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Sample records for term feeding study

  1. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  2. [Silymarin/galega administration in term and preterm mothers to sustain breast feeding: an observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, F; Pivetti, V; Moiraghi, L; Marangione, P; Lista, G

    2014-10-01

    Breastfeeding is considered the most important source of nutrition both in the first year of life for term and preterm infants, because of its well-known positive effects on short and long-term outcome. Unfortunately not all the mothers can begin or maintain an adequate milk secretion. Premature delivery and prolonged length of stay in the hospital can influence maternal milk production due to maternal anxiety and/ or neonatal pathologies related to prematurity. A variety of herbal and pharmaceutical products have been recommended as galactogogues, substances that promote lactation. In this observational study, the authors compared the effect on breast milk production of an oral maternal supplementation of two galactogogues (sylimarine and galega-Lutein latte®) in a term and preterm mothers group (preterm infants recovered in neonatal intensive care unit-NICU). The breast milk production significantly reduced at start in preterm mothers (N.=16) versus term mothers (N.=16) (P<0.08), after sylimarine and galega supplementation was the same in both groups within two months of life (P=NS). This galactogogues supplementation could be recommended to maintain an adequate lactation in premature mothers, especially when their infants are still recovered in the NICU.

  3. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  4. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  5. Insulin Resistance Induced by Short term Fructose Feeding may not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fructose feeding causes insulin resistance and invariably Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in rats and genetically predisposed humans. The effect of insulin resistance induced by short term fructose feeding on fertility in female rats was investigated using the following parameters: oestrous phase and ...

  6. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  7. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  8. The effect of long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid on fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on laying hen performance, egg fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and sixty 7-day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to four ...

  9. Feeding tube-related complications and problems in patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Alivizatos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term complications and problems related to gastrostomy and jejunostomy feeding tubes used for home enteral nutrition support and the effect these have on health care use. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 31 patients having gastrostomy (27 patients and jejunostomy (4 feeding tubes inserted in our Department were retrospectively studied. All were discharged on long-term (>3 months enteral nutrition and followed up at regular intervals by a dedicated nurse. Any problem or complication associated with tube feeding as well as the intervention, if any, that occurred, was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: All the patients were followed up for a mean of 17.5 months (4-78. The most frequent tube-related complications included inadvertent removal of the tube (broken tube, plugged tube; 45.1%, tube leakage (6.4%, dermatitis of the stoma (6.4%, and diarrhea (6.4%. There were 92 unscheduled health care contacts, with an average rate of such 2.9 contacts over the mean follow-up time of 17.5 months. Conclusion: In patients receiving long-term home enteral nutrition, feeding tube-related complications and problems are frequent and result in significant health care use. Further studies are needed to address their optimal prevention modalities and management.

  10. Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium fungi produce toxic substances called mycotoxins, which can cause disease and harmful effects in grains, livestock, and humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin, is one of the Fusarium mycotoxins that is known to cause vomiting in livestock. This study shows the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in feedstuffs (compound feed and feed ingredients between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea. A total of 653 domestic samples were collected at five time points, including 494 compound feed samples and 159 feed ingredient samples. DON contamination levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with pretreatment using an immunoaffinity column (IAC. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ were estimated at 1–10 µg/kg and 3–35 µg/kg, respectively. Two compound feeds (two gestating sow feed samples out of 160 pig feed samples exceeded the European Commission (EC guidance value, while no feed ingredient samples exceeded the EC or South Korean guidance values. There were statistically significant differences in the mean contamination levels of compound feed and feed ingredients that indicated a decreasing trend over time.

  11. Mice long-term high-fat diet feeding recapitulates human cardiovascular alterations: an animal model to study the early phases of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián D Calligaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  12. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  13. Infant and young child feeding counseling: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Réa, Marina Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated infant and young child feeding counseling course for transforming the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians and nutritionists working for the municipal health system of São Paulo, Brazil. A randomized intervention study enrolling 29 professionals in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. Interviewers were trained in advance to collect data on the professionals working at health centers, before and 2 months after the intervention. Three research instruments were used, the first was to assess the profile of each professional, the second assessed their knowledge and the third was a clinical observation protocol. Analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples and the Tukey method. The results for the knowledge questionnaire showed improvements in the intervention group (p < 0.001) for the whole questionnaire and for questions on breastfeeding (p = 0.004); HIV and infant and young child feeding (p = 0.049); complementary feeding (p = 0.012); and counseling in infant and young child feeding (p = 0.004). In terms of performance, it was observed that the intervention group had significantly improved their dietary anamnesis after the intervention (p < 0.001). This course effectively promoted an increase in knowledge and improvements in dietary anamnesis performance, but the same was not true of counseling skills.

  14. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-22

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  15. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  16. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a

  17. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

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    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  18. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.syed@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Pinkerton, Andrew J. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Li Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  19. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7-10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus species may be considered as a human public health hazard.

  20. Long-term follow-up of vocal fold movement impairment and feeding after neonatal cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Amy Li; Ongkasuwan, Julina; Ocampo, Elena C

    2016-04-01

    To determine the long-term prognosis of children with vocal fold mobility impairment (VFMI) after cardiac surgery, with respect to time to normal feeding and incidence of admissions for pneumonia and feeding difficulties. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all neonates who had otolaryngology exam after cardiac surgery at a tertiary children's hospital from May 2007 to May 2008. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of cardiac surgery, vocal fold mobility, diet at time of discharge and at last follow-up, time to full oral feeding, and hospital admissions. There were a total of 94 patients included in the study, 17 of whom had VFMI. While significantly more patients with VFMI required modified diet at discharge, 48% compared to 19% of patients with normal vocal fold mobility; there was no statistically significant difference in time to regular diet on long-term follow-up, 0.8 years (VFMI) compared to 0.4 years (normal vocal fold mobility). Of the 25 patients with modified diet or gastrostomy tube at discharge, 52% returned to full feeds within a year. There was no difference in hospitalizations for pneumonia in patients with or without VFMI. However in patients with VFMI, 35% required readmission for feeding difficulty or poor weight gain compared to only 5% in the infants with normal vocal fold mobility. After neonatal cardiac surgery, there do not appear to be long-term effects of VFMI with regards to readmission for pneumonia. However, there is an increased risk for hospitalization with respect to feeding difficulties in those neonates with VFMI. The overall prognosis for time to oral feeding is good. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long-term

  2. Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2013-09-01

    Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. © 2013.

  3. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    Opioid peptides may participate in the control of feed intake through mechanisms involving pleasure reward linked to consumption of palatable feed. The objective of this study was to determine whether blocking opioid receptors might void oro-sensorial preferences of calves, and affect circulating glucose, insulin, and anorexigenic hormones in fasted and fed calves. Two experiments involved 32 Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=86.5±1.73 kg, age=72±0.6 d]. In experiment 1, all calves received an ad libitum choice of the same feed either unflavored or flavored with a sweetener (Luctarom SFS-R, Lucta, Montornès del Vallès, Spain). Feed consumption was recorded every 2 h from 0800 to 1400 h for 3 consecutive days to verify the establishment of an oro-sensorial preference for sweet feed (SF). The SF was preferred over the control feed (CF) at all recorded times. In experiment 2, calves were subjected to a 2 × 2 factorial design to study the interaction between opioid activity and metabolic state. Half of the calves were fasted for 14 h (FAS), whereas the other half remained well fed (FED). Within each of these groups, at feeding time (0800 h), half of the calves received an i.v. injection of naloxone (NAL, an opioid receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg of BW) and the other half was injected with saline solution (SAL; 0.9% NaCl). Therefore, treatments were FED-NAL, FED-SAL, FAS-NAL, and FAS-SAL. Blood samples were taken at -10, 20, 180, and 240 min relative to NAL or SAL injections. As expected, cumulative consumption of starter feed was greater in FAS than in FED calves. Total feed consumption 2 h after feeding was lower in NAL than in SAL calves. Calves in the FAS group did not discern between CF and SF during the first 4 h after feed offer. Preference for SF was greater in SAL than in NAL calves. Calves in the FED-SAL treatment preferred SF at 2 and 6 h after feed offer and tended to prefer SF at 4 h after feeding. However, FED-NAL calves did not discern between SF and CF

  4. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  5. Keap1 knockdown increases markers of metabolic syndrome after long-term high fat diet feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Vijay R; Xu, Jialin; Shimpi, Prajakta C; Belgrave, Clyde; Luyendyk, James P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Slitt, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway upregulates antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme expression to counter cellular oxidative stress. The contributions of Nrf2 to other cellular functions, such as lipid homeostasis, are emerging. This study was conducted to determine how enhanced Nrf2 activity influences the progression of metabolic syndrome with long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. C57BL/6 and Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice, which exhibit enhanced Nrf2 activity, were fed a HFD for 24 weeks. Keap1-KD mice had higher body weight and white adipose tissue mass compared to C57BL/6 mice on HFD, along with increased inflammation and lipogenic gene expression. HFD feeding increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation to a greater extent in Keap1-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was associated with increased liver Cd36, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expression, as well as increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 protein expression. The HFD altered short-term glucose homeostasis to a greater degree in Keap-KD mice compared to C57BL/6 mice, which was accompanied by downregulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Together, the results indicate that Keap1 knockdown, on treatment with HFD, increases certain markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  8. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ''channeling'' which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates

  9. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  10. Study of side-feeding time for light mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sudatta; Bisoi, A.; Kshetri, R.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Pramanik, D.; Sarkar, S.; Nag, S.; Selva Kumar, K.; Singh, P.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Naidu, B.S.; Donthi, R.; Nanal, V.; Palit, R.

    2011-01-01

    Precise determination of level lifetime is of utmost importance in nuclear γ-spectroscopy. Doppler Shift Attenuation (DSA) method suitable for measuring sub-pico second lifetimes, involves inclusion of proper correction for side-feeding which is synonymous to unknown feeding of the level under consideration. It is possible to avoid a sidefeeding contribution by gating on Doppler shifted gamma lines above (GTA) the level being studied in the cascade. In the present work, an empirical approach has been adopted to find the dependence of side-feeding times in nuclei in A ≅ 40 region as function of level energies

  11. 'The midwives aren't allowed to tell you': perceived infant feeding policy restrictions in a formula feeding culture - the Feeding Your Baby Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, Briege M; Symon, Andrew; Dalzell, Janet; Whitford, Heather

    2014-03-01

    to explore the expectations and experiences of postnatal mothers in relation to infant feeding, and to identify how care could be improved. this study used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design. Data were collected through one to one in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Tayside area of Eastern Scotland. seven focus group interviews (n=38 participants) and 40 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with mothers with a range of infant feeding experiences i.e. exclusively breast fed; started breast feeding but changed to formula milk before 16 weeks; exclusively formula fed; or who concurrently breast and formula fed their infant. a principal theme of 'Mixed and missing messages' emerged, incorporating 'Conflicting advice', 'Information gaps' and 'Pressure to breast feed' with a secondary theme of 'Emotional costs'. Several problems were identified with how women were given information, how infant feeding discussions were held, and the type of support available after the infant is born. there was a strong perception that some midwives are not 'allowed' to discuss or provide information on formula feeding, and the women reported feeling pressurised to breast feed. Current interpretation of guidance from the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative may be restricting antenatal discussions about infant feeding. The combination of this partial preparation antenatally and postnatal support that was often inconsistent seems to incur a counter-productive emotional cost. at strategic, policy and practice levels the infant feeding message needs to change to encourage a more woman-centred focus including discussions about the realities of all types of infant feeding. It is important that health providers continue to promote and support breast feeding; and that effective services are provided to women who wish to breast feed to help them to do so. However provision of information about all aspects of feeding is needed as well as support for women who do not

  12. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Bhattacharya, K.; Fuller, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Percutaneous transesophageal gastro-tubing (PTEG) as an alternative long-term tube feeding procedure when gastrostomy is not feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh Yoon, Ezekiel Wong; Nishihara, Kazuki

    2017-12-01

    Percutaneous transesophageal gastro-tubing (PTEG) is a minimally invasive technique to access the gut via an esophagostomy. However, this procedure is not well known and the literature available is still fairly limited. This observational study was conducted to evaluate our experience using this method as an alternative long-term tube feeding procedure when gastrostomy is not suitable. A total of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) who underwent PTEG at our institution from 2012 to 2016 were observed and analyzed in this study. The average age was 80.1 (71-93) years. Underlying conditions that required PTEG were previous gastric resection in 11 patients, left diaphragm disorder in 2 patients, interposing transverse colon between the abdominal wall and anterior gastric wall in 1 patient, and severe gastrostomy site leakage in 1 patient. Tube placement was successful in all patients by approaching the left side of the neck, using a 15 Fr size tube. The mean postoperative length of stay was 22 (8-48) days. Postoperative adverse events included accidental tube dislodgement in three patients, tracheoesophageal fistula in one patient, inferior thyroid artery injury in one patient and thyroid gland mispuncture in one patient. There was no procedure-related mortality nor mortality at 30 days. Eight patients were discharged with some oral intake. PTEG is feasible in patients requiring long-term tube feeding for whom gastrostomy is unsuitable. It is an effective long-term tube feeding procedure and should be offered as a more comfortable alternative to nasogastric tubing.

  14. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  15. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties-Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rachel H V; Tosatti, Abykeyla M; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers' profile. Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education), caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%. The non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent-39.7%). The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children's hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers' profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88). Both Authoritarian ( p  = 0.000) and indulgent mothers ( p  = 0.007) breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in "responsive" parental style (OR 0.056; p  = 0.01) compared to other feeding styles. Results highlight the need for educational

  16. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Rachel H. V.; Tosatti, Abykeyla M.; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C.; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Background Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. Objectives To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile. Methods Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with comp...

  17. Short-term separation from groups by male Japanese macaques: costs and benefits in feeding behavior and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yosuke; Sawada, Akiko; Hanya, Goro

    2014-04-01

    To expand our understanding of fission-fusion behavior and determine its variability among primates, studies of both individual-based and group-based fission-fusion are necessary. We conducted a parallel tracking study of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) during the non-mating season to clarify the general features of separate ranging by males of this species, an example of fission-fusion behavior, and to reveal its associated costs and benefits. Males frequently engaged in short-term separate ranging, leaving the company of females and ranging on their own for periods averaging 68 min in duration. However, the males did not venture outside the group's home range. When ranging separately from the group, males spent more time feeding, particularly on fruit, stayed longer in each feeding tree, and fed at a lower rate than when ranging with the group. These behavioral changes suggest that males can avoid within-group feeding competition by ranging alone. However, this behavior was also associated with higher traveling costs, and these separated males were more vulnerable to intergroup competition and had fewer opportunities for social interaction. The frequency of separate ranging was lower when highly clumped food plant species were the main food source. Lower-ranked males, who received more aggression when ranging with the group, exhibited a higher frequency of separate ranging. This behavioral flexibility with respect to group cohesion may allow males to reduce the costs of group living without completely losing the benefits. Specifically, by ranging alone, males may acquire sufficient feeding time without being disturbed by other group members. Conversely, when ranging with the group, males can access grooming partners and advantages in intergroup competition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Case Study: Caregiver Perception of Pediatric Multidisciplinary Feeding Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Fisher PhD, OT, FAOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perception of satisfaction of caregivers who attended a feeding clinic at a large pediatric hospital in the midwest. The clinic is designed for a multidisciplinary team to meet with the child and the caregiver. Thirty-five participants were involved in the study. Results indicated that most participants were satisfied with the clinic experience. However, there were areas of care not covered by the members of the feeding team, which indicates a need. It is suggested that this need could be filled by occupational therapists.

  19. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, Srisan

    1978-06-15

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  20. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  1. LONG-TERM CALIBRATION STABILITY OF A RADIO ASTRONOMICAL PHASED ARRAY FEED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, Michael; Jeffs, Brian D.; Warnick, Karl F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    There are many challenges associated with the implementation of a phased array feed for radio astronomy applications. Among these is the need to have an adequate set of calibration measurements so that reliable beamformers can be computed. Changes in the operating environment and temporal gain drift in the electronics contribute to calibration drift, which affects the beamformer performance. We will show that calibration measurements are relatively stable over a 5 day period and may remain so for up to 70 days or longer. We have incorporated the use of a calibration update system that has the potential to refresh a set of old calibrators, specifically correcting for electronic gain drift. However, the long-term variations that are present with fresh, current calibrators are greater than the degradation due to using an old calibration set, suggesting that, at this time, there is not a need for sophisticated calibration update systems or algorithms.

  2. Rheological Studies on Pretreated Feed and Melter Feed from AW-101 and AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R; Swoboda, Robert G

    2001-01-01

    Rheological and physical properties testing were conducted on actual AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feed samples prior to the addition of glass formers. Analyses were repeated following the addition of glass formers. The AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feeds were tested at the target sodium values of nominally 6, 8, and 10 M. The AW-101 melter feeds were tested at these same concentrations, while the AN-107 melter feeds were tested at 5, 6, and 8 M with respect to sodium. These data on actual waste are required to validate and qualify results obtained with simulants

  3. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  4. Feeding infants and toddlers study: Improvements needed in meeting infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Reidy, Kathleen; Karwe, Vatsala; Devaney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    To assess adherence to infant feeding recommendations among a sample of infants and toddlers four to 24 months of age in the United States. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls collected with the Nutrition Data System for Research of the University of Minnesota. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age four to 24 months, including 2,024 infants age four to 11 months. Breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and adherence to infant feeding recommendations. Means and standard errors, percentile distributions, and percentages by age group (four to six months, seven to eight months, and nine to 11 months). About 76% of infants and toddlers were fully or partly breastfed at birth. This percentage declined to 30% at six months and 16% at 12 months-short of Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% and 25%, respectively. The average duration of breastfeeding was 5.5 months for all who initiated breastfeeding. About two-thirds of infants had been introduced to complementary foods between four and six months-the period recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 17% consumed juice before the AAP recommended age of six months or later. Twenty-two percent of infants nine to 11 months consumed cow's milk on a daily basis before the recommended age of 12 months or later, and one in 10 consumed french fries and/or sweetened beverages on any given day. More parents and caregivers can benefit from guidance about the introduction of developmentally appropriate, micronutrient-rich first solid foods such as iron-rich infant cereals, iron-fortified grain products, meats, soft fruits, and cooked vegetables and the importance of breastfeeding through the first year of life. A smaller proportion of parents and caregivers require guidance on delaying the introduction of juices until six months of age and cow's milk other than formula

  5. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  6. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H. V. Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGiven the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding.ObjectivesTo identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile.MethodsCross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education, caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%.ResultsThe non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent—39.7%. The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children’s hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers’ profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06–0.88. Both Authoritarian (p = 0.000 and indulgent mothers (p = 0.007 breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in “responsive” parental style (OR 0.056; p = 0.01 compared to other feeding styles

  7. Delayed Development of Feeding Skills in Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia C. Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelays in gross motor development, sensory processing issues, and organic and behavioral problems are known to interfere in the development of feeding skills (FS; and—therefore—in the success of the process of feeding a child. Children with feeding difficulties (FD commonly present inadequacy of FS.ObjectivesAssessment of five FS in Brazilian children with FD, and search of associations with types of FD.MethodsCross-sectional study with 70 children below 10 years old. Data were obtained from medical records: age, gender, age at texture transitions, feeding phase (breastfeeding, weaning to solids or full solids at first complaint; characteristics of the meal (duration, environment, and shared meals with adults, self-feeding practices, use of feeding equipment and bottle, mouthing, feeding position and FD diagnosis. Skills were categorized according to standards for age. Chi-Square, Anova Test (or non-parametric equivalent and Multinomial logistic regression tests were used, with a significance level of 5%.ResultsThere was no difference in FS (p > 0.05 or in the number of FS inadequateness (p = 0.84 according to FD diagnosis. The majority (94% of children presented at least one delayed development of FS; 1/3 presented delays in more than half of the FS. The most prevalent inadequacies in FS were inadequate feeding position (73.5%, prolonged bottle feeding (56.9%, and inadequate self-feeding practices (37.9%. Feeding complaints first appeared at 10.9 ± 11.4 months, and picky eating was the most prevalent type of FD (37.1%. Most children were fed in inadequate environments (55.2%, without the company of adults (78%. Transition to solid foods occurred at 16 ± 5.6 months. Multinomial logistic regression showed no difference in likelihood of presenting any type of FD compared to picky eating, according to FS. Age at texture transition both from breastfeeding to complementary feeding (p = 0.95, and from

  8. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  9. The effect of physical exercise on orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and its role on long-term feeding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benite-Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Putt, David A; Santos, Júlia Matzenbacher

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, life-styles changing have led to exacerbated food and caloric intake and a reduction in energy expenditure. Obesity, main outcome of these changes, increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, the leading cause of death in adult and middle age population. Body weight and energy homeostasis are maintained via complex interactions between orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides that take place predominantly in the hypothalamus. Overeating may disrupt the mechanisms of feeding control, by decreasing the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and increasing orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), which leads to a disturbance in appetite control and energy balance. Studies have shown that regular physical exercise might decrease body-weight, food intake and improve the metabolic profile, however until the currently there is no consensus about its effects on the expression of orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides expression. Therefore, we propose that the type and length of physical exercise affect POMC/αMSH and NPY/AgRP systems differently and plays an important role in feeding behavior. Moreover, based on the present reports, we hypothesize that increased POMC/αMSH overcome NPY/AgRP expression decreasing food intake in long term physical exercise and that results in amelioration of several conditions related to overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-Term Fructose Feeding Induces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus of Young and Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigliano, Luisa; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Cancelliere, Rosa; Iannotta, Lucia; Mazzoli, Arianna; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    The drastic increase in the consumption of fructose encouraged the research to focus on its effects on brain physio-pathology. Although young and adults differ largely by their metabolic and physiological profiles, most of the previous studies investigated brain disturbances induced by long-term fructose feeding in adults. Therefore, we investigated whether a short-term consumption of fructose (2 weeks) produces early increase in specific markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of young and adult rats. After the high-fructose diet, plasma lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were found significantly increased in parallel with hippocampus inflammation, evidenced by a significant rise in TNF-alpha and glial fibrillar acidic protein concentrations in both the young and adult groups. The fructose-induced inflammatory condition was associated with brain oxidative stress, as increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitro-tyrosine were detected in the hippocampus. The degree of activation of the protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and insulin receptor substrate 1 pathways found in the hippocampus after fructose feeding indicates that the detrimental effects of the fructose-rich diet might largely depend on age. Mitochondrial function in the hippocampus, together with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha content, was found significantly decreased in fructose-treated adult rats. In vitro studies with BV-2 microglial cells confirmed that fructose treatment induces TNF-alpha production as well as oxidative stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that unbalanced diet, rich in fructose, may be highly deleterious in young people as in adults and must be strongly discouraged for the prevention of diet-associated neuroinflammation and neurological diseases.

  11. Comparative effects of short- and long-term feeding of safflower oil and perilla oil on lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, M; Umekawa, H; Takahashi, T; Furuichi, Y

    1998-10-01

    Diets high in linoleic acid (20% safflower oil contained 77.3% linoleic acid, SO-diet) and alpha-linolenic acid (20% perilla oil contained 58.4% alpha-linolenic acid, PO-diet) were fed to rats for 3, 7, 20, and 50 days, and effects of the diets on lipid metabolism were compared. Levels of serum total cholesterol and phospholipids in the rats fed the PO-diet were markedly lower than those fed the SO-diet after the seventh day. In serum and hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, the proportion of n-3 fatty acids showed a greater increase in the PO group than in the SO group in the respective feeding-term. At the third and seventh days after the commencement of feeding the experimental diets, expressions of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA were significantly higher in the SO group than those in the PO group, although the difference was not observed in the longer term. There were no significant differences in the LDL receptor mRNA levels between the two groups through the experimental term, except 3-days feeding. These results indicate that alpha-linolenic acid has a more potent serum cholesterol-lowering ability than linoleic acid both in short and long feeding-terms.

  12. Dramatic loss of comammox Nitrospira associated with long-term nitrite feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Palomo, Alejandro; Dechesne, Arnaud

    Until recently, nitrification was thought to be a strict two-step process where ammonia was first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Recent studies in NOB metabolism, however, have revealed that certain......, with nitrite as the main energy source. Community assembly was monitored on well-established biofilms formed on the grains of rapid sand filter (RSF) for drinking water production. RSF sand was placed in laboratory scale column bioreactors and subjected to continuous feeding of tap water spiked with NO2- (1 mg...... sequences (100% similarity to uncultured Nitrospira sp. clone KC836101 (Pester et al., 2014)). These observations indicate different behavior of Nitrospira in the absence of ammonia and point to a possible competitive advantage of canonical Nitrospira in environments where nitrite is the sole nitrogen...

  13. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Acevedo, Pelayo [SaBio IREC, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Ciudad Real 13005 (Spain); Marques, João Carlos [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Martinez-Haro, Mónica, E-mail: monica.martinezharo@gmail.com [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  14. Study of graphite sealing for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sungho; Joung, Changyoung; Kim, Kahye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Because highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the test rig, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In this case, general sealing method is brazing and several works have been carried out in nuclear fields. However, because high temperature is induced on the sealing plug and sheaths, it is easy to be broken due to oxidisation of the sheath during brazing process. In addition, because the brazing process is irreversible, if the brazing process fails, the whole inner assembly should be scrapped out. Another approach which uses graphite has been studied to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In the study, graphite sealing is considered as a sealing method and the improvement of mechanical structure has been studied to improve the workability. To check the sealing performance of the instrumentation feed through part, a hydraulic pressure test and a helium leak test were carried out according to the ASME section III. The criterion of a hydraulic pressure test is 125% of the design pressure. In this study, because the design pressure of the pressure vessel is 17.5 MPa. the sealing criterion should be 21.9 MPa. Also, in a Helium leak test, the criterion is less than 5 Χ 10{sup -9} torr·liter/sec. At first, a Helium leak test was carried out. After eliminating Helium in the pressure vessel by evacuating the internal area of the pressure vessel up to 1 Χ 10{sup -3} torr using ASM 310, Helium detection test was carried out by spraying Helium gas at the top face of the top flange for 5 minutes. Fig. 4 shows the rate of Helium leakage is 2.4 Χ 10{sup -9} torr·liter/sec, and it satisfies the sealing performance criterion. A hydraulic pressure test was also carried out, and there was no leakage or pressure drop when the water in the pressure vessel is pressurized up to 22.5 MPa. The above test results show that graphite powder can seal out the instrumentation feed through part easily with

  15. Study of graphite sealing for the instrumentation feed through part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sungho; Joung, Changyoung; Kim, Kahye

    2013-01-01

    Because highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the test rig, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In this case, general sealing method is brazing and several works have been carried out in nuclear fields. However, because high temperature is induced on the sealing plug and sheaths, it is easy to be broken due to oxidisation of the sheath during brazing process. In addition, because the brazing process is irreversible, if the brazing process fails, the whole inner assembly should be scrapped out. Another approach which uses graphite has been studied to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In the study, graphite sealing is considered as a sealing method and the improvement of mechanical structure has been studied to improve the workability. To check the sealing performance of the instrumentation feed through part, a hydraulic pressure test and a helium leak test were carried out according to the ASME section III. The criterion of a hydraulic pressure test is 125% of the design pressure. In this study, because the design pressure of the pressure vessel is 17.5 MPa. the sealing criterion should be 21.9 MPa. Also, in a Helium leak test, the criterion is less than 5 Χ 10 -9 torr·liter/sec. At first, a Helium leak test was carried out. After eliminating Helium in the pressure vessel by evacuating the internal area of the pressure vessel up to 1 Χ 10 -3 torr using ASM 310, Helium detection test was carried out by spraying Helium gas at the top face of the top flange for 5 minutes. Fig. 4 shows the rate of Helium leakage is 2.4 Χ 10 -9 torr·liter/sec, and it satisfies the sealing performance criterion. A hydraulic pressure test was also carried out, and there was no leakage or pressure drop when the water in the pressure vessel is pressurized up to 22.5 MPa. The above test results show that graphite powder can seal out the instrumentation feed through part easily with the improved

  16. Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of selected ... of feeding problems among children 6 to 24 months of age in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... from four selected Primary Health Centres in Ibadan North Local Government Area.

  17. Short-term adhesion and long-term biofouling testing of polydopamine and poly(ethylene glycol) surface modifications of membranes and feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Daniel J.

    2012-08-01

    Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration membranes and feed spacers were hydrophilized with polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) surface coatings. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes was evaluated by short-term batch protein and bacterial adhesion tests. The fouling propensity of modified and unmodified membranes and spacers was evaluated by continuous biofouling experiments in a membrane fouling simulator. The goals of the study were: 1) to determine the effectiveness of polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) membrane coatings for biofouling control and 2) to compare techniques commonly used in assessment of membrane biofouling propensity with biofouling experiments under practical conditions. Short-term adhesion tests were carried out under static, no-flow conditions for 1 h using bovine serum albumin, a common model globular protein, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common model Gram-negative bacterium. Biofouling tests were performed in a membrane fouling simulator (MFS) for several days under flow conditions similar to those encountered in industrial modules with the autochthonous drinking water population and acetate dosage as organic substrate. Polydopamine- and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol)-modified membranes showed significantly reduced adhesion of bovine serum albumin and P. aeruginosa in the short-term adhesion tests, but no reduction of biofouling was observed during longer biofouling experiments with modified membranes and spacers. These results demonstrate that short-term batch adhesion experiments using model proteins or bacteria under static conditions are not indicative of biofouling, while continuous biofouling experiments showed that membrane surface modification by polydopamine and polydopamine- g-poly(ethylene glycol) is not effective for biofouling control. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The effect of long-term acidifying feeding on digesta organic acids, mineral balance, and bone mineralization in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Højberg, Ole; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects...... of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium...... carbonate (CaCO3) was added to provide equimolar levels of Ca. The pigs were fed the diets from 36 kg until slaughter at 113 kg BW, and they were housed in balance cages for 12 d from 60 to 66 kg BW. Supplementation of BA and/or CaCl2 had only minor effect on accumulation of digesta organic acids (acetate...

  19. An experimental study of nettle feeding in captive gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Hedwig, Daniela; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Karisoke, Rwanda, feed on the stinging nettle Laportea alatipes by means of elaborate processing skills. Byrne [e.g. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 358:529-536, 2003] has claimed that individuals acquire these skills by means of the so-called program-level imitation, in which the overall sequence of problem-solving steps (not the precise actions) is reproduced. In this study we present western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with highly similar nettles. Twelve gorillas in three different groups (including also one nettle-naïve gorilla) used the same program-level technique as wild mountain gorillas (with differences mainly on the action level). Chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos did not show these program-level patterns, nor did the gorillas when presented with a plant similar in structural design but lacking stinging defenses. We conclude that although certain aspects (i.e. single actions) of this complex skill may be owing to social learning, at the program level gorilla nettle feeding derives mostly from genetic predispositions and individual learning of plant affordances. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Berendest, H W; Lewando-Hundt, G; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1991-04-01

    Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Eighty-six per cent breastfed, 11% breast and bottlefed, and 3% bottlefed at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of exclusive breastfeeding vs. breast and bottle feeding or bottle feeding at birth include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.49); maternal recall of feeling unwell during pregnancy (OR = 0.59); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.10); a newborn diagnosed with major malformations (OR = 0.30) or with major illnesses (OR = 0.32); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.09). In contrast, multiparae experienced an increased odds (OR = 1.67) of breastfeeding. Among primiparae, the factors that significantly reduced the odds of exclusive breastfeeding include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.47); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.12); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.18). Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

  1. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  2. Short- and long-term effects of egg size and feeding frequency on offspring quality in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Milos

    2009-09-01

    1. Despite the central importance for life-history theory, egg-size effects on offspring fitness are still considered ambiguous. Most previous studies were only observational and consequently might suffer from uncontrolled correlations between egg size and parental/territory quality. Even after cross-fostering is performed, direct genetic effects and parental adjustment of post-natal care might confound our estimates of egg-size effects per se. 2. I performed a full cross-fostering experiment in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) exchanging the whole clutches between pairs of nests. I statistically controlled for direct genetic effects and parental feeding frequencies. I followed young until recruitment to estimate the long-term effects of egg size and parental provisioning. In addition, I compared the effects obtained in the cross-fostering experiment with those obtained from a set of unmanipulated nests. 3. Egg size per se affected offspring morphology in both the short and long term, while having no effect on offspring survival and immunity. Egg-size effects were not confounded by parental post-natal care and direct genetic effects. 4. The number of care-givers was an influential predictor of nestling performance. Apart from the variation caused by this factor, feeding frequencies had no consistent effect on offspring performance. 5. Fitness benefits of large eggs may be difficult to establish due to variation of egg-size effects between years and habitats. Feeding frequency may affect offspring state but offspring state may also affect feeding frequency. Varying causality between feeding rate and offspring state may preclude the detection of a positive effect of the former on the latter.

