate replacement (0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH hypothyroidism compared with those with euthyroidism (MACCE: HR: 1.28, P = 0.0001; myocardial infarction (MI): HR: 1.25, P = 0.037; heart failure: HR: 1.46, P = 0.004; revascularization: HR: 1.26, P = 0.0008; stroke: HR: 1.62, P = 0.04). Compared with untreated patients or those with inadequate replacement, adequately treated hypothyroid patients had a lower risk of MACCE (HR: 0.69, P = 0.005; HR: 0.78, P = 0.045), cardiac death (HR: 0.43, P = 0.008), MI (HR: 0.50, P = 0.0004; HR: 0.60, P = 0.02), and heart failure (HR: 0.50, P = 0.02; HR: 0.52, P = 0.017). Conclusion Hypothyroidism is associated with a higher incidence of MACCE compared with euthyroidism in patients undergoing PCI. Maintaining adequate control on TRT is beneficial in preventing MACCE. PMID:26757789

  20. Hypothyroidism: causes, killers, and life-saving treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbs, Sarah B; Spangler, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is a very common, yet often overlooked disease. It can have a myriad of signs and symptoms, and is often nonspecific. Identification requires analysis of thyroid hormones circulating in the bloodstream, and treatment is simply replacement with exogenous hormone, usually levothyroxine (Synthroid). The deadly manifestation of hypothyroidism is myxedema coma. Similarly nonspecific and underrecognized, treatment with exogenous hormone is necessary to decrease the high mortality rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Hypothyroidism in adults in a basic health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Macías, I; Hidalgo-Requena, A; Pérez-Membrive, E; González-Rodríguez, M E; Bellido-Moyano, C; Pérula-de Torres, L A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to study the prevalence, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hypothyroid disease in adults using the computerised clinical records. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. The target population was the patients of the health centres of Lucena I and II (Córdoba). Patients 14 years or older, diagnosed with hypothyroidism, born and resident in Lucena. Two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited by random sampling, who then underwent a clinical interview using a questionnaire. The mean age of the patients was 49.71 years (SD 17.03; 95% CI 47.34-51.98), with 85.5% women. A diagnosis of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found in 74.8%, compared to 18.7% of primary hypothyroidism, and 6.5% of secondary hypothyroidism. The 53.7% (95% CI 46.81-60.59) of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism did not have thyroid antibodies results. However, 75.2% (95% CI 68.89-80.86) were being treated with levothyroxine. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 5.7% (95% CI 5.46-5.96). Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is very common in Primary Care clinics. Many patients are not correctly diagnosed and many are over-medicated, suggesting a need to review the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic brain ischemia in patients with arterial hypertension and hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Kovalenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the pathogenesis of chronic brain ischemia in patients with hypertension and hypothyroidism are studied. Examples of some results of authors’ research are listed. According to the research, patients with hypertensive dyscirculatory encephalopathy and hypothyroidism have deterioration of blood supply to the brain by reducing the reactivity of the vascular wall, decrease in the functional activity of the brain, impairement of cognitive function and increase in the anxiety and depression.

  3. Renal handling of sodium and water in the hypothyroid rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ulrich F.; Barenberg, Robert L.; Chavez, Rafaelita; Vaamonde, Carlos A.; Papper, Solomon

    1972-01-01

    Hypothyroid rats were examined with conventional renal clearance and micropuncture techniques to elicit the mechanism and site within the nephron responsible for the increased salt and water excretion observed in these animals. When compared with age-matched control rats, a decrease in inulin clearance of 30% (P < 0.001) and in Hippuran clearance of 32% (P < 0.005) was observed in the hypothyroid rats. Absolute excretion of sodium and water was increased 3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2-fold (P < 0.025), respectively, while fractional excretion of sodium and water was increased 4.3-fold (P < 0.02) and 2.9-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the hypothyroid animals. Fractional proximal reabsorption of sodium as assessed from proximal tubular fluid to plasma ratios of inulin ([TF/P]IN) was found to be decreased by 28% (P < 0.001) in the hypothyroid rats. Superficial single nephron filtration rate was reduced proportionately to the decrease in total filtration rate in the hypothyroid rats. These data indicate that the proximal tubule is one of the sites of diminished sodium and water reabsorption in the hypothyroid rat. The data also suggest that the observed decrease in glomerular filtration rate in the hypothyroid animals is not caused by a decrease in the number of functioning nephrons and that the observed increase in sodium and water excretion is not caused by a redistribution of filtrate from juxtamedullary to superficial nephrons. Although the exact mechanisms of the observed changes in proximal tubular function remain unknown, the data suggest that they are probably related to the lack of thyroid hormone. Whatever their mechanism, it appears that the enhanced sodium and water excretion observed in the hypothyroid animals must be determined by further reduction in tubular sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. PMID:5024038

  4. Hypothyroidism incidence in and around pregnancy: a Danish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P

    2016-11-01

    Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipedhi, Akhila; Vali, Hamza; Okosieme, Onyebuchi