  3. Maternal intention to exclusively breast feed among mainland Chinese mothers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling

    2018-02-01

    to examine postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed among breastfeeding women and identify its predictors. a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional teaching hospital at Guangzhou, China between April 1 and July 14, 2014. 571 mothers who were within four days after delivery were recruited to the study. data were collected by four research assistants with maternal intention to breast feed data sheet, the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS), and a socio-demographic data sheet. greater than half of the mothers (69.5%) intended to exclusively breast feed. The logistic regression analysis revealed six variables which predicted postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed. They were support from husband, being breast-fed as an infant, previous breast feeding experience, attending antenatal breast feeding class, time of decision to breast feed, and the rating of the importance of my baby's health. health care professionals could develop strategies to enhance mothers' intention to exclusively breast feed, such as providing antenatal breast feeding class on internet, a strong focus on the benefits of exclusive breast feeding on the baby's health in the education programme, and more efforts directed toward educating school-aged children and adolescents to modify societal perceptions of what are considered normal infant feeding. Mothers' husband could be encouraged in supporting exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Study on feeding behavior patterns of rats on cariogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y

    1989-03-01

    The feeding behavior patterns of Jcl:Wistar rats fed on commercial stock diet and cariogenic diet (Diet #2000) were investigated with the newly developed autorecording system. They were caged separately under a regular light-dark cycle (L:D = 12:12). The results and conclusion were as follows. All rats have a circadian feeding rhythm, and 70-85% of feeding frequency were observed during the dark period. The group on the commercial stock diet showed a dual-peak pattern of feeding at 20:30 and 4:00. On the other hand, the cariogenic diet groups showed a more frequent feeding pattern during the dark period. The feeding frequency increased from 1:00 to 3:00 in the high sucrose diet group and more frequent feeding was observed. From these results, it was suggested that dental caries in the rats was caused by not only the local effect of sucrose in the mouth but also by the changing patterns of feeding behavior with cariogenic diet.

  5. Comparative Study of Commercial Feeds and Farm-made Aqua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to compare the performance of Clarias gariepinus on four commercial catfish feeds and an on-farm aquafeed. The four catfish commercial diets were Coppens, Superindo and Chi manufactured in the Netherland, Indonesia and Nigeria respectively. 10 fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (0.87 ...

  6. [Study on artificial compound feed for Buthus martensii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cai; Shen, Xue-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Han, Xiu-Kun

    2014-03-01

    To solve the problem that the single feed causing malnutrition, extension of the life cycle and low survival rates of Buthus martensii. By using Minitab (R) 15.1.1.0.0., 7 different kinds of compound feed were designed, including minced meat mud (pork,chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin as raw material. Different proportions of compound feed that taking the yellow mealworm as main component had a significant effect on the growth, mortality and birth number of Buthus martensii. Compound feed 5 significantly reduced mortality of youth scorpion. The compound feed 4 was the best in improving the weight of scorpion larvae and youth scorpion, and the farrowing number of mother scorpion. Other indicators were also good. Proportions in meatmud (pork, chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin was 30.00%, 25.00%, 20.08%, 15.58%, 8.08% and 1.25%, respectively. The growth of Buthus martensii is significantly influenced by the type of feed. In the production of compound feed, the yellow mealworm with compound feed 4 can be popularized.

  7. Feeding In a Portuguese Pregnant Women: Case Study Applying Cipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antónia Martins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the understanding of a pregnant about how to feed. Methods: Narrative analyzed through ideographic explanation. Results: Diagnoses were defined in CIPE®, version 2: a potentiate for better knowledge about pregnancy, b potentiate to improve knowledge about body image. Feeding in pregnancy is governed by organic needs and cultural practices. A balance between technical recommendation and food culture is needed. Conclusion: To improve pregnancy experience, maternity staff should consider mother’s perception about feeding. In Portugal, primary health care needs a more relevant position. It is suggested to introduce the focus body image.

  8. 2SD numerical study of feed-jet flow in gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dongjun; Zeng Shi

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to simulate the 2D symmetrical feed-jet flow-field in Iguacu gas centrifuge, in order to study the influence of feed-jet to counter-current. The data acquired from calculation were used to modify the feed boundary condition in counter-current calculation, and the stream lines distribution was got considering the effect o f the feed-jet. Finite volume method and 2-order implicit scheme were adopted to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in cylinder coordinates to simulate the feed-jet flow. Finite difference method was used to solve centrifuge fluid dynamics equations. The result s indicate that the feed-jet flow affects the countercurrent observably, the results of feed-jet flow simulation can be used to modify the conditions to calculate the counter-current in the real centrifuge. (authors)

  9. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed.

  10. Nattokinase production: Medium components and feeding strategy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenjian Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of nutrients on nattokinase activity during the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis natto was investigated. The highest nattokinase activity of 587 U/mL was obtained in fermenter for a media consisting of yeast extract (6%, w/v, soy peptone (1.2%, w/v and glycerol (6%, w/v. The second order polynomial equation was fitted to the results by using central composite face design. The polynomial model fitted the experimental data well with R2 = 0.939 and R2(Adj = 0.861. In addition, contribution of fed-batch glycerol addition on the nattokinase production pathway was further investigated. Maximum nattokinase activity was resulted when 3% (w/v glycerol was added to the fermentation media during the cell growth phase. Results demonstrate 25 fold increase of nattokinase activity compared to the batch and not optimized culture. This study provides valuable data on the key nutrients and feeding strategy for further investigations and scale up of nattokinase production process.

  11. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF RIVETED JOINTS AT FEED FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Bielawski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of riveted joints in composites materials. Static tensile test method was used. In the test one type of glass fabric was used (Interglas 92140 from which two types of composite samples were prepared. In each sample the same type of fiber with the same fiber orientation – 3 layers - was used. The samples had dimensions of 100×100 mm and thickness of approximately 1 mm. The composite probes were located in a metal frame with a screw connection which was made of screws with nominal thread pitch M5. Screws were tightened with constant torque. It was to provide an axial force to the sample during the tensile test. The frame was placed between cross-bars of tensile machine INSTRON 8516. The samples were stretched at a speed of 0.05 mm/s at a distance up to 16 mm. During the tensile test displacement of the samples and pull force were registered. Depending on the fibre orientations and the value of feed force, damage models were described. On the basis of the results the possibility of usage of aluminium rivet nuts connections in composite materials was determined.

  12. Factors Distinguishing Positive Deviance Among Low-Income African American Women: A Qualitative Study on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2017-05-01

    Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.

  13. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  14. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  15. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  16. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  17. Effects of Long-Term Feeding of the Polyphenols Resveratrol and Kaempferol in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Mayte; de la Fuente, Sergio; Fonteriz, Rosalba I.; Moreno, Alfredo; Alvarez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the intake of antioxidant polyphenols such as resveratrol and others on survival and different parameters of life quality has been a matter of debate in the last years. We have studied here the effects of the polyphenols resveratrol and kaempferol added to the diet in a murine model undergoing long-term hypercaloric diet. Using 50 mice for each condition, we have monitored weight, survival, biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase, neuromuscular coordination measured with the rotarod test and morphological aspect of stained sections of liver and heart histological samples. Our data show that mice fed since they are 3-months-old with hypercaloric diet supplemented with any of these polyphenols reduced their weight by about 5–7% with respect to the controls fed only with hypercaloric diet. We also observed that mice fed with any of the polyphenols had reduced levels of glucose, insulin and cholesterol, and better marks in the rotarod test, but only after 1 year of treatment, that is, during senescence. No effect was observed in the rest of the parameters studied. Furthermore, although treatment with hypercaloric diets induced large changes in the pattern of gene expression in liver, we found no significant changes in gene expression induced by the presence of any of the polyphenols. Thus, our data indicate that addition of resveratrol or kaempferol to mice food produces an initial decrease in weight in mice subjected to hypercaloric diet, but beneficial effects in other parameters such as blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol, and neuromuscular coordination, only appear after prolonged treatments. PMID:25386805

  18. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  19. Analytical study of tamarygo (Prosopis tamarugo) an autochthonous Chilean feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, N; Araya, H; Villalon, R; Tagle, M A

    1977-01-01

    Fallen fruit and dry leaves of P. tamarugo could be used all the year round as the sole feed for cattle or sheep. The chemical composition and energy content of green and dried leaves and fruits were investigated. Cyanogenetic glycosides and alkaloids were not detected in any samples, saponins were found in low concentrations in green fruits and seeds and an antitryptic factor and haemagglutinins were found in seeds.

  20. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity.

  1. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  2. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship Between Infant Feeding Outcomes and Maternal Emotional Well-being Among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants: A Secondary, Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Silva, Susan; Brandon, Debra

    2017-02-01

    Late preterm birth is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and earlier breastfeeding cessation than term birth. The objectives of this secondary analysis were to compare the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding after late preterm and term childbirth and to examine the association between infant feeding outcomes and maternal emotional well-being. Participants were 105 mother-infant dyads (54 late preterm and 51 term) at a southeastern US medical center. Face-to-face data collection and telephone follow-up occurred during 2009-2012. Late preterm mothers were less likely to exclusively provide their milk than were term mothers during hospitalization. Feeding at 1 month did not differ between late preterm and term infants. Among late preterm mothers, (1) formula supplementation during hospitalization was associated with greater severity of anxiety than among those exclusively providing formula and (2) exclusive provision of human milk at 1 month was associated with less severe depressive symptoms than among those supplementing or exclusively formula feeding. Among term mothers, feeding outcome was not related to emotional well-being measures at either time point. Mothers of late preterm infants may particularly benefit from anticipatory guidance and early mental health screening, with integrated, multidisciplinary lactation teams to support these interrelated healthcare needs. Prospective research is critical to document women's intentions for infant feeding and how experiences with childbirth and the early postpartum period impact achievement of their breastfeeding goals.

  5. The Relationship Between Infant Feeding Outcomes and Maternal Emotional Well-Being Among Mothers of Late Preterm and Term Infants. A Secondary, Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Silva, Susan; Brandon, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Background Late preterm birth is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and earlier breastfeeding cessation than term birth. Purpose The objectives of this secondary analysis were to compare the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding after late preterm and term childbirth and to examine the association between infant feeding outcomes and maternal emotional well-being. Methods Participants were 105 mother-infant dyads (54 late preterm and 51 term) at a southeastern U.S. medical center. Face-to-face data collection and telephone follow up occurred during 2009-2012. Results Late preterm mothers were less likely to exclusively provide their milk than were term mothers during hospitalization. Feeding at one month did not differ between late preterm and term infants. Among late preterm mothers, (1) formula supplementation during hospitalization was associated with greater severity of anxiety compared to those exclusively providing formula and (2) exclusive provision of human milk at one month was associated with less severe depressive symptoms relative to those supplementing or exclusively formula feeding. Among term mothers, feeding outcome was not related to emotional well-being measures at either time point. Implications for Practice Mothers of late preterm infants may particularly benefit from anticipatory guidance and early mental health screening, with integrated, multidisciplinary lactation teams to support these interrelated health care needs Implications for Research Prospective research is critical to document women’s intentions for infant feeding and how experiences with childbirth and the early postpartum period impact achievement of their breastfeeding plans. PMID:27533332

  6. Safety Assessment of Food and Feed from GM Crops in Europe: Evaluating EFSA's Alternative Framework for the Rat 90-day Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Du, Yingzhou; Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Appenzeller, Laura M

    2017-07-12

    Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies. The set of EFSA recommendations was rigorously applied to a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. After study completion, the appropriateness and applicability of these recommendations were assessed using a battery of statistical analysis approaches including both retrospective and prospective statistical power analyses as well as variance-covariance decomposition. In the interest of animal welfare considerations, alternative experimental designs were investigated and evaluated in the context of informing the health risk assessment of food/feed from GM crops.

  7. Feed formulations - Incorporation of Plant Proteins into Marine Finfish Feeds, a NWFSC-YSFRI Joint Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This international study is funded through the NOAA Fisheries Office of Science and Technology. The overall goal of the proposed research is to identify fishery...

  8. The determination of the concentrations of Isoforms of Vitamin E in tissues, milk and blood via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) after short-term feeding in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of change in the concentrations of the four isoforms of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol) in bovine tissues (liver, mammary and muscle), blood and milk after short-term feeding of a vegetable-derived oil (Tmix) particularl...

  9. Evaluation and Management of Neonatal Dysphagia: Impact of Pharyngoesophageal Motility Studies and Multidisciplinary Feeding Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Stoner, Erin; Gupta, Alankar; Bates, D. Gregory; Fernandez, Soledad; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Linscheid, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Abnormal swallowing (dysphagia) among neonates is commonly evaluated using the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VSS). Radiological findings considered high risk for administration of oral feeding include nasopharyngeal reflux, laryngeal penetration, aspiration, or pooling. Our aims were to determine pharyngoesophageal motility correlates in neonates with dysphagia and the impact of multidisciplinary feeding strategy. Methods Twenty dysphagic neonates (mean gestation ± standard deviation [SD] = 30.9 ± 4.9 weeks; median 31.1 weeks; range = 23.7–38.6 weeks) with abnormal VSS results were evaluated at 49.9 ± 16.5 weeks (median 41.36 weeks) postmenstrual age. The subjects underwent a swallow-integrated pharyngoesophageal motility assessment of basal and adaptive swallowing reflexes using a micromanometry catheter and pneumohydraulic water perfusion system. Based on observations during the motility study, multidisciplinary feeding strategies were applied and included postural adaptation, sensory modification, hunger manipulation, and operant conditioning methods. To discriminate pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates between oral feeders and tube feeders, data were stratified based on the primary feeding method at discharge, oral feeding versus tube feeding. Results At discharge, 15 of 20 dysphagic neonates achieved oral feeding success, and the rest required chronic tube feeding. Pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates were significantly different (P dysphagia or its consequences. Manometry may be a better predictor than VSS in identifying patients who are likely to succeed in vigorous intervention programs. PMID:19179881

  10. Studies on the sulfur metabolism of cows on protein-free and low-protein feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eino Matikkala

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of purified, protein-free feed with urea and ammonium salts as nitrogen sources (0-feed and of non-purified, urea-rich, low-protein feeds (ULP-feed on the sulfur metabolism of cows has been studied by determining the contents of sulfur fractions in faeces, urine, milk, blood and rumen fluid. The sulfur of 0-feed was composed entirely of inorganic sulfate. During balance trials the N:S ratio in the feed varied from 6.1 to 9.5, and the sulfur content from 0.22 to 0.31 % of the dry matter. In every trial (seven with 0-feed and two with ULP-feed, of five or seven days duration, the cows were in high-positive sulfur balance. The 0-cows excreted a greater proportion of their total sulfur output via urine than the ULP-cows. The excretion of inorganic sulfate sulfur, as a proportion of the urinary and faecal sulfur, was greater for 0-cows than for ULP- or NorP-cows (cows on normal, protein-rich feed; the opposite was the case with regard to the excretion of ester sulfate sulfur and neutral sulfur. The sulfur contents of milk and blood showed only minor inter-feed differences. The sulfate content in the rumen fluid of the 0-cow rose rapidly after the commencement of feeding and then fell quite rapidly. We conclude tentatively that in the rumen of the 0-cow hydrogen sulfide is generated so quickly that the whole of it cannot be used for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds, a considerable proportion of it being lost in eructations or excreted as inorganic sulfates in the urine.

  11. Effects of a short-term feed restriction on growth performance, blood metabolites and hepatic IGF-1 levels in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 weaned hybrid HYLA rabbits (40-day-old were randomly divided into 4 groups, to investigate the effects of the intensity of one week’s feed restriction on short- and medium-term growth performance, blood metabolites and hepatic IGF-1 in growing rabbits. Restricted groups were fed with 30% (Group L30, 50% (Group L50 70% (Group L70 of ad libitum feeding for 1 wk and then fed ad libitum until the end of the experiment (75 d of age. The control group (Group AL was fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Total feed intake (–15.8% and feed conversion ratio (–13.2% were lower in the L50 than in the AL group (P0.05 for these parameters. Total weight gain did not significantly differ among the 4 experimental groups (38.5 g/d; P>0.05. At the end of the feed restriction period, the total serum protein level (P=0.01 was higher in restricted rabbits than AL rabbits (P0.05 throughout the experiment. In conclusion, a short-term feed restriction improves feed conversion ratio in a lasting way, transiently alters serum protein and IFG-1 levels and leads to compensatory growth in growing rabbits.

  12. Feed the crop or feed the soil? A case study in leek (Allium porrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Radersma, S.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the role of soil quality parameters in leek production and to assess their importance relative to nitrogen (N) applied as fertilizer. We selected seven (2004) and seven (2005) fields on leek farms in the southern sand district of the Netherlands and measured

  13. Short-term effects of maternal feed restriction during pregnancy on goat kid morphology, metabolism, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte-Broux, Bérengère; Roussel, Sabine; Ponter, Andrew; Perault, Julien; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Morphometric, metabolic, and behavioural modifications were studied in goat kids after maternal feed restriction during the last one-third of pregnancy. At birth, only kids from twin and triplet litters were studied [n = 40 kids born to control dams (CONT) and n = 38 born to restricted dams (REST)] and only males thereafter (n = 13 CONT and 15 REST kids) until slaughter at 6 wk of age. Kids born to restricted goats had a smaller abdominal girth at birth P < 0.01) and tended to have a smaller ...

  14. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  15. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanping; Liu Hui; Sun Xuerong; Wei Tao; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  17. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  18. A study on the effect of treatment of compound feed with ionizing radiation on feeding broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotinski, D.; Tsvetanov, I.; Stanchev, Kh.; Bokhorov, O.; Korudzhijski, N.; Dzhurov, A.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 600 broiler chickens divided into 4 groups, whereas chickens of the control group were offered untreated compound feed and those of the experimental groups were given preliminary treated compound feed with 0.35, 0.7 and 1.0 Mrad, respectively. General chemical analysis of the nonradiated and radiated with different doses of gamma rays feed was carried out in advance, the count of bacteria cells per gram of feed was also determined. Followed up was also the weight development of chickens and the feed to gain ratio. The morphological examinations of some organs were also perfomed. Treatment with gamma rays in doses of 0.35 to 1.0 Mrad inactivated enterobacteria, excepting Bac. subtilis. The general chemical content of feed and weight development of chickens were not markedly effected by radiation. The feed to gain ratio decreased, but with the increase in the radiation dose also rose. No histological changes of the organs were observed upon feeding preliminary irradiated compound feeds

  19. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Alex Kojo

    2009-01-01

    Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n = 27] and mixed feeding [MF; n = 13]) in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3?kg vers...

  20. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  1. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Radu, Andrea I.; Lavric, Vasile; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-06-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  4. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  5. Professional practice of dietitians in the Brazilian School Feeding Program: A multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernanda Ferreira PIRES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess dietician’s numerical parameters for school feeding and discuss limitations and possibilities for professional practice in the municipalities of Vale do Ivaí, in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Methods: This is a multiple case study. A semi-structured interview was administered to dietitians working at the School Feeding Program in nine cities located in Vale do Ivaí, Paraná, Brazil. Resolution nº 465/2010, from the Brazilian Federal Board of Dietitians, was used to calculate the adequacy of working hours of dietitians. The legistation of the Brazilian School Feeding Program was applied to discuss professional practice. Results: All the cities had at least one dietitian responsible for the School Feeding Program. The percentage of adequate working hours was from 20 to 66%. Some dietitians were involved in management activities, administration, procurement, and accounting, in addition to dietitian assignments for the School Feeding Program. Most dietitians worked in other sectors of the municipalities such as the health system, social assistance, and at events. This practice could compromise compliance of technical activities that must be met by the dietitians of the School Feeding Program. Conclusion: The number of dietitians in most of cities working at School Feeding Program is not sufficient to meet the number of students. The insuficient workload and excessive activities could hinder the development of dietitian’s private activities. The hiring of nutrition and dietitian technicians and administrative assistants for bureaucratic activies is recommended.

  6. A feasibility study on feed and bleed for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Shung Chen; Shimeck, D.J.; Sullivan, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    By injecting coolant with a high pressure emergency core cooling system, and removing the heated/ vaporized fluid by way of the pressurizer power operated relief valve, primary feed and bleed cooling denotes an operation whereby reactor core cooling is maintained. This paper presents the results from an experimental and analytical study that includes a simplified analysis of mass and energy balances associated with the feed and bleed, examination of test data from the Semiscale system, RELAP5 code analyses of both Semiscale and a four-loop Westinghouse plant, and the primary coolant system behavior for a transient that leads to the need for feed and bleed. Examination of the parameters that govern a stable feed and bleed operation identifies four key parameters such as: core decay heat, cooling water injection capacity, power operated relief valve (PORV) energy removal rate, and PORV mass removal rate. A simplified analytical approach to determining if stable feed and bleed is feasible, has been developed and corroborated by experimental data and computer code calculations. The Semiscale tests have not only provided test data for code assessment, but also have identified the factors influencing the PORV discharge, which is the most variable of the boundary conditions influencing feed and bleed. The RELAP5 computer code has demonstrated the capability of predicting the Semiscale experiments, and when applied to a four-loop Westinghouse plant has indicated that primary feed and bleed is a viable cooling mechanism. This has also been shown by using the simplified analytical method

  7. Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 1000 0 C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO 2 than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>750 0 C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed

  8. Chinese women's experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Redding, Sharon R

    2018-06-01

    To explore Chinese mothers' experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public places. Exploratory qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Themes were identified by content analysis. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March-May 2016. A total of twenty-seven mothers aged 23-33 years, who had one child under 3 years of age and had experience of breast-feeding in public places. Seven themes emerged from the interviews: struggling to balance infant's needs and personal feelings; embarrassed or natural emotion regarding breast-feeding in public places; effect of cultural and social norms; internalized concerns going beyond actual social reaction; measures to make breast-feeding in public places easier; desire for more public facilities; and expecting emotional support from society members. More positive social support, favourable policies and necessary facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in an appropriate public location. Women expected increased public acceptance of breast-feeding practices and support from government health officials to ensure women's success in breast-feeding in public settings.

  9. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobert Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and Cd, in relation to habitat characteristics (bathymetry and geographic position (latitude. Results Among the trace elements analysed, only Cd, with an oceanic specific food origin, was found to be useful as an ecological tracer. All other trace elements studied were not useful, most likely because of physiological regulation and/or few specific sources in the food web. The δ13C, δ15N signatures and Cd levels were highly correlated with each other, as well as with local bathymetry and geographic position (latitude. Variation in the isotopic ratios indicated a shift in harbour porpoise's feeding habits from pelagic prey species in deep northern waters to more coastal and/or demersal prey in the relatively shallow North Sea and Skagerrak waters. This result is consistent with stomach content analyses found in the literature. This shift was associated with a northward Cd-enrichment which provides further support to the Cd 'anomaly' previously reported in polar waters and suggests that porpoises in deep northern waters include Cd-contaminated prey in their diet, such as oceanic cephalopods. Conclusion As stable isotopes and Cd provide information in the medium and the long term respectively, the spatial variation found, shows that harbour porpoises experience different ecological regimes during the year along the Scandinavian coasts, adapting their feeding habits to local oceanographic conditions, without performing extensive migration.

  10. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Tolley, Krystal A; Siebert, Ursula; Gobert, Sylvie; Lepoint, Gilles; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2007-01-17

    We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and Cd), in relation to habitat characteristics (bathymetry) and geographic position (latitude). Among the trace elements analysed, only Cd, with an oceanic specific food origin, was found to be useful as an ecological tracer. All other trace elements studied were not useful, most likely because of physiological regulation and/or few specific sources in the food web. The delta13C, delta15N signatures and Cd levels were highly correlated with each other, as well as with local bathymetry and geographic position (latitude). Variation in the isotopic ratios indicated a shift in harbour porpoise's feeding habits from pelagic prey species in deep northern waters to more coastal and/or demersal prey in the relatively shallow North Sea and Skagerrak waters. This result is consistent with stomach content analyses found in the literature. This shift was associated with a northward Cd-enrichment which provides further support to the Cd 'anomaly' previously reported in polar waters and suggests that porpoises in deep northern waters include Cd-contaminated prey in their diet, such as oceanic cephalopods. As stable isotopes and Cd provide information in the medium and the long term respectively, the spatial variation found, shows that harbour porpoises experience different ecological regimes during the year along the Scandinavian coasts, adapting their feeding habits to local oceanographic conditions, without performing extensive migration.

  11. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species......Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...

  12. Patterned feeding experience for preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickler, Rita H; Wetzel, Paul A; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Moore, Margo

    2015-06-04

    Neurobehavioral disabilities occur in 5-15% of preterm infants with an estimated 50-70% of very low birth weight preterm infants experiencing later dysfunction, including cognitive, behavioral, and social delays that often persist into adulthood. Factors implicated in poor neurobehavioral and developmental outcomes are hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inconsistent caregiving patterns. Although much underlying brain damage occurs in utero or shortly after birth, neuroprotective strategies can stop lesions from progressing, particularly when these strategies are used during the most sensitive periods of neural plasticity occurring months before term age. The purpose of this randomized trial is to test the effect of a patterned feeding experience on preterm infants' neurobehavioral organization and development, cognitive function, and clinical outcomes. This trial uses an experimental, longitudinal, 2-group design with 120 preterm infants. Infants are enrolled within the first week of life and randomized to an experimental group receiving a patterned feeding experience from the first gavage feeding through discharge or to a control group receiving usual feeding care experience. The intervention involves a continuity of tactile experiences associated with feeding to train and build neuronal networks supportive of normal infant feeding experience. Primary outcomes are neurobehavioral organization as measured by Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant at 3 time points: the transition to oral feedings, NICU discharge, and 2 months corrected age. Secondary aims are cognitive function measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition at 6 months corrected age, neurobehavioral development (sucking organization, feeding performance, and heart rate variability), and clinical outcomes (length of NICU stay and time to full oral feeding). The potential effects of demographic and biobehavioral factors

  13. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-08-29

    Objective  To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants  72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures  Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis. Results  Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; P<0.001 for trend) and a 14% lower risk for every additional three months of exclusive breast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001 for trend). Women who breastfed for ≥36 months in total across their reproductive lifetime had a 40% reduced risk of endometriosis compared with women who never breast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially

  14. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  15. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh

  16. Effect of feeding greater amounts of dietary energy for a short-term with or without eCG injection on reproductive performance, serum metabolites and hormones in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibizad, Javad; Riasi, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Rahmani, Hamid Reza

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of transient high-energy diet in a short-term period with or without eCG injection on ovarian follicle development, twining rate, serum metabolites and hormones in ewes. A total of 45 estrous cyclic Naeini ewes were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: 1-Control (control), 2-High energy short-term feeding (HE), and 3-high energy short-term feeding + eCG injection (HEe). Ewes were housed in individual pens with free access to feed and water. The stage of the estrous cycle of all ewes was synchronized by insertion of intravaginal progesterone sponges. Focus feeding started from 4 days before until 1 day after sponge removal. Follicle development was monitored from 4 days before until 1 day after sponge removal and blood samples were taken during this time. Results showed that ewes fed high energy diets (HE and HEe) had greater (P ewes fed high energy diets had less (P ewes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast-feeding perceptions, beliefs and experiences of Marshallese migrants: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allison; Shreve, Marilou; Ayers, Britni; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-11-01

    To determine perceptions, beliefs and experiences affecting breast-feeding in Marshallese mothers residing in Northwest Arkansas, USA. A qualitative, exploratory study using a brief survey and focus groups. Marshallese women, 18 years or older who had a child under 7 years of age, were included in the study. Community-based organization in Northwest Arkansas. The majority of mothers viewed breast milk as superior to formula, but had concerns about adequate milk supply and the nutritional value of their milk. The primary barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in the USA included public shaming (both verbal and non-verbal), perceived milk production and quality, and maternal employment. These barriers are not reported in the Marshall Islands and are encountered only after moving to the USA. Breast-feeding mothers rely heavily on familial support, especially the eldest female, who may not reside in the USA. The influence of institutions, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is strong and may negatively affect breast-feeding. Despite the belief that breast milk is the healthiest option, breast-feeding among Marshallese mothers is challenged by numerous barriers they encounter as they assimilate to US cultural norms. The barriers and challenges, along with the strong desire to assimilate to US culture, impact Marshallese mothers' perceptions, beliefs and experiences with breast-feeding.

  18. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A

  19. Effect of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and its congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrelds, I.M.; Elliott, G.R.; Zijlstra, F.; Bonta, I.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids from in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A lower number

  20. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-07-15

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. STUDY OF GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY PO CATTLE IN SUBANG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Gustiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of population and productivity of beef cattle due to low of post partus reproduction capability. Feeding at the last of pregnancy and early lactation period has not appropriate with the needs of cattle that caused this condition. Need the right strategy and technology to support that condition. Improvement of feed quality intake at the period is one attempt to increase of productivition capability. Assessment aims to determine the performance of beef cattle productivity capability through the improvement of feed quality. Research was conducted at Family Jaya livestock farmers group in Ponggang Village, Serangpanjang District, Subang Regency, and carried out from June to November 2013. Feed quality improvement by introduction feed supplementation (concentrates and UMB that is given at the last of pregnancy period and the early lactation period during 2 months before partus and 2 months after partus(flushing. While animal control / comparison fed in accordance with the habits of farmers is only given forage and agricultural waste which is not given every day. Provision of drinking water is done ad-libitum. Livestock productivity parameters measured were body weight calf; daily weight gain of cattle calf and post-partum estrus parent. Data collected were tabulated and analyzed by t-test. The study showed that cattle treated with additional feed gives a better effect on birth weight, weight gain of cattle and post-partum estrus.