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma is the extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, typically seen in patients with severe biochemical hypothyroidism. Its occurrence in association with subclinical hypothyroidism is extremely unusual. We describe a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism who developed clinical manifestations of myxedema coma. A 47-year-old woman presented to our endocrine clinic with complaints of fatigue and biochemical findings of subclinical hypothyroidism. She was started on treatment with thyroxine (T4) but remained unwell and was later admitted to hospital with hormone profile showing persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (elevated thyrotropin and normal free T4 [FT4] and free triiodothyronine [FT3]): FT4 10.7 pmol/L (reference range 10.3-24.5), FT3 2.7 pmol/L (reference range 2.67-7.03), and thyrotropin 6.09 mU/L (reference range 0.4-4.0). She subsequently developed hypothermia (temperature 33.2°C), circulatory collapse, and coma. Biochemical profile showed hyponatremia, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure. An echocardiogram revealed a moderate-sized pericardial effusion. We diagnosed myxedema coma and started treatment with intravenous T3. She responded dramatically with improvement in level of consciousness and normalization of metabolic parameters. We found no explanation other than hypothyroidism to account for the presentation. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests excluded adrenal insufficiency, and serum gonadotrophins were within the normal reference range. FT4 estimation by equilibrium dialysis excluded analytical interference, and molecular analysis for the thyroid hormone receptor β gene associated with thyroid hormone resistance was negative. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The reason for normal thyroid hormone levels is unclear but may reflect deviation from a higher pre-morbid set-point. The case

  6. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) : prognostic factors affecting short-term follow-up results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ah Young; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Yun, Eun Joo; Lee, Ki Yeol; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of various parameters used in PEIT on the short-term results of this procedure for the treatment of small HCC. Among 76 lesions in 63 patients with HCCs, 66 were diagnosed by tissue biopsy (n=30) or according to clinical features, tumor marker, and the results of angiography and other diagnostic imagings (n=36). These patients underwent PEIT between November 1993 and October 1996; the indications for PEIT were nodular lesions less than 3 cm in size, less than three in number, and unsuitable for surgical resection or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy. The effect of PEIT was evaluated by two phase spiral CT one month later (64 lesions) or by serial ultrasound for 6 months. We analyzed and graded the short-term effect of PEIT on HCCs as complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR) or no change/aggravation (NC/AG). We also evaluated the correlation between the short-term results of PEIT and variable parameters such as size of the lesion, frequency of PEI per session, child classification of the patient, the ratio of amount of injected ethanol per volume of the lesion, and {alpha}-fetoprotein level before the procedure. The therapeutic effect of PEIT was CR in 45 lesions (59.2%), PR in 18 (23.7%) and NC/AG in 13 (17.1%). The size of the tumor, child-pugh class, number of injections per session and ratio of injected volume of ethanol to tumor volume were factors affecting the therapeutic result (p < 0.05). Sufficient knowledge of prognostic factors affecting the short-term results of PEIT might help improve the effects of therapy in patients its small HCCs. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Rich Medium Composition Affects Escherichia coli Survival, Glycation, and Mutation Frequency during Long-Term Batch Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, Karin E; Finkel, Steven E

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria such as Escherichia coli are frequently grown to high density to produce biomolecules for study in the laboratory. To achieve this, cells can be incubated in extremely rich media that increase overall cell yield. In these various media, bacteria may have different metabolic profiles, leading to changes in the amounts of toxic metabolites produced. We have previously shown that stresses experienced during short-term growth can affect the survival of cells during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP). Here, we incubated cells in LB, 2× yeast extract-tryptone (YT), Terrific Broth, or Super Broth medium and monitored survival during the LTSP, as well as other reporters of genetic and physiological change. We observe differential cell yield and survival in all media studied. We propose that differences in long-term survival are the result of changes in the metabolism of components of the media that may lead to increased levels of protein and/or DNA damage. We also show that culture pH and levels of protein glycation, a covalent modification that causes protein damage, affect long-term survival. Further, we measured mutation frequency after overnight incubation and observed a correlation between high mutation frequencies at the end of the log phase and loss of viability after 4 days of LTSP incubation, indicating that mutation frequency is potentially predictive of long-term survival. Since glycation and mutation can be caused by oxidative stress, we measured expression of the oxyR oxidative stress regulator during log-phase growth and found that higher levels of oxyR expression during the log phase are consistent with high mutation frequency and lower cell density during the LTSP. Since these complex rich media are often used when producing large quantities of biomolecules in the laboratory, the observed increase in damage resulting in glycation or mutation may lead to production of a heterogeneous population of plasmids or proteins, which could affect the

  8. Heat production during contraction in skeletal muscle of hypothyroid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijendekker, W.J.; van Hardeveld, C.; Elzinga, G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism on tension-independent and -dependent heat produced during a twitch and a tetanic contraction of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscle of mice was examined. The amount of heat produced during a twitch and the rate of heat development during a tetanus of EDL and soleus were measured at and above optimal length. The effect of hypothyroidism on force production was 2+ cycling, these findings suggest that ATP splitting due to the Ca 2+ cycling is reduced in hypothyroid mice. This conclusion was strengthened by the observation that the oxalate-supported 45 Ca 2+ -uptake activity and 45 Ca 2+ -loading capacity of muscle homogenates from hypothyroid mice were reduced, respectively, to 51 and to 65% in soleus and to 63 and 73% in EDL muscle as compared with euthyroid mice. The tension-dependent rate of heat development during a tetanus was also decreased in soleus muscle of hypothyroid mice. This suggests a lower rate of ATP hydrolysis related to cross-bridge cycling in this muscle due to the hypothyroid state

  9. Evaluation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Ahad; Golforoushan, Farideh; Nejad, Amir Bahrami Shahla Babaee; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-01

    Many symptoms arise in thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with hyperthyroidism and 50 patients suffering from hypothyroidism were studied. Cutaneous, hair and nail clinical symptoms were studied and registered in a special questionnaire. Mean age of patients suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 38.24 +/- 14.45 and 25.86 +/- 14.69 years old. Dry and Coarse/rough skin were the most prevalent manifestations in the skin involvement in hypothyroidism since softness was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Fragileness was the most prevalent symptom in patients with nail involvement in hypothyroidism since soft skin was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Coarse/rough skin was observed more in patients with hair involvement in hypothyroidism since the most prevalent ones was separation of nail from its bed in hyperthyroidism. High prevalence of skin, hair and nail symptoms in thyroid patients, early diagnosis of the signs may be helpful in premature diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

  10. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Hua; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Meng, Yun; Su, Li; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-15

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common congenital endocrine disorder. The study aimed to determine the congenital hypothyroidism incidence by newborn screening programs in Henan Province, China. The screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism are based on the measurement of TSH in dried blood spots. The TSH concentration was measured in the dry blood spot specimen using a DELFIA fluoroimmunoassay. The TSH cutoff concentration was 8mU/l. The total coverage and the incidence of congenital hypothyroidism were 24.85% (5,142,148/20,694,441) and 0.37‰ (1992/5,142,148), respectively. The coverage and the incidence of CH were only 0.58% (4526/784,580) and 0.22‰ (1/4526) in 1997, respectively. However, the coverage and the incidence of CH were increased to 74.67% (1,203,278/1,611,582) and 0.32‰ (389/1,203,278). There were no significant differences in the number of congenital hypothyroidism between males and females (P>0.05). The number of congenital hypothyroidism was increased year after year. The newborn screening program for CH is successful and quite effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in acetylcholinesterase, Na+,K+-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of hyper- and hypothyroid adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carageorgiou, Haris; Pantos, Constantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Cokkinos, Dennis; Tsakiris, Stylianos

    2007-08-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) are crucial determinants of normal development and metabolism, especially in the central nervous system. The metabolic rate is known to increase in hyperthyroidism and decrease in hypothyroidism. The aim of this work was to investigate how changes in metabolism induced by THs could affect the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), (Na+,K+)- and Mg2+-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of adult rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by subcutaneous administration of thyroxine (25 microg/100 g body weight) once daily for 14 days, and hypothyroidism was induced by oral administration of propylthiouracil (0.05%) for 21 days. All enzyme activities were evaluated spectrophotometrically in the homogenated brain regions of 10 three-animal pools. A region-specific behavior was observed concerning the examined enzyme activities in hyper- and hypothyroidism. In hyperthyroidism, AChE activity was significantly increased only in the hippocampus (+22%), whereas Na+,K+-ATPase activity was significantly decreased in the hyperthyroid rat hippocampus (-47%) and remained unchanged in the frontal cortex. In hypothyroidism, AChE activity was significantly decreased in the frontal cortex (-23%) and increased in the hippocampus (+21%). Na+,K+-ATPase activity was significantly decreased in both the frontal cortex (-35%) and the hippocampus (-43%) of hypothyroid rats. Mg2+-ATPase remained unchanged in the regions of both hyper- and hypothyroid rat brains. Our data revealed that THs affect the examined adult rat brain parameters in a region- and state-specific way. The TH-reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity may increase the synaptic acetylcholine release and, thus, modulate AChE activity. Moreover, the above TH-induced changes may affect the monoamine neurotransmitter systems in the examined brain regions.

  12. Structural changes in socio-affective networks: Multi-modal MRI findings in long-term meditation practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Haakon G; Bernhardt, Boris C; Skottnik, Leon; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania

    2017-08-31

    Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k h, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices. To identify functional networks relevant for the generation of socio-affective states, structural imaging analysis were complemented by fMRI analysis in LTMs, showing amplitude increases during a loving-kindness meditation session relative to non-meditative rest in multiple prefrontal and insular regions bilaterally. Importantly, functional findings partially overlapped with regions of cortical thickness increases in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula, suggesting that these regions may play a central role in the generation of emotional states relevant for the meditative practice. Our multi-modal MRI approach revealed structural changes in LTMs who have cultivated loving-kindness and compassion for a significant period of their life in functional networks activated by these practices. These preliminary cross-sectional findings motivate future longitudinal work studying brain plasticity following the regular practice of skills aiming at enhancing human altruism and prosocial motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities, stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Results: Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Conclusions: Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  14. A baby with congenital hypothyroidism born to a hypothyroid mother who expressed undiagnosed thyroid stimulation blocking antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mock Ryeon Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adults, hypothyroidism caused by thyroid stimulation blocking antibody (TSB Ab is rare, and confirmed cases are even fewer, as TSB Ab levels are rarely assayed. However, this may create problems in babies, as the transplacental passage of maternal TSB Ab can cause a rare type of hypothyroidism in the infant. Prompt levothyroxine replacement for the baby starting immediately after birth is important. We describe a congenital hypothyroid baby born to a hypothyroid mother who was not aware of the cause of her hypothyroid condition, which turned out to be associated with the expression of TSB Ab. This cause was confirmed in both the infant and mother using a series of thyroid function tests and measurements of autoantibody levels, including TSB Ab. During periodic follow-up, the TSB Ab and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody titers became negative in the baby at 8 months of age, but remained positive in the mother. Evaluation of hypothyroidism and its cause in mothers during pregnancy is important for both maternal and child health.