  2. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno O DE; Nascimento, Eduardo C T; Santos, Aline A; Barreto, Kayck A; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48%) and locomotor (72.49%) activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  3. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO O. DE MATTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank. Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein by feeders (2 per tank, adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48% and locomotor (72.49% activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  4. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  5. Maternal restrictive feeding and eating in the absence of hunger among toddlers: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Haines, Jess; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Appugliese, Danielle P; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A

    2017-12-19

    Restrictive feeding by parents has been associated with greater eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) among children, a risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have examined the association between restrictive feeding and EAH longitudinally, raising questions regarding the direction of associations between restrictive feeding and child EAH. Our objective was to examine the bidirectional prospective associations between restrictive feeding and EAH among toddlers. Low-income mother-child dyads (n = 229) participated when children were 21, 27, and 33 months old. Restriction with regard to food amount and food quality were measured with the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire. EAH was measured as kilocalories of food children consumed after a satiating meal. A cross-lagged analysis adjusting for child sex and weight-for-length z-score was used to simultaneously test cross-sectional and bidirectional prospective associations between each type of restriction and children's EAH. At 21 months, mothers of children with greater EAH reported higher restriction with regard to food amount (b = 0.17, p < .05). Restriction with regard to food amount at age 21 months was inversely associated with EAH at 27 months (b = -0.20, p < .05). Restriction with regard to food amount at 27 months was not associated with EAH at 33 months and restriction with regard to food quality was not associated with EAH. EAH did not prospectively predict maternal restriction. Neither restriction with regard to food amount nor food quality increased risk for EAH among toddlers. Current US clinical practice recommendations for parents to avoid restrictive feeding, and the potential utility of restrictive feeding with regard to food amount in early toddlerhood, deserve further consideration.

  6. Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, G.; Hanumantha Rao, A.; Gopalachari, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

  7. A study on the spiral shell in Dianchi, Yunnan, as domestic feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shouxiang; Yang Ruikun

    1990-01-01

    This article studies the accumulation and the metastasis of natural radioactive nuclei in the corporal of chicken when spiral shell is used as domestic feed. The result shows that the contents of natural radioactivity nuclei U, Th, and 226 Ra vary with the chicken meat, chicken bone, chicken egg and egg capsule. Their accumulation and metastasis are in the order: Th > U > 226 Ra, but the levels of the three radioactive nuclei are all below the limited levels of radioactive substances in the food standard of the People's Republic of China. This study provides a basis for developing and making use of the spiral shell as domestic feed in Dianchi, Yunnan

  8. Further studies in using mangrove foliage as a prawn feed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Wafar, S.

    Changes in biochemical composition and energy content of foliage of eight mangrove species at various phases of life and during decay were studied. Decomposition resulted in loss of organic contents, carbon and C:N ratio and increase in calorific...

  9. [Comparative study of three feeding methods for draught horses of the Swiss army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, J L; Leoni, S; Wanner, M

    2000-10-01

    Three feeding methods were compared in 36 4- to 6-year-old Franche-Montagne horses during the military school of St-Luzisteig (GR) of Spring 1992. The horses were separated into 3 groups: a group with the traditional oats-hay ration (OH), a group with a pelleted feed and hay ration (PFH), and a group with the complete diet (CD). Feed analyses were performed and food consumption, eating behavior and digestibility were studied. The horses received their daily amount of feed in 3 portions covering the requirements for a medium work: OH = 8 kg hay and 3 kg oats, PFH = 8 kg hay and 3 kg pelleted feed and CD = 10 kg of the complete diet. For the 3 rations, the amount of digestible crude protein for horses was higher than the reference value for the requirement of a 600 kg horse with a medium work. In the 3 diets, the calcium content was higher than the required 32 g per day (g/d). Not enough sodium (OH: 1.2 g/d; PFH: 7.3 g/d; CD: 9.6 g/d) and too much potassium (OH: 140.3 g/d; PFH 153.0 g/d; CD: 167.5 g/d) were present in the diets, both without consequences for the blood parameters. In 3 meals of 60 minutes, the horses of the group OH, PFH and CD ingested 82%, 89% and 92%, respectively, of the daily ration. The complete diet was ingested more quickly than the hay. The number of mastications per minute was smaller for the complete diet than for the hay. Ingestion times were similar for oats and pelleted feed. However, the number of mastications per minute was smaller for the pelleted feed. The digestibility of nutrients was not influenced by the method of feeding. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the 3 types of ration studied here are adequate for the swiss army horses if sodium is added to the diet. However, despite the fact that both PFH and CD correct excessive supply or deficiencies of nutrients and despite the fact that these two feeding methods offer nutrients in amounts that are closer to the requirements of the horse, the method PFH was introduced in

  10. A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja D. K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of mother. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Rural field practice center of a Medical College in Delhi. Participants: Mothers of infants 6-9 Months of age, attending immunization clinic. Statistical analysis: Percentage, chi square test. Results: Water was commonly given to breast fed babies and top feeds introduced early. Consequently exclusive breast-feeding was uncommon. Semisolids were started late and diluted animal milk was commonly given to infants; as mothers often thought that child can not digest semisolids or undiluted milk. Milk was also diluted for economic reasons. Insufficient breast milk, illness of mother or child were cited as main reasons for early introduction of top milk.

  11. The effect of enteral tube feeding in cystic fibrosis: A registry based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeert, Denis; Declercq, Dimitri; Wanyama, Simeon; Thomas, Muriel; Van Daele, Sabine; De Baets, Frans; Van Biervliet, Stephanie

    2018-03-01

    Long-term effect of enteral tube feeding (ETF) in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains equivocal. A Belgian CF registry based, retrospective, longitudinal study, evaluated the pre- and post- ETF (n = 113) clinical evolution and compared each patient with 2 age, gender, pancreatic status and genotype class-matched controls. At baseline ETF had a worse BMI z-score (p ETF, had already a significant worse nutritional status and pulmonary function at first entry in the registry. Both parameters displayed a significant decline before ETF-introduction. ETF had more hospitalization and intravenous antibiotic (IVAB) treatment days (p ETF introduction hospitalizations and IVAB decreased significantly. After ETF-introduction BMI z-score recuperated towards the original curve before the decline, but remained below the controls. Starting ETF had no effect on rate of height gain in children. The pre-index FEV1 decline (-1.52%/year (p = 0.002)) stabilized to +0.39%/year afterwards. Controls displayed decline of -0.48%/year (p ETF introduction improved BMI z-score and stabilized FEV1, associated with less hospitalizations and IVAB treatments. Higher mortality and transplantation in the ETF cases, leading to drop-outs, made determination of the effect size difficult. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nattokinase production: Medium components and feeding strategy studies

    OpenAIRE

    Berenjian Aydin; Mahanama Raja; Kavanagh John; Dehghani Fariba; Ghasemi Younes

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of nutrients on nattokinase activity during the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis natto was investigated. The highest nattokinase activity of 587 U/mL was obtained in fermenter for a media consisting of yeast extract (6%, w/v), soy peptone (1.2%, w/v) and glycerol (6%, w/v). The second order polynomial equation was fitted to the results by using central composite face design. The polynomial model fitted the experimental data...

  13. Experimental studies of water hammer in propellant feed system of reaction control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer pressure transient produces large dynamic forces which can damage the pipes and other assemblies in the feed line of a reaction control system (RCS. It has led to the failure of pressure transducers monitoring the manifold pressure in the feed line of RCS. Therefore, water hammer studies have been carried out to understand its effect in feed line. Feedline system has been simplified to develop a mathematical model and experiments have been carried out at extensive levels. The mathematical model was developed considering pipe of uniform c/s and moving liquid-gas interface. The experimental studies have been done using water as working medium instead of actual propellant. The studies showed that rate of pressurization have a very critical role on the water hammer amplitude. Sensitivity studies have been also carried out to study the effect of density, friction and initial liquid column length on water hammer amplitude. Keywords: Water hammer, Reaction control system (RCS, Propellant feed system, Experimental study, Testing

  14. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-06-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  17. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-27

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  18. A Study on the Feeding and Growth Patterns of the Variegated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding and growth patterns of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) were studied in the laboratory to ascertain the amount of food intake, food assimilated and faeces excreted by its nymph and adult stages on a mixed diet of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaves.

  19. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and samples...

  20. Efficacy and safety assessment of microbiological feed additive for chicken broilers in tolerance studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupryś-Caruk Marta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One aim of the study was to evaluate the impact when added to feed of the two potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB Lactobacillus plantarum K KKP 593/p and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KKP 825 on production performance, health, and the composition of gut microbiota. The complementary aim was to assess the safety of these strains in broiler rearing.

  1. The meaning of assisted feeding for people living with spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, B.; Harder, I.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore the meaning of assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Background. Eating difficulties are known to affect a person's self-image and transform social lives. Little is known about the experience of ...

  2. Study on the Implications of Asynchronous GMO Approvals for EU Imports of Animal Feed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Aramyan, L.H.; Baltussen, W.H.M.; Dvortsin, L.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Kaufman, J.; Miller, D.; Franke, L.; Meerbeek, B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the implications of asynchronous approvals for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are imported to the European Union for use within animal feed products, specifically with regard to the EU livestock sector, as well as upon the upstream and downstream

  3. Growth and prevalence of feeding difficulties in children with Robin sequence : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paes, Emma C.; de Vries, Iris A C; Penris, Wouter M.; Hanny, Karlijn H.; Lavrijsen, Selma W.; van Leerdam, Elselien K.; Rademaker, Maaike M.; Veldhoen, Esther S.; Eijkemans, Rene M J C; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan C.

    Objectives: In addition to breathing problems, patients with Robin sequence (RS) often encounter feeding difficulties (FD). Data regarding the occurrence of FD and possible influencing factors are scarce. The study aim was to elucidate these factors to improve treatment strategies. Material and

  4. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lessons from the feeding infants and toddlers study in North America: what children eat, and implications for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger

  6. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  7. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  8. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers' breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-11-01

    Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain.

  9. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. Methods and analysis The target participants are infants born from Januar...

  10. Effect of ruminal acidosis and short-term low feed intake on indicators of gastrointestinal barrier function in Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzolli, Rae-Leigh A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Campbell, John; Hendrick, Steve; Wood, Katie M; Penner, Gregory B

    2018-02-15

    The objective of this study was to determine effect of ruminal acidosis (RA) and low feed intake [LFI] on the regional barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty-one Holstein steers were fed for ad libitum intake for 5 d (control [CON]), fed at 25% of ad libitum intake for 5 d (LFI), or provided 2 d of ad libitum intake followed by 1-d of feed restriction (25% of ad libitum intake), 1 d where 30% of ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI) was provided as pelleted barley followed by the full allocation (RA) and fed for ad libitum intake the following day. Tissues and digesta from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, proximal, and distal colon were collected. Permeability was assessed using the mucosal-to-serosal flux of inulin (JMS-inulin) and mannitol (JMS-mannitol). Digesta pH was 0.81, 0.63, and 0.42 pH units less for RA than CON in the rumen, cecum, and proximal colon; while, LFI had pH that was 0.47 and 0.36 pH units greater in the rumen and proximal colon compared to CON. Total ruminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were less for LFI (92 mM; P = 0.010) and RA (87 mM; P = 0.007) than CON (172 mM) steers. In the proximal colon, the proportion of butyrate (P = 0.025 and P = 0.022) and isobutyrate (P = 0.019 and P = 0.019) were greater, and acetate (P = 0.028 and P = 0.028) was less for LFI and RA, respectively, when compared to CON steers. Ruminal papillae length, width, perimeter, and surface area were 1.21 mm, 0.78 mm, 3.84 mm, and 11.15 mm2 less for LFI than CON; while, RA decreased papillae width by 0.52 mm relative to CON. The JMS-mannitol was less for LFI steers than CON in the proximal colon (P = 0.041) and in the distal colon (P = 0.015). Increased gene expression for claudin 1, occludin, tight-cell junction protein 1 and 2, and toll-like receptor 4 were detected for LFI relative to CON in the rumen, jejunum, and proximal colon. For RA steers, expression of toll-like receptor 4 in the rumen, and occludin and tight

  11. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncanson Kerith

    2012-07-01

    . Discussion This paper will add to existing research examining child feeding practices and dietary intake of young children, by specifically focusing on the efficacy of an RCT that has the potential to be implemented at a population level. The correlation of the RCT outcomes with parents’ perceptions about child feeding practices and children’s dietary intake of their children in a subsequent qualitative study will further contribute to this emerging area of research. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registration Number: ACTRN12609000356268

  12. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  13. Emotion Regulation Feeding Practices Link Parents' Emotional Eating to Children's Emotional Eating: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-08-01

    Past research suggests an association between parents' and children's emotional eating, but research has yet to examine mechanisms underlying this association. The current study examined whether feeding for emotion regulation mediates the association between parents' and children's emotional eating, and whether this association is moderated by children's self-regulation in eating. 95 parents reported on their own and their children's emotional eating, their children's self-regulation in eating, as well as their feeding practices. Findings revealed that feeding for emotion regulation mediated the association between parents' and children's emotional eating when children's self-regulation in eating was low, but not when self-regulation in eating was high. The current findings demonstrate the complexity of the link between parents' and children's emotional eating, suggesting practitioners should consider both feeding practices and children's self-regulation in eating when designing intervention programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Los Alamos PWR feed-and-bleed studies summary results and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Henninger, R.J.; Lime, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The adequacy of shutdown decay heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators was unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performances of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Babcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss-of-secondary heat sink

  15. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  16. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p0.05 on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01, while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05 as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05 muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05 muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes.

  19. No long-term feeding toxicities on the health status in rats fed with cloned Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Soo; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Chang, Won-Kyong; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to undertake a risk assessment to identify the health status of rats fed with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-cloned Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo) meat for 26 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, each consisting of 12 male (142.6 ± 5.23 g) and 12 female (113.7 ± 6.31 g) rats each. The animals were fed commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) of normal cattle meat, and diets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) of cloned cattle meat. The mortality; clinical signs; body weight; food consumption; urinary, hematology, blood biochemistry, and histopathological analyses; and absolute and relative organ weights were analyzed and compared. During the 26-week test period, health status-related factors of the rats fed on cloned Hanwoo meat were found to have no test substance-related toxicities. The only difference was the increased uterus weight in female C-10 rats as compared to their counterparts counterparts (p food consumption risks might arise from the long-term feeding of cloned cattle meat in rats.

  20. Carnitine deficiency presenting with a decreased mental state in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis receiving long-term tube feeding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isse, Naohi; Miura, Yoh; Obata, Toshiyuki; Takahara, Noriko

    2013-12-30

    L-carnitine is an important metabolic mediator involved in fatty acid transport. It is obtained from the diet, particularly from animal products, such as red meat. Previous reports have revealed that long-term tube feeding with a commercial product containing no or low levels of carnitine can lead to an altered mental state caused by hyperammonemia. A 72-year-old Japanese man had a 12-year history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He was bedridden and had required mechanical ventilation and enteral tube feeding for 10 years at home. His main enteral solution was a commercial product that contained low carnitine levels, and he sometimes received coffee and homemade products such as miso soup. Our patient's ability to communicate gradually deteriorated over a period of one year. His serum total carnitine level was abnormally low, at 26.7μmol/L (normal range, 45 to 91μmol/L), but his ammonium level was normal. His mental state improved dramatically after starting L-carnitine supplementation (600mg twice daily). This case highlights the importance of avoiding carnitine deficiency in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis undergoing long-term tube feeding. These patients experience progressive muscle atrophy that might cause impaired carnitine storage and might manifest as communication difficulties. Carnitine deficiency can be misdiagnosed as a progression of systemic muscle atrophy. Clinicians should be aware of this disorder and should consider periodically measuring carnitine levels, regardless of the patient's serum ammonium levels.

  1. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    OpenAIRE

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify th...

  2. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  3. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  4. Infant feeding in Eastern Scotland: a longitudinal mixed methods evaluation of antenatal intentions and postnatal satisfaction--the Feeding Your Baby study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew G; Whitford, Heather; Dalzell, Janet

    2013-07-01

    breast-feeding initiation rates have improved in Scotland, but exclusive and partial breast-feeding rates fall rapidly for several reasons. We aimed to examine whether antenatal feeding intention was associated with satisfaction with infant feeding method; and to explore the similarities and differences in infant feeding experience of women with different antenatal feeding intention scores. antenatal questionnaire assessment of infant feeding intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour; two-weekly postnatal follow-up of infant feeding practice by text messaging; final telephone interview to determine reasons for and satisfaction with infant feeding practice. 355 women in eastern Scotland were recruited antenatally; 292 completed postnatal follow up. Antenatal feeding intentions broadly predicted postnatal practice. The highest satisfaction scores were seen in mothers with no breast-feeding intention who formula fed from birth, and those with high breast-feeding intention who breastfed for more than 8 weeks. The lowest satisfaction scores were seen in those with high intention scores who only managed to breast feed for less than 3 weeks. This suggests that satisfaction with infant feeding is associated with achieving feeding goals, whether artificial milk or breast feeding. Reasons for stopping breast feeding were broadly similar over time (too demanding, pain, latching, perception of amount of milk, lack of professional support, sibling jealousy). Perseverance appeared to mark out those women who managed to breast feed for longer; this was seen across the socio-economic spectrum. Societal and professional pressure to breast feed was commonly experienced. satisfaction with actual infant feeding practice is associated with antenatal intention; levels are higher for those meeting their goals, whether formula feeding from birth or breast feeding for longer periods. Perceived pressure to breast feed raises questions about informed decision making. Identifying

  5. Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal cochlear nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav eSedlacek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward inhibition represents a powerful mechanism by which control of the timing and fidelity of action potentials in local synaptic circuits of various brain regions is achieved. In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we investigated the synaptic circuit associated with fusiform cells (FCs, principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs on their basal dendrites in the deep layer of DCN. Despite the importance of these inputs in regulating fusiform cell firing behavior, the mechanisms determining the balance of excitation and feed-forward inhibition in this circuit are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven feed-forward inhibition (FFI onto FCs. We find that in some FCs, excitatory and inhibitory components of feed-forward inhibition had the same stimulation thresholds indicating they could be triggered by activation of the same fibers. In other FCs, excitation and inhibition exhibit different stimulus thresholds, suggesting FCs and TVCs might be activated by different sets of fibers. In addition we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct modes of short-term plasticity. Feed-forward inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs in FCs exhibit short-term depression because of prominent synaptic depression at the auditory nerve-TVC synapse. Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity.

  6. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants' Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL) × 100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament. On average, infants consumed ∼42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p = 0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range = -52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles. This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.

  7. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-11-15

    The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. The target participants are infants born from January to June 2015 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) platform. The SEACO is a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) that is established in the District of Segamat in the state of Johor, Malaysia. For the quantitative strand, the sociodemographic data, feeding practices, anthropometry measurement and total nutrient intake will be assessed. The assessment will occur around the time complementary feeding is expected to start (7 Months) and again at 12 months. A 24-hour diet recall and a 2-day food diary will be used to assess the food intake. For the qualitative strand, selected mothers will be interviewed to explore their infant feeding practices and factors that influence their practices and food choices in detail. Ethical clearance for this study was sought through the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee (application number CF14/3850-2014002010). Subsequently, the findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Early Oral Feeding After Surgery for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor nutritional status following abdominal surgeries for esophageal and gastric cancers remains a major challenge in postoperative care. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of starting early oral feeding (EOF in patients undergoing surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: A total of 180 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophageal or gastric malignancies undergoing elective surgical resection between January 2008 and February 2011 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Seventy-two patients were assigned to the EOF group, and 108 patients received late oral feeding (LOF. Postoperative endpoints were compared between the two groups. Results: Nasogastric tubes were removed from patients on average 3.3±1.6 days after the surgery in the EOF group and 5.2±2.5 days in the LOF group (p 0.050. Conclusions: EOF is safe following esophageal and gastric cancer surgery and results in faster recovery and hospital discharge.

  9. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  10. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  11. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Psleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that

  12. Swimming Behavior and Flow Geometry: A Fluid Mechanical Study of the Feeding Currents in Calanoid Copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Meneveau, Charles; Osborn, Thomas R.

    2003-11-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters and play an important role in the marine and freshwater food webs. As they are the biggest biomass in the oceans some call them "the insects of the sea". Previous laboratory observations have shown that the fluid mechanical phenomena occurring at copepod body scale are crucial for the survival of copepods. One of the interesting phenomena is that many calanoid copepods display various behaviors to create the feeding currents for the purpose of capturing food particles. We have developed a fluid mechanical model to study the feeding currents. The model is a self-propelled body model in that the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The model has been solved both analytically using the Stokes approximation with a spherical body shape and numerically using CFD with a realistic body shape.

  13. Prospective studies of the effect of breast feeding on incidence of infection and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K

    1979-09-01

    The effect of exclusive breast feeding in the first few weeks after birth on infant morbidity due to infectious and allergic disorders was investigated in three separate prospective studies. In a rural community in India, breast-fed infants had a significantly lower incidence of respiratory infection, otitis, diarrhoea, dehydration and pneumonia. In an urban population in Canada, breast feeding was associated with a marked decrease in the occurrence of otitis and respiratory disease and to a lesser extent of diarrhoea and dehydration. In newborn siblings of children with atopic disease exclusively breast-fed for a minimum of six weeks, the incidence of eczema, recurrent wheezing, elevated serum IgE-antibodies to cow's milk, complement activation in vivo after milk challenge and hemagglutinating antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin was significantly lower compared with formula-fed matched group. These observations provide clinical data attesting the immunologic advantages of human milk.

  14. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the quantitation of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed at levels between 1 and 30 ppm. The new procedure, based on a previously reported assay, consists of a wet methanolic extraction of ground feed, followed by solid-phase extraction and injection onto a gradient liquid chromatographic system. A multisite study involving 3 laboratories (the developing laboratory and 2 independent laboratories) was performed to evaluate precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity. Mean recove;ries for triplicate analyses at 3 levels, performed by 2 analysts per laboratory, were between 89 and 97%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.6 to 8.6%. Coefficients of determination (r2) obtained from the plotted data were > or =0.993. The precision of the method, determined from 6 replicate preparations from the same batch of medicated feed assayed in 3 separate trials per laboratory, was between 0.6 and 5.8%. The quantitation limit was established at 0.5 ppm. Specificity and robustness studies were performed by the developing laboratory.

  15. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  16. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H.; Embers, Monica E.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.; Doyle, Lara A.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  17. Caregivers' responses to an intervention to improve young child feeding behaviors in rural Bangladesh: a mixed method study of the facilitators and barriers to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, William; Pelto, Gretel

    2012-08-01

    Behavior change communications regarding child feeding have met with mixed success. The present study analyzes responses of 34 Bangladeshi caregivers seven months after they received a responsive feeding intervention. The intervention communicated and demonstrated five feeding interactions: hand-washing, self-feeding, verbal responsivity, managing refusals non-forcefully, and dietary diversity. Seventeen caregivers who adopted key behaviors addressed by the intervention and 17 who did not were compared in terms of socio-demographic variables, but more importantly in terms of their recall of the messages, their reported practice, and reported facilitators and barriers. Both those who changed and those who did not reported similar facilitators and barriers to practicing the new behaviors; there was also no difference in recall or in socio-demographic variables. Key themes identified through a constant comparative analysis helped to focus on common features of the lives of caregivers that made it easy or difficult to perform the practices. Some of these were household constraints such as poverty, shortage of time in which to complete chores, and avoiding waste and messiness; others related to the child's demands. Many caregivers misinterpreted instructions about talking to one's child in response to signals, as opposed to more common forms of supervision. Facilitators such as the child's evident pleasure and the caregiver's satisfaction did not always outweigh the barriers. Recommendations for improving interventions include helping caregivers solve problems tied to barriers and including more family members in the intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission.

  19. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  20. Nutritional adequacy of a novel human milk fortifier from donkey milk in feeding preterm infants: study protocol of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Tonetto, Paola; Peila, Chiara; Cresi, Francesco; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Spada, Elena; Milani, Silvano; Giribaldi, Marzia; Antoniazzi, Sara; Conti, Amedeo; Cavallarin, Laura

    2018-01-09

    Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk. Based on the consideration that donkey milk has been suggested as a valid alternative for children allergic to cow's milk proteins, due to its biochemical similarity to human milk, we hypothesized that donkey milk could be a suitable ingredient for developing an innovative human milk fortifier. The aim of the study is to evaluate feeding tolerance, growth and clinical short and long-term outcomes in a population of preterm infants fed with a novel multi-component fortifier and a protein concentrate derived from donkey milk, in comparison to an analogous population fed with traditional fortifier and protein supplement containing bovine milk proteins. The study has been designed as a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Infants born milk-based multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement, or a combination of a novel multicomponent fortifier and protein supplement derived from donkey milk. The fortification protocol followed is the same for the two groups, and the two diets were designed to be isoproteic and isocaloric. Weight, length and head circumference are measured; feeding tolerance is assessed by a standardized protocol. The occurrence of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis and adverse effects are monitored. This is the first clinical study investigating the use of a human milk fortifier derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants. If donkey milk derived products will be shown to improve the feeding

  1. Sensitivity Study for Feed and Bleed Operation for Domestic CANDU Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S; Kim, B. S.; Yoo, H. K.; Kim, H. J. [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, S. W. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the feed and bleed operation using DCT(Degassing Condenser Tank) over-pressure protection valves when LOCL4 with LOCL3 occurs during LPSD mid-loop operation. The CDF(Core Damage Frequency) of Level-1 Internal Event for Wolsong NPP Unit 1 during LPSD POS5A/5B accounts for about 89.08%(POS5A: 30.04%, POS5B: 59.04%) of the total CDF. For Wolsong NPP Unit 1 LPSD External Event, seismic analysis is excluded from this study because it is PSA-based SMA(Seismic Margin Assessment based Probabilistic Safety Assessment). For the domestic CANDU NPP, the feed and bleed operation using DCT over-pressure protection valves has been incorporated as an additional measure to mitigate the consequences during LPSD mid-loop operation. Since LOCL4 with LOCL3 is considered to be the event with highest frequency among all initial events, the effect of the feed and bleed operation on the safety of Nuclear Power Plant has been evaluated using PSA methodology.

  2. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  3. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT-A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Optimal Infant and Young Child-Feeding (IYCF practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It was estimated that, if 90% of infants are covered with a package of intervention to protect, promote, and support the optimal IYCF practices, almost one-fifth of overall under-five mortality can be averted. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the Infants and Young children living in the rural areas. 2. To study the core Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Venigandla village, the rural field practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur, for a period of 4 months from January to April 2015. A total of 100 children aged 6-23 months were studied using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using Epi Info software. RESULTS Of the 100 children studied, majority of families belong to lower middle class (40% according to BG Prasad socio- economic classification. One in 10 children was given pre- lacteal feeds after birth. Two-thirds of mothers breastfed their children within first hour after birth. Three fourths of children received exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Minimum Dietary Diversity was observed in 74%, Minimum Meal Frequency observed in 94% and Minimum Acceptable Diet was observed in 70% of the 6-23 months children. CONCLUSION The IYCF practices were observed to be better in the present study when compared to similar studies done elsewhere in the country. Area specific programmes need to be created for providing comprehensive nutrition and health education for mothers, to protect, promote and sustain the optimal IYCF practices.

  4. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation......) (2.1g P/kg DM) and High P (HP) (2.5g P/kg DM). After parturition and throughout lactation treatments were LP (2.3g P/kg DM), MP (2.8g P/kg DM) and HP (3.4g P/kg DM). Differences in dietary P were obtained by adding 0.60 and 1.19% mono-sodium phosphate per kg DM to MP and HP, respectively. The cows...... were fed restrictively pre-partum and for ad libitum intake from one week before expected calving and throughout the experiment. Due to a high number of health problems, LP treatment was terminated after sampling in week 12, and cows were shifted to HP and continued on this treatment until week 36...

  5. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of cadmium doses on chickens. 3. Long term influence of cadmium on feed consumption weight gain, egg performance and egg shell quality of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelz, M; Hardebeck, H; Krampitz, G

    1974-01-01

    In long-lasting experiments the application of Cd resulted in a decreased state of health (nephritis) of hens. Feed consumption, weight gain and egg production were reduced. Egg shell quality was not changed under practical Cd-concentrations. Studies of the ultrastructure of egg shells of animals fed with Cd did not yield any hints of damages. The protein-profiles of egg shells revealed an additional component under Cd-application. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Compatibility of a combination of tiamulin plus chlortetracycline with salinomycin in feed during a long-term co-administration in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M S; Afrin, S; Khan, M J; Das, P M; Hassan, M M; Valks, M; Burch, D G S; Pesti, G M

    2008-08-01

    The pleuromutilin antibiotic tiamulin (TIA) is known to produce a negative interaction in broilers when administered in combination with several ionophore anticoccidials such as salinomycin (SAL). Chlortetracycline (CTC), when administered simultaneously with TIA, has demonstrated a synergistic antimicrobial effect. A 35-d feeding study was conducted in cages to evaluate the interaction effect of a combination of TIA plus CTC at increasing inclusion levels when administered concurrently with SAL. A total of 200 one-day-old broiler chicks were distributed into 4 groups, and each group consisted of 5 cages containing 10 birds in each. Replicate cages were distributed randomly. Feed for all groups contained 60 ppm SAL, but additionally, 0, 20, 30, and 50 ppm TIA and 0, 60, 90, and 150 ppm CTC were included, respectively. Several enzymes (creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) were determined from blood samples taken at the end of the trial. Blood samples were also collected during d 0, 19, and 35 and were analyzed for antibody titers against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. Necropsy of a few birds (20, 8, 20, 12, and 12 on d 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, respectively) was conducted at weekly intervals. Results indicated that there was a significant depression of weight gain (P < 0.05) in group 4 (TIA 50 + CTC 150) only. The final weights were 1,809 +/- 130, 1,859 +/- 52, 1,703 +/- 47, and 1,617 +/- 98 g for groups 1 (TIA 0 + CTC 0), 2 (TIA 20 + CTC 60), 3 (TIA 30 + CTC 90), and 4 (TIA 50 + CTC 150), respectively. However, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency (g of weight gain/kg of feed intake) were not significantly affected in any of the groups. There was no dose-related adverse effect on mortality or clinical signs exhibited during the trial, and this was supported by necropsy. Maternally derived antibodies against M. gallisepticum were present at the beginning of the trial but disappeared within 19 d

  8. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  9. Effects of short-term feed deprivation and melatonin implants on circadian patterns of leptin in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, P R; Morrison, C D; Ganjam, V K; Keisler, D H

    2005-05-01

    Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue that influences hypothalamic mechanisms regulating appetite and energy balance. In species tested thus far, including horses, concentrations of leptin increase as animal fat mass increases. The variables and mechanisms that influence the secretion of leptin are not well known, nor is it known in equine species how the secretion of leptin is influenced by acute alterations in energy balance, circadian patterns, and/or reproductive competence. Our objectives were to determine in horses: 1) whether plasma concentrations of leptin are secreted in a circadian and/or a pulsatile pattern; 2) whether a 48-h period of feed restriction would alter plasma concentrations of leptin, growth hormone, or insulin; and 3) whether ovariectomy and/or a melatonin implant would affect leptin. In Exp. 1, mares exposed to ambient photoperiod of visible light (11 h, 33 min to 11 h, 38 min), received treatments consisting of a 48-h feed restriction (RES) or 48 h of alfalfa hay fed ad libitum (FED). Mares were maintained in a dry lot before sampling and were tethered to a rail during sampling. Analyses revealed that leptin was not secreted in a pulsatile manner, and that mean leptin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in FED vs. RES mares (17.20 +/- 0.41 vs. 7.29 +/- 0.41 ng/mL). Plasma growth hormone was pulsatile, and mean concentrations were greater in RES than FED mares (2.15 +/- 0.31 vs. 1.08 +/- 0.31 ng/mL; P = 0.05). Circadian patterns of leptin secretion were observed, but only in FED mares (15.39 +/- 0.58 ng/mL for morning vs. 19.00 +/- 0.58 ng/mL for evening; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, mares that were ovariectomized or intact received either a s.c. melatonin implant or a sham implant. Thereafter, blood was sampled at weekly intervals at 1000 and 1700. Concentrations of leptin in samples collected at 1700 were greater (P < 0.001) than in those collected at 1000 (28.24 +/- 1.7 vs. 22.07 +/- 1.7 ng/mL). Neither ovariectomy nor

  10. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  11. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  12. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep H. Ha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  13. Long-term environmental consequences of the production and feeding of bio gas; Langfristige Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt bei der Erzeugung und Einspeisung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Frank; Koeppel, Wolfgang; Karch, Udo [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). DVGW-Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut; Kiefer, Joachim; Ball, Thomas [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden

    2010-03-15

    In the context of an investigation financed by the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany), the effects of feeding bio gas into the natural gas grid on ground, plants, air and water were examined. The entire process chain was evaluated beginning with the biomass production till to the biogas production, processing of bio gas, feeding of bio gas and utilization of residues. The literature study was based on the results of a DVGW project finished in 2008 for the evaluation of the production of biomass for the energetic use from the view of the water protection and on an investigation of the process engineering of the cleaning of bio gas.