  15. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest affects quality in hydroponic-cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian Yong; Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhang, Ying Peng; Zhou, Yuan Qing; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qiu Hui; Zhang, Yong Song; Jin, Chong Wei

    2014-03-30

    Quality-associated problems, such as excessive in planta accumulation of oxalate, often arise in soillessly cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Maintaining a higher level of ammonium (NH₄⁺) compared to nitrate (NO₃⁻) during the growth period can effectively decrease the oxalate content in hydroponically cultivated vegetables. However, long-term exposure to high concentrations of NH₄⁺ induces toxicity in plants, and thus decreases the biomass production. Short-term application of NH₄⁺ before harvesting in soilless cultivation may provide an alternative strategy to decrease oxalate accumulation in spinach, and minimise the yield reduction caused by NH₄⁺ toxicity. The plants were pre-cultured in 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ nutrient solution. Next, 6 days before harvest, the plants were transferred to a nutrient solution containing 4 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ and 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺. This new mix clearly reduced oxalate accumulation, increased levels of several antioxidant compounds, and enhanced antioxidant capacity in the edible parts of spinach plants, but it did not affect biomass production. However, when the 8 mmol L⁻¹ NO₃⁻ was shifted to either nitrogen-free, 4 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ or 8 mmol L⁻¹ NH₄⁺ treatments, although some of the quality indexes were improved, yields were significantly reduced. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest significantly affects quality and biomass of spinach plants, and we strongly recommend to simultaneously use NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in hydroponic cultivation, which improves vegetable quality without decreasing biomass production. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on the Level of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pan’kiv

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of studying the relationship between the deficiency and the lack of vitamin D in autoimmune thyroid disorders, the effect of additional administration of the preparations of this vitamin has not been clear in such pathology. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D on the content of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism on the background of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT. Materials and methods. The study included 52 patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism on the background of AIT, who were randomized into two groups. Patients of the first group additionally received cholecalciferol 2000 IU/day (14 000 IU/week and calcium preparations in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 12 weeks. Patients of the second group were administered only calcium preparations at a dose of 1000 mg/day for 12 weeks in addition to levothyroxine. A positive result of treatment was considered a reduction of antibodies to TPO of at least 25 %. Results. 94.2 % of patients with hypothyroidism had the deficiency and the lack of vitamin D. In patients with hypothyroidism, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of 25(OHD and the titer of antibodies to TPO (r = –0.172; p = 0.046. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant decrease of the level of antibodies to TPO (–48.1 % in patients with hypothyroidism. In general, lowering the level of antibodies to TPO by 25 % or more has been achieved in 73.1 % of patients. Administration of vitamin D contributed to a significant increase of the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum with a corresponding reduction in the concentration of intact parathyroid hormone in patients with hypothyroidism resulted from AIT. Conclusions. The positive effect of supplemental vitamin D has been established in terms of the level of antibodies to TPO in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  17. Frequent Prescribed Burning as a Long-term Practice in Longleaf Pine Forests Does Not Affect Detrital Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T Adam; Chow, Alex T; Hagan, Donald L; Wang, G Geoff; Bridges, William C; Dozier, James H

    2017-09-01

    The O horizon, or detrital layer, of forest soils is linked to long-term forest productivity and health. Fuel reduction techniques, such as prescribed fire, can alter the thickness and composition of this essential ecosystem component. Developing an understanding of the changes in the chemical composition of forest detritus due to prescribed fire is essential for forest managers and stakeholders seeking sustainable, resilient, and productive ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated fuel quantity, fuel structure, and detrital chemical composition in longleaf pine ( Miller) forests that have been frequently burned for the last 40 yr at the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center in Georgetown, SC. Our results suggest that frequent prescribed fire reduces forest fuel quantity ( burned detritus. Our burning activities varied in the short term, consisting of annual dormant, annual growing, and biennial dormant season burns. Seasonal distinctions were present for fuel quantity and vertical fuel structure, but these differences were not noted for the benzene/phenol ratio. These results are significant as more managers consider burning existing longleaf stands while determining effective management practices for longleaf stands yet to be established. Managers of such stands can be confident that frequent, low-intensity, low-severity prescribed burns in longleaf pine forests do little to affect the long-term chemical composition of forest detritus. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Replacement Therapy with L-thyroxine in Women with Postoperative and Autoimmune Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sch Madiyarova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the lipid profile, psychoemotional features, cognitive function, quality of life in women receiving adequate replacement therapy with levothyroxine for postoperative hypothyroidism and autoimmune (Hashimoto's hypothyroidism.Methods. 121 women (18-45 y.o. with primary hypothyroidism receiving levothyroxine for more than one year participated in the study. 66 women with autoimmune hypothyroidism, 55 - with hypothyroidism after subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. The scores for the Short-Form 36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, symptoms of hypothyroidism, Inventory of memory and attention, TSH, free T3, free T4 and lipid profiles were analyzed. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in the age, BMI, TSH, fT3, fT4 levels. The total cholesterol was higher in patients with postoperative hypothyroidism in comparison to autoimmune hypothyroidism ( р = 0,041. The levels of social functioning and mental health that reflect mental component of health were lower in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism than with postoperative hypothyroidism ( p = 0,038, p = 0,019, respectively. The anxiety was higher in the same group ( p = 0,004. There was no difference in memory and attention levels. The anxiety level was higher in autoimmune hypothyroidism and “low-normal” TSH (0,4 - 2 µU/L than in postoperative hypothyroidism and the same TSH ( p = 0,016. Also in the group with postoperative hypothyroidism and “low-normal” TSH the cholesterol and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia were higher than in autoimmune hypothyroidism ( p = 0,017; р = 0,013. Conclusion. In young women with compensated autoimmune hypothyroidism the mental component of health is lower and the anxiety - higher than in postoperative hypothyroidism. Even in stable compensation of postoperative hypothyroidism the cholesterol level is higher comparing to the patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. And even in “low-normal” TSH

  19. The effects of L-thyroxin replacement therapy on bone minerals and body composition in hypothyroid children

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Hassan M.; El-Dayem, Soha A.; Yousef, Hala; Fawzy, Ashraf; Abou-Ismail, Laila; El-lebedy, Dalia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged treatment with levothyroxine 4 (L-T4) is a well known risk factor for osteoporosis. Patients on L-T4 replacement occasionally have a subnormal TSH, which carries a risk of development of bone loss. Thyroid hormones directly affect bone cells, stimulating osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity with a predominance of bone resorption and decrease of bone mineral density (BMD). Material and methods The study included 35 hypothyroid patients with mean age 11.57 ±5.06, while ...

  20. Neonatal screening: 9% of children with filter paper thyroid‐stimulating hormone levels between 5 and 10 μIU/mL have congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia C. Christensen‐Adad

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: The study showed that 9.13% of the children with f‐TSH between 5 and 10 μIU/mL developed hypothyroidism and that in approximately one‐quarter of them, the diagnosis was confirmed only after the third month of life. Based on these findings, the authors suggest the use of a 5 μIU/mL cutoff for f‐TSH and long‐term follow‐up of infants whose serum TSH has not normalized to rule out congenital hypothyroidism.

  1. Incidence of hypothyroidism after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Yasuro; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Takeshita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Torizuka, Kanji.

    1975-01-01

    To investigate whether the incidence of hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism is lower in Japan than in the Western countries, the results of treatment were retrospectively analyzed with patients to whom 131 I had been administered, individually estimating radiation dose to the thyroid. A total of 1119 patients treated at five clinics from 1955 to 1967 were evaluated in 1969. The average initial dose of 131 I in the present series was 5.6 m Ci and 6340 rads to the thyroid, and this was an average dose used in Japan for the corresponding period. The results of treatment were analyzed by the one-dose group (625 cases) and the repeat-dose group (494 cases), as well as for total cases. The incidence of hypothyroidism was calculated by the life table method and, of the total cases, the incidence was 9.4, 18, and 26%, 5, 10, and 12 years respectively after the initial treatment. The rate of hypothyroidism was generally a little higher and the increment by the end of 5 years was steeper in the one-dose group than in the repeat-dose group. In reviewing the results between the Western countries and Japan, including the present series, fairly good correlation was found between radiation dose to the thyroid in the initial dose and the incidence of hypothyroidism 5 years after the initial dose. The lower incidence of hypothyroidism in Japan appeared due mainly to a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in the initial treatment. Radiation doses to the thyroid glands of patients who became hypothyroid in the one-dose group were 7220 +- 2810 rads and ranged from less than 3000 rads to more than 14000 rads. Of the patients in the one-dose group, whose thyroid received a definite dose ranging from 6000 to 8000 rads, those with less thyroid enlargement were more apt to develop hypothyroidism. (auth.)

  2. Thyroid function testing in neonates born to women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Matthew; Reyani, Zahra; O'Connor, Pamela; White, Martin; Miletin, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to assess the utility of serum thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone performed at 10-14 days of life in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. This was a retrospective study of all babies born in a tertiary referral centre for neonatology over a 12-month period. Infants who had thyroid function testing (TFT) checked at 10-14 days of life because of maternal hypothyroidism during the period of study were included. The results of the newborn bloodspot and day 10-14 TFT were recorded along with whether or not patients were subsequently treated. Of the 319 patients included in the study, only two patients were found to have CH and in both cases the newborn blood spot had been abnormal. No extra cases of CH were detected from the thyroid test at 10-14 days and this practice should be discontinued due to the robust nature of existing newborn screening programmes. What is Known: • Congenital hypothyroidism(CH) is the commonest preventable cause of childhood intellectual impairment. • Family history of hypothyroidism has been implicated as a risk factor for CH. • CH has formed part of newborn screening since the 1970s. What is New: • There is no research recommending thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life to detect CH in neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Thyroid function testing at 10-14 days of life does not improve diagnostic yield for CH in babies born to mothers with hypothyroidism. • Newborn blood spot remains the mainstay for accurate and timely diagnosis of CH.

  3. Association between maternal hypothyroidism and autism spectrum disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Darios; Jacobsen, Steven J; Fassett, Michael J; Wing, Deborah A; Xiang, Anny H; Chiu, Vicki Y; Peltier, Morgan R

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundTo determine whether hypothyroidism is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and how this association is influenced by race-ethnicity, sex, and timing of exposure.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted using records from 397,201 children who were delivered from 1991 to 2011 and remained health plan members from 1993 to 2014.ResultsChildren of hypothyroid women had higher ASD rates than children of women without the diagnosis (2.14 vs. 1.62/1,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratios (adj.HR), 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.53). This occurred in women diagnosed before as well as during pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism was associated with ASD for both boys (3.93 vs. 2.62/1,000 person-years; adj.HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and girls (1.10 vs. 0.61/1,000 person-years; adj.HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10-2.08). Of women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were not associated with an increased risk of ASD in children. Compared with white children, prenatal hypothyroidism was associated with an increased risk of ASD in children of Hispanics (adj.HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17) and women of other/mixed race-ethnicity (adj.HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16).ConclusionMaternal hypothyroidism is associated with ASD in children in a manner dependent on race-ethnicity. Management of maternal hypothyroidism may ameliorate the risk of ASD.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Sharma, Neera; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Dutta, Deep