  14. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  15. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  16. Response of Intestinal Bacterial Flora to the Long-term Feeding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiai; Liu, Liangliang; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Aiping

    2017-10-12

    In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, both genera and phyla of intestinal bacteria in the three treatment groups decreased. About one third of the total genera and one half of the total phyla remained in the high-dose group. The dominant flora were Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in all groups. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial flora among groups. Most bacteria decreased as a whole from the control to the high-dose groups, but several beneficial and pathogenic bacterial species increased significantly with increasing dose of AFB1. Thus, the conclusion was that intragastric feeding with 2.5~10 mg/mL AFB1 for 2 months could decrease the majority of intestinal bacterial flora and induce the proliferation of some intestinal bacteria flora.

  17. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  18. Attitudes to infant feeding decision-making--a mixed-methods study of Australian medical students and GP registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Fallon, Tony; Jackson, Claire; Hegney, Desley

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health issue. While medical practitioners can have a significant impact on breastfeeding initiation and duration, there are few studies investigating their views regarding women's infant feeding decisions. This mixed-methods study employed qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire) data collection techniques to investigate the attitudes and views of Australian medical students and GP registrars about infant feeding decision-making. Three approaches to infant feeding decisions were evident: 'the moral choice' (women were expected to breastfeed); 'the free choice' (doctors should not influence a woman's decision); and 'the equal choice' (the outcome of the decision was unimportant). Participants were uncertain about differences between artificial-feeding and breastfeeding outcomes, and there was some concern that advising a mother to breastfeed may lead to maternal feelings of guilt and failure. These findings, the first in an Australian setting, provide a foundation on which to base further educational interventions for medical practitioners.

  19. Study of an induction brazing process for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sung Ho; Joung, Chang Young; Kim, Ka Hye; Heo, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In general, brazing is used to seal out the feed through part of thin wires, and several studies in nuclear fields used brazing as a sealing method. However, previous techniques using a manual torch or an induction brazing by blowing Ar gas as a shield gas cannot avoid soot, which is difficult to remove. In addition, because their brazing quality is not uniform, instrumentation cables cannot deliver signals due to damage of excessive heat. In this study, an automatically controlled induction brazing system has been developed including a vacuum chamber to prevent generation of soot. A loop is a facility to carry out irradiation test for nuclear fuels and materials in a research reactor by measuring the irradiation behavior of them in a timely manner. Because flow condition of coolant in a loop should be the same with that of NPPs', highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the loop. Therefore, sealing of the pressure boundary is one of the most important processes in fabricating the in-pile test section (IPS). In particular, sensors such as thermocouples, LVDTs and SPNDs are attached in a test rig and deliver signals to the measuring device at the outside of the reactor pool through instrumentation cables, which pass through the pressure boundary of the test rig. Therefore, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part to not leak the coolant.

  20. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  1. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depr...

  2. The study of insect blood-feeding behaviour: 2. Recording techniques and the use of flow charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. B. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues a discussion of approaches and methodologies we have used in our studies of feeding in haematophagous insects. Described are techniques for directly monitoring behaviour: electrical recording of feeding behaviour via resistance changes in the food canal, optical methods for monitoring mouthpart activity, and a computer technique for behavioural event recording. Also described is the use of "flow charts" or "decision diagrams" to model interrelated sequences of behaviours.

  3. A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

  4. Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency in the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia: case study from 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavko Jozef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency are less studied parameters of behaviour in insectivorous falcons, many of which are endangered bird species. In this short study, prey composition and feeding frequency of red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus nestlings were studied using the method of camera recordings during seven days in July 2017 in southwestern Slovakia. Camera recording analyses of 2–3 chicks (14–26 days old in three nests revealed a significant preference for insects (97%, n = 305 prey items, of which the Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus was highly predominant (54%. We also found very high average chick feeding frequency (9.9 feedings per hour, n = 29 hours 22 min of regular observations, whereby the females fed their young ones more frequently (64.9%, n = 305 feedings than the males (35.1%. Analyses of food composition in adverse weather conditions showed that unfavourable weather had a negative effect on chick feeding frequency, and in rainy weather the males fed significantly less than the females.

  5. Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliegl, E.; Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1980-11-01

    A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.) [de

  6. On the long-term behaviour of 110mAg in the soil-plant system and its transfer from feed to pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Kallweit, E.; Henning, M.; Szwec, L.

    2000-01-01

    The long-term transfer of radiosilver from soil to pasture grass was investigated over 5 years on an undisturbed pasture using stable silver ( 109 Ag) isotope as a tracer. The silver content of all the samples was determined by neutron activation analysis. The temporal change of the Ag + uptake into forage was negligible mainly due to the low mobility of silver in the soil (orthi-humic-gleysol). The mean grass/soil concentration factor levelled out at 1.3±0.5x10 -2 during the 59-month observation period. In a 30-day feeding experiment with pigs, 110m Ag was used to determine distribution and retention. The internal distribution of 110m Ag showed the liver to be the most contaminated tissue. The highest 110m Ag retention was found in the brain. The biological half-lives obtained for the liver and the brain were 35 and 136 days, respectively

  7. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  8. Study of knowledge rate of parturient mothers about breast feeding adventages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahnaz mardani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mardani M1, Mohsen-zadeh A2, Yari-pour M3 1. Assistant professor, Department of Nutritional, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. PhD Student, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Mothers milk is the only nourishing source in the first six months of life. If it is suitable and enough, all nutrients and reguired energe will be provided for a breast–fed to grow. Insufficient knowledge and information, wrong beliefs and traditional information about a breast – fed, working out side the home and the desire of working mothers to feed their children with powdered milk and to start the implementary feeding very early. The increasing of mothers willing to abdominal delivery and being away from the child in the first golden hours and misleading advertisements about powdered milk are all some reasons of decreasing the desire to mothers milk and increasing desire to powdered milk. Therefor, the aim of this study is to consider mothers knowledge about the importance of breast – feeding. Materials and methods: In this study, we completed questionnaires with seventeen questions to parturient mothers who came to Asali hospital in 2006 which included some variables such as benefits of breast feeding, the mother’s milk composition. The information was extracted and analyzed by SPSS software. Results: From 550 parturient mothers who came to Asali hospital in 2006, 33 mothers (6 percent had low knowledge, 216 of them (39 percent had medium knowledge and 301 of them (55 percent had high knowledge. This study indicates that regardless to consider some variables, mothers knowledge has been very high and also there is a significantl relationship between mothers age and their knowledge. The average age of low – knowledge mothers was 26, the medium knowledge was 28 and the high

  9. Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Miloslav; Brenowitz, Stephan D

    2014-01-01

    Feed-forward inhibition (FFI) represents a powerful mechanism by which control of the timing and fidelity of action potentials in local synaptic circuits of various brain regions is achieved. In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we investigated the synaptic circuit associated with fusiform cells (FCs), principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs) on their basal dendrites in the deep layer of DCN. Despite the importance of these inputs in regulating fusiform cell firing behavior, the mechanisms determining the balance of excitation and FFI in this circuit are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven FFI onto FCs. We find that in some FCs, excitatory and inhibitory components of FFI had the same stimulation thresholds indicating they could be triggered by activation of the same fibers. In other FCs, excitation and inhibition exhibit different stimulus thresholds, suggesting FCs and TVCs might be activated by different sets of fibers. In addition, we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct modes of short-term plasticity. Feed-forward inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in FCs exhibit short-term depression because of prominent synaptic depression at the auditory nerve-TVC synapse. Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity.

  10. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  11. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  12. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  13. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2009-12-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June 2001 to September 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient control diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, American Heart Association diet, Atkins lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets' total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2,000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins, American Heart Association, vegan, and the high-phytosterol Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (163, 340, 445, and 500 mg/2,000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9%+/-5.9% of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies.

  14. Early life factors associated with the exclusivity and duration of breast feeding in an Irish birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hazel Ann; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (http://www.baselinestudy.net/). Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point. 1094 singleton infants of primiparous women recruited at 20 weeks' gestation who were breastfeeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. at discharge from the maternity hospital and at two months, neonatal intensive-care unit admission had the strongest influence on exclusive breast feeding status (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41 at discharge) and at two months (adjusted OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). A shorter duration of breast feeding was significantly associated with younger maternal age, non-tertiary education, Irish nationality and neonatal intensive-care unit admission. There was a significant difference in the duration of any breast feeding between infants who were and were not admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit, 28(10.50, 32) weeks versus 32(27, 40) weeks. Mothers whose maternity leave was between seven and 12 months (adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI 1.51-5.05) breast fed for a longer duration compared to mothers who had less than six months of maternity leave. admission to the neonatal intensive care unit negatively influenced both exclusivity and duration of breast feeding. Length of maternity leave, and not employment status, was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding. additional support may be required to ensure continued breast feeding in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit. Length of maternity leave is a modifiable influence on breast feeding and offers the opportunity for intervention to improve our rates of breast

  15. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women

  16. Feeding Behavior and Nutrition Education in Primary School Students: A School-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study of nutrition education given to primary school students was conducted to determine the effects of feeding behavior. Material and Method: This is an intervention study. Research was made at elementary schools located in the center of the province of Yozgat among 6 grade students in 2012-2013. Students were divided into 2 groups by random. Students in the intervention (n=305 and control (n=233 groups were administered a questionnaire prepared by the researcher feeding behaviors. Nutrition surveys in the intervention group after the application of the selected class are given a standardized nutrition education by intern nurses. In data analysis, the dependent and independent samples Student%u2019s t-test, ANOVA for repeated measures multivariate analysis (repeated multiple general model, chi-square, correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: Seventy-one percent point nine of the students usually make breakfast before coming school, 24.5% often bring food to school, 79.4% have at least 3 meals a day, %41.3 at least 2 times eating something between meals. After a year of this habit of the students (49.3% increases in the frequency of eating something between meals as well as a reduction of approximately 10% was determined. In the study, positive and negative eating behavior could not gain the desired level of behavior change with the education given in schools to students. However, the decline in average scores positive eating behaviors, the intervention group (%uF8E5d=3.5 than in the control group (%uF8E5d=6.4 were found to be less. Discussion: Education is an important method meets the information needs of individuals, but is insufficient in creating behavior change in a short time.

  17. Complementary feeding patterns in a developing country: a cross-sectional study across Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, M; Boulghourjian, C; Akik, C

    2010-02-01

    This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. A large number of infants were given liquids other than breast or formula milk earlier. Women in employment outside the home were almost twice as likely to introduce solid foods before age 4 months. The most common starting food was cereals. More than half the children consumed starchy foods and fruits every day, but not meats and fish.

  18. Differentiation of bacterial feeding nematodes in soil ecological studies by means of arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Knaap, Esther; Rodriguez, Russell J.; Freckman, Diana W.

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR) was used to differentiate closely related bacterial-feeding nematodes of the genera: Caenorhabditis, Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia. Average percentage similarity of bands generated by ap-PCR with seven different primers between 14 isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans was ⪢ 90%, whereas between C. elegans, C. briggsae and C. remanei similarity was nematode populations were also obtained from ap-PCR analysis of single worms. Due to the difficulty of identification of soil nematodes, the ap-PCR offers potential as a rapid and reliable technique to assess biodiversity. Ap-PCR will make it feasible, for the first time, to study the ecological interactions of unique nematode genotypes in soil habitats.

  19. The quality of commercial poultry feeds in Nigeria: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of various types and brands of commercial poultry feeds were taken from six poultry farms and subjected to proximate analysis. The feeds were found to be adequate in metabolisable energy and fat. Protein, calcium and phosphorus content were below recommended levels and there was an improper ratio ...

  20. A cross-sectional field study on potential associations between feed quality measures and usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based...... on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period......, 2012-2014. Data were obtained from the national veterinary prescription database (VetStat), Kopenhagen Fur database, and the Voluntary Feed Control (Mink producers Organization). All feed batches subject to feed control were included. A multi-variable variance analysis was carried out analysing...

  1. Isolation studies on the prevalance of salmonellae in chicken organs, eggs and feed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, S.; Sajid, M.; Hashmi, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. Methods: A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. Results: The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide. (author)

  2. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  3. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan

    2016-07-01

    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  4. Comparative Study of Feeding on Some Pollens on Biology of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Arutunjian & Wainstein (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hajmohammadloo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of feeding of five pollen sources, apple, pear, almond, apricot and walnut, as 5 treatments on the period of egg to adult, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani, was studied in a complete randomized design (CRD. Mites kept individually on black mulberry leaf discs at 24±2 °C temperature, 60±5 % relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours, with a sufficient quantity of the pollens. Results showed that T. bagdasarjani could develop and reproduce when the predatory mite feed on the all of diets. Thus, the pollens can be alternative foods for the mite. The mean of developmental time from egg to adult emergence varied between the treatments from 11.69 to 21.49 days for females and 11.70 to 20.07 days for males. The minimum mean of developmental time of females and males was on walnut, almond and apple pollens and the maximum mean of it was on pear pollen. The mean of longevity varied among the treatments from 17.45 to 31.26 days for the females and 18.23 to 31.44 days for the male insects. The maximum mean longevity was on apricot and almond pollens for females and it had maximum amount on apricot and walnut for males. The minimum mean of longevity of females and males was on pear pollen. Also the maximum means of daily and total fecundity (0.73 and 9.60 eggs/female were on apple and walnut pollens. The minimum amount of these means was on pear pollen. According to these results, almond and walnut pollens were the most suitable diet for T. bagdasarjani as compared to the other pollens. Among diets, pear pollen had least desirability and nutritional value for the mite.

  5. The Artificial Milk Feeding or Breast Feeding: Context Dependant Practices. Brazil, 1960-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period – 1960 – is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek’s Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period – 1988 – characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women’s condition, women’s valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the discourses were totally on this usage defense, minimizing women’s daily difficulties.

  6. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  7. Differential effects of short- and long-term high-fat diet feeding on hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciapaite, Jolita; van den Broek, Nicole M.; te Brinke, Heleen; Nicolay, Klaas; Jeneson, Jeroen A.; Houten, Sander M.; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance in the supply and utilization of fatty acids (FA) is thought to contribute to intrahepatic lipid (IHL) accumulation in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of changes in the liver capacity to oxidize and store FA in response to high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male

  8. Study of complementary feeding practices among mothers of children aged six months to two years – A study from coastal south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInfants and young children are at an increased risk ofmalnutrition from six months of age onwards, when breastmilk alone is no longer sufficient to meet all their nutritionalrequirements and complementary feeding should bestarted. Hence this study was undertaken to assess thepractices of complementary feeding.MethodThis hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted attwo private hospitals – Dr TMA Pai Hospital Udupi and DrTMA Pai Hospital Karkala and a public hospital, RegionalAdvanced Paediatric Care Centre, Mangalore, of coastalsouth India for a two-month period from August 2010 toOctober 2010. Two-hundred mothers of children betweensix months and two years attending the paediatricoutpatient departments of the above-mentioned hospitalsfor growth monitoring, immunisation and minor illnessessuch as upper respiratory tract infections were selected forthe study. The subjects were selected for the study by theorder of their arrival to the outpatient department duringthe study period.ResultsIn the present study 77.5% mothers had startedcomplementary feeding at the recommended time of sixmonths. Only 32% of mothers were giving an adequatequantity of complementary feeds. The association ofinitiation of complementary feeding with socio-economicstatus, birth order, place of delivery and maternal educationwas found to be statistically significant. However thepractice of giving an adequate quantity of complementaryfeeds was significantly associated only with the place ofdelivery.ConclusionIn the present study, initiation of complementary feeding atthe recommended time of six months was seen in themajority of children. However the quantity ofcomplementary feeding was insufficient. Advice aboutbreast feeding and complementary feeding during antenatalcheck-ups and postnatal visits might improve feedingpractices.

  9. The development of mixer machine for organic animal feed production: Proposed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul; Zakaria, Supaat; Feriyanto, Dafit; Nor, M. I. F. Che Mohd; Muzarpar, Syafiq

    2017-09-01

    Mixer machine plays a major role in producing homogenous composition of animal feed. Long time production, inhomogeneous and minor agglomeration has been observed by existing mixer. Therefore, this paper proposed continuous mixer to enhance mixing efficiency with shorter time of mixing process in order to abbreviate the whole process in animal feed production. Through calculation of torque, torsion, bending, power and energy consumption will perform in mixer machine process. Proposed mixer machine is designed by two layer buckets with purpose for continuity of mixing process. Mixing process was performed by 4 blades which consists of various arm length such as 50, 100,150 and 225 mm in 60 rpm velocity clockwise rotation. Therefore by using this machine will produce the homogenous composition of animal feed through nutrition analysis and short operation time of mixing process approximately of 5 minutes. Therefore, the production of animal feed will suitable for various animals including poultry and aquatic fish. This mixer will available for various organic material in animal feed production. Therefore, this paper will highlights some areas such as continues animal feed supply chain and bio-based animal feed.

  10. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  11. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  12. Studies on the post-oviposition blood-feeding behaviour of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D

    2012-11-01

    The blood-feeding behaviour of the Trinidad strain of Aedes aegypti was studied, under laboratory conditions, using one female per cage and monitoring blood feeding immediately, 12, and 24 hours after oviposition. To get large numbers of females that had newly completed their first gonotrophic cycle, the diel oviposition periodicity was conducted using single females per cage and monitoring at 2-hour intervals. The diel oviposition periodicity showed a small morning peak (8%) during the first 2 hours of the photophase after which oviposition declined: during the second half of the photophase, oviposition increased reaching a peak comprising 56% of eggs (G = 59·9, P>0·01) between 16:00 and 18:00 hours. At post-oviposition hour 0, only five (10%) of the females accepted a blood meal but at post-oviposition hour 12, significantly more (G = 46·98, P>0·02) females, 35 (70%) accepted a blood meal. This pattern was consistently observed when females were offered blood meals at 12 and 24 hours after completing their first gonotrophic cycle. Multiple feeding was observed among the blood-feeding females and the results of this study are discussed in the context of disease transmission patterns and physiological mechanisms which control their blood-feeding behaviours.

  13. "Cariogenic potential of homemade weaning diet v/s commercial formula feeds" an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S; Madan, I

    2002-12-01

    The universal phenomenon of introducing weaning diet to the growing child sets its onset by the age of 4-6 months. This preliminary diet of the child governs his or her dental health in the long run. The main objective of this study is to investigate the histopathological and clinical invasion of deciduous teeth exposed to both the homemade weaning diet and commercial formula feeds. The study also aims at motivating the consumption of the most appropriate diet for the weaning baby. Extracted deciduous teeth were incubated with the test solutions of homemade diet and commercial formula feeds for the period of 6 weeks. Fewer carious invasion both clinically and histopathologically were seen in homemade feeds. Thus, homemade diet can be a strong candidate for the status of 'THE IDEAL WEANING FOOD'.

  14. Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, J.M.; Salinda, R.M.; Santos, V.F.; Mercado, C.C.

    Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

  15. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  16. Enteral feeding and its impact on family mealtime routines for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marion; Jewell, Vanessa; Poskey, Gail A; Russell, Asa

    2018-02-01

    Enteral feedings are part of the daily mealtime experience for many caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. The scope of occupational therapy practice incorporates multiple aspects of the enteral feeding process. Yet, the research in this area is very limited. The purpose of this study was to provide practitioners with better understanding of the impact enteral feedings of children with cerebral palsy have on family mealtime routines. Using a complimentary mixed method approach, data were obtained through an online survey containing the Satisfaction Questionnaire with Gastrostomy Feeding (SAGA-8) and supplementary questions, and qualitative semi-structured phone interviews. Participants were caregivers of children with cerebral palsy who receive their primary nutrition through a gastrostomy tube. This study's cohort consisted of n = 36, SAGA-8, and n = 6 in-depth interviews. The mean age of children of was 9.4 (6.94 SD) with a mean age of 3.4 (5.35 SD) when enteral feeding was introduced. While families' overall situations positively changed after the gastronomy tube placement, environmental barriers and length of feeding time continued to present a challenge to mealtime routines. The mixed methods data analysis revealed that successful adjustment to having a child with a gastronomy tube and problem solving are closely linked and a consistent part of mealtime experience. Findings highlighted the necessity of comprehensive support from health professionals in achieving positive mealtime experience. Themes in this study indicated that caregivers would benefit from a professional with knowledge in the development and integration of rituals and routines to support positive outcomes. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. Design Studies of Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Antennas with a Small Capacitive Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeresh G. Kasabegoudar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an ultra-wideband microstrip patch antenna with a small coplanar capacitive feed strip is presented. The proposed rectangular patch antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of nearly 50%, and has stable radiation patterns for almost all frequencies in the operational band. Results presented here show that such wide bandwidths are also possible for triangular and semiellipse geometries with a similar feed arrangement. The proposed feed is a very small strip placed very close to the radiator on a substrate above the ground plane. Shape of the feed strip can also be different, so long as the area is not changed. Experimental results agree with the simulated results. Effects of key design parameters such as the air gap between the substrate and the ground plane, the distance between radiator patch and feed strip, and the dimensions of the feed strip on the input characteristics of the antenna have been investigated and discussed. As demonstrated here, the proposed antenna can be redesigned for any frequency in the L-, S-, C-, or X-band. A design criterion for the air gap has been empirically obtained to enable maximum antenna bandwidth for all these operational frequencies.

  18. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 104 to 109 provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  19. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  20. Safety evaluation of genetically modified DAS-40278-9 maize in a subchronic rodent feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiying; Lang, Tianqi; Liu, Xu; Huang, Kunlun; He, Xiaoyun

    2018-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize, DAS-40278-9, expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein, which confers tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicides. The aad-1 gene, which expresses the AAD-1 protein, was derived from Gram-negative soil bacterium, Sphingobium herbicidovorans. A 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study was conducted on rats as a component of the safety evaluation of DAS-40278-9 maize. Rats were given formulated diets containing maize grain from DAS-40278-9 or a non-GM near isogenic control comparator at an incorporation rate of 12.5%, 25%, or 50% (w/w), respectively for 90 days. In addition, another group of rats was fed a basic rodent diet. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathological examinations. Under the condition of this study, DAS-40278-9 maize did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats compared with rats fed diets containing non-GM maize. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of long-term feeding of fresh and ensiled cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage on gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokerya, S; Waller, P J; Try, P; Höglund, J

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of long-term feeding of fresh or ensiled cassava foliage on gastrointestinal parasite in goats was evaluated. Eighteen male goats (15.15 +/- 2.83 kg and between 4-6 months) were randomly allocated into three treatments supplemented with 200 g of wheat bran head(-1) day(-1). All groups were fed ad-libitum on either grass (CO), fresh cassava (CaF) or ensiled cassava foliage (CaS). At the beginning of the trial, each goat was inoculated with 3000 L3 containing approximately 50% Haemonchus contortus. Individual LWt, FEC and PCV were measured at weekly intervals for 10 weeks. At the termination of the experiment all goats were slaughtered for worm recovery and enumeration. The goats in CaF and CaS had similar weight gains while those in CO lost weight (p goats. PCV of all groups decreased from above 30% to around 25% at the end of the trial. The compositions of established worm burdens were mainly H. contortus (19-40%) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (55-76%). TWB did not differ among the groups, however, CaS significantly reduced H. contortus burdens, as compared to CaF and CO (p < or = 0.005). Thus, ensiled cassava foliage reduced the H. contortus population while the fresh foliage only reduced worm fecundity.

  2. A qualitative study of the infant feeding beliefs and behaviours of mothers with low educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-05-21

    Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are more likely to be effective if assumptions about what needs to change for the target behaviours to occur are identified. As such we explored the precursors of key obesity promoting infant feeding practices in mothers with low educational attainment. One-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews were developed around the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) framework and applied to parental feeding practices associated with infant excess or healthy weight gain. The target behaviours and their competing alternatives were (a) initiating breastfeeding/formula feeding, (b) prolonging breastfeeding/replacing breast milk with formula, (c) best practice formula preparation/sub-optimal formula preparation, (d) delaying the introduction of solid foods until around six months of age/introducing solids earlier than four months of age, and (e) introducing healthy first foods/introducing unhealthy first foods, and (f) feeding to appetite/use of non-nutritive (i.e., feeding for reasons other than hunger) feeding. The participants' education level was used as the indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Two researchers independently undertook thematic analysis. Participants were 29 mothers of infants aged 2-11 months. The COM-B elements of Social and Environmental Opportunity, Psychological Capability, and Reflective Motivation were the key elements identified as determinants of a mother's likelihood to adopt the healthy target behaviours although the relative importance of each of the

  3. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  4. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694

  5. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L. (Lu); V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian); W. Jansen (Wilma); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. van Grieken (Amy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Method: Cross-sectional data from the

  6. A Stepwise, Pilot Study of Bovine Colostrum to Supplement the First Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants (Precolos)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Juhl, Sandra M; Ye, Xuqiang

    2017-01-01

    STUDY PROTOCOL: The optimal feeding for preterm infants during the first weeks is still debated, especially when mother's own milk is lacking or limited. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) contains high amounts of protein, growth factors, and immuno-regulatory components that may benefit protein intake...

  7. Comparative studies on the biology and filarial susceptibility of selected blood-feeding and autogenous Aedes togoi sub-colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluck Junkum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40 were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gravid female (F11/F38; F13/F40, embryonation rate (F13/F40, hatchability rate (F11/F38; F13/F40, egg width (F11/F38, wing length of females (F13/F40, and wing length and width of males (F11/F38 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly greater than that in the autogenous sub-colony; and egg length (F11/F38 and width (F13/F40, and mean longevity of adult females (F11/F38 and males (F13/F40 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly less than that in the autogenous sub-colony. The results of comparison on filarial susceptibility demonstrated that both sub-colonies yielded similar susceptibilities to Brugia malayi [blood-feeding/autogeny = 56.7% (F11/53.3%(F38, 60%(F13/83.3%(F40] and Dirofilaria immitis [blood-feeding/autogeny = 85.7%(F11/75%(F38, 45%(F13/29.4%(F40], suggesting autogenous Ae. togoi sub-colony was an efficient laboratory vector in study of filariasis.

  8. Exploring Maternal Perceptions of Infant Sleep and Feeding Method Among Mothers in the United Kingdom: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzik, Alanna E F; Ball, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    In a context with strong rhetorical support for breastfeeding in the health system, yet extremely low rates of breastfeeding after hospital discharge, U.K. women's decisions about infant feeding reflect the reality of competing priorities in their lives, including obtaining adequate sleep. Popular wisdom in the U.K. tightly links breastfeeding and inadequate night-time sleep. Mothers are advised by peers and family to introduce formula or solid foods to infants to promote longer sleep. The first objective of this study was to investigate women's understandings of the nature of infant sleep and their perceptions of links between infant feeding method and sleep. The second was to explore how these perceptions influence infant feeding and sleep practices. Underpinning our work is the understanding that infant care choices result from trade-offs by which mothers strive to balance infant- and self-care. We conducted seven focus groups with mothers of infants in two regions of the U.K. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and emergent themes were identified. We found clearly diverging narratives between breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers viewed the fragmentary nature of infant sleep as natural, while mothers who were formula feeding felt this was a problem to be fixed. The strategies used to promote infant and maternal sleep in each group were aligned with their underlying perception of how infant sleep works. Maternal perceptions of the nature of infant sleep and its relation to infant feeding method impact infant care practices in the first year of life.

  9. [Nasogastric tube feeding in bulimia. Controlled study with follow-up at 3 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Daniel; Brayer, Véronique; Biton-Jélic, Violaine; Païs, Vanessa; Pennacchio, Hélène; Brun, Jean-Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Few effective treatments are available for severe forms of bulimia nervosa, which are accompanied by malnutrition, anxiety, and depressive mood. We previously showed in an open study that nasogastric tube feeding (TF) reduced binges and purging in patients with anorexia nervosa. This prospective randomized trial compared bulimia patients in two treatment groups: one group received TF at home, together with psychotherapy, nutritional counseling and a support group while the control group received only psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and a support group. Patients in the first group underwent TF for 8 weeks (exclusively for 10 days and associated with meals thereafter). Assessment was based on clinical examination, laboratory results, and a variety of questionnaires (our in-house instrument for measuring binge and vomiting episodes, eating disorder inventory, Beck's depression inventory and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety), all performed at the onset of treatment and at 8 days, 8 weeks (i.e., the end of TF), and 3 months after treatment began. Binges and vomiting disappeared faster and more frequently in TF patients than in the control group: 65% versus 29% (pbulimia nervosa, reducing the number of binge and vomiting episodes and improving nutritional status and mood.