    2016-11-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been reported in 0-57% of primary hypothyroidism. Data on hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is scant and inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in ScH. Consecutive patients diagnosed to have normal thyroid function, ScH or overt primary hypothyroidism underwent serum prolactin, gonadotropins, testosterone and estradiol estimation. Patients with pregnancy, pituitary adenomas, secondary hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, comorbid states and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From initially screened 4950 patients, hormonal data from 2848 individuals who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. The occurrence of hyperprolactinemia (females:males) was highest in primary hypothyroidism (42.95%:39.53%) (n=192), followed by ScH (35.65%:31.61%) (n=770) and euthyroid individuals (2.32%:2.02%) (n=1886) (P10mIU/L (females: males) was 25.56%:20.73%, 49.07%:50% and 61.43%:35.71% respectively (Phypothyroidism. In females, testosterone was lowest in patients with primary hypothyroidism. In males, serum estradiol was significantly higher, and testosterone significantly lower in men with ScH and primary hypothyroidism. Regression analysis revealed serum TSH followed by free T 4 , to be best predictors of serum prolactin in both sexes. Hyperprolactinemia is common in ScH, especially in those with TSH>7.5mIU/L. ROC analysis confirmed that TSH≥7.51mIU/L in females and ≥8.33mIU/L in males had a sensitivity of ≈50% with a very high specificity of >90% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin screening may be warranted in ScH with TSH>7.5mIU/L, and may form an indication for treating ScH. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal volume is decreased in adults with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gillian E; Mullally, Sinead; Correia, Neuman; O'Mara, Shane M; Gibney, James

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for the adult brain, particularly regions of the hippocampus including the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 regions. The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain involved in learning and memory. Consequently, alterations in thyroid hormone levels have been reported to impair hippocampal-associated learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. While these effects have been shown primarily in developing rats, as well as in adult rats, little is known about the effects in adult humans. There are currently no data regarding structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of adult-onset hypothyroidism. We aimed to establish whether hippocampal volume was reduced in patients with untreated adult-onset hypothyroidism compared to age-matched healthy controls. High-resolution magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) scans were performed on 11 untreated hypothyroid adults and 9 age-matched control subjects. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on increased levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and reduced levels of free thyroxine (fT4). Volumetric analysis of the right and left hippocampal regions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool (FIRST), demonstrated significant volume reduction in the right hippocampus in the hypothyroid patients relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothyroidism results in structural deficits in the adult human brain. Decreases in volume in the right hippocampus were evident in patients with adult-onset overt hypothyroidism, supporting some of the findings in animal models.

  6. Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movvahedi, M M; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, A; Mortazavi, S A R; Haghani, M; Razi, Z; Shojaie-Fard, M B; Zare, M; Mina, E; Mansourabadi, L; Nazari-Jahromi; Safari, A; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, S M J

    2014-05-01

    Now-a-days, children are exposed to mobile phone radiation at a very early age. We have previously shown that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz, Iran use mobile phones. Furthermore, we have indicated that the visual reaction time (VRT) of university students was significantly affected by a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone. We found that these exposures decreased the reaction time which might lead to a better response to different hazards. We have also revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure of elementary school students to radiofrequency (RF) radiation leads to changes in their reaction time and short-term memory. A total of 60 elementary school children ages ranging from 8 to 10 years studying at a public elementary school in Shiraz, Iran were enrolled in this study. Standardized computer-based tests of VRT and short-term memory (modified for children) were administered. The students were asked to perform some preliminary tests for orientation with the VRT test. After orientation, to reduce the random variation of measurements, each test was repeated ten times in both real and sham exposure phases. The time interval between the two subsequent sham and real exposure phases was 30 min. The mean ± standard deviation reaction times after a 10 min talk period and after a 10 min sham exposure (switched off mobile) period were 249.0 ± 82.3 ms and 252.9 ± 68.2 ms (P = 0.629), respectively. On the other hand, the mean short-term memory scores after the talk and sham exposure periods were 1062.60 ± 305.39, and 1003.84 ± 339.68 (P = 0.030), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that short-term exposure of elementary school students to RF radiation leads to the better performance of their short-term memory.

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Diagnosed in a National Screening Program in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Bahar Toklu; Baysal, Bora; Genel, Ferah; Erdur, Baris; Ozbek, Erhan; Demir, Korcan; Ozkan, Behzat

    2017-05-15

    To study the factors affecting a neurodevelopmental status of children with congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed on national screening program. The study was performed in the Pediatric Endocrinology Department of Dr. Behcet Uz Children's Hospital between May 2012 and May 2013. Children with congenital hypothyroidism, aged between 24 and 36 months, diagnosed by national screening program were included in the study group. Healthy subjects at the same age group consisted of the control group. For the neurodevelopmental evaluation, Bayley Scale of Infant Development- II (BSID-II) was used. Factors possibly effective on neurodevelopment were evaluated. 42 patients and 40 healthy children (mean (SD) age, 29.4 (3.7) and 29.2 (3.5), respectively were included in the study. The mean MDI score [92.6 (7.07) vs 97.1 (9.69), P=0.14)] and the mean PDI score [97.8 (15.68) vs 99.1 (10.57), P=0.66)] in the study group and control group were not significantly different. Among the patient, 4.6% and 4.7% children were moderately retarded as per the MDI scores and PPI scores, respectively. The sex, socioeconomic status, birth weight, screening levels of TSH, severity of the congenital hypothyroidism, initiation time and the dosage of thyroid hormone replacement, length of the normalization period of TSH, and adherence to treatment were not found to affect the MDI and PDI scores of the patients. Some children with congenital hypothyrodism may have mild to moderate neurodevelopmental retardation, despite the early diagnosis and treatment, and thus need to be under regular follow-up for neurodevelopmental status.