  10. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  11. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  12. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digestive studies with a feed developed for realimentation of starving reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sletten

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of three different feeds were compared when offered to reindeer calves as single feeds after a starvation period of the 48 h. The feeds were lichen and two pelleted commercial reindeer feeds, RF-71 and RF-80. The two latter differed in concentration of readily digestible carbohydrates (high in RF-71 and in the inclusion of seaweed meal in RF-80. Seven calves were offered the three diets in a latin square design. Measurements involved feed intake and rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids, ammonia and pH during a five day period after the end of the starvation period. Feeding RF-80 gave rise to higher feed intakes and more rapid normalisation of rumen VFA and ammonia concentration than the other pelleted feed. Rumen pH reached a minimum of 5.4 in animals fed RF-71, while the average minimum pH during the observation period was 6.1-6.2 when RF-80 was given. Inappetance for 1-2 days after refeeding occurred only with RF-71. RF-80 has now replaced RF-71 as the commercial reindeer feed in Norway.Fordøyelsesforsøk med et for utviklet til overgangsforing av sveltende rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En har sammenlignet egenskapene til tre forskjellige fortyper gitt til reinkalver som eneste for etter en sveltperiode på 48 timer. Fortypene var reinlav og to pelletterte, kommersielle reinfor: RF-71 og RF-80. De siste to adskilte seg fra hverandre i konsentrasjonen av lettfordøyelige karbohydrater (høyest i RF-71 og i innblanding av tangmel i RF-80. Syv reinkalver ble gitt de tre dietter i «latin square» forsøksmønster. Målingene omfattet: forinntak, konsentrasjon i vominnhold av flyktige fettsyrer (VFA og ammonium samt verdier av pfi gjennom en fem-dagers periode etter avsluttet sveltperiode. Foring med RF-80 økte forinntaket og forårsaket en raskere normalisering av VFA- og ammoniumkonsentrasjonene enn foring med RF-71. pfi nådde et minimum på 5,4 hos dyr som fikk RF-71, mens gjennomsnittlig verdi av pH gjennom

  14. Feeding practices among children attending child welfare clinics in Ragama MOH area: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Priyantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding during early childhood is important for normal physical and mental growth as well as for health in later life. Currently, Sri Lanka has adopted the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by addition of complementary feeds thereafter, with continuation of breastfeeding up to or beyond two years. This study was conducted to evaluate the current feeding practices among Sri Lankan children during early childhood. Methods This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH area. It was conducted between 10 August 2010 and 30 October 2010. Children between the ages of 24 and 60 months, attending child welfare clinics, were included in the study on consecutive basis. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices. Results There were 208 boys and 202 girls in the study population. Of them, 255 (62.2% were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months. Younger children had a statistically significant, higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding compared to older children. Three hundred and fifty one (85.6% children had received infant formula, and it was started before the age of 6 months in 61 children, and in 212 before one year. Sugar was added to infant formula in 330 (80.4% children, and out of them 144 had sugar added within first year of life. Complementary foods were started before 4 months in 29 (7% children. Of the 410 children, 294 (71.7% were breastfed beyond 2 years and 41.6% of them were breastfed at regular intervals throughout the day. Three hundred and thirty eight (82.6% children were receiving overnight feeding of either breast milk or infant formula even after 2 years. Conclusions Though a high rate of exclusive breastfeeding was observed in this study population, there are many other issues related to feeding during the early years of life that need

  15. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  16. A pilot feeding study for adults with asthma: The healthy eating better breathing trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Brigham

    Full Text Available Evidence from observational studies and to a lesser extent clinical trials suggest that a healthy diet may improve symptoms and lung function in patients with asthma. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of conducting a larger scale dietary trial and to provide preliminary evidence on the impact of a healthy diet on asthma outcomes.In a randomized, two period cross-over trial, participants with asthma received a 4-week dietary intervention followed by a usual diet (or vice versa, separated by a 4-week washout. The dietary intervention was a healthy diet rich in unsaturated fat. During the dietary intervention, participants ate three meals per week on site at the Johns Hopkins ProHealth Research Center. All remaining meals and snacks were provided for participants to consume off-site. During the control diet, participants were instructed to continue their usual dietary intake. Relevant biomarkers and asthma clinical outcomes were assessed at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after starting each arm of the study.Eleven participants were randomized, and seven completed the full study protocol. Among these seven participants, average age was 42 years, six were female, and six were African American. Participant self-report of dietary intake revealed significant increases in fruit, vegetable, and omega-3 fatty acid intake with the dietary intervention compared to usual diet. Serum carotenoids (eg. lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin increased in the intervention versus control. Total cholesterol decreased in the intervention versus control diet. There was no consistent effect on asthma outcomes.The findings suggest that a feeding trial in participants with asthma is feasible. Larger trials are needed to definitively assess the potential benefits of dietary interventions on pulmonary symptoms and function in patients with asthma.

  17. Comparison study of two procedures for the determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J; Hayes, John M

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. The method uses a wet extraction, cleanup by solid-phase extraction, and quantitation and separation by liquid chromatography (LC). In this paper, we compare the performance of this method with that of a previously reported LC assay for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. Although similar to the previous method, the new procedure uses a different sample pretreatment, wet extraction, and quantitation method. The performance of the new method was compared with that of the previously reported method by analyses of 22 medicated feed samples from various commercial sources. A comparison of the results presented here reveals slightly lower assay values obtained with the new method. Although a paired sample t-test indicates the difference in results is significant, this difference is within the method precision of either procedure.

  18. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  19. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, I; Wickman, M; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S; Pershagen, G

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. Methods: A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results: Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, ORadj = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders—asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen—were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease—that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease. PMID:12456543

  20. Trophic dynamics of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers and enantiomers in fish in a laboratory feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Ruan, Wei; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Liu, Hong-Ying; Chen, She-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-11-01

    The laboratory trophic transfer of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was studied using predatory (oscar) fish and a prey species (tiger barb) exposed to a technical HBCD. Gut absorption, dynamic changes of diastereomer pattern and enantiomer fractions, and potential metabolism of HBCDs were examined. Compared with β- or γ-HBCD, α-HBCD showed lower absorption efficiency in the gut of oscar fish. A predominance of γ-HBCD was observed in the tiger barb after 5 d HBCD-exposed and oscar feeding on the tiger barb for 16 d. After 20 d of depuration, 41.1% γ-HBCD and 42.7% β-HBCD disappeared, and α-HBCD exceeded the initial amount. The transformation from γ-HBCD predominance in the food to α-HBCD predominance in the oscar was attributed mainly to the isomerization of γ-HBCD (at least 3% and up to 22.7%) to α-HBCD. Selective enrichment of the (+) α- and (-) β-enantiomers and no enantioselective enrichment of γ-HBCD were observed in the tiger barbs. No enantioselective uptake of the 3 diasteromers was found in the oscar gut. The enantiomer fractions of α- and γ-diastereomers were significantly higher, but that of β-diastereomer were significantly lower in the oscars than in the tiger barbs, indicating enantioselective metabolism of the 3 diastereomers. Two HBCD monohydroxylated metabolites were detected in the 2 fish species, but their composition patterns differed, indicating a species-specific metabolism of HBCD in the studied fish species. © 2013 SETAC.

  1. A new approach to study of seabird-fishery overlap: Connecting chick feeding with parental foraging and overlap with fishing vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Sugishita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Incidental fisheries bycatch is recognised as a major threat to albatross populations worldwide. However, fishery discards and offal produced in large quantities might benefit some scavenging seabirds. Here, we demonstrate an integrated approach to better understand the ecological ramifications of fine-scale overlap between seabirds and fisheries. As a case study, we examined whether foraging in association with a fishing vessel is advantageous for chick provisioning in terms of quantity of food delivered to chicks, in northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi at Taiaroa Head, New Zealand. Fine-scale overlap between albatrosses and vessels was quantified by integrating GPS tracking and Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS. Meal size delivered to chicks was measured using custom-designed nest balances, and monitoring of attendance of adults fitted with radio transmitters was used in conjunction with time-lapse photography at the nest allowed us to allocate each feeding event to a specific parent. The combination of these techniques enabled comparison of meal sizes delivered to chicks with parental foraging trip durations with or without fishing vessels association. A total of 45 foraging trips and associated chick feeding events were monitored during the chick-rearing period in 2012. Differences in the meal size and foraging trip duration relative to foraging overlap with fisheries were examined using a linear mixed-effect model, adjusted for chick age. Our results, based on three birds, suggest that foraging in association with vessels does not confer an advantage for chick feeding for this population that demonstrated low rates of overlap while foraging. The integrated research design presented can be applied to other seabird species that are susceptible to bycatch, and offers a valuable approach to evaluate habitat quality by linking habitat use and foraging success in terms of total amount of food delivered to offspring.

  2. Dynamic Study of Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger Addition on Double Bed Configuration Ammonia Reactor System within Varied Quenching Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is one of the most important industrial commodity due to its wide function. Ammonia synthesis reaction is an exotermic reaction. Therefore, Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE is added to increase thermal efficiency. However, FEHE could lead the process to experience hysteresis phenomenon due to interaction between equipments as one steady state T feed could result several T outlet. Hysteresis phenomenon may result asset losses like explosion, leakage, and loosing material integrity. Double bed reactor configuration allows us to use several operating parameters as variation to overcome hysteresis. In this review, quenching ratio was chosen to be that varied parameter. This study aims to determine how quenching ratio affects hysteresis zone by utilizing Aspen Hysys® V8.8 as simulation tool. Simulation showed that quenching ratio would narrow hysteresis zone yet increased extinction temperature that lower the conversion. Conversion profile showed that 0.2 quenching ratio got the highest conversion for system with bed volume ratio 2:1 while total volume was 30 m3. However, the feed temperature was fallen at hysteresis zone. Dynamic simulation showed that highest conversion feed temperature (10%ΔTf above extinct temperature was still able to preserve stability with descending temperature approach. Hysteresis itself started to occur at 1.7%ΔTf above extinct temperature

  3. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  4. A developmental study of the acquisition of Russian colour terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, I R; Corbett, G G; McGurk, H; MacDermid, C

    1998-06-01

    We report a study of the acquisition of colour terms by Russian children which had two main aims: first, to test Berlin & Kay's (1969) theory of colour universals using acquisition order as a measure of basicness; and secondly, to see if the two BLUE terms of Russian are genuinely basic. Two hundred children aged from three to six-years-old were tested on three colour-tasks--colour term listing, colour term production and colour term comprehension. To a reasonable approximation, the order of colour term acquisition was in accord with Berlin & Kay's theory, but the data are also consistent with the weaker claim that primary terms tend to be learned before derived terms. On balance the data were consistent with Russian exceptionally, having an extra term for the BLUE region. But, the two BLUE terms--goluboj 'light blue' and sinij 'dark blue'--were confused more often than other pairs of terms even by the five- to six-year-old sample.

  5. A study on direct alloying with molybdenum oxides by feed wire method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct alloying with molybdenum oxides has been regarded in years; the main addition methods are adding to the bottom of electric arc furnace (EAF with scrap, adding to the ladle during the converter tapping and mixing molybdenum oxide, lime and reductant to prepare pellet added to basic oxygen furnace (BOF. In this paper, a new method for direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide is proposed, adding molybdenum trioxide molten steel by feeding wire method in ladle furnace (LF refining process. The feasibility of molybdenum oxide reduction, the influence rules of bottom-blown on liquid steel fluidity and the yield of molybdenum by feeding wire method were analyzed. Results show that molybdenum oxide can be reduced by [Al], [Si], [C], and even [Fe] in molten steel. Bottom blowing position has a significant influence on the flow of molten steel when the permeable brick is located in 1/2 radius. The yields of Mo are higher than 97% for the experiments with feed wire method, the implementation of direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide by feed wire method works even better than that uses of ferromolybdenum in the traditional process.

  6. A study of feeding in some inshore reef fish of the Natal Coast, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed quantitative investigation of the feeding habits of seven important Natal inshore ... limits of influence of the surf zone or shore break. The physical features of .... There is a tendency for juvenile N. JithophiJus to form larger shoals than ...

  7. Time course study of feeding damage to pin head cotton squares by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an economically important pest affecting cotton crops in California. Lygus feeding causes abscission of cotton squares, with damage severity dependent on size of the square and life stage of the insect. Fifth instar nymphs are the most damaging stage; however, ...

  8. Parametric Study of Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using Different Feeding Techniques for Wireless and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Chatterjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing bandwidth requirement of modern wireless communication systems, developing antenna having wider bandwidth have been receiving significant attention in the recent years. In this paper, a comparative analysis of the contacting feed (micro strip line and coaxial probe and non-contacting feed mechanism (both Aperture Coupling and Proximity Coupling in micro strip patch antenna has been done. In case of contacting feed, RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a micro strip line whereas in case of non-contacting feeds, electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the micro strip line and the radiating patch. As per the latest research, ultra wide band technology is used in the frequency range from 3 GHz to 10 GHz. We have analyzed and compared the return loss and corresponding bandwidth of these four types of antenna at 5.853GHz so that this antenna may be used in medical as well as wireless applications.

  9. Study on characteristics of valves for pulsed gas feed into a cyclotron multicharged ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Koval'chuk, I.M.; Kutner, V.B.; Pasyuk, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Different valves (with rotating drum, piezoelectric and electromagnetic) for pulsed gas feed into cyclotron multicharged ion arc source are described. It is shown that piezoelectric and electromagnetic valves provide a possibility of regulating in a wide range the gas flow pulse parameters

  10. Low-Income Women's Feeding Practices and Perceptions of Dietary Guidance: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Neshteruk, Cody D; Balantekin, Katherine N; Birch, Leann L

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Describe themes characterizing feeding behaviors of low-income women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and identify the attitudes, beliefs, and sources of information that inform these practices. Methods Formative research was conducted including focus groups and semi-structured individual phone interviews with a total of 68 low-income women participating in WIC. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed, imported into NVivo 8.0, and analyzed for common themes. Results Mothers reported feeding behaviors inconsistent with guidance from WIC and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Three main themes were identified. First, mothers reported receiving conflicting messaging/advice from medical professionals, WIC nutritionists, and family members, which was confusing. Mothers also reported dissatisfaction with the "one size fits most" approach. Lastly, mothers reported relying on their "instincts" and that "all babies are different" when deciding and rationalizing what feeding guidance to follow. Conclusions Future interventions targeting this high-risk population should consider developing personalized (individualized) messaging, tailored to the needs of each mother-child dyad. Focused efforts are needed to build partnerships between WIC providers and other health care providers to provide more consistent messages about responsive feeding to prevent early obesity.

  11. Study on the forward-feed neural network used for the classification of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guangxuan; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    Neural network has been applied in the field of high energy physics experiment for the classification of particles and gained good results. The author emphasizes the systematic analysis of the fundamental principle of the forward-feed neural network and discusses the problems and solving methods in application

  12. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  13. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  14. Feeding infants and toddlers study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Pac, Susan; Devaney, Barbara; Jankowski, Linda

    2004-01-01

    To describe the food consumption patterns of US infants and toddlers, 4 to 24 months of age. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months. The percentage of infants and toddlers consuming foods from specific food groups was estimated for six age groups, using a single 24-hour recall. Infants as young as 7 months of age showed food patterns that have been observed in older children and adults. From 18% to 33% of infants and toddlers between ages 7 and 24 months consumed no discrete servings of vegetables, and 23% to 33% consumed no fruits. French fries were one of the three most common vegetables consumed by infants 9 to 11 months of age. By 15 to 18 months, french fries were the most common vegetable. Almost half (46%) of 7- to 8-month-olds consumed some type of dessert, sweet, or sweetened beverage, and this percentage increased as age increased. By 19 to 24 months, 62% of toddlers consumed a baked dessert, 20% consumed candy, and 44% consumed a sweetened beverage. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, with emphasis on dark green, leafy, and deep yellow vegetables and colorful fruits. They should offer desserts, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks only occasionally, offering nutrient-dense, age-appropriate foods as alternatives (eg, fruit, cheese, yogurt, and cereals). Water, milk, and 100% fruit juices should be offered as alternative beverages. Because family food choices influence what foods are offered to children, family-based approaches to developing healthy eating habits may be helpful.

  15. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  16. Text messaging data collection for monitoring an infant feeding intervention program in rural China: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-12-04

    An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants' acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all questionnaires, and ¥27.1 (US $4.31) versus ¥34

  17. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  18. Should we feed back research results in the midst of a study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estabrooks Carole A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report is an introduction to a series of three research papers that describe the evolution of the approaches taken by the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC research team during its first four years to feed back the research findings to study participants. TREC is an observational multi-method health services research project underway in 36 nursing homes in the prairie provinces of Canada. TREC has actively involved decision makers from the sector in all stages from initial planning, through data collection to dissemination activities. However, it was not planned as a fully integrated knowledge translation project. These three papers describe our progress towards fully integrated knowledge translation—with respect to timely and requested feedback processes. The first paper reports on the process and outcomes of creating and evaluating the feedback of research findings to healthcare aides (unregulated health professionals. These aides provide over 80% of the direct care in our sample and actively requested the feedback as a condition of their continued cooperation in the data acquisition process. The second paper describes feedback from nursing home administrators on preliminary research findings (a facility annual report and evaluation of the reports’ utility. The third paper discusses an approach to providing a more in-depth form of feedback (expanded feedback report at one of the TREC nursing homes. Findings Survey and interview feedback from healthcare aides is presented in the first paper. Overall, healthcare aides’ opinions about presentation of the feedback report and the understand ability, usability, and usefulness of the content were positive. The second paper describes the use of telephone interviews with facility administrators and indicates that the majority of contextual areas (e.g., staff job satisfaction addressed in facility annual report to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. More than

  19. Physicians' attitudes about artificial feeding in older patients with severe cognitive impairment in Japan: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether to withhold artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH from severely cognitively impaired older adults has remained nearly unexplored in Japan, where provision of ANH is considered standard care. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze factors related to the decision to provide ANH through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG in older Japanese adults with severe cognitive impairment. Methods Retrospective, in-depth interviews with thirty physicians experienced in the care of older, bed-ridden, non-communicative patients with severe cognitive impairment. Interview content included questions about factors influencing the decision to provide or withhold ANH, concerns and dilemmas concerning ANH and the choice of PEG feeding as an ANH method. The process of data collection and analysis followed the Grounded Theory approach. Results Data analysis identified five factors that influence Japanese physicians' decision to provide ANH through PEG tubes: (1 the national health insurance system that allows elderly patients to become long-term hospital in-patients; (2 legal barriers with regard to limiting treatment, including the risk of prosecution; (3 emotional barriers, especially abhorrence of death by 'starvation'; (4 cultural values that promote family-oriented end-of-life decision making; and (5 reimbursement-related factors involved in the choice of PEG. However, a small number of physicians did offer patients' families the option of withholding ANH. These physicians shared certain characteristics, such as a different perception of ANH and repeated communication with families concerning end-of-life care. These qualities were found to reduce some of the effects of the factors that favor provision of ANH. Conclusion The framework of Japan's medical-legal system unintentionally provides many physicians an incentive to routinely offer ANH for this patient group through PEG tubes. It seems

  20. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  1. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  2. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  3. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT, a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Erica P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self

  4. A Study on the Operator Decision Support for Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    In the case of a combined accident that includes a failure of the secondary cooling system, it is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of an feed and bleed (F and B) operation because a lot of parameters and alarms should be checked before a decision, and operators may spend a considerable amount of time arriving at the entry for a proper emergency operating procedure that contains the procedure for an F and B operation. Therefore, a clear identification of the success boundary of an F and B operation would help operators in their decision-making when a combined accident that includes a secondary cooling system failure occurs. This study will provide a useful guideline for the initiation of an F and B operation for operators. Cooling the RCS after a scram is one of the most important safety functions for preventing core damage. To support the operator in decision making whether to initiate the F and B operation, plant conditions requiring the initiation of an F and B operation were identified. Plant conditions are affected by the steam generator inventory, RCS inventory, core inventory, and safety injection availability. The combination of accident types, component availabilities, and the initiation time of an F and B operation affect the success of the F and B operation. Operators need clear information about the RCS condition when the steam generators, the RCS's main residual heat removal mechanism, become unavailable. When this happens, the initiation of an F and B operation becomes necessary. As the number of the state increases, the necessity of an F and B operation increases. Especially, the operator should initiate an F and B operation when the RCS condition enters State 3 for Type 1 incidents or State 3-2 for Type 2 incidents. The results of this study may be useful in providing information regarding the necessity and effects of an F and B operation in a quantitative manner. In particular, in the case of a combined accident including a

  5. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-10-01

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  8. Assessment of malnutrition and enteral feeding practices in the critically ill: A single-centre observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Paul Verghese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Early identification of malnutrition among hospitalised patients is essential to institute appropriate patient-specific nutritional strategies. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of medical patients at admission to the adult intensive care unit (ICU and to identify factors which prevent attainment of daily feeding goals in them. Methods: This was a 1 year prospective, observational study on 200 medical adult ICU patients. The study was carried out based on daily documentation. The primary outcome was the nutritional status of medical Patients at admission to the adult ICU. The tests for statistical analysis used were independent t test, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of the 200 patients in our study, 45%, 48.5% and 9% of patients had mild, moderate and severe malnutrition, respectively, corresponding to subjective global assessment (SGA rating A,B and C, respectively. The most common reasons for non-attainment of daily feeding goals were delayed feed procurement (17.57%, and feeds being held for procedures (16.36%. The overall mean length of ICU stay was 8.63 ± 7.26 days, and the ICU mortality rate was 47.5% (95/200. Patients with SGA rating B and C at admission had higher risk of mortality in the ICU, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]- 1.71–7.33, P = 0.001 and 11.11 (95% CI-2.26–54.66, P = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Malnutrition is commonly present at admission among medical ICU patients, and is associated with higher ICU mortality.

  9. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  10. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  11. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  12. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  13. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  14. Does breast-feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. H.; Ott, P.; Juul, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  15. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  16. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  17. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  18. Prevalence, Outcomes, and Management of Enteral Tube Feeding Intolerance: A Retrospective Cohort Study in a Tertiary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kailun; McIlroy, Kerry; Plank, Lindsay D; Petrov, Max S; Windsor, John A

    2017-08-01

    Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is the most common form of artificial feeding in hospitalized patients, and the development of intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ETFI, the clinical consequences, and the current management approach to ETFI in hospitalized adult patients. Adult patients receiving ETF were identified from a prospective database in the Nutrition Services at Auckland City Hospital. Further information was obtained by the review of clinical records for a 12-month period, up to December 2014. The prevalence of ETFI was 33% among 754 patients. ETFI more frequently occurred in the intensive care unit ( P ETF were also frequently attempted. ETFI is a frequent problem in adult hospitalized patients receiving ETF, and it is associated with poor clinical outcomes such as inadequate nutrition and complications of feeding. While the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there also appears to be no standard evidence-based treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms and optimized management are therefore indicated.

  19. Complementary feeding: study on prevalence of food intake in two health centers of São Paulo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, D M; Latorre, M do R; Szarfarc, S C; de Souza, S B

    2001-06-01

    The infant feeding practices in the first year of life are of fundamental importance for their growth and development. This study was carried out aiming at checking on the prevalence of food intake by the infants during their first year of life. One-hundred-and-seventy-five children aged up to one year, attended to in two Health Centers of São Paulo city, Brazil, participated in this study. Their feeding practices, obtained through the status quo approach, were analyzed through multiple logistic regression models, using curves of prevalence for complementary food consumption. Fruit was the first solid food to be part of the infant diet, followed by vegetables, cereal, meat and/or eggs and, beans. Animal-protein-containing source foods (meat and eggs) entered the diet much later, being consumed by practically all children only at the end of their first year of life. The early introduction of complementary foods into the infant diet was made evident. The introduction of solid foods to complement breastfeeding is started with low-calorie density foods, in disagreement with the recommendations for Brazilian children. Results of this paper disclose a need for having programmatic actions in health education being carried out, in special those regarding exclusive breastfeeding promotion and orientation on the adequate introduction of complementary feeding.

  20. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Easton, Sue; Walters, Stephen

    2016-04-11

    Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The 'Nourishing Start for Health' (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10,833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0-6 months. Participating organisations Research and Governance

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Sharbati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810 or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR. For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS.Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling.Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Keller, Andreas; Backes, Christina; Franke, Andre; Steinberg, Pablo; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810) or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR). For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS. Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO) analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling. Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant alterations of

  3. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  4. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  5. A practical study on the feasibility of alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification for distinguishing Iberian pig feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Casco, J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification in fat and muscle to establish a correct classification of Iberian pigs according to their feeding background in practical situations. Samples were obtained over three different seasons from the four categories of pigs described in the Industry Quality Policy (FREE-OUT “bellota”; FREE-OUT-FEED “recebo”; FEEDOUT “campo”; and FEED-IN “cebo”. Linear discriminant functions were calculated with data obtained from seasons 1 and 2 and validated. The classification of fat and muscle samples from season 3 in the four feeding categories according to the calculated discriminant functions achieved an average of 76% success rate in distinguishing the true origin of pig samples. Quantification in muscle seemed to have higher prediction ability. Regression equations to quantify weight gained depending on the gamma-tocopherol concentration had higher R2 values for muscle than for fat (R2= 0.81 vs. 0.62. Merging of the feeding categories established by the Quality Policy could raise the accuracy of the alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification method to up to between 89% and 98%.Este estudio se llevó a cabo para comprobar la fiabilidad del uso de la cuantificación de alfa y gamma-tocoferol en grasa y músculo para establecer una clasificación correcta de los cerdos ibéricos de acuerdo a su alimentación. Las muestras se obtuvieron durante tres campañas diferentes procedentes de cuatro categorías de cerdos según se describe en la norma de calidad (FREE-OUT: «bellota», FREEOUT- FEED: «recebo», FEED-OUT: «campo» y FEED-IN: «cebo». Se calcularon funciones discriminantes con los datos obtenidos de las campañas 1 y 2 y se validaron. La clasificación de las muestras de grasa y músculo obtenidas de la tercera campaña en las cuatro categorías de acuerdo a las funciones discriminantes calculadas alcanzó un rango medio de éxito del 76

  6. Refining low protein modular feeds for children on low protein tube feeds with organic acidaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Evans, S; Ashmore, C; Chahal, S; Santra, S; MacDonald, A

    2017-12-01

    Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source. All non-protein individual feed ingredients were replaced with one protein-free composite feed supplying fat, carbohydrate, and micronutrients. Thirteen subjects, median age 7.4y (3-15.5y), all nutritionally tube dependent (supplying nutritional intake: ≥ 90%, n = 12; 75%, n = 1), and diagnosed with organic acidaemias (Propionic acidaemia, n = 6; Vitamin B 12 non-responsive methyl malonic acidaemia, n = 4; Isovaleric acidaemia, n = 2; Glutaric aciduria type1, n = 1); were studied. Nutritional intake, biochemistry and anthropometry were monitored at week - 8, 0, 12, 26 and 79. Energy intake remained unchanged, providing 76% of estimated energy requirements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids significantly increased from week 0 to week 79, but sodium, potassium, magnesium, decosahexanoic acid and fibre did not meet suggested requirements. Plasma zinc, selenium, haemoglobin and MCV significantly improved, and growth remained satisfactory. Natural protein intake met WHO/FAO/UNU 2007 recommendations. A protein-free composite feed formulated to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children aged over 1 year improved nutritional intake, biochemical nutritional status, and simplified enteral tube feeding regimens in children with organic acidaemias.

  7. Early discharge with tube feeding at home for preterm infants is associated with longer duration of breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo-Habing, Z E; Kosters-Boes, E A; Klip, H; Brand, P L P

    2009-07-01

    Mothers of preterm infants are more likely to discontinue breast feeding early than mothers of term infants. We evaluated the effect of early discharge with tube feeding of preterm infants under close supervision by paediatric nurse specialists on the duration of breast feeding. Case-control study. Medium/high-care neonatal unit of a large district general hospital. Preterm infants (paediatric nurse specialists or regular follow-up of preterm infants discharged with oral feeding. Duration of breast feeding assessed by telephone interview 6 months after birth. There were 50 preterm infants in the early discharge group and 78 in the control group. Mothers in the early discharge group continued to breast feed longer than mothers in the control group (log rank test, p = 0.028). Four months after discharge, 63% of preterm infants in the control group were fed formula compared to 36% in the early discharge group (95% CI for difference 9% to 43%, p = 0.04). The relative risk of breast feeding cessation 6 months after birth in the early discharge group compared to the control group was 0.63 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.96). After adjustment for smoking, gestational age and birth weight, this relative risk was 0.67 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.05). Close supervision and follow-up by paediatric nurse specialists of preterm infants discharged early with tube feeding appears to increase duration of breast feeding. A randomised controlled trial to confirm these findings is warranted.

  8. Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, G.; Raisali, G.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

  9. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding but also helped in overcoming the disposal problem.

  10. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-03-01

    We designed and tested an intervention that used dialogue-based groups to engage infants' fathers and grandmothers to support optimal infant feeding practices. The study's aim was to test the effectiveness of increased social support by key household influencers on improving mothers' complementary feeding practices. Using a quasi-experimental design, we enrolled mothers, fathers, and grandmothers from households with infants 6-9 months old in 3 rural communities (1 intervention arm with fathers, 1 intervention arm with grandmothers, and 1 comparison arm) in western Kenya. We engaged 79 grandmothers and 85 fathers in separate dialogue groups for 6 months from January to July 2012. They received information on health and nutrition and were encouraged to provide social support to mothers (defined as specific physical actions in the past 2 weeks or material support actions in the past month). We conducted a baseline household survey in December 2011 in the 3 communities and returned to the same households in July 2012 for an endline survey. We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and logistic regression to evaluate the intervention. We surveyed 554 people at baseline (258 mothers, 165 grandmothers, and 131 fathers) and 509 participants at endline. The percentage of mothers who reported receiving 5 or more social support actions (of a possible 12) ranged from 58% to 66% at baseline in the 3 groups. By endline, the percentage had increased by 25.8 percentage points (P=.002) and 32.7 percentage points (P=.001) more in the father and the grandmother intervention group, respectively, than in the comparison group. As the number of social support actions increased in the 3 groups, the likelihood of a mother reporting that she had fed her infant the minimum number of meals in the past 24 hours also increased between baseline and endline (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.30; P=.047). When taking into account the interaction effects of

  11. Aconselhamento em alimentação infantil: um estudo de intervenção Infant and young child feeding counseling: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Bassichetto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade do Curso Integrado de Aconselhamento em Alimentação Infantil na transformação de conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de pediatras e nutricionistas da rede municipal de saúde de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo de intervenção randomizado com 29 profissionais no grupo intervenção e 27 no grupo controle. Entrevistadores previamente capacitados coletaram dados dos profissionais nas unidades de saúde antes da intervenção e 2 meses após. Utilizaram-se três instrumentos para avaliar o perfil do profissional, seus conhecimentos e um roteiro de observação clínica. Para análise, utilizaram-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis para amostras independentes e o método de Tukey. RESULTADOS: Quanto ao conhecimento, observou-se melhora no grupo intervenção (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated infant and young child feeding counseling course for transforming the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians and nutritionists working for the municipal health system of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A randomized intervention study enrolling 29 professionals in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. Interviewers were trained in advance to collect data on the professionals working at health centers, before and 2 months after the intervention. Three research instruments were used, the first was to assess the profile of each professional, the second assessed their knowledge and the third was a clinical observation protocol. Analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples and the Tukey method. RESULTS: The results for the knowledge questionnaire showed improvements in the intervention group (p < 0.001 for the whole questionnaire and for questions on breastfeeding (p = 0.004; HIV and infant and young child feeding (p = 0.049; complementary feeding (p = 0.012; and counseling in infant and young child feeding (p = 0.004. In terms of performance, it was observed

  12. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Lehmann, S.; Bucs, Szilard; Fresquet, M.; Fel, L.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; Ogier, J.; Schellenberg, C.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems

  13. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  14. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  15. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  16. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, therefore, various functional digestive disorders (aerophagias, regurgitations, flatulence, colics. It is important to ensure proper latching of the baby to the breast, as it is conductive of effective sucking, and recover complete breast feeding in the event of temporary supplementary and mixed feeding. The article presents results of a trial conducted at the FSBI Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Use of special medical products (nipples, phials developed on the basis of thorough study of maternal breast sucking physiology in the breast feeding termination risk group children (n = 33 allows maintaining children’s need in breast feeding and promotes effective breast feeding recovery.Key words: breast feeding, aerophagia, neonates, premature children, causes of weaning, special medical products (phials, nipples.