  8. Genetic background of Prop1(df) mutants provides remarkable protection against hypothyroidism-induced hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Giordimaina, Alicia M; Dolan, David F; Camper, Sally A; Mustapha, Mirna

    2012-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is a cause of genetic and environmentally induced deafness. The sensitivity of cochlear development and function to thyroid hormone (TH) mandates understanding TH action in this sensory organ. Prop1(df) and Pou1f1(dw) mutant mice carry mutations in different pituitary transcription factors, each resulting in pituitary thyrotropin deficiency. Despite the same lack of detectable serum TH, these mutants have very different hearing abilities: Prop1(df) mutants are mildly affected, while Pou1f1(dw) mutants are completely deaf. Genetic studies show that this difference is attributable to the genetic backgrounds. Using embryo transfer, we discovered that factors intrinsic to the fetus are the major contributor to this difference, not maternal effects. We analyzed Prop1(df) mutants to identify processes in cochlear development that are disrupted in other hypothyroid animal models but protected in Prop1(df) mutants by the genetic background. The development of outer hair cell (OHC) function is delayed, but Prestin and KCNQ4 immunostaining appear normal in mature Prop1(df) mutants. The endocochlear potential and KCNJ10 immunostaining in the stria vascularis are indistinguishable from wild type, and no differences in neurofilament or synaptophysin staining are evident in Prop1(df) mutants. The synaptic vesicle protein otoferlin normally shifts expression from OHC to IHC as temporary afferent fibers beneath the OHC regress postnatally. Prop1(df) mutants exhibit persistent, abnormal expression of otoferlin in apical OHC, suggesting delayed maturation of synaptic function. Thus, the genetic background of Prop1(df) mutants is remarkably protective for most functions affected in other hypothyroid mice. The Prop1(df) mutant is an attractive model for identifying the genes that protect against deafness.

  9. Evaluation of cardiac ischaemia in cardiac asymptomatic newly diagnosed untreated patients with primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Roos; S.K. Zoet-Nugteren; A. Berghout (Arie)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is regarded as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Possible factors involved in this association are hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, both occurring with increased frequency in hypothyroid patients. The aim of our study was to

  10. Prevalence and correction of hypothyroidism in a large cohort of patients referred for dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, T.; Lansberg, P. J.; Kastelein, J. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of hypercholesterolemia can reduce the risk of developing premature atherosclerosis. The hypercholesterolemia caused by hypothyroidism is potentially reversible by thyroid hormone replacement therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients referred to a university lipid

  11. Cognitive functioning and well-being in euthyroid patients on thyroxine replacement therapy for primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, Ellie M.; Appelhof, Bente C.; Fliers, Eric; Schene, Aart H.; Huyser, Jochanan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is associated with neurocognitive impairment. Sparse data suggest that treatment of hypothyroidism, resulting in a return to euthyroidism, may be associated with only partial recovery of overall neurocognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to assess neurocognitive

  12. Inactivating mutations in the gene for thyroid oxidase 2 (THOX2) and congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, José C.; Bikker, Hennie; Kempers, Marlies J. E.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Baas, Frank; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; Vulsma, Thomas; Ris-Stalpers, C.

    2002-01-01

    Background Several genetic defects are associated with permanent congenital hypothyroidism. Immunologic, environmental, and iatrogenic (but not genetic) factors are known to induce transient congenital hypothyroidism, which spontaneously resolves within the first months of life. We hypothesized that

  13. Induction of hypothyroidism in Hashimoto′s thyroiditis during leprosy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugazhenthan Thangaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a female case who developed hypothyroid in the course of multibacillary multidrug therapy regimen for leprosy. The evaluation was made to rule out the possible cause of rifampicin induced hypothyroidism in Hashimoto′s thyroiditis.

  14. Long-term influences of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Amy; Thompson, Ellen J; Gaysina, Darya

    2017-08-15

    The prevalence of divorce in Western countries has increased in recent decades. However, there is no recent systematic review and/or meta-analysis of studies testing for long-term effects of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders. The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published since 1980 testing for the association between parental divorce and offspring depression and anxiety in adulthood. PUBMED, Science Direct, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles databases were searched for eligible studies. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to synthesize effect sizes and to test whether associations of parental divorce with offspring affective disorders differed among three publication periods (i.e., before 1996, 1996-2005, 2006-2015). In total, 29 studies were eligible for the systematic review, and 18 studies were included in the meta-analyses (depression: n=21,581; anxiety: n=2472). There was significant association between parental divorce and offspring depression (OR=1.56; 95%CI [1.31, 1.86]), but not anxiety (OR=1.16; 95%CI [0.98, 1.38]). The effect of parental divorce on offspring depression was not weaker in the reports published in more recent decades. There is limited research in relation to offspring anxiety in adulthood. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of adult offspring depression, with no indication of the effect being weaker in recent publications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of L-thyroxine treatment on hypothyroid symptom scores and lipid profile in children with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatlı, Gönül; Anık, Ahmet; Ünver Tuhan, Hale; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate i) the frequency of typical hypothyroidism symptoms in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), ii) to evaluate the association of SH with lipoproteins and iii) to investigate possible improving effects of L-thyroxine (LT4) treatment on these findings. Twenty-seven children with SH who had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH: >4.94 µIU/L) but normal free T4 levels and healthy euthyroid children of similar age and sex were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric and laboratory (lipid profile and thyroid function tests) measurements were performed at diagnosis and six months after euthyroidism was achieved. All children were also subjected to a questionnaire on hypothyroid symptoms at diagnosis. The SH patients were subjected to the questionnaire also following treatment. Pre-treatment data were compared with those of controls and post-treatment measurements. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters of the groups were not statistically different except for higher TSH levels in the SH group. Serum lipoprotein levels and dyslipidemia frequency were similar between the groups. Compared to the controls, hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher in the SH group. Six months after euthyroidism was achieved, a significant reduction in the hypothyroid symptom score was obtained in the SH group. Except for significantly higher serum TSH values, no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics, symptom scores and lipid parameters were present between patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the remaining SH patients. The results of this study showed that in children with SH i) the hypothyroidism symptom score was significantly higher than in euthyroid children, ii) LT4 treatment improved the hypothyroidism symptom score and iii) SH does not seem to be associated with dyslipidemia.