  17. Review of SFR In-Vessel Radiological Source Term Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2008-10-01

    An effort has been made in this study to search for and review the literatures in public domain on the studies of the phenomena related to the release of radionuclides and aerosols to the reactor containment of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) plants (i.e., in-vessel source term), made in Japan and Europe including France, Germany and UK over the last few decades. Review work is focused on the experimental programs to investigate the phenomena related to determining the source terms, with a brief review on supporting analytical models and computer programs. In this report, the research programs conducted to investigate the CDA (core disruptive accident) bubble behavior in the sodium pool for determining 'primary' or 'instantaneous' source term are first introduced. The studies performed to determine 'delayed source term' are then described, including the various stages of phenomena and processes: fission product (FP) release from fuel , evaporation release from the surface of the pool, iodine mass transfer from fission gas bubble, FP deposition , and aerosol release from core-concrete interaction. The research programs to investigate the release and transport of FPs and aerosols in the reactor containment (i.e., in-containment source term) are not described in this report

  18. Infant feeding and components of the metabolic syndrome: findings from the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, D.A.; Riddoch, C.J.; Page, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    , pubertal stage, body mass index, height, maternal and paternal education, income, smoking, and body mass index the mean systolic blood pressure of children who had ever been breast fed was 1.7 mm Hg (95% CI -3.0 to -0.5) lower than those who had never been exclusively breast fed. There was a dose....... Conclusions: The magnitude of the association, its independence of important confounding factors, and the dose-response suggest that exclusive breast feeding is causally associated with reduced systolic blood pressure. The magnitude of the effect we found with blood pressure is comparable to the published...... effects of salt restriction and physical activity on blood pressure in adult populations, suggesting that it is of public health importance....

  19. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) (NODC Accession 0014154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1980)....

  1. Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas conducted from 2007-08-23 to 2011-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0131425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  2. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Martin J.; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners’ self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pe...

  3. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; New, Karen; Davies, Mark W

    2016-08-31

    Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for term and preterm infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible for medical or physiological reasons such as being born sick or preterm and as a result requiring supplemental feeding. Currently, there are various ways in which infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally in neonatal and maternity units, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, cup feeding is becoming increasingly popular as a means of offering supplemental feeds in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates. There is no consistency to guide the choice of method for supplemental feeding. To determine the effects of cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding on weight gain and achievement of successful breastfeeding in term and preterm infants who are unable to fully breastfeed. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 31 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 31 January 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 31 January 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing cup feeding to other forms of enteral feeding for the supplementation of term and preterm infants. Data collection and analysis was performed in accordance with the methods of Cochrane Neonatal. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.The review authors independently conducted quality assessments and data extraction for included trials. Outcomes reported from these studies were: weight gain; proportion not breastfeeding at hospital discharge; proportion not feeding at three months of age; proportion not feeding at six

  4. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  5. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  6. Methodology of long term behaviour study of containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Godon, N.

    1994-01-01

    Here is the presentation of the papers shown in the colloquium on environment and ceramics; the Atomic Energy Commissariat (Cea) have been working for fifteen years on the long term behaviour of fission products glasses on very long periods, about several millions years. The method of studies is detailed. 2 refs

  7. Archiving primary data: solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.; Teplitsky, C.; Arroyo, B.; Charmantier, A.; H. Becker, P.; Birkhead, T.R.; Bize, P.; Blumstein, D.T.; Bonenfant, C.; Boutin, S.; Bushuev, A.; Cam, E.; Cockburn, A.; Côté, S.D.; Coulson, J.C.; Daunt, F.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Doligez, B.; Drummond, H.; Espie, R.H.M.; Festa-Bianchet, M.; Frentiu, F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Furness, R.W.; Garant, D.; Gauthier, G.; Grant, P.R.; Griesser, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Hansson, B.; Harris, M.P.; Jiguet, F.; Kjellander, P.; Korpimäki, E.; Krebs, C.J.; Lens, L.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Low, M.; McAdam, A.; Margalida, A.; Merilä, J.; Møller, A.P.; Nakagawa, S.; Nilsson, J.-Å.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; van Noordwijk, A.J.; Oro, D.; Pärt, T.; Pelletier, F.; Potti, J.; Pujol, B.; Réale, D.; Rockwell, R.F.; Ropert-Coudert, Y.; Roulin, A.; Thébaud, C.; Sedinger, J.S.; Swenson, J.E.; Visser, M.E.; S.Wanless Westneat, D.F.; Wilson, A.J.; Zedrosser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with

  8. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with

  9. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  10. Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un

    2010-04-01

    For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

  12. A Study on Improvement of Algorithm for Source Term Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Do Hyung; Lee, Jae Hee

    2010-03-01

    The program developed by KAERI for source term assessment of radwastes from the advanced nuclear fuel cycle consists of spent fuel database analysis module, spent fuel arising projection module, and automatic characterization module for radwastes from pyroprocess. To improve the algorithm adopted the developed program, following items were carried out: - development of an algorithm to decrease analysis time for spent fuel database - development of setup routine for a analysis procedure - improvement of interface for spent fuel arising projection module - optimization of data management algorithm needed for massive calculation to estimate source terms of radwastes from advanced fuel cycle The program developed through this study has a capability to perform source term estimation although several spent fuel assemblies with different fuel design, initial enrichment, irradiation history, discharge burnup, and cooling time are processed at the same time in the pyroprocess. It is expected that this program will be very useful for the design of unit process of pyroprocess and disposal system

  13. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children’s ethnic background. Method Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6–13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions (‘control over eating’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘encouragement to eat’ and ‘instrumental feeding’), parenting style dimensions (‘involvement’ and ‘strictness’) and children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Result Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of ‘control over eating’ had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that ‘control over eating’ was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. ‘Encouragement to eat’ was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). ‘Instrumental feeding’ was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Conclusion Our results suggest that ‘control over eating’ may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic

  14. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  15. Favoreciendo la alimentación independiente: Estudio de un caso Favoring the independent feeding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carrera Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el desarrollo de las actividades de la vida diaria de la forma más autónoma e independiente posible debería ser prioritario en la valoración y cuidado de las personas dependientes. Objetivo: detección y corrección de los problemas que evitan la alimentación autónoma e independiente en una usuaria de centro residencial. Método: estudio de caso de base cualitativa mediante observación participante. Desarrollo: mayo-junio de 2010. Resultados: se observaron los siguientes problemas que dificultan la correcta alimentación: dificultad en la movilización de brazos y manos para llevar la comida a la boca, nerviosismo y ansiedad durante las comidas y sobreprotección de los cuidadores. Al final del periodo de estudio nuestra usuaria consigue realizar las comidas de forma autónoma e independiente. Discusión: una valoración individualizada puede poner de manifiesto capacidades desconocidas en una persona. Tras la evaluación inicial, se detectaron los problemas que impedían la alimentación de forma independiente de nuestra usuaria y se estableció un plan de acción consensuado con ella. Se apreció un cambio sustancial: no solo era capaz de realizar una comida por sí misma con la mínima ayuda indispensable, sino que aumentó su autoestima.Introduction: the development of the Daily Life Activities in the most autonomous and independent way ever possible should be a priority in the evaluation and care of the dependent people. Objective: detection and correction of the problems that avoid the autonomous and independent feeding in a user of our residential center. Method: Case Study with qualitative base by means of participant observation. Development: may-june 2010. Results: the problems observed that impede the correct feeding were:difficult movements of arms and hands to take the food to the mouth, nervousness and anxiety during the meals and overprotection of the carers. At the end of the period of study our user managed

  16. The Timing of Initiating Complementary Feeding in Preterm Infants and Its Effect on Overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Goudoever, van J.B.; Janse, A.

    2018-01-01

    Background:
    What is the appropriate time to start complementary feeding for preterm infants? The answer to this question is yet under debate. The timing of initiating complementary feeding may be associated with overweight in
    term infants. This systematic review aimed to study the effect

  17. Mortality after nasogastric tube feeding initiation in long-term care elderly with oropharyngeal dysphagia--the contribution of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubart, Emilia; Leibovitz, Arthur; Dror, Yosef; Katz, Elena; Segal, Refael

    2009-01-01

    The refeeding syndrome (RS) is an underappreciated but clinically important entity characterized by acute electrolyte abnormalities, mainly hypophosphatemia, fluid retention and dysfunction of various organs and systems, which can result in significant morbidity and occasionally death. To examine the incidence of death cases and death causes following nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding initiation in frail elderly with particular reference to RS. Forty patients with feeding problems for at least 72 h before restarting of alimentation by NGT were included. Excluded were those in any critical clinical situation. Clinical parameters and nutritional assessment were recorded before and after refeeding. Blood samples were taken before, daily for the first 3 days and 1 week after refeeding initiation. During the 1st week of refeeding, 9 patients (22.5%) died and within 1 month 10 more, summing to 47.5%. Most deaths were due to infectious causes [15 out of 19, (79%)]; some were due to no obvious reason [4 out of 19, (21%)]. Significant electrolyte changes were observed in the 2-3 days following refeeding. Significant were the decreases in phosphorus and elevations in potassium and lymphocytes (day 7). We found no correlations between the severity of decreases in levels of phosphorus and mortality. Mortality after NGT feeding initiation was high, mainly due to infectious complications. However, in a considerable number of patients hypophosphatemia was noted, suggesting that RS could be a contributory factor of mortality. Since this is a treatable condition, more attention should be paid to detecting and coping with this problem. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Study of pneumatic hydropulse filter for feed clarification in reprocessing plant head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.A.; Shah, B.V.; Salunke, S.U.; Kumar, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) Filter with sintered stainless steel cartridges was tested for suitability in reprocessing plant head-end filtration. The filter was tested with simulated slurry containing between 25 and 400 ppm of calcium carbonate particulates in the size ranges 45 to 53 micron and 53 to 75 micron at varying flow rates. Procedures were developed for dislodging the layer of solids on the cartidridges and regenerating the filter remotely. Application of 5.4 kg/cm 2 air to the dome of the filter during regenaration was found to be optimum for dislodging the particulate layer on the cartridges. No difficulties due to choking of the filter cartridges were experienced during operation and good regeneration by remote operation was possible. Approach velocity at the filter medium was about 6 cm/min. The efficiency of regeneration was better than 90%. Filtration efficiency was found to be better than 90%. Solid loading capacity was found to increase with increase of particle size and feed concentration. (author). 2 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P phytosterol dose (-8.9 +/- 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (-5.0 +/- 2.1%; P = 0.077). Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054.

  20. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. Design: In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Results: Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P phytosterol dose (−8.9 ± 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (−5.0 ± 2.1%; P = 0.077). Conclusions: Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054. PMID:19889819

  1. Post Feed-in Scheme Photovoltaic System Feasibility Evaluation in Italy: Sicilian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Squatrito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to national energy policies, over recent years the Italian photovoltaic (PV sector has undergone an extraordinary growth, also affecting the primary sector. In this context, Mediterranean greenhouses are well-adapted to photovoltaic systems because they represent one of the most energy-intensive sectors in agriculture. The Italian feed-in scheme ended at the beginning of 2013, making it necessary to investigate the feasibility of photovoltaic systems devoid of any electricity production-related incentives. In this paper, production cost and profitability analyses of photovoltaic electricity have been conducted, considering Mediterranean solar greenhouses in which, thanks to net metering, all the electricity produced by photovoltaic panels is self-consumed. Our results showed that grid parity is already reached for Sicilian PV systems with a capacity greater than 50 kW. Moreover, net present value, internal rate of return and discounted payback time all demonstrate the high economic convenience of all the photovoltaic investments analyzed, due to the huge savings on energy expenditures.

  2. Study on the selection method of feed water heater safety valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianzhong; Huang Chao; Hu Youqing

    2014-01-01

    The selection of the high pressure feedwater heater's safety valve usually follows the principle recommended by HEI standards in thermal power plant. However, the nuclear power plant's heaters generally need to accept a lots of drain from a moisture separator reheater (MSR). When the drain regulating valve was failure in fully open position, a large number of high pressure steam will directly goes into the heater. It make high-pressure heater have a risk of overpressure. Therefore, the safety valve selection of the heaters for nuclear power plants not only need to follow the HEI standards, but also need to check his capacity in certain special conditions. The paper established a calculation method to determine the static running point of the heaters based on characteristic equations of the feed water heater, drain regulating valve and steam extraction pipings, and energy balance principle. The method can be used to calculate the equilibrium pressure of various special running conditions, so further determine whether the capacity of the safety valve meets the requirements of safety and emissions. The method proposed in this paper not only can be used for nuclear power plants, can also be used for thermal power plants. (authors)

  3. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhuo Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT and renewable portfolio standards (RPS are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors with the analysis of the existing literature, and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of long-term development of the renewable energy power industry under FIT and RPS schemes. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of coordination between the two policy tools in the development of the renewable energy power industry. In addition, as an example of development of renewable energy industry, the paper studies the development of China’s photovoltaic power industry under different scenarios. The models proposed in this paper can provide a reference for scholars to study development of the renewable energy power industry in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of the renewable energy power’s long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China’s photovoltaic power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government.

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference? : A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, Clara

    2001-01-01

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly. Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates o...

  5. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  6. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  7. Supplementary feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L with late harvested hay. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rehbinder

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fodder available for roedeer during wintertime, late harvested hay was placed on racks early in November in three consecutive years. Freeezing kept the hay dry and fresh during all three winters. In the first winter, with much snow, the bulk of the hay was consumed whereas consumption in the two subsequent mild winters was low and selective. The crude protein content of the hay was low (3.5 - 8.4% dry matter. Metabolizable energy estimated from digestion in vitro was 3.5 — 5.6 MJ per kg dry matter. Rumen liquor from roe deer during a mild winter gave lower in vitro digestion than liquor from sheep fed with ordinary rations. The value of this poor hay for roe deer is discussed with respect to the animals requirements, seasonal adaption, the energy and protein content of the hay, water consumption and normal behavior. The results indicate that late harvested hay may be more suitable than regularly harvested hay or concentrates to help roe deer to survive spells of severe winter conditions. With late harvested hay placed out at several localized feeding sites, the risks of indigestion and dehydration, associated with a more concentrated, feed, are minimized and the ranking among the roe deer in particular will be less important and thus more animals will have improved prospects of gaining access to the fodder.Tilskottsutfodring av rådjur (Capreolus capreolus L med sent skordat ho. En pilotstudie.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I avsikt att, for rådjur, oka mångden tillgångligt foder under vintertid, skordades och håssjades ho i borjan av november under tre på varandra foljande år. Hoet fros torn och holl sig fårskt alla vintrarna. Forstå vintern med mycket sno konsumerades huvuddelen av hoet medan de två foljande milda vintrarna konsumptionen var låg och selektiv. Mångden råprotein i hoet var lågt (3.5 — 8.4 % i torrsubstans. Innehållet av omsåttbar energi beråknad från digestion in vitro var 3

  8. Economic, welfare and environmental impact of feed-in tariff policy: A case study in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Sharareh Majdzadeh; Hadian, Ebrahim; Marzban, Hossein; Zibaei, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Following a particular attention given to environmental issues over the last few decades, establishing proper developmental policies to increase electricity production from renewable energy (RE) has not only been an important issue but also a challenge for many countries. Feed-in Tariff (FIT) Policy is one of the tools that is being used to facilitate the development of RE. This research evaluated the economic, welfare and environmental impact of this policy on Iran's economy. Therefore, after developing an Economic-Energy-Environmental (E3) type of Hybrid General Equilibrium model, the effect of FIT policy was examined under different scenarios in order to find an optimal condition in which 10% of electrical energy could be produced from renewable resources. The comparison between the results showed that the application of subsidies to RE and the way the government finances these subsidies can affect the results of FIT policy. Meanwhile, regardless of the role considered for the impact of environmental factors, our policies under the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient, as it has less impact on the decline of GDP of different sectors and also has less financial cost for government. - Highlights: • E3 type of Hybrid CGE model is used under two different financing policies. • Technology neutral and technology specific scenarios are applied to these policies. • Results show the effect of our policies and scenarios on the efficiency of FIT policy. • This efficiency comes from the impact on GDP balance and government's financial cost. • The results show that, the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OFAN IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHM TO DETECT DAIRY COW PRESENCE AT THE FEED BARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the Viola-Jones algorithm for continuous detection of the feeding behaviour of dairy cows housed in an open free-stall barn. A methodology was proposed in order to train, test and validate the classifier. A lower number of positive and negative images than those used by Viola and Jones were required during the training. The testing produced the following results: hit rate of about 97.85%, missed rate of about 2.15%, and false positive rate of about 0.67%. The validation was carried out by an accuracy assessment procedure which required the time-consuming work of an operator who labelled the true position of the cows within the barn and their behaviours. The accuracy assessment revealed that among the 715 frames about 90.63% contained only true positives, whereas about 9.37% were affected by underestimation, i.e., contained also one or two false negatives. False positives occurred only in 2.93% of the analyzed frames. Though a moderate mismatch between the testing and the validation performances was registered, the results obtained revealed the adequacy of the Viola-Jones algorithm for detecting the feeding behaviour of dairy cows housed in open free-stall barns. This, in turn, opens up opportunities for an automatic analysis of cow behaviour.

  10. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  11. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Reliability study of the auxiliary feed-water system of a pressurized water reactor by faults tree and Bayesian Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lava, Deise Diana; Borges, Diogo da Silva; Guimarães, Antonio Cesar Ferreira; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feed-water System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10 -3 . (author)

  13. Reliability study of the auxiliary feed-water system of a pressurized water reactor by faults tree and Bayesian Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise Diana; Borges, Diogo da Silva; Guimarães, Antonio Cesar Ferreira; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feed-water System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10{sup -3}. (author)

  14. Ultramorphological and histological studies on the tongue of the common kingfisher in relation to its feeding habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh.A. Al-Zahaby

    2014-05-01

    The tongue of the studied bird is an elongated, tubby and consistent organ of triangular shape of about 8.9 mm in length. It drops in the posterior quarter of the lower part of the very long bill. It is composed of three successive regions; blunt apex, stocky body and root. In addition to the giant conical papillae demarcating the tongue’s body from root, numerous caudally directed spiny conical papillae are differently distributed on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the lingual body and root. Both papillae appears to help catching and directly swallowing preys, however the apex is covered with superposed foliate papillae. By light microscope, the dorsal lingual epithelium is composed of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The stratum basale is followed by a thick stratum spinosum of polyhedral cells containing some deeply embedded taste buds and gives rise to the stratum corneum cell layer. The loose connective tissue core (lamina propria which embraces some blood vessels and melanocytes forms finger-like dermal papillae of different heights under the epithelium. It also contains branched tubulo-alveolar salivary glands mainly of massive gelatinous mucus secreted on the epithelial surface to facilitate food-intake indicating a close relationship of the lingual structure with the common kingfisher feeding habit which feeds mainly on fishes and aquatic arthropods.

  15. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James A; Teplitsky, Céline; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter H; Birkhead, Tim R; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Côté, Steeve D; Coulson, John C; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H M; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W; Furness, Robert W; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J; Lens, Luc; Linnell, John D C; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merilä, Juha; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nisbet, Ian C T; van Noordwijk, Arie J; Oro, Daniel; Pärt, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Réale, Denis; Rockwell, Robert F; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S; Swenson, Jon E; Thébaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F; Wilson, Alastair J; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbohydrate- vs fat-controlled diet effect on weight loss and coronary artery disease risk: a pilot feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Masri, Basem; Hogg, Jeannette; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Chiu, Ya-Lin

    2010-10-01

    This pilot study compared weight loss and serum indicators of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk between 2 weight loss (energy-deficit) diets, one controlled for carbohydrate as a percentage of total calories and the other controlled for fat as percentage of total calories. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 diets and fed on an outpatient basis for 70 days, after which they followed their diets using their own resources for an additional 70 days. Energy deficit for the diets was determined by indirect calorimetry with a 500- to 750-calorie per day adjustment. Weight and CAD risk indicators and serum lipid and C-reactive protein levels were measured at baseline, day 70, and day 140. The study was completed by 16 of 20 participants who were able to comply with the feeding portion of the study as well as with follow-up appointments during the second (self-management) period of the study. Participants lost weight in both diet groups (24.4 lbs, carbohydrate controlled; 18.5 lbs, fat controlled), and serum CAD risk factors decreased in both groups. There were no significant differences in CAD risk factors between diet groups, although there was a trend toward lighter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size in the carbohydrate-controlled group. During the self-management portion of the study, weight loss stalled or regained from loss during the previous feeding period. The results, although underpowered, are consistent with recent studies in which macronutrient ratio of total calories in diet did not affect degree of weight loss and in which carbohydrate-controlled diets produced a predominance of lighter LDLs.

  17. Breast feeding practices and associated factors in Bhaktapur District of Nepal: A community based cross-sectional study among lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding is a major determinant of survival, future nutrition and health status of children. Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. It is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF is superior to non-exclusive breast-feeding with a protective effect against both morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to explore the breast feeding practice and affecting factors in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2007 in a rural area of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Total 333 lactating mothers having a child less than 6 months were interviewed using pretested questionnaire with her written consent. Analysis was performed in Statistical Pakage of Social Science-13 version applying appropriate statistics. Results were presented in tabular and narrative forms. Results: Among 333 mothers (mean age ± standard deviation 24.68 ± 4.16 years, majority (76.6% were 20-30 years. Almost 83.0% were Hindus, 25.8% illiterate, 62.8% house-wives and 53.5% from joint family with low economic status. About 48.0% had a baby of 2-4 months, 86.0% avoided pre-lacteal feeding, 87.1% fed colostrums, 27.9% fed the first milk within half an hour and 55.0% practiced exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months. Child′s age, education, religion, occupation, family type and knowledge level were significant (P < 0.05 factors affecting to breast feeding. Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of women initiated breast-feeding early after birth, the prevalence of EBF for 6 months was very low and a large portion had poor practice of breast feeding. Education, relationship of mother with a family member and level of knowledge were found most significant factors. Appropriate measures such as public awareness and effective counseling will support

  18. Modulation of innate immunity and gene expressions in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following long-term starvation and re-feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; C. Man, Siti Nursafura; W. Morni, Wan Zabidii; N.A. Suhaili, Awangku Shahrir; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Hsu, Chih-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The survival rate, weight loss, immune parameters, resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ß-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppA), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), integrin ß, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), and extracellular copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) were examined in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (8.18 ± 0.86 g body weight) which had been denied food (starved) for up to 14–28 days. Among shrimp which had been starved for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, 100%, 90%, 71%, and 59% survived, and they lost 3.2%, 7.3%, 9.2%, and 10.4% of their body weight, respectively. Hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), and SOD activity significantly decreased in shrimp which had been starved for 1, 1, 1, 5, 14, and 3 days, respectively. The expression of integrin ß significantly decreased after 0.5–5 days of starvation, whereas the expressions of LGBP, PX, proPO I, proPO II, ppA, and α2-M increased after 0.5–1 days. Transcripts of all genes except ecCuZnSOD decreased to the lowest level after 5 days, and tended to background values after 7 and 14 days. Cumulative mortality rates of 7-day-starved shrimp challenged with V. alginolyticus and WSSV were significantly higher than those of challenged control-shrimp for 1–7 and 1–4 days, respectively. In another experiment, immune parameters of shrimp which had been starved for 7 and 14 days and then received normal feeding (at 5% of their body weight daily) were examined after 3, 6, and 12 h, and 1, 3, and 5 days. All immune parameters of 7-day-starved shrimp were able to return to their baseline values

  19. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  20. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  1. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  2. Price and quality of livestock feeds in suburban markets of West Africa’s Sahel: Case study from Bamako, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ayantunde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In West African Sahel cities, livestock husbandry such as smallholder dairy production and livestock (cattle, sheep and goat fattening has become popular among livestock owners to meet food needs for the household, and for income generation. The increasing importance of urban and suburban agriculture, particularly livestock husbandry in the region, has led to a rapid increase in livestock populations in most of the cities. As a result of this increase and the associated growth in the demand for feeds, feed markets have sprung up in many cities and towns of West Africa’s Sahel. A survey of livestock feed markets was conducted in five markets in Bamako, Mali. Prices of livestock feeds were monitored monthly from January to December 2010. In addition, feed samples were collected from the markets for laboratory analysis to determine their nutritional quality. Results showed that the prices of cowpea hay and groundnut haulm were consistently higher than those of other feeds throughout the year. The price of cowpea hay ranged from 367 FCFA/kg dry matter (DM (1 USD ≈ 500 FCFA in October, i.e. immediately after harvest, to 667 FCFA/kg DM in August, i.e. in the wet season. Results also showed that there was no relationship between price and quality for all feed types. However, prices and quality of feeds differed significantly across seasons suggesting that the season was a major determinant for the price of livestock feeds in suburban areas of West Africa’s Sahel.

  3. Study on behaviour in long term of vitrified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.

    1993-01-01

    In collaboration with EDF (Electricite de France), after testing fusion of Refiom (Residus d'Epuration des Fumees d'Incineration d'Ordures Menageres), residues from purification of incineration smokes of household rubbish, realised at Porcheville and at the Laboratory of Renardieres with experimental processing of vitrification by plasma, CEA (Centre d'Etudes Atomiques), atomic center of research, began study on resistance in long term of vitrified products. From about thirty five years, CEA carries out research to confine radioactive waste of high activity in stable materials. Glass was the first best one which allowed to incorporate about thirty different chemical elements found in fission products solutions into a stable die with a good chemical durability; three vitrification shops raised, one at Marcoule ('AVM', 1978) in the south of France, the two other ones at La Hague ('R7', 1989 and 'T7', 1992) in Normandy. To determine a possible impact of a deep radioactive waste disposal on human and environment, several studies began. In particular, studies on aqueous corrosion of glasses to determine behaviour in long term of glass package (first barrier of confinement) and to estimate kinetics of releasing confined toxical elements on periods of several thousands years. Principal results are exposed in this conference. Experience shows that safety analysis cannot be based on long term extrapolation of a simple lixiviation result. This analysis must include: a sufficient knowledge in basic mechanisms of alteration to predict the kinetic evolution in a long term. To take in account environment conditions with a normal or accidental scheme (acidity, clay, organic compounds,...). This knowledge broadly developed by CEA for nuclear glasses seems to be easily transposable to different wastes (industrial ones or from hospitals) and takes place in a contract of research CEA/EDF to valorize vitrified products. 9 figs. 4 refs

  4. Study of accelerated unit unloading mode initiated by turbine feed pump trip with TVSA fuel assemblies operation in WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysenko, V.I.; Kadenko, I.N.; Samoilenko, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the study results of accelerated unit unloading mode (AUU) initiated at WWER-1000 unit operated at 100 % power and its expediency in the event of single Turbo Feed Pump (TFP) failure. Modeling was performed using an advanced calculation code RELAP/SCDAPSIM/Mod3.4 and relevant model for KhNPP Unit No. 2. As the study shows, SCRAM cannot be prevented in case of failure of 3 main circulation pumps due to steam generators (SG) level drop. Based on the results obtained, it is reasonably justified to allow SCRAM signal instead of AUU activation in case of single TFP failure at power level more than 90 % of N n om. This will provide more sparing temperature modes for fuel assemblies and equipment, as well as prevent additional thermal cycling loads and violation of safe operation limits as SG water levels

  5. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  6. Microflora and mycotoxin contamination in poultry feed mixtures from western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielska-Radziejewska, Renata; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Szablewski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of feeds with pathogenic microflora and mycotoxins constitutes a serious threat both for animals and humans. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of risk of the occurrence of microscopic fungi, selected bacteria and mycotoxins from the trichothecene group in poultry feeds in western Poland. In feed mixtures, the concentration of ergosterol (ERG), being a specific quantitative biomarker for the content of microscopic fungi, was determined. Grower and finisher feeds were characterized by a higher count of bacteria and fungi in comparison to starter feeds. A considerable variation was found in the amount of ergosterol in analyzed feeds. Mean ergosterol content in feeds amounted to 19.34 mg/kg. The most common genera of fungi detected in the tested feeds included Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Mucor. Irrespective of the type of feed, the proportion of trichothecenes group B was five times higher than that of trichothecenes group A in relation to the total content of these mycotoxins in samples. In terms of the analyzed mycotoxins, feeds contained the highest concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). A statistically significant correlation was shown between DON and ERG and between total trichothecenes and ERG. Recorded results indicate that the level of microbiological contamination in feeds for broiler chickens produced in western Poland is within the requirements of the binding standards.

  7. Effectiveness of Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) on complementary feeding in Koibatek, Kenya: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, Mildred; Kimiywe, Judith; Iron-Segev, Sharon

    2018-05-08

    Appropriate infant and young child nutrition is critical for proper growth and development. In order to promote optimal nutrition at an early age, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF have developed the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) to address poor breastfeeding practices in maternity wards. However, impact is limited in less developed countries like Kenya, where more than half of all births are home deliveries. Therefore, Kenya has explored the adoption of Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) in its rural settings. In contrast to the BFHI, the BFCI supports breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding in community. BFCI has been implemented in Koibatek, in rural Kenya. This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of BFCI on complementary feeding practices of children aged 6-23 months, by comparing intervention and control groups. This was a randomized control study design that included 270 mother-infant pairs enrolled in the Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) project in Koibatek. Evaluation was carried out using structured questionnaires. A statistically significantly higher proportion of children in the intervention group compared to the control group attained minimum dietary diversity (77% vs. 58%; p = 0.001), minimum meal frequency (96% vs. 89%; p = 0.046) and minimum acceptable diet (77% vs. 61%; p = 0.005). The odds of attaining minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group compared to control group (OR: 4.95; 95%CI 2.44-10.03, p = < 0.001; OR: 14.84; 95%CI 2.75-79.9, p = 0.002; OR: 4.61; 95%CI 2.17-9.78, p = < 0.001 respectively). The BFCI intervention was successful in improving complementary feeding practices. Strengthening and prioritizing BFCI interventions could have a significant impact on child health outcomes in rural Kenya. ISRCTN03467700 . Registration 24 September 2014. Retrospectively

  8. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  9. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    2004-02-01

    Micro-structure of rock plays an essential role for their long-term behavior. For understanding long-term characteristics of granite we here present the followings: 1) observation of microcrack initiation and propagation by Conforcal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) under uniaxial compression (before loading and at each loading stage), 2) characterization of the mechanism of microcrack initiation and propagation observed by stereoscopic microscope under uniaxial/triaxial compression and relaxation tests, and 3) a study of strong discontinuity analysis included in the homogenization theory to predict the long-term behavior of micro/macro-level stress for granite. First, CLSM was used to acquire clearly focused three-dimensional images of granite specimens, and observed the change of microscale structure including the mineral configuration under applying uniaxial compression stress. Then though microcracks have ever thought to be initiated and propagated on intergranular boundaries, we understand through the CLSM observation that new microcracks are generated from the ends of pre-existing cracks which are distributed in quartz and biotite. Second, we showed the results of stress-relaxation test of granite specimens observed by an optical microscope under water-saturated triaxial compression condition. Since microcrack generation and propagation play an essential role to predict the long-term behavior of rock, we managed the experiments with careful attention of 1) keeping constant edge-displacement and constant strain in the whole specimen accurately, and 2) measuring the relaxed stress exactly. Next, in order to simulate the experimental results which indicate that initiation and propagation of microcracks control the stress-relaxation phenomenon, we introduce a homogenization analysis procedure together with the strong discontinuity analysis which has recently established the mechanical implication and mathematical foundation. The numerical results show that we can

  10. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, Åsa Grytli; Bolkesjø, Torjus Folsland; Martinsen, Thomas; Hvarnes, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  11. Depletion study, withdrawal period calculation and bioaccumulation of sulfamethazine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) treated with medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Vallim, José H; Assalin, Márcia R; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Paraíba, Lourival C; Jonsson, Claudio M; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-04-01

    The residue depletion of sulfamethazine (SMZ) was evaluated in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after 11 days of administration of medicated feed containing SMZ, at the dose of 422 mg/kg body weight (bw). The determination of SMZ in feed and tilapia fillet was carried out using the QuEChERS approach for sample preparation, and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) for quantitation, respectively. Both methods were validated based on international and Brazilian guidelines and shown to be suitable for the intended purposes. The withdrawal period to reach the maximum residue level (MRL) of 100 μg/kg, according to the European Union (EU) legislative framework to all substances belonging to the sulfonamide (SA) group (EU, 2010), was 10 days (260 °C-day). After treatment, the maximum level of SMZ accumulation in the tilapia muscle was 1.6 mg/kg. SMZ was shown to be quickly excreted by tilapia. Thus, considering the acceptable daily intake of SMZ established by the Codex Commission (0-0.05 mg/kg bw), and a factor of 5 times the upper amount of fish consumption in Brazil (38 kg/year), this study showed that there is a low risk of adverse effects to consumers. This study offers subsidies not only for the establishment of public policies with regard to the use of veterinary drugs currently not allowed in a country by their legal legislative framework for fish farming, but also to fish producers for the proper handling to ensure safe fish fillets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studying the Puzzle of the Pion Nucleon Sigma Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Christopher; Lin, Huey-Wen

    2017-09-01

    The pion nucleon sigma term (σπN) is a fundamental parameter of QCD and is integral in the experimental search for dark matter particles as it is used to calculate the cross section of interactions between potential dark matter candidates and nucleons. Recent calculations of this term from lattice-QCD data disagree with calculations done using phenomenological data. This disparity is large enough to cause concern in the dark matter community as it would change the constraints on their experiments. We investigate one potential source of this disparity by studying the flavor dependence on LQCD data used to calculate σπN. To calculate σπN, we study the nucleon mass dependence on the pion mass and implement the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem. Previous calculations only consider LQCD data that accounted for 2 and 3 of the lightest quarks in the quark sea. We extend this study by using new high statistic data that considers 2, 3, and 4 quarks in the quark sea to see if the exclusion of the heavier quarks can account for this disparity. National Science Foundation.

  13. Factors associated with mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta

    2017-06-05

    Malnutrition is a public health concern in Ethiopia. This might be correlated with inappropriate infant and young child feeding practice. This in turn is affected by Mothers' knowledge on feeding practice. However, information on mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was designed to assess mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation and associated factors in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1-26/2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected by pretested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Knowledge score was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with maternal knowledge. Only 28.7% of mothers had sufficient knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation. Factors associated with mothers, knowledge were above primary education [AOR 2.5, 95% CI (1.5, 3.9)], possession of radio [AOR 1.7, 95% CI (1.1, 2.7)], attending antenatal care [AOR 2.4, 95% CI (1.5, 4.0)], and having employed husband [AOR 2.3, 95% CI (1.2, 4.4)]. Mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was very low. Hence, education on infant and young child feeding recommendation should be strengthened during antenatal care visit and using mass media especially for mothers with lower educational status to fill up of this gap.

  14. Study of Tannin- degrading bacteria isolated from Pistachio soft hulls and feces of goat feeding on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tannins (tannic acid are toxic, high molecular weight and water- soluble polyphenols that are present in many plants such as pistachio and its by- products. Wide ranges of microorganisms including bacteria tolerate tannin and degrade it. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tannin- tolerant bacteria from pistachio soft hulls (P- SH and feces of goat before and after feeding on this by- product as tannin rich diet. Materials and methods: Tannin tolerant bacteria were isolated from enrichment cultures of samples in medium containing tannic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. Tannin hydrolyzing ability of isolates was confirmed by observation of clear zones around the colonies. The increasing concentrations of tannin on minimal salt medium (MSM agar plates were used to test the maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs. Furthermore, in the supplemented media tannin concentrations were measured by bovine serum albumin (BSA precipitation assay during time intervals. Results: Tannin- degrading bacterial population of P- SH was about only 10.3% of total population. More than 50 percent of tannin degrading strains were isolated from goat feces after grazing on tannin rich diet. Isolated bacteria were Gram- negative and positive rod species belonging to Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Among the isolated bacteria 71.4% could tolerate the concentration of 64 g/l of tannin in their media while only 7.2% were able to tolerate the maximum tannin concentration of 16 g/l. Bacterial isolates of goat feces could degrade tannin more than 72% after 72 h of incubation. In the case of soft P- SH isolates, the biodegradation percentage was between 17- 75%. Discussion and conclusion: Feeding of tannin rich diet induced a shift in digestive system microbial profile with increased population of tannin tolerant bacteria. The ability of isolated strains provides novel insights for the role they can

  15. Comparative Study of Esophageal Self-expandable Metallic Stent Insertion and Gastrostomy Feeding for Dysphagia Caused by Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Min, Yang Won; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2018-03-25

    Dysphagia is encountered in a large proportion of patients with lung cancer and is associated with malnutrition and a poor quality of life. This study compared the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) feeding for patients with lung cancer and dysphagia. A total of 261 patients with lung cancer, who underwent either SEMS insertion (stent group) or PG (gastrostomy group) as an initial treatment procedure for dysphagia between July 1997 and July 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center, were reviewed retrospectively, and 84 patients with esophageal obstruction were identified. The clinical outcomes, including the overall survival, additional intervention, complications, and post-procedural nutritional status in the two groups, were compared. Among the 84 patients finally analyzed, 68 patients received SEMS insertion and 16 had PG. The stent group had less cervical obstruction and more mid-esophageal obstruction than the gastrostomy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed similar overall survival in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the two modalities had similar survival rates (PG compared with SEMS insertion, hazard ratio 0.682, p=0.219). Fifteen patients (22.1%) in the stent group received additional intervention, whereas there was no case in the gastrostomy group (p=0.063). The decrease in the serum albumin level after the procedure was lower in the gastrostomy group than in the stent group (-0.20±0.54 g/dL vs. -0.65±0.57 g/dL, p=0.013). SEMS insertion and PG feeding for relieving dysphagia by lung cancer had a comparable survival outcome. On the other hand, PG was associated with a better nutritional status.

  16. Cross-sectional analysis of eating patterns and snacking in the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Jacquier, Emma; Eldridge, Alison L

    2017-06-01

    To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6-47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula). The percentage of children consuming meals and snacks and their contribution to total energy, the number of snacks consumed per day, energy and nutrients coming from snacks and the most commonly consumed snacks were evaluated by age. A national sample of US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. A total of 2891 children in five age groups: 6-8 months (n 249), 9-11 months (n 256), 12-23 months (n 925), 24-35 months (n 736) and 36-47 months (n 725). Snacks were already consumed by 37 % of infants beginning at 6 months; by 12 months of age, nearly 95 % were consuming at least one snack per day. Snacks provided 25 % of daily energy from the age of 12 months. Approximately 40 % of toddlers and pre-school children consumed fruit and cow's milk during snacks; about 25 % consumed 100 % fruit juice. Cookies were introduced early; by 24 months, 57 % consumed cookies or candy in a given day. Snacking is common, contributing significantly to daily energy and nutrient needs of toddlers and pre-school children. There is room for improvement, however, with many popular snacking choices contributing to excess sugar.

  17. The influence of father's child feeding knowledge and practices on children's dietary diversity: a study in urban and rural districts of Northern Ethiopia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Selamawit M; Dinant, GeertJan; Blanco, Roman; Crutzen, Rik; Mulugeta, Afework; Spigt, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Infant and young child feeding has been recognised as an essential element to improve growth of children, especially in developing countries where malnutrition among children and its dire consequences are very prevalent. However, little attention has been paid on the influence of fathers on child feeding practices, although fathers are very important in raising well-adjusted, happy and successful children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the influence of fathers' child feeding knowledge and practice on children's dietary diversity. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 850 eligible urban and rural households with children of 6-23 months. The father and mother of the child were interviewed on children's dietary diversity and fathers' knowledge and practice of child feeding. Nearly half (46%) of the children in the rural district did not meet the minimum dietary diversity, and in the urban district, the rate was even worse (72%). Grains were the common food group given to the children in both districts, whereas flesh food was the least commonly consumed food group. Additionally, low vitamin A-rich food and other fruit and vegetable consumption seem to be a problem in both districts. Almost all dimensions of fathers' knowledge and practice were significantly related to children's minimum dietary diversity; especially, fathers' knowledge of food groups was an important predictor (P-value child feeding, especially about food groups, are recommended to improve children's dietary diversity in the study communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of long term feeding diets differing in protein source and pre-slaughter starvation on biometry, qualitative traits and liver IGF-I expression in large rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Tibaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding two complete extruded diets differing in protein source (fish meal-FM vs. vegetable proteins-VP over 30 weeks and subsequent 30 days of starvation on biometry, fillet composition and liver IGF-I mRNA were studied in large rainbow trout. At the end of the feeding period, the dietary protein source little affected major biometry traits, dressing out yields and overall adiposity (P>0.05 but fish given the VP diet resulted in higher content of PUFA n-6 fatty acids in mus- cle (0.46 vs. 0.22 g/100g fillet, P0.05 and of all fatty acids in fillet (P<0.05, except DHA. Liver IGF-I mRNA content was little affected by the test diet and starvation.

  19. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  20. Innovated feed water distributing system of VVER steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Sousek, P.; Simo, T.; Lehota, M.; Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.

    2000-01-01

    Defects in feed water distributing system due to corrosion-erosion effects have been observed at many VVER 440 steam generators (SG). Therefore analysis of defects origin and consequently design development and testing of a new feed water distributing system were performed. System tests in-situ supported by calculations and comparison of measured and calculated data were focused on demonstration of long term reliable operation, definition of water flow and water chemical characteristics at the SG secondary side and their measurements and study of dynamic characteristics needed for the innovated feed water distributing system seismic features approval. The innovated feed water distributing system was installed in the SGs of two VVER units already. (author)

  1. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Sofia Irene; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant's energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0-2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value.

  2. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntysaari Esa A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

  3. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  4. A study of the long-term properties of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y-C; Lee, D-S; Cho, M-S [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J-H [Korea Inst. of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Creep, drying, shrinkage, modulus of elasticity and Poisson`s ratio of concrete are influenced by a number of factors, such as mix type, member thickness, curing condition and loading cases. Particularly, creep and, shrinkage in concrete have yet to be studied due to its complicated time-dependent properties. Also they are not clearly differentiated quantitatively. In this paper, the concrete tests of creep, modulus of elasticity and Poisson`s ratio were carried out at various ages of loading -7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days in order to investigate and quantify its long-term properties. The test procedures and analysis of the test results were also described herein. The results of this study will make it possible to calculate effective prestressing forces considering time-dependent prestressing loss and evaluate the structural integrity of the prestressing system using the representative values derived from this property test. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. A study of the long-term properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y-C.; Lee, D-S.; Cho, M-S.; Lee, J-H.

    1995-01-01

    Creep, drying, shrinkage, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of concrete are influenced by a number of factors, such as mix type, member thickness, curing condition and loading cases. Particularly, creep and, shrinkage in concrete have yet to be studied due to its complicated time-dependent properties. Also they are not clearly differentiated quantitatively. In this paper, the concrete tests of creep, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio were carried out at various ages of loading -7, 28, 90, 180 and 365 days in order to investigate and quantify its long-term properties. The test procedures and analysis of the test results were also described herein. The results of this study will make it possible to calculate effective prestressing forces considering time-dependent prestressing loss and evaluate the structural integrity of the prestressing system using the representative values derived from this property test. (author). 5 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Long-term bird study records Arctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    Alaska's summer of 2005 was the second warmest on record there, with a record retreat of arctic pack ice. As Alaskan temperatures gradually increase, artic birds, such as the black guillemots of Cooper Island, near Barrow, Alaska, are experiencing drastic habitat changes. Though these small black and white birds—the subjects of a long-term study of climate change—fared better this year than they have in the recent past (due to local cool conditions), they are nonetheless struggling to adapt as their artic island summer home becomes subarctic.George Divokyan ornithologist at the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, discovered the Cooper Island colony of guillemots in the early 1970s and has spent every summer since 1975 there studying these birds. He presented his latest research during a 3 November talk in Washington, D.C.

  7. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  8. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-04-02

    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  9. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  10. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L"−"1 of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  11. Effects of long term feeding of Quillaja saponins on sex ratio, muscle and serum cholesterol and LH levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Avitan, Ayelet; Becker, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Seventeen-day-old Nile tilapia fry were fed a standard diet (C) or diets containing 50-700 mg kg(-1) Quillaja saponin (QS) extract (groups S50, S150, S300, S500 and S700). After the first 8 weeks, 30 randomly selected tilapia from each of the treatments were placed in separate aquaria and fed the standard diet without saponins from then on (these were designated S50/C, S150/C, S300/C, S500/C and S700/C). The fish grew from an initial average weight of approximately 30 mg to a final average weight of 79 g during the 6-month feeding period. The difference between the average weight of C-fed tilapia and the treatment with the highest average weight after 6 months was 53.5%. The sex ratio of tilapia in the saponin-fed groups deviated from the normal 50:50 male:female ratio, with the S700 group showing a significantly higher number of males. Quillaja saponin stimulated LH release from dispersed tilapia pituitary cells in vitro. This effect was abolished in the presence of dilute calf serum. Serum LH values did not show any diet-dependent trend in either male or female tilapia in vivo. In both continuously saponin-fed and only-initially saponin-fed groups, the average serum (but not muscle) cholesterol levels in males showed an increasing trend (R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.69) with increasing dietary saponin level. It was concluded that dietary QS has the potential to change the sex-ratio in favour of males. More investigations are required to determine the mechanism of action and the optimum dietary level of QS for maximum effects.

  12. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content – A 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore...... for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional...... concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption....

  13. Fish weights - Incorporation of Plant Proteins into Marine Finfish Feeds, a NWFSC-YSFRI Joint Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This international study is funded through the NOAA Fisheries Office of Science and Technology. The overall goal of the proposed research is to identify fishery...

  14. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation causes performance loss in spiral-wound membrane systems. In this study a microfiltration membrane was used in experiments to simulate fouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules without the influence of concentration polarization. The resistance of a microfiltration membrane is much lower than the intrinsic biofilm resistance, enabling the detection of biofilm accumulation in an early stage. The impact of biofilm accumulation on the transmembrane (biofilm) resistance and feed channel pressure drop as a function of the crossflow velocity (0.05 and 0.20ms-1) and feed spacer presence was studied in transparent membrane biofouling monitors operated at a permeate flux of 20Lm-2h-1. As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop. The effect was strongest at the highest crossflow velocity (0.2ms-1) and in the presence of a feed spacer. Simulating conditions as currently applied in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations (crossflow velocity 0.2ms-1 and standard feed spacer) showed that the impact of biofilm formation on performance, in terms of transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop, was strong. This emphasized the importance of hydrodynamics and feed spacer design. Biomass accumulation was related to the nutrient load (nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity). Reducing the nutrient concentration of the feed water enabled the application of higher crossflow velocities. Pretreatment to remove biodegradable nutrient and removal of biomass from the membrane elements played an important part to prevent or restrict biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. How to feed environmental studies with soil information to address SDG 'Zero hunger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2017-04-01

    As pledged by UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, there should be zero hunger, food security, improved food nutrition and sustainable agriculture by 2030. Environmental studies are essential to reach SDG 2. Soils play a crucial role, especially in addressing 'Zero hunger'. This study aims to discuss the connection between the supply and demand of soil data for environmental studies and how this connection can be improved illustrating different methods. As many studies are resource constrained, the options to collect new soil data are limited. Therefore, it is essential to use existing soil information, auxiliary data and collected field data efficiently. Existing soil data are criticised in literature as i) being dominantly qualitative, ii) being often outdated, iii) being not spatially exhaustive, iv) being only available at general scales, v) being inconsistent, and vi) lacking quality assessments. Additional field data can help to overcome some of these problems. Outdated maps can, for example, be improved by collecting additional soil data in areas where changes in soil properties are expected. Existing soil data can also provide insight in the expected soil variability and, as such, these data can be used for the design of sampling schemes. Existing soil data are also crucial input for studies on digital soil mapping because they give information on parent material and the relative age of soils. Digital soil mapping is commonly applied as an efficient method to quantitatively predict the spatial variation of soil properties. However, the efficiency of digital soil mapping may increase if we look at functional soil properties (e.g. nutrient availability, available water capacity) for the soil profile that vary in a two-dimensional space rather than at basic soil properties of individual soil layers (e.g. texture, organic matter content, nitrogen content) that vary in a three-dimensional space. Digital soil mapping techniques are based on statistical

  16. Breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations, by maternal allergic status, in the first 2 years of life (KOALA study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Bianca F. P.; Thijs, Carel; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Stelma, Foekje F.; Mommers, Monique; Kummeling, Ischa; Penders, John; van Ree, Ronald; van den Brandt, Piet A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential effect of modification by maternal allergic status on the relationship between breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life. Study design Data from 2705 infants of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands) were

  17. Breast-feeding duration and child eating characteristics in relation to later vegetable intake in 2–6-year-old children in ten studies throughout Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Jager, Gerry; Olsen, Annemarie; Costarelli, Vassiliki; Boer, Eric; Zeinstra, Gertrude G.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Breast-feeding is thought to facilitate young children’s acceptance of new foods, including vegetables, but the evidence for this relationship appears inconsistent across studies. Increasing children’s vegetable intake remains challenging; therefore the present study aimed to investigate

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  20. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  1. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  2. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  3. A study on discrete event dynamic model for nuclear operations of main feed water pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J. C.; Choi, J. I.

    2000-01-01

    A major objective of the study is to propose a supervisory control algorithm based on the discrete event dynamic system (DEDS) model and apply it to the automation of nuclear operations. The study is motivated by the suitability of the DEDS model for simulation of man-made control action and the potential of the DEDS based supervisory control algorithm for enhanced licensibility, when implemented in nuclear plants, through design transparency due to strong analytic backgrounds. The DEDS model can analytically show the robust stability of the proposed supervisory controller providing design transparency for enhanced licensibility when implemented in nuclear operations

  4. Biochemical studies on some anti nutritional factors in some feed stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, M.F.S.

    2001-01-01

    the present work was carried out to study the effect of gamma radiation on some anti nutritional factors in sorghum and barley grains. also,to study the effect of the other treatments(poly ethlene glycol or K-enzyme ) on the physiological and biochemical responses of chicks (arbor acres). the results obtained revealed that , the treatment of sorghum or barley grains with different doses of gamma radiation (0,10,40,60,80 and 100 KGy) did not induce any significant differences in the dry matter and ash percentages. while, the crud fat, crud protein and crude fiber percentages were reduced, in contrast, the carbohydrate percentage was increased

  5. Exposure to organic dust and respiratory disorders : an epidemiological study in the animal feed industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, T.

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 1 summarises the background of the study. Nonmalignant respiratory disorders account for a significant part of sick leave diagnoses (19%), disability pension (3.4%) and mortality (7%). The rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases has risen substantially during the last 10 to

  6. Feeding status of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum affects biological control of Plutella xylostella: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerik, L.

    2007-01-01

    Life history characteristics of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a worldwide pest on cruciferous crops, and its important natural enemy, the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum have intensely been studied. In addition, the searching behaviour of the parasitoid and the role of foraging

  7. Does skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding at birth affect the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage: Results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, A; Fahy, K; Rolfe, M; Skinner, V; Hastie, C

    2015-11-01

    to examine the effect of skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding within 30 minutes of birth, on the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in a sample of women who were at mixed-risk of PPH. retrospective cohort study. two obstetric units plus a freestanding birth centre in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. after excluding women (n=3671) who did not have opportunity for skin to skin and breast feeding, I analysed birth records (n=7548) for the calendar years 2009 and 2010. Records were accessed via the electronic data base ObstetriX. skin to skin contact and breast feeding within 30 minutes of birth. outcome measure was PPH i.e. blood loss of 500ml or more estimated at birth. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression (unadjusted and adjusted). after adjustment for covariates, women who did not have skin to skin and breast feeding were almost twice as likely to have a PPH compared to women who had both skin to skin contact and breast feeding (aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.72, pbirth may be effective in reducing PPH rates for women at any level of risk of PPH. The greatest effect was for women at lower risk of PPH. The explanation is that pronurturance promotes endogenous oxytocin release. Childbearing women should be educated and supported to have pronurturance during third and fourth stages of labour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infant and young child feeding practices on Unguja Island in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undernutrition in children has remained a challenge despite the success achieved in reduction of other childhood diseases in Zanzibar. Most empirical studies on infants and young child feeding (IYCF) have examined nutritional value of foods fed to the children in terms of energy and micronutrient content.

  9. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winham Donna M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17 in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29 for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI, and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11% reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists

  10. Characterization of scientific studies usually cited as evidence of adverse effects of GM food/feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2017-10-01

    GM crops are the most studied crops in history. Approximately 5% of the safety studies on them show adverse effects that are a cause for concern and tend to be featured in media reports. Although these reports are based on just a handful of GM events, they are used to cast doubt on all GM crops. Furthermore, they tend to come from just a few laboratories and are published in less important journals. Importantly, a close examination of these reports invariably shows methodological flaws that invalidate any conclusions of adverse effects. Twenty years after commercial cultivation of GM crops began, a bona fide report of an adverse health effect due to a commercialized modification in a crop has yet to be reported. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Study on long-term behavior of weak rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Seisuke

    2003-03-01

    Using the boring core obtained in the Horonobe region, the beta in triaxial compression stress state was acquired, and the examination was carried out on the effect of the confirming pressure on long-term deformation or stability of the sample rock. At first, triaxial compression tests were carried out. In the test, loading rate (strain rate) was changed several times to obtain viscoelastic properties of the sample rock. Multi-stage creep tests were also performed in triaxial compression stress. The parameter set of a constitutive equation of variable compliance type was obtained based on the testing results. In this study, a transparent triaxial cell recently developed by this author was used. The external cylinder of this vessel was made of the transparent acrylic resin. Therefore, gradual deformation of the sample under testing was easily and clearly observed. (author)

  12. Comparative Study of Milk Production and Feed Efficiency Based on Farmers Best Practices and National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare local dairy farmer ration formula with national research council in producing higher feed efficiency and milk production. This study had two stages. The first stage was in vitro study of dairy farmer rations which have different raw materials (R3, R4, and R5 with NRC based ration (R2 and Demo Farm ration (R1. The variables measured in this stage were proximate composition, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The first stage used a randomized block design with five treatments, three groups of ruminal fluid, and three replications. The second stage used nine lactating cows with three periods of lactation (one, three, and other and used a randomized block design with three treatments, three groups, and one replication. Parameters measured were dry matter intake, manure score, milk production, body weight gain, body condition score, and technical and economical efficiencies. The first stage result showed that R1, R2, and R3 were three best rations in nutrient composition and fermentability (ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were optimum for microbial growth and high digestibility, so in conclusion those three rations were the best rations and should be compared by in vivo method. The result of the second stage showed that all tested rations were not significantly different in milk production, performance and efficiency, so in conclusion those three rations have the same quality.

  13. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.

  14. An in vitro study of urea, water, ion and CO2/HCO3- transport in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias): the influence of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    In vitro gut sac preparations made from the cardiac stomach (stomach 1), pyloric stomach (stomach 2), intestine (spiral valve) and colon were used to examine the impact of feeding on transport processes in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark. Preparations were made from animals that were euthanized after 1-2 weeks of fasting, or at 24-48 h after voluntary feeding on a 3% ration of teleost fish (hake). Sacs were incubated under initially symmetrical conditions with dogfish saline on both surfaces. In comparison to an earlier in vivo study, the results confirmed that feeding caused increases in H(+) secretion in both stomach sections, but an increase in Cl(-) secretion only in stomach 2. Na(+) absorption, rather than Na(+) secretion, occurred in both stomach sections after feeding. All sections of the tract absorbed water and the intestine strongly absorbed Na(+) and Cl(-), regardless of feeding condition. The results also confirmed that feeding increased water absorption in the intestine (but not in the colon), and had little influence on the handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), which exhibited negligible absorption across the tract. However, K(+) was secreted in the intestine in both fasted and fed preparations. Increased intestinal water absorption occurred despite net osmolyte secretion into the mucosal saline. The largest changes occurred in urea and CO2/HCO3(-) fluxes. In fasted preparations, urea was absorbed at a low rate in all sections except the intestine, where it was secreted. Instead of an increase in intestinal urea secretion predicted from in vivo data, feeding caused a marked switch to net urea absorption. This intestinal urea transport occurred at a rate comparable to urea reabsorption rates reported at gills and kidney, and was apparently active, establishing a large serosal-to-mucosal concentration gradient. Feeding also greatly increased intestinal CO2/HCO3(-) secretion; if interpreted as HCO3(-) transport, the rates were in the upper range

  15. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut⁺/pAOX1-lacZ strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongxing; Jost, Laurent; Pirlot, Nathalie; Sassi, Hosni; Daukandt, Marc; Rodriguez, Christian; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-04-08

    One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h(-1) at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and heterologous protein productivities

  16. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Results Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h-1 at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. Conclusion This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and

  17. Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Linda A; Everds, Nancy E; Reynolds, Julia; Mann, Peter C; Lamb, Ian; Rood, Tracy; Schmidt, Jean; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Hinds, Mark; Locke, Mary; Chui, Chok-Fun; Claussen, Fred; Mattsson, Joel L; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-07-01

    59122 is a transgenic maize line containing event DAS-59122-7 that expresses the corn rootworm (CRW) specific pesticidal Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner strain PS149B1 and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes for tolerance to the herbicidal ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. For the current study, 59122 maize grain, non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain (091), and a commercially available non-transgenic reference maize grain (33R77) were grown under conditions simulating commercial farming practices. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed diets formulated with 35% maize grain from either 59122, 091, or 33R77, or one of two separate lots of commercially available rodent chow prepared with commercially available corn (35%) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet 5002 for approximately 90 days. All diets possessed similar nutritional and contaminant profiles. The transgenic proteins were detected only in diets prepared with 59122 maize grain and were stable over the course of the study. Compared to control groups, no adverse diet-related differences were observed in rats fed diets formulated with 59122 maize grain with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs of toxicity, mortality, ophthalmology, neurobehavioral (FOB and motor activity) assessments, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), and pathology (organ weights and gross and microscopic pathology). Results from this study indicate that 59122 maize grain is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional maize grain.

  18. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  19. Breast feeding mediators among iranian women at premarital stage a population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe breastfeeding mediators among women at pre-marital stage in Iran. Methods: Using the simple randomized sampling method, 450 participants were enrolled in this population-based cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used in order to collect data. Results: Eighty eight percent of the participants reported that had not met breastfeeding education previously. The available sources of information for 65% of respondents were radio and television. Seventy nine percent did not know any breastfeeding consultant. Mean score of participants' knowledge was lower than 50 score. Nearly 50% participants claimed the breastfeeding to be as a common barrier for their job and learning. Only 14% had intended to initiate breastfeeding immediately after childbearing. Mean score of perceived self efficacy about breastfeeding was less than 50 percent. Conclusion: Breastfeeding mediators among Iranian women at premarital stage are not in favorable situation. Findings of this study suggest a need for more breastfeeding education programs for Iranian women at premarital stage. (author)

  20. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods

  1. [Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells Cuixart, M; Capdevila Prim, C; Girbau Solà, T; Rodríguez Caba, C

    2006-01-01

    To know the family environment, living habits and social characteristics in 11-13 years-old school children. A descriptive transversal study performed in 65 schools of Barcelona during the second three-month, involving 2354 school children aged 11-13 interviewed by 73 pharmacists. The questionnaire has thirty-nine questions referring to family structure, eating and drinking habits, preferences, life style parameters such as physical activity and television viewing. The survey revealed a family unit of two children and their parents was the most common. Only a 12% of the children surveyed lived with their grandparents. Furthermore, the findings revealed a low family presence during the three main meals on the working days, which increased on weekends, 26% on breakfast, 44% on lunch and 11% on dinner. A 24% had breakfast alone and the 46% ate what they wanted. About the afternoon snack, the 25% alone and the 55% what they wanted. A 60% never or practically never participated in decision making, when buying food. A 70% reported they did other activities while eating. Concretely, a 40, 39 and 59% of the children reported they had breakfast, lunch and dinner while watching television. The consumption frequency of trinkets, soft drinks and television viewing were lower for the children from private compared to public schools. This study show that food choice at shopping was mainly done by the parents, however, children had an important role in making decisions of what food they eat and the activities they do while eating. Therefore, pharmacists could have a potential role to intervene in the nutritional education to parents and children.

  2. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  3. Safety Assessment of a New Pigmented Safflower Seed Coat (A82 by a Feeding Study on Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Karami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an annual herbaceous plant, cultivated mainly for the seed which is used for edible oil extraction and bird feeding. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82 seeds. The results showed that oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased the body weight of male rats in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Biochemical tests showed that A82 seeds significantly increased the serum levels of AST (Aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.05, slightly reduced the serum levels of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase and significantly reduced ALP (p<0.05 levels in a dose dependent manner. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen and Cr (Creatinine were not significantly changed in A82 seed treated groups. Also, testosterone levels were not significantly changed by administration of different doses of A82. However, Johnson scoring showed slightly decrease in experimental groups. No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. These results indicate that A82 seeds have not any toxic effects in Wistar rats. Future studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism by which A82 seeds alter AST levels and body weight in rat.

  4. Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada De Palma

    Full Text Available Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD. This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder.

  5. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  6. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German; Bøås, Håkon; Pepaj, Milaim; Berg, Jens P; Thorsby, Per M; Orešič, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case children who developed islet autoimmunity (n = 29) and autoantibody-negative control children (n = 29) with the HLA DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotype were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for detection of small polar metabolites. Plasma metabolite levels were found to depend strongly on age, with fold changes varying up to 50% from age 3 to 24 months (p polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Combined Effects of Ezetimibe and Phytosterols on Cholesterol Metabolism: A Randomized, Controlled Feeding Study in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B.; Lefevre, Michael; Ma, Lina; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Steger-May, Karen; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Both ezetimibe and phytosterols inhibit cholesterol absorption. We tested the hypothesis that ezetimibe combined with phytosterols is more effective than ezetimibe alone in altering cholesterol metabolism. Methods and Results Twenty-one mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, triple crossover study. Each subject received a phytosterol-controlled diet plus (1) ezetimibe placebo + phytosterol placebo, (2) 10 mg ezetimibe/day + phytosterol placebo, and (3) 10 mg ezetimibe/day + 2.5 g phytosterols/day, for 3 weeks each. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen. Primary outcomes were intestinal cholesterol absorption, fecal cholesterol excretion, and LDL cholesterol levels. The combined treatment resulted in significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (598 mg/day, 95% CI 368 to 828) relative to control (2161 mg/day, 1112 to 3209) and ezetimibe alone (1054 mg/day, 546 to 1561, both P phytosterols averaged 129 (95% CI: 116 to 142), 108 (97 to 119), and 101 (90 to 112) mg/dL (P phytosterols to ezetimibe significantly enhanced the effects of ezetimibe on whole-body cholesterol metabolism and plasma LDL cholesterol. The large cumulative action of combined dietary and pharmacologic treatment on cholesterol metabolism emphasizes the potential importance of dietary phytosterols as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21768544

  9. Study of a biogas digester feed in energy by a solar-water heating collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miri, R.; Tou, I.