  16. Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Hypothyroid Patients at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, SS; Prasad, S; Surapaneni, KM; Joshi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism causes considerable morbidity. Low knowledge coupled with inadequate health literacy may lead to poor prevention and management. This study aimed to assess health information-seeking behavior and hypothyroid knowledge among South Indian hypothyroid patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2013 in Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. Hundred clinically diagnosed hypothyroid patients ?18 years were interviewed in a hospital using a 57-...

  17. Hypothyroidism Among Military Infants Born in Countries of Varied Iodine Nutrition Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    while permanent congenital hypothyroidism causes include thyroid dysgenesis, dys- hormonogenesis, and central hypothyroidism and is relatively rare, with... causes have found a gender influence only among permanent cases of congenital hypothyroidism [15,20]. Given our use of ICD-9-CM codes to define cases...Naval Health Research Center Hypothyroidism among Military Infants Born in Countries of Varied Iodine Nutrition Status . M. M. Cranston

  18. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistula: analysis of factors adversely affecting long-term patency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Koji; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Higashino, Takanori; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the factors adversely affecting long-term patency after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for hemodialysis Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas. Between November 1995 and March 2000, 91 PTA procedures were performed on 50 patients with 57 Brescia-Cimino fistulas. A retrospective study based on the chart review was performed. The initial technical success rate for all procedures and the primary and secondary patency rates for all fistulas were calculated. Regarding fistulas successfully maintained by the primary PTA, the primary and secondary patency rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method between two patient groups. They were classified on the basis of several factors, including age (older, over 70 years, and younger group), age of the fistulas (older, over 6 months, and younger group), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM), solitary or multiple lesions, long or short segment lesion, stenosis or occlusion, and with or without arterial and/or anastomotic lesions. Initial technical success rates for all procedures and fistulas were 91.2 and 89.5%, respectively. Cumulative primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 47.3 and 67.3%, respectively. In the comparative study, the secondary patency rate for the older group was lower than that of the younger group with statistical significance (p =0.029). The higher age is the only factor that reduces the long-term patency rate after PTA. (orig.)

  19. Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hemocyte are not affected by a mixture of pesticides in short-term in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Burgeot, Thierry; Renault, Tristan

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in estuaries among the pollutants found in estuarine and coastal areas and may have major ecological consequences. They could endanger organism growth, reproduction, or survival. In the context of high-mortality outbreaks affecting Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France since 2008, it appears of importance to determine the putative effects of pesticides on oyster susceptibility to infectious agents. Massive mortality outbreaks reported in this species, mainly in spring and summer, may suggest an important role played by the seasonal use of pesticides and freshwater input in estuarine areas where oyster farms are frequently located. To understand the impact of some pesticides detected in French waters, their effects on Pacific oyster hemocytes were studied through short-term in vitro experiments. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes eliminating pathogens by phagocytosis and producing compounds including lysosomal enzymes and antimicrobial molecules. In this study, oyster hemocytes were incubated with a mixture of 14 pesticides and metaldehyde alone, a molecule used to eliminate land mollusks. Hemocyte parameters including dead/alive cells, nonspecific esterase activities, intracytoplasmic calcium, lysosome number and activity, and phagocytosis were monitored by flow cytometry. No significant effect of pesticides tested at different concentrations was reported on oyster hemocytes maintained in vitro for short-term periods in the present study. It could be assumed that these oyster cells were resistant to pesticide exposure in tested conditions and developing in vivo assays appears as necessary to better understand the effects of pollutants on immune system in mollusks.

  20. CaMKII knockdown affects both early and late phases of olfactory long-term memory in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Christina; Kübert, Natalie; Muenz, Thomas S; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Honeybees are able to solve complex learning tasks and memorize learned information for long time periods. The molecular mechanisms mediating long-term memory (LTM) in the honeybee Apis mellifera are, to a large part, still unknown. We approached this question by investigating the potential function of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme known as a 'molecular memory switch' in vertebrates. CaMKII is able to switch to a calcium-independent constitutively active state, providing a mechanism for a molecular memory and has further been shown to play an essential role in structural synaptic plasticity. Using a combination of knockdown by RNA interference and pharmacological manipulation, we disrupted the function of CaMKII during olfactory learning and memory formation. We found that learning, memory acquisition and mid-term memory were not affected, but all manipulations consistently resulted in an impaired LTM. Both early LTM (24 h after learning) and late LTM (72 h after learning) were significantly disrupted, indicating the necessity of CaMKII in two successive stages of LTM formation in the honeybee. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.