    2006-01-01

    heating, the lighting and manure with high fertilising potential (stabilised mud) like amendments for the arable lands. The production of biogas could be regarded as an economic solution, decentralised and ecological with these problems through energy autonomy and a durable agricultural development of the rural zones. The bio-methane remains an energy ignored in Algeria, that in spite of several attempts at use which were undertaken since the Forties and even if it does not form part of our sociological cultural and economic traditions, it must represent the best solution to the already mentioned problems. Our study propose to produce bio-methane starting from the animal manure (dung of cows). For that an experimental device was designed and carried out. It consists of digester of 800 litters, of a gas meter bell of 600 litters, of a device of heating applied with a solar-fired heater which ensures a mesophile temperature to him and of a system of agitation of the substrate. The experimental study made it possible to optimize the process of production, for a domestic application and also to develop a system temperature control required at the entry of digester ranging between 25 and 40 degree centigrade. The model is quasi-autonomous. The achievement of this objective of research will make it possible, as we hope for it, to lay down a policy of digester installation of on a national scale.(Author)

  10. Evaluation of various feeding programmes on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaq

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various feeding ... broiler or layer diets, since these feeds are readily available and easy to purchase. ... Research was conducted on multiple-phase broiler feeding ...

  11. Combination of ozone feed and wet electrostatic precipitator. Experimental study of an innovative system to filter gaseous iodine and iodine containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouëllo, Mélany; Hokkinen, Jouni; Kärkelä, Teemu; Auvinen, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Efficient mitigation systems capable of reducing as much as possible the radioactive discharge to the environment in a severe Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident are a necessity. Nuclear Power Plants are equipped with filtration systems which have been characterized for aerosol retention in a short term, but to a far lesser extent for the retention of volatile iodine or for the long-term behaviour of the system. After the Fukushima accident, one of the main concerns of the nuclear industry has been to verify the ability of filtration systems to mitigate the possible source term to the environment. Radiotoxic iodine has a significant contribution to a possible source term in a severe NPP accident. An innovative system has been developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. to filter gaseous iodine and iodine containing particles (e.g. I x O y ). The system consists of a combination of an ozone feed and a modern wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The electrostatic precipitation (ESP) technique is widely used in the industry to filter out impurities (i.e. particles) in gases. The advantage of a WESP is that the impurities are removed from the system with a solution. They can thus directly be transported to a water container, such as the sump in a nuclear power plant. The addition of ozone feed at the inlet of the WESP allows the oxidation of gaseous iodine into particles. The efficiency of the system for the filtration of gaseous molecular iodine and methyl iodine has been tested and the subsequent observations are further discussed in this paper. The results showed that the combination of WESP together with ozone feed results in a good filtering efficiency against molecular iodine under air atmosphere and air/steam atmosphere. (author)

  12. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  13. Optimal in-feed amino acid ratio for broiler breeder hens based on deletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigam, J C P; Sakomura, N K; Sarcinelli, M F; Gonçalves, C A; de Lima, M B; Peruzzi, N J

    2017-12-01

    An ideal amino acid ratio (IAAR) for breeder hens is needed for maximum nitrogen retention (NR) taking into account nitrogen deposition in body (ND B ), feathers (ND F ) and egg mass (NEM) to improve dietary protein efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to apply the deletion method to derive the IAAR for broiler breeder hens. The nitrogen balance trials were performed from 31 to 35 weeks and from 46 to 50 weeks. Twelve treatments with eight replicates and one hen per cage were used. A balanced diet (BD) was formulated to meet the requirement of all nutrients. The other diets were formulated diluting 55% of BD with corn starch and refilled with amino acids (AAs) and other ingredients, except the AA tested. Each trial lasted 25 days. Feather losses, egg production and egg weight were recorded daily, and the samples were stored to further determine NEM and nitrogen in feather losses (ND FL ). At the start and the end of each period, a group of birds were slaughtered to further determine ND B and ND F . The NR was calculated as the sum of ND B , ND F , ND FL , NEM and the nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR). The deletion of valine greatly depressed the NR in peak production (31 to 35 weeks) while the deletion of the isoleucine greatly depressed the NR of the hens from 46 to 50 weeks of age. The percentual reduction in NR and the per cent of the AA to delete from the BD were used to calculate the AA requirement. The average IAAR was Lys 100, Met+Cys 86, Trp 23, Thr 80, Arg 113, Val 90, Ile 91, Leu 133, Phe+Tyr 108, Gly+Ser 94 and His 35. The IAAR was in line with the recommendation from the literature, validating deletion method with the advantages from a rapid and low-cost procedure. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Feeding by numbers: an ethnographic study of how breastfeeding women understand their babies' weight charts

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    Dykes Fiona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weighing breastfed babies has been the subject of some controversy as the previous international growth chart was largely based on data from infants fed infant formula. The concern that professionals may be misled by the charts into suggesting to mothers that they supplement unnecessarily was a major impetus for the World Health Organization's investment in a new growth chart. Evidence of interpretation in practice has been scant. Methods An ethnographic study was conducted in a town in the Northwest of England to investigate this issue. In the first phase, women and health visitors were observed in the well-child clinic during clinic sessions and breastfeeding group meetings. In the second phase, longitudinal interviews with 14 women were conducted. Each woman was interviewed up to three times in the first six months after the birth of her baby, with a total of 35 interviews. Results Mothers and health visitors focussed on weight gain with frequent weighing and attention to even minor fluctuations of the plotted line being evident. Women felt it important to ensure their baby's weight followed a centile, and preferred for this to be the fiftieth centile. Interventions included giving infant formula and solids as well as changing what the mother ate and drank. Women also described how they worried about their baby's weight. Little effective support by health professionals with breastfeeding technique was observed. Conclusion Babies were weighed more often than officially recommended, with weighing and plotting being at the core of each clinic visit. The plotted weight chart exerted a powerful influence on both women's and health visitors' understanding of the adequacy of breastfeeding. They appeared to rate the regular progression of weight gains along the chart centiles more highly than continued or exclusive breastfeeding. Thus weighing and visual charting of weight constituted a form of surveillance under the medical gaze

  15. Cross-shift study of exposure-response relationships between bioaerosol exposure and respiratory effects in the Norwegian grain and animal feed production industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straumfors, Anne; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Eduard, Wijnand; Wouters, Inge M; Ellingsen, Dag G; Skogstad, Marit

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have studied cross-shift respiratory responses of several individual bioaerosol components of the dust in the grain and feed industry in Norway. METHODS: Cross-shift changes in lung function and nasal congestion, as well as in respiratory and systemic symptoms of 56 exposed workers and

  16. The Steady State Great Ape? Long Term Isotopic Records Reveal the Effects of Season, Social Rank and Reproductive Status on Bonobo Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M.; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Stephens, Colleen R.; Surbeck, Martin; Behringer, Verena; Richards, Michael P.; Fruth, Barbara; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in 432 hair sections obtained from 101 non-invasively collected hair samples. These samples represented the dietary behavior of 23 adult bonobos from 2008 through 2010. By including isotope and crude protein data from plants we could establish an isotope baseline and interpret the results of several general linear mixed models using the predictors climate, sex, social rank, reproductive state of females, adult age and age of infants. We found that low canopy foliage is a useful isotopic tracer for tropical rainforest settings, and consumption of terrestrial herbs best explains the temporal isotope patterns we found in carbon isotope values of bonobo hair. Only the diet of male bonobos was affected by social rank, with lower nitrogen isotope values in low-ranking young males. Female isotope values mainly differed between different stages of reproduction (cycling, pregnancy, lactation). These isotopic differences appear to be related to changes in dietary preference during pregnancy (high protein diet) and lactation (high energy diet), which allow to compensate for different nutritional needs during maternal investment. PMID:27626279

  17. Use and Factors Associated With Herbal/Botanical and Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Dietary Supplements Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Filippelli, Amanda C; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gardiner, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the changes in prevalence of dietary supplement use in pregnancy, postpartum, and in a comparison group of nonpregnant women. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices II study. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use by US women with respect to demographic, behavioral, and health factors. We compared pregnant and postpartum women to a comparison group of nonpregnant women who had not given birth in the past 12 months. Our main outcome was the prevalence of dietary supplements. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with herbal or botanical and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use during reproductive age, pregnancy, and postpartum. The total sample included 1444 women assessed during the prenatal period, 1422 from the postpartum period, and 1517 women in a comparison group. In terms of herb or botanical use, 15% of the prenatal group, 16% of the postpartum group, and 22% of the comparison group reported using herbs or botanicals. The most frequently used nonvitamin, nonmineral supplement was omega-3 fatty acid. Among the total prenatal group and comparison group, women eating 5 or more servings of fruits or vegetables were less likely to report using herbs or botanicals. Women in the comparison group self-identifying as black were 4 times as likely to report using herbs or botanicals compared to participants self-identifying as white. In addition, women identifying as a race other than white were almost twice as likely to report herb or botanical use across all study groups. This is one of the rare studies that shows the changing prevalence of herbs or botanicals and nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplement use in women in the reproductive stage of their lives. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE FEEDING COMPETITION OF THE EUROPEAN PERCH PERCA FLUVIATILIS L. AND THE RUFFE GYMNOCEPHALUS CERNUUS (L. IN LAKE PIEDILUCO (UMBRIA, ITALY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENZONI M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of European perch in Lake Piediluco has significantly dwindled in the last few years. The present study on diet overlap between perch and ruffe was prompted by the rapid expansion of the ruffe stock in the lake. This species was first found in the lake in 1996 and has since become one of the most abundant. The degree of diet overlap between the two species was analyzed by using data on the stomach contents of 275 European perch and 328 ruffe. Results are expressed as abundance (%N, occurrence (%S, weight percentage (%W and index of predominance (Ip. The diet overlap index (α was calculated by means of Schoener’s formula using the %W of each food item. As an estimate of the diet width of both species, we used Levins’ indexes of niche breadth (B and standardized measurement of niche breadth (BA. Both species are strictly carnivorous, feeding mainly on invertebrates: the most important diet components were dipterans and crustaceans, but the European perch also feeds on fish. In the perch, the Levins index was greater (B=4.332 than that calculated for the ruffe (B=2.262. During the ontogenesis of the European perch, there is a rather pronounced diet shift: dipterans form the largest portion of the diet at all ages, though in older perch fish-eating becomes increasingly evident. Benthic crustaceans tend to be consumed in greater quantities by the 3+ age-class, though they are also found in the stomachs of specimens of all ages. Ruffe, by contrast, do not display a pronounced ontogenetic diet shift. The index of diet overlap between the two species was rather high, the maximum α value being 0.853; values indicate a high degree of diet overlap in the younger ageclasses (1+, 2+ and 3+, with a greater differentiation between the diets of the two species emerging as the age of the perch increased. Our research also clarified some of the biological characteristics of the European perch in Lake Piediluco, namely, theoretical growth in

  20. Depressive Symptoms and Perceptions of Child Difficulty Are Associated with Less Responsive Feeding Behaviors in an Observational Study of Low-Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Cindy V; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley E; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Papaioannou, Maria A; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-12-01

    Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in a population at elevated risk for childhood obesity. Participants were 138 low-income black and Hispanic mothers and their children (ages 3-5) participating in an observational study of mealtimes among Head Start families. Three dinnertime observations were conducted over 2 weeks on each family and audio/videotaped for coding. Coding included eating influence attempts and other food- and nonfood-related interactions exhibited by the mother during dinner. Mothers completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty. Linear regressions were conducted, examining associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and coded parent feeding behaviors. Mothers reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms used more verbal pressure to get their child to eat during meals, were more likely to discourage child independence, and less likely to enforce table manners. Mothers reporting higher perceptions of child difficulty were less likely to have nonfood-related discussions during meals and to try to get the child to eat a different food. This study is one of the first to investigate associations between maternal depression, perceptions of child difficulty, and mother's feeding behaviors during meals using observational methodology. These results may help researchers identify specific parental characteristics and feeding practices on which to intervene when developing tailored intervention programs for reducing childhood obesity.

  1. Process Stability Identification Through Dynamic Study of Single-bed Ammonia Reactor with Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE

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    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In ammonia reactor system, a feed-effluent heat exchanger (FEHE is typically installed to utilize reaction-generated heat to heat the reactor’s feed. Utilizing energy from exothermic reaction to the incoming feed stream is often called “autothermic operation”. Despite the advantage of FEHE, there is a risk of utilizing FEHE in a reactor system such as instability of process temperature or known as hysteresis. Hysteresis phenomena in chemical process could cause operational problems, for example it could damage the integrity of the equipment’s material. This paper aims to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE, particularly to propose a way to prevent instability within the system. The dynamic simulation of the single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE was performed with Aspen HYSYS v8.8. The result of the simulation result shows that hysteresis phenomenon in the ammonia reactor system occurs when the feed’s temperature is below a certain value. If the feed temperature reaches that value, the temperature of the reactor’s outlet oscillates. One of the solution to keep the feed temperature above that critical value is by installing a trim heater within the system. Based on the simulation, trim heater installation within the system is able to prevent hysteresis in the system evaluated.

  2. A randomized controlled trial evaluating early versus traditional oral feeding after colorectal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of early oral feeding after colorectal operations. METHODS: A total of 199 patients underwent colorectal surgery and were randomly assigned to early feeding (n = 99 or a regular diet (n = 100. Patients’ characteristics, diagnoses, surgical procedures, comorbidity, bowel movements, defecation, nasogastric tube reinsertion, time of tolerance of solid diet, complications, and length of hospitalization were assessed. RESULTS: The two groups were similar in terms of gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedures, and comorbidity. In the early feeding group, 85.9% of patients tolerated the early feeding schedule. Bowel movements (1.7±0.89 vs. 3.27±1.3, defecation (3.4±0.77 vs. 4.38±1.18 and time of tolerance of solid diet (2.48±0.85 vs. 4.77±1.81 were significantly earlier in the early feeding group. There was no change between the groups in terms of nasogastric tube reinsertion, overall complication or anastomotic leakage. Hospitalization (5.55±2.35 vs. 9.0±6.5 was shorter in the early feeding group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that early oral feeding after elective colorectal surgery was not only well tolerated by patients but also affected the postoperative outcomes positively. Early postoperative feeding is safe and leads to the early recovery of gastrointestinal functions.

  3. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.S. Ross (Peter); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function

  4. Microscopic study of rock for estimating long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yasuaki

    1997-03-01

    One must consider micro-structures of rock and rock mass in order to predict the long-term behavior for more than ten thousand years. First we observe the micro-crack distribution of granite which is commonly distributed in Japan, and is widely used for several structures. The creep under constant load and the relaxation under constant displacement are typical time dependent phenomena, and we performed a series of relaxation tests under microscope observation in laboratory. The specimen that is preserved in water is granite as mentioned above. The aim of this experiment is to observe the sequential propagation of micro-cracks and its affect to the macroscopic response of the rock material under relaxation state. Next, a viscoelastic homogenization method is applied for analyzing the behavior of granite that is composed of several kinds of minerals (i.e., a polycrystalline material). The homogenization method developed for analyzing mechanics of composite materials is a mathematical theory that can describe the macroscopic behavior accounting for the microscopic characteristics with periodic microstructures. In this study, it is applied to a polycrystalline rock which involves a few minerals and micro-cracks. Furthermore, it is required to apply the homogenization analysis for rock materials which show a nonlinear time dependent behavior, so we develop a new elasto-visco-plastic homogenization theory, and its validity is checked for some ground structures made by clay. (author)

  5. Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stan L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6...... objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none developed HPV6....../11/16/18-related disease or persistent infection of ≥12 months' duration. Acquisition of new sexual partners (among those ≥16 years) was ∼1 per year. Subjects receiving HPV4 vaccine at month 30 (mean age 15 years) had a similar baseline rate of seropositivity to ≥1 of the 4 HPV types to those vaccinated at day 1...

  6. Pilot study of long-term anaesthesia in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Peter M; Connerton, Ian F; White, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    To provide stable anaesthesia of long duration in broiler chickens in order to perform a terminal caecal ligated loop procedure. Prospective experimental study. Seven clinically healthy broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) aged 27-36 days, weighing 884-2000 g. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. All birds underwent intermittent positive pressure ventilation for the duration. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate and oesophageal temperature were monitored continuously. All birds received intraosseous fluids. Butorphanol (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly at two hourly intervals. Euthanasia by parenteral pentobarbitone was performed at the end of procedure. Stable anaesthesia was maintained in four chickens for durations ranging from 435 to 510 minutes. One bird died and one was euthanized after 130 and 330 minutes, respectively, owing to surgical complications and another died from anaesthetic complication after 285 minutes. Long-term, stable anaesthesia is possible in clinically healthy chickens, provided complications such as hypothermia and hypoventilation are addressed and vital signs are carefully monitored. There are no known previous reports describing monitored, controlled anaesthesia of this duration in chickens. © 2015 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  7. A Cross-sectional Descriptive Study was to Estimate the Prevalence of the Early Initiation of and Exclusive Breast Feeding in the Rural Health Training Centre of a Medical College in Tamilnadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, H Gladius; Muthukumar, K

    2012-11-01

    The World Health Organization and the National guidelines on infant and young child feeding recommend the practice of exclusive breastfeeding of infants for the first 6 months after their birth. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the early initiation of and exclusive breast feeding. A cross sectional, descriptive study was done. 79 infants and children who attended the under five clinic in the Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC), Pulipakkam Village, were chosen for the study by convenient sampling. This study was conducted by interviewing 79 mothers of the children in the ages of 0-24 months, who attended the under five clinic of RHTC, Pulipakkam. The data was collected by using a pre tested, structured questionnaire to obtain the information on the breast feeding and the hygienic feeding practices among mothers. The statistical analysis was done by the authors by using the SPSS, version 16. The significance in the differences were evaluated by using the Chi square test and the relationship between the variables were evaluated by using Kendall's tau correlation. A p value of breast feeding was 97.5% and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding in the study population was 68%. Inadequate exclusive breast feeding and the lack of hygienic feeding practices among the mothers were significantly associated with an increased incidence of upper and lower respiratory tract infections and gastro intestinal infections in the infants and the children. The education of the antenatal mothers on the benefits of breast feeding and hygienic feeding practices and making all hospitals baby friendly have to be focused on, in order to achieve 80% exclusive breast feeding as per the national guidelines on infant and young child feeding. We need to strengthen the MCH services in the study area in order to achieve 100% immunization.

  8. Feeding the nuclear fuel cycle with a long term view; AREVA's front-end business units, uranium mining, UF6 conversion and isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.A.P.; Autegert, R.

    2005-01-01

    As a leading provider of technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission, the AREVA group has the unique capability of offering a fully integrated fuel supply, when requested by its customers. At the core of the AREVA group, COGEMA Front End Division is an essential part of the overall fuel supply chain. Composed of three Business Units and gathering several subsidiaries and joint 'ventures, this division enjoys several leading positions as shown by its market shares and historical production records. Current Uranium market evolutions put the natural uranium supply under focus. The uranium conversion segment also recently revealed some concerning evolutions. And no doubt, the market pressure will soon be directed also at the enrichment segment. Looking towards the long term, AREVA strongly believes that a nuclear power renewal is needed, especially to help limiting green house effect gas release. Therefore, to address future supplies needed to fuel the existing fleet of nuclear power plants, but also new ones, the AREVA group is planning very significant investments to build new facilities in all the three front-end market segments. As far as uranium mining is concerned, these new mines will be based upon uranium reserves of outstanding quality. As for uranium conversion and enrichment, two large projects will be based on the most advanced technologies. This paper is aimed at recalling COGEMA Front End Division experience, the current status of its plants and operating entities and will provide a detailed overview of its major projects. (authors)

  9. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  10. Uso do copo e da mamadeira e o aleitamento materno em recém-nascidos prematuros e a termo: uma revisão sistemática Cup and bottle feeding and breastfeeding in premature and term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia Tiago Paes de Almeida Pedras

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: revisar ensaios clínicos randomizados que avaliaram a prevalência e/ou duração do aleitamento materno na alta hospitalar e/ou durante o primeiro ano de vida, em recém-nascidos a termo ou prematuros. Foram selecionados estudos que incluíram neonatos e que receberam suplementação por copo ou por mamadeira, durante a estadia hospitalar. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisados artigos publicados em português ou inglês, no período de 1966 a 2006, nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e Scielo. Os seguintes termos foram utilizados: "amamentação + mamadeira" combinado com "prevalência", "métodos de alimentação", "duração", "baixo peso", "prematuro" e "recém-nascido". RESULTADOS: cinco artigos preencheram os critérios de inclusão, suas casuísticas variaram de 14 a 686 recém-nascidos, totalizando 1552 crianças. O uso do copo para a suplementação da amamentação foi associado a maior prevalência de aleitamento materno em neonatos a termo, nascidos de parto cesárea e em prematuros no momento da alta hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES: parece haver uma influência favorável do uso do copo sobre o aleitamento materno, embora a presente revisão não seja conclusiva e definitiva.OBJECTIVES: to review randomized clinical trials that investigated breastfeeding prevalence and/or duration at maternity discharge and/or during first year of life, in term or premature infants. The focus was on studies that have included neonates fed by cup or by bottle during their hospital stay. METHODS: authors examined articles published in English or Portuguese between 1996 and 2006, and included on the Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases. The following keywords were used: "breastfeeding + bottle feeding" plus "prevalence", "feeding methods", "duration", "low birth weight", "premature" and "neonate". RESULTS: five articles met the inclusion criteria. The number of subjects covered ranged from 14 to 686, amounting to a total of 1552 infants. Cup-feeding for

  11. Role of food preoccupation and current dieting in the associations of parental feeding practices to emotional eating in young adults: A moderated mediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti A; Hankey, Maren; Blitch, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children's later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495-7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [-3.5490 to -0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preclinical rodent toxicity studies for long term use of ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ratti

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone showed rapid absorption with half-life values ranging between 1 and 1.5 h. Additionally, there was no evidence of accumulation and a virtually complete elimination by 16 h after the last dose. Overall there were no toxicologically meaningful drug-related animal findings associated with the long-term administration (6 months of ceftriaxone. These results support safety of long-term use of ceftriaxone in human clinical trials.

  13. Long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis are increased in mouse skeletal muscle with high-fat feeding regardless of insulin-sensitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Stierwalt, Harrison D; Robinson, Matthew M

    2017-11-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial, with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. Insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice using 4 wk of a high-fat compared with a low-fat diet. For 8 additional weeks, diets were enriched with pioglitazone to restore insulin sensitivity compared with nonenriched control low-fat or high-fat diets. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis was measured using deuterium oxide labeling during weeks 10-12 High-resolution respirometry was performed using palmitoyl-l-carnitine, glutamate+malate, and glutamate+malate+succinate as substrates for mitochondria isolated from quadriceps. Mitochondrial protein synthesis and palmitoyl- l-carnitine oxidation were increased in mice consuming a high-fat diet, regardless of differences in insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. There was no effect of diet or pioglitazone treatment on ADP-stimulated respiration or H 2 O 2 emission using glutamate+malate or glutamate+malate+succinate. The results demonstrate no impairments to mitochondrial protein synthesis or respiration following induction of insulin resistance. Instead, mitochondrial protein synthesis was increased with a high-fat diet and may contribute to remodeling of the mitochondria to increase lipid oxidation capacity. Mitochondrial adaptations with a high-fat diet appear driven by nutrient availability, not intrinsic defects that contribute to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 the

  14. Natural copepods are superior to enriched artemia nauplii as feed for halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, R J; Bell, J G; Luizi, F S; Gara, B; Bromage, N R; Sargent, J R

    1999-06-01

    enriched Artemia as food for halibut larvae in terms of survival, eye development and pigmentation, and this superiority can be related to the level of DHA in the feed.

  15. Parents’ Perceptions and Adherence to Children’s Diet and Activity Recommendations: the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Denise M.; Reidy, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solving the childhood obesity problem will require strategies for changes in policy, the environment, the community, and the family. Filling the data gap for children younger than 4 years could facilitate interventions aimed at this critical age group. The objective of this study was to describe parents’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the healthfulness of their young child’s diet and body weight and to assess their adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ 5-2-1-0 recommendations. Methods We conducted a descriptive analysis of parents’ and caregivers’ survey data for 887 infants younger than 12 months, 925 toddlers aged 12 to 23.9 months, and 1,461 preschoolers aged 24 to 47.9 months. Data were from the national, cross-sectional 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Results Most parents considered their child’s weight to be about right but were more likely to think their child was underweight (8%–9%) than overweight (2%–3%). Most parents thought their child consumed enough fruits and vegetables: however, only 30% of preschoolers met the recommendation for 5 daily servings. Only 2% of toddlers met the recommendation for no screen time, whereas 79% of preschoolers met the recommendation to limit daily screen time to 2 hours or less. About 56% of toddlers and 71% of preschoolers met the recommendation of at least 1 hour of daily outdoor play. About 56% of toddlers and 52% of preschoolers met the recommendation to limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion The FITS 2008 findings underscore the ongoing need for research on policies and strategies to prevent childhood obesity from infancy through preschool. Health care providers can play a vital role because they are an important and early point of contact for parents. PMID:26402049

  16. Studies on the role of serotonin receptor subtypes in the effect of sibutramine in various feeding paradigms in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignaschi, G; Fanelli, E; Scagnol, I; Samanin, R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine was studied in food deprived, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- or muscimol-injected rats. Sibutramine dose-dependently reduced feeding caused by food-deprivation (ED50=5.1±0.8 mg kg−1) or by NPY injection into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (ED50=6.0±0.5 mg kg−1). The increase in food intake caused by muscimol injected into the dorsal raphe was not modified by sibutramine (1–10 mg kg−1). The hypophagic effect of 5.1 mg kg−1 sibutramine in food-deprived rats was studied in rats pretreated with different serotonin receptor antagonists. Metergoline (non-selective, 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg−1), ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg−1) and GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg−1) did not modify the hypophagic effect of sibutramine, while SB206553 (5-HT2B/2C, 5 and 10 mg kg−1) slightly but significantly reduced it (Fint(2.53)=3.4; Psibutramine in NPY-injected rats was not modified by GR127935 (1.0 mg kg−1). The results suggest that, with the possible exception of a partial involvement of 5-HT2B/2C receptors in sibutramine's hypophagia in food-deprived rats, 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes do not play an important role in the hypophagic effect of sibutramine, at least in the first 2 h after injection. PMID:10455265

  17. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of san diego, California

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, SM; Rhee, K; Blanco, E; Boutelle, K

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Foc...

  18. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, SM; Rhee, K; Blanco, E; Boutelle, K

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori a...

  19. Effects of lactoferrin feeding on growth, feed intake and health of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Maria L; Prgomet, Christian; Sauerwein, Helga; Pfaffl, Michael W; Broz, Jiri; Schwarz, Frieder J

    2007-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties and may have regulatory functions in the immune system. In the present study, 40 calves (20 males, 20 females) were used to examine the effects of supplemental bovine LF added to colostrum and milk replacer (at 0.16%) on health, weight development and feed intake during a 70-day experimental period. The calves were allocated to a treatment group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20); the groups were balanced in terms of sex, live weight and date of birth. Body weight and feed intake were measured at regular intervals. Blood and colostrum samples were collected to determine the content of IgG. In addition, colostrum and milk replacer samples were analysed for their LF concentrations. Significantly higher IgG values were observed in the LF treated than in the control group during the entire feeding experiment from week 2 to week 6. Calves receiving LF had less days of disease with less serious cases of diarrhoea than the control group. Body weight and feed intake were not significantly different between the treatments; in male calves LF-treated animals tended towards higher weight gains. This study indicates that LF is advantageous for health and may therefore be a beneficial supplement in the diets for neonatal calves.

  20. Basic Study on Term of Warranty Liability for Miscellaneous Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junmo; Seo, Deokseok

    2017-10-01

    In Korea, defect lawsuits for apartment buildings, the most common housing style, are becoming a social issue. Among various issues in defect lawsuits, warranty of liability is very important. This is because the business entities are responsible for assuring the maintenance of the defects during this period, and at the same time, the residents can request fair compensation for the defects. However, provisions on the term of warranty of liability provided in the current Housing Act were made 40 years ago when the social basis were weak. Thus, it does not have any rational foundation. In order to improve these problems, basic research on the warranty of liability by major types of apartments is needed. In this study, the defect cases for miscellaneous works of apartments were examined and analyzed. Miscellaneous work consists of ondol work, kitchenware work, indoor and outdoor equipment work, and metallic work. Among them, kitchenware work and metallic work showed a lot of defects. On the other hand, warranty of liability covers up to 10 years in total. The defect occurrence for the entire miscellaneous work showed a tendency to concentrate in the first and the second year. It is the third year that the total defects reach 95%, and the fourth year that exceeds 99%. The ondol work, indoor and outdoor equipment work and metallic work had this tendency. On the other hand, for kitchenware work, it is the third year that the defect occurrence reaches 99%, and it implies that the defect tends to occur more quickly than in other detailed works.

  1. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovin, Virginia; Poë, Simon; Berretta, Christian

    2013-12-15

    This paper outlines the development of a conceptual hydrological flux model for the long term continuous simulation of runoff and drought risk for green roof systems. A green roof's retention capacity depends upon its physical configuration, but it is also strongly influenced by local climatic controls, including the rainfall characteristics and the restoration of retention capacity associated with evapotranspiration during dry weather periods. The model includes a function that links evapotranspiration rates to substrate moisture content, and is validated against observed runoff data. The model's application to typical extensive green roof configurations is demonstrated with reference to four UK locations characterised by contrasting climatic regimes, using 30-year rainfall time-series inputs at hourly simulation time steps. It is shown that retention performance is dependent upon local climatic conditions. Volumetric retention ranges from 0.19 (cool, wet climate) to 0.59 (warm, dry climate). Per event retention is also considered, and it is demonstrated that retention performance decreases significantly when high return period events are considered in isolation. For example, in Sheffield the median per-event retention is 1.00 (many small events), but the median retention for events exceeding a 1 in 1 yr return period threshold is only 0.10. The simulation tool also provides useful information about the likelihood of drought periods, for which irrigation may be required. A sensitivity study suggests that green roofs with reduced moisture-holding capacity and/or low evapotranspiration rates will tend to offer reduced levels of retention, whilst high moisture-holding capacity and low evapotranspiration rates offer the strongest drought resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Rapid Salivary Proteomic Platform for Oral Feeding Readiness in the Preterm Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Khanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding competency is a major determinant of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. An infant must be able to consistently demonstrate the ability to take all required enteral nutrition by mouth before discharge home. Most infants born prematurely (<37 weeks will require days, if not weeks, to master this oral feeding competency skill. Inappropriately timed feeding attempts can lead to acute and long-term morbidities, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health-care costs. Previously, a panel of five genes involved in essential developmental pathways including sensory integration (nephronophthisis 4, Plexin A1, hunger signaling [neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK], and facial development (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3 required for oral feeding success were identified in neonatal saliva. This study aimed to translate these five transcriptomic biomarkers into a rapid proteomic platform to provide objective, real-time assessment of oral feeding skills, to better inform care, and to improve neonatal outcomes. Total protein was extracted from saliva of 10 feeding-successful and 10 feeding-unsuccessful infants matched for age, sex, and post-conceptional age. Development of immunoassays was attempted for five oral feeding biomarkers and two reference biomarkers (GAPDH and YWHAZ to normalize for starting protein concentrations. Normalized protein concentrations were correlated to both feeding status at time of sample collection and previously described gene expression profiles. Only the reference proteins and those involved in hunger signaling were detected in neonatal saliva at measurable levels. Expression patterns for NPY2R and AMPK correlated with the gene expression patterns previously seen between successful and unsuccessful feeders and predicted feeding outcome. Salivary proteins associated with hunger signaling are readily quantifiable in

  3. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvalán Camila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.

  4. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraful; Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions-infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities