WorldWideScience

Sample records for term axotomy-induced erg

  1. North Polar Erg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. This region of the north polar erg is dominated by a different form of dunes than yesterday's image. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 81.4, Longitude 121.9 East (238.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. The prognostic and predictive value of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and ERG protein expression in prostate cancer biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2016-12-01

    did not increase the discriminative ability for predicting CRPC development during the first 8 years of ADT. The thesis has demonstrated that assessment of ERG protein expression is feasible in biopsy specimens, and a high concordance was found between the IHC assay and FISH assessment of ERG rearrangement. The low proportion of ERG reclassification between biopsies and prostatectomies supports the use of ERG assessment in biopsies to characterise the individual patient's ERG status. ERG status harbours important prognostic value in terms of tumour progression for patients managed on AS, whereas ERG expression has no predictive value for ADT response in men with advanced PCa undergoing first-line castration-based ADT. The overall conclusion of the thesis is that ERG protein expression provides valuable prognostic information in low-risk PCa managed observationally, and ERG expression might be used to personalise follow-up regimens in future AS programmes.

  3. ERG protein expression over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Brasso, Klaus; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2015-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 625 biopsy sets and 86 radical prostatectomy specimens from 265 patients with prostate cancer managed on active surveillance. For IHC, a rabbit monoclonal primary antibody was used (clone: EPR3864). TMPRSS2-ERG fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analyses were performed in 74...... biopsies using the FISH ZytoLight TriCheck Probe (SPEC ERG/TMPRSS2). FISH results were correlated with IHC findings. RESULTS: The concordance between FISH and IHC was 97.3% and IHC demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity for ERG rearrangement of 100% and 95.5%, respectively. Applying IHC, 38...

  4. Escitalopram block of hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hong Joon; Kim, In-Beom; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2014-01-01

    Escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the pharmacologically active S-enantiomer of the racemic mixture of RS-citalopram and is widely used in the treatment of depression. The effects of escitalopram and citalopram on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney cells were investigated using voltage-clamp and Western blot analyses. Both drugs blocked hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.6 μM for escitalopram and an IC50 value of 3.2 μM for citalopram. The blocking of hERG by escitalopram was voltage-dependent, with a steep increase across the voltage range of channel activation. However, voltage independence was observed over the full range of activation. The blocking by escitalopram was frequency dependent. A rapid application of escitalopram induced a rapid and reversible blocking of the tail current of hERG. The extent of the blocking by escitalopram during the depolarizing pulse was less than that during the repolarizing pulse, suggesting that escitalopram has a high affinity for the open state of the hERG channel, with a relatively lower affinity for the inactivated state. Both escitalopram and citalopram produced a reduction of hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane but did not affect the short-term internalization of the hERG channel. These results suggest that escitalopram blocked hERG currents at a supratherapeutic concentration and that it did so by preferentially binding to both the open and the inactivated states of the channels and by inhibiting the trafficking of hERG channel protein to the plasma membrane.

  5. Analysis list: ERG [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ERG Blood,Breast,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERG.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERG.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/ERG.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/ERG.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/ERG.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/ERG.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  6. Analysis list: Erg [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Erg Blood,Prostate + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Erg....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Erg.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/mm9/target/Erg.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Erg.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Erg.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Prostate.gml ...

  7. Intragenic ERG Deletions Do Not Explain the Biology of ERG-Related Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Potuckova

    Full Text Available Intragenic ERG deletions occur in 3-5% of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, specifically in B-other subtype lacking the classifying genetic lesions. They represent the only genetic lesion described so far present in the majority of cases clustering into a subgroup of B-other subtype characterized by a unique gene expression profile, probably sharing a common, however, not yet fully described, biological background. We aimed to elucidate whether ERG deletions could drive the specific biology of this ERG-related leukemia subgroup through expression of aberrant or decreased expression of wild type ERG isoforms. We showed that leukemic cells with endogenous ERG deletion express an aberrant transcript translated into two proteins in transfected cell lines and that one of these proteins colocalizes with wild type ERG. However, we did not confirm expression of the proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases with endogenous ERG deletion. ERG deletions resulted in significantly lower expression of wild type ERG transcripts compared to B-other cases without ERG deletion. However, cases with subclonal ERG deletion, clustering to the same ERG deletion associated subgroup, presented similar levels of wild type ERG as cases without ERG deletion. In conclusion, our data suggest that neither the expression of aberrant proteins from internally deleted allele nor the reduced expression of wild type ERG seem to provide a plausible explanation of the specific biology of ERG -related leukemia subgroup.

  8. Multifocal ERG Guiding Therapy in a Case of Hydroxychloroquine Premaculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sáez-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 28-year-old female treated for systemic lupus erythematosus with hydroxychloroquine (200 mg/day for 11 years. She was visually asymptomatic, with normal fundus appearance, normal colour vision testing findings, 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes, and only mild central bilateral defects on 10-2 perimetry. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG showed low density values for ring 1 in both eyes. Because the patient had not previously responded to alternative treatments and in consultation with her physician, the hydroxychloroquine dose was reduced to 200 mg four days/week. Four serial mfERGs performed at 4, 18, 25, and 34 months after dose reduction showed a progressive improvement in the definition and density of the responses until they were normalized at the third mfERG (25 months after hydroxychloroquine dose reduction. The fourth and final mfERG at 34 months confirmed the recovery in both eyes. Perimetry defects were mostly normalized. These results demonstrate the importance of mfERG for the safe management of patients under long-term hydroxychloroquine treatment.

  9. Mechanism and pharmacological rescue of berberine-induced hERG channel deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meng; Zhang, Kaiping; Shi, Yanhui; Feng, Lifang; Lv, Lin; Li, Baoxin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly isolated from plants of Berberidaceae family, is extensively used to treat gastrointestinal infections in clinics. It has been reported that BBR can block human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel and inhibit its membrane expression. The hERG channel plays crucial role in cardiac repolarization and is the target of diverse proarrhythmic drugs. Dysfunction of hERG channel can cause long QT syndrome. However, the regulatory mechanisms of BBR effects on hERG at cell membrane level remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate in detail how BBR decreased hERG expression on cell surface and further explore its pharmacological rescue strategies. In this study, BBR decreases caveolin-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing hERG channel. Knocking down the basal expression of caveolin-1 alleviates BBR-induced hERG reduction. In addition, we found that aromatic tyrosine (Tyr652) and phenylalanine (Phe656) in S6 domain mediate the long-term effect of BBR on hERG by using mutation techniques. Considering both our previous and present work, we propose that BBR reduces hERG membrane stability with multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, we found that fexofenadine and resveratrol shorten action potential duration prolongated by BBR, thus having the potential effects of alleviating the cardiotoxicity of BBR.

  10. miRNAs Regulate hERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiangfang; Guo, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyan; Yang, X I; Huang, Guochang; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Huan Huan; Ba, Yanna; Zhou, Jianqing

    2016-12-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) is the major molecular component of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (Ikr ). Impairment of hERG function is believed to be a mechanism causing long-QT syndromes (LQTS). Growing evidences have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in functional modulation of the hERG pathway. The purpose of this study was to screen and validate miRNAs that regulate the hERG pathway. The miRNAs identified in this study will provide new tools to assess the mechanism of LQTS. Six miRNAs were selected by algorithm predictions based on potential interaction with hERG. The effects of each miRNA on hERG were assessed by use of the Dual-Luciferase Reporter assay system, qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to validate the effect of miR-103a-1 on the electrophysiological characteristic of the Ikr of the hERG protein channel. miR-134, miR-103a-1, miR-143, and miR-3619 significantly downregulated luciferase activity (P hERG mRNA and protein in U2OS cells (P hERG mRNA and protein. Confocal microscopy showed that all 4 miRNAs reduced the expression of both immature and mature hERG protein. miR-103a-1 decreased the maximum current and tail current amplitudes of hERG channel. Expression and functions of hERG are regulated by specific miRNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. PIKfyve Sensitivity of hERG Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Pakladok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Human ether-a-go-go (hERG channels contribute to cardiac repolarization and participate in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation. Mutations in hERG channels may cause long QT syndrome and sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. HERG channel activity is up-regulated by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoforms SGK1 and SGK3. Related kinases are protein kinase B (PKB/Akt isoforms. SGK´s and PKB/Akt´s activate phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase PIKfyve, which in turn up-regulates several carriers and channels. An effect of PIKfyve on hERG channels, has, however, never been shown. The present study thus explored the putative influence of PIKfyve on hERG channel expression and activity. Methods: hERG channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without PIKfyve and/or PKB, expression of endogenous and injected hERG quantified by RT-PCR, and hERG channel activity determined utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Moreover, hERG protein abundance in the cell membrane was visualized utilizing specific antibody binding and subsequent confocal microscopy and quantified by chemiluminescence. Results: Coexpression of wild type PIKfyve increased hERG channel activity in hERG-expressing Xenopus oocytes. hERG channel activity was further increased by coexpression of PKB, an effect augmented by additional coexpression of PIKfyve, but not by additional coexpression of PKB/Akt-resistant PIKfyve mutant PIKfyveS318A. Coexpression of PIKfyve increased hERG channel protein abundance in the cell membrane. Inhibition of hERG channel insertion into the cell membrane by Brefeldin A (5 µM resulted in a decline of current, which was similar in Xenopus oocytes expressing hERG together with PIKfyve and in Xenopus oocytes expressing hERG alone. Conclusion: hERG is up-regulated by PIKfyve, which is in turn activated by PKB/Akt.

  12. Selective expression of erg isoforms in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, P W; Nishi, K; Daft, E L; Clifford Murray, J

    2001-04-01

    Erg and Fli-1 are closely related members of the ets family of transcription factors. There are at least five human Erg isoforms (Erg-1, Erg-2, Erg-3/p55(Erg), p49(Erg) and p38(Erg)) produced through differential mRNA splicing and alternative use of translational start codons. However, relatively little is known about the expression or function of these isoforms in vitro or their distribution in vivo. We used RT-PCR to screen a panel of primary and established human cell lines for erg and fli-1 consensus sequences. Whilst fli-1 was expressed in several human cell types, erg was detected mainly in endothelial cells. To identify which erg isoforms are expressed in endothelial cells we used RT-PCR, Northern blotting and 5'-RACE. Erg-3/p55(Erg) and p38(Erg)/p38(Erg)-like transcripts were detected in both microvascular and large vessel endothelial cells affinity-purified from different vascular beds. Moreover, these erg isoforms were present in both freshly isolated, and confluent endothelial cells following several passages in culture, indicating that endothelial erg expression in vitro may be broadly representative of that in vivo. The selective expression of the Erg-3/p55(Erg) and p38(Erg)/p38(Erg)-like isoforms in endothelial cells indicates their involvement in the regulation of endothelial-restricted genes.

  13. 5' UTR control of native ERG and of Tmprss2:ERG variants activity in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zammarchi

    Full Text Available ERG, a member of the ETS transcription factor family, is frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer as a result of its fusion to the androgen-responsive Tmprss2 gene. Different genomic rearrangements and alternative splicing events around the junction region lead to multiple combination of Tmprss2:ERG fusion transcripts that correlate with different tumor aggressiveness, but their specific functions and biological activities are still unclear. The complexity of ERG expression pattern is compounded by the use of alternative promoters, splice sites, polyadenylation sites and translation initiation sites in both the native and fusion contexts. Our systematic characterization of native ERG and Tmprss2:ERG variants reveals that their different oncogenic potential is impacted by the status of the Ets domain and the configuration of the 5' UTR region. In particular, expression and activity of functional ERG and Tmprss2:ERG variants are influenced both by translation initiation signals within the different isoforms and by inhibitory upstream Open Reading Frames (uORF in their 5' UTRs. Stable expression of ERG and Tmprss2:ERG variants promoted cell migration/invasion, induced a block of proliferation and induced a senescence-like state, suggesting a role for these variants in the prostate tumorigenesis process. In addition to Tmprss2:ERG fusion products, a group of related native ERG isoforms is also highly over-expressed in fusion-carrying prostate cancers, and share the same translation initiation site (in ERG exon 4 with the commonly observed Tmprss2 exon1 joined to ERG exon 4 (T1:E4 fusion-derived variant. Usage of this ATG can be preferentially down-regulated by directed antisense-based compounds, possibly representing the basis of a targeted approach that distinguishes between tumor-associated and normal ERG.

  14. Mechanism and pharmacological rescue of berberine-induced hERG channel deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meng Yan,1 Kaiping Zhang,1 Yanhui Shi,1 Lifang Feng,1 Lin Lv,1 Baoxin Li1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, 2State-Province Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Engineering, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Berberine (BBR, an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly isolated from plants of Berberidaceae family, is extensively used to treat gastrointestinal infections in clinics. It has been reported that BBR can block human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG potassium channel and inhibit its membrane expression. The hERG channel plays crucial role in cardiac repolarization and is the target of diverse proarrhythmic drugs. Dysfunction of hERG channel can cause long QT syndrome. However, the regulatory mechanisms of BBR effects on hERG at cell membrane level remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate in detail how BBR decreased hERG expression on cell surface and further explore its pharmacological rescue strategies. In this study, BBR decreases caveolin-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells stably expressing hERG channel. Knocking down the basal expression of caveolin-1 alleviates BBR-induced hERG reduction. In addition, we found that aromatic tyrosine (Tyr652 and phenylalanine (Phe656 in S6 domain mediate the long-term effect of BBR on hERG by using mutation techniques. Considering both our previous and present work, we propose that BBR reduces hERG membrane stability with multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, we found that fexofenadine and resveratrol shorten action potential duration prolongated by BBR, thus having the potential effects of alleviating the cardiotoxicity of BBR. Keywords: berberine, hERG, cavoline-1, cardiotoxicity, LQTS, pharmacological rescue

  15. On the relation between RG and ERG

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hidenori

    2006-01-01

    We discuss how the ordinary renormalization group (RG) equations arise in the context of Wilson's exact renormalization group (ERG) as formulated by Polchinski. We consider the phi4 theory in four dimensional euclidean space as an example, and introduce a particular scheme of parameterizing the solutions of the ERG equations. By analyzing the scalar composite operators of dimension two and four, we show that the parameters obey mass independent RG equations. We conjecture the equivalence of o...

  16. Overexpression of truncated ERG from TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and prostate cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Leong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanie Leong1*, Wen-feng Shi2*, Jun Tian2, Ellen Cho1, Abbas Raza1, Saquib A Siddiqi1, Abdulhafez Selim3, Han-chun Chen4, Dianzheng Zhang1,41Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Center for Chronic Disorders of Aging, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Renal Transplantation, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Osteotech Inc, Eatontown, NJ, USA; 4Department of Biochemistry, School of Biological Science and Technology, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In men, prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the second leading cause of death among all cancer types in Europe and North America, with the numbers of those affected continuing to increase. Recent studies have identified a recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 with members of the ETS family of transcription factors in about 80% of prostate cancer tissues. Among them, the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion accounts for approximately 50% of these cases. TMPRSS2 is highly regulated by androgen receptor and the chromosomal rearrangement abnormally induces ERG production by androgen. To investigate the effects of ERG overexpression on its target genes expression and prostate cancer development, plasmids were first constructed by inserting the truncated ERG into an expression vector in the forward or reverse directions. A predicted three-dimensional model of the protein structure of the truncated ERG, along with immunofluorescence assays, suggest that the minor deletion on the N-terminus does not appear to affect the structure or function of ERG. Results from ERG target gene expression profile indicate that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-induced aberrant ERG overexpression is likely involved in prostate cancer development by enhancing tumor angiogenesis.Keywords: prostate cancer, androgen receptor, TMPRSS2

  17. hERG Blockade by Iboga Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Kenneth; Bai, Rong; Liu, Nian; Fowler, Steven J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Priori, Silvia G; Ruan, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    The iboga alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds, some of which modify drug self-administration and withdrawal in humans and preclinical models. Ibogaine, the prototypic iboga alkaloid that is utilized clinically to treat addictions, has been associated with QT prolongation, torsades de pointes and fatalities. hERG blockade as IKr was measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in HEK 293 cells. This yielded the following IC50 values: ibogaine manufactured by semisynthesis via voacangine (4.09 ± 0.69 µM) or by extraction from T. iboga (3.53 ± 0.16 µM); ibogaine's principal metabolite noribogaine (2.86 ± 0.68 µM); and voacangine (2.25 ± 0.34 µM). In contrast, the IC50 of 18-methoxycoronaridine, a product of rational synthesis and current focus of drug development was >50 µM. hERG blockade was voltage dependent for all of the compounds, consistent with low-affinity blockade. hERG channel binding affinities (K i) for the entire set of compounds, including 18-MC, ranged from 0.71 to 3.89 µM, suggesting that 18-MC binds to the hERG channel with affinity similar to the other compounds, but the interaction produces substantially less hERG blockade. In view of the extended half-life of noribogaine, these results may relate to observations of persistent QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmia at delayed intervals of days following ibogaine ingestion. The apparent structure-activity relationships regarding positions of substitutions on the ibogamine skeleton suggest that the iboga alkaloids might provide an informative paradigm for investigation of the structural biology of the hERG channel.

  18. On the relation between RG and ERG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, H.

    2007-05-01

    We discuss how the ordinary renormalization group (RG) equations arise in the context of Wilson's exact renormalization group (ERG) as formulated by Polchinski. We consider the phi4 theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space as an example and introduce a particular scheme of parameterizing the solutions of the ERG equations. By analysing the scalar composite operators of dimensions 2 and 4, we show that the parameters obey mass-independent RG equations. We conjecture the equivalence of our parameterization scheme with the MS scheme for dimensional regularization.

  19. PIKfyve Sensitivity of hERG Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsiana Pakladok; Ahmad Almilaji; Carlos Munoz; Ioana Alesutan; Florian Lang

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Human ether-a-go-go (hERG) channels contribute to cardiac repolarization and participate in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation. Mutations in hERG channels may cause long QT syndrome and sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. HERG channel activity is up-regulated by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoforms SGK1 and SGK3. Related kinases are protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) isoforms. SGK´s and PKB/Akt´s activate phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-...

  20. Discovery of a new mexiletine-derived agonist of the hERG K+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdani, Roberta; Cavalluzzi, Maria Maddalena; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Lentini, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel plays a central role in the rapid component (IKr) of cardiac action potential repolarization phase. A large number of structurally different compounds block hERG and cause a high risk of arrhythmias. Among the drugs that block hERG channel, a few compounds have been identified as hERG channel activators. Such compounds may be useful, at least in theory, for the treatment of long term QT syndrome. Here we describe a new activator of hERG channel, named MC450. This compound is a symmetric urea, derived from (R)-mexiletine. Using patch-clamp recordings, we found that MC450 increased the activation current of hERG channel, with an EC50 of 41±4μM. Moreover MC450 caused a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation from -64.1±1.2mV (control), to -35.9±1.4mV, whereas it had no effect on the voltage dependence of activation. Furthermore, MC450 slowed current inactivation and the effect of MC450 was attenuated by the inactivation-impaired double mutant G628C/S631C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. hERG potassium channel blockade by the HCN channel inhibitor bradycardic agent ivabradine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgari, Dario; Brack, Kieran E; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Yihong; El Harchi, Aziza; Mitcheson, John S; Dempsey, Christopher E; Ng, G André; Hancox, Jules C

    2015-04-24

    Ivabradine is a specific bradycardic agent used in coronary artery disease and heart failure, lowering heart rate through inhibition of sinoatrial nodal HCN-channels. This study investigated the propensity of ivabradine to interact with KCNH2-encoded human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channels, which strongly influence ventricular repolarization and susceptibility to torsades de pointes arrhythmia. Patch clamp recordings of hERG current (IhERG) were made from hERG expressing cells at 37°C. Ih ERG was inhibited with an IC50 of 2.07 μmol/L for the hERG 1a isoform and 3.31 μmol/L for coexpressed hERG 1a/1b. The voltage and time-dependent characteristics of Ih ERG block were consistent with preferential gated-state-dependent channel block. Inhibition was partially attenuated by the N588K inactivation-mutant and the S624A pore-helix mutant and was strongly reduced by the Y652A and F656A S6 helix mutants. In docking simulations to a MthK-based homology model of hERG, the 2 aromatic rings of the drug could form multiple π-π interactions with the aromatic side chains of both Y652 and F656. In monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings from guinea-pig Langendorff-perfused hearts, ivabradine delayed ventricular repolarization and produced a steepening of the MAPD90 restitution curve. Ivabradine prolongs ventricular repolarization and alters electrical restitution properties at concentrations relevant to the upper therapeutic range. In absolute terms ivabradine does not discriminate between hERG and HCN channels: it inhibits Ih ERG with similar potency to that reported for native If and HCN channels, with S6 binding determinants resembling those observed for HCN4. These findings may have important implications both clinically and for future bradycardic drug design. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Knocking Down TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Oncogene by siRNA Could be an Alternative Treatment to Flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Urbinati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to develop a new pharmacological approach for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa, the most common neoplasia in men. Recently, we developed siRNA against the fusion oncogene TMPRSS2-ERG found in 50% of patients and showed an antitumoral activity in animal model. Herein, we want to compare or combine the developed siRNA to flutamide (FLU, one of the gold-standard treatment of PCa. Therefore, concomitant or subsequent association of FLU to siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG was performed in VCaP cells and in SCID mice bearing xenografted VCaP tumors. ERG, androgen receptor, cleaved-caspase-3 as well as phase 1 and 2 drug-metabolizing enzymes were investigated within tumors. We observed similar results in terms of TMPRSS2-ERG knock-down and cell viability impairment for all distinct schedules of administration. The association of siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG-squalene nanoparticles with flutamide displayed similar tumor growth inhibition as mice treated with siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG-squalene nanoparticles alone and was paralleled with modification of expression of ERG, androgen receptor, and cleaved-caspase-3. Phase 1 and 2 enzymes were essentially affected by FLU and reverted when combined with squalenoylated siRNA. In conclusion, these results confirm the therapeutic effectiveness of squalenoyl siRNA nanomedicine for PCa based on siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG.

  3. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    will plan to validate hits using CRISPR - Cas9 technology as an orthogonal system. The CRISPR - Cas9 system was not available at the time of the...in prostate cancer cells. We will complete validation candidate kinases that modulate the ERG signature using shRNA and new CRISPR technology as an

  4. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan...

  5. Novel Dual Color Immunohistochemical methods for detecting ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 status in prostate carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ritu; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Tomlins, Scott A; Christopherson, Kelly; Cortez, Connie; Carskadon, Shannon; Siddiqui, Javed; Park, Kyung; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Pestano, Gary; Rubin, Mark A; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2013-01-01

    Identification of new molecular markers has led to the molecular classification of prostate cancer based on driving genetic lesions. The translation of these discoveries for clinical use necessitates the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection systems to screen patients for specific molecular aberrations. We developed two dual color immunohistochemistry-based assays for the simultaneous assessment of ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 in prostate cancer. A total of 232 cases from 184 localized and 48 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-PTEN and 284 cases from 228 localized and 56 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-SPINK1. Of the 232 cases evaluated for ERG-PTEN, 81 (35%) ERG positive and 77 (33%) PTEN deleted cases were identified. Of the 81 ERG positive cases, PTEN loss was confirmed in 35 (15%) cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization. PTEN status was concordant in 203 cases (Sensitivity 90%; Specificity 87% (p<0.0001) by both immunohistochemisty and FISH, however, immunohistochemisty could not distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous deletion status of PTEN. Of the 284 cases evaluated for ERG-SPINK1, 111 (39%) cases were positive for ERG. In the remaining 173 ERG negative cases; SPINK1 was positive in 26 (9 %) cases. SPINK1 expression was found to be mutually exclusive with ERG expression; however, we identified two cases, of which, one showed concomitant expression of ERG and SPINK1 in the same tumor foci and in the second case ERG and SPINK1 was seen in two independent foci of the same tumor nodule. Unlike the homogenous ERG staining in cancer tissues, heterogeneous SPINK1 staining was observed in the majority of the cases. Further studies are required to understand the molecular heterogeneity of cases with concomitant ERG-SPINK1 expression. Automated dual ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 immunohistochemisty assays are simple, reliable and portable across study sites for the simultaneous assessment of these proteins in prostate

  6. Ex Vivo ERG analysis of photoreceptors using an In Vivo ERG system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Frans; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2014-01-01

    The Function of the retina and effects of drugs on it can be assessed by recording transretinal voltage across isolated retina that is perfused with physiological medium. However, building ex vivo ERG apparatus requires substantial amount of time, resources and expertise. Here we adapted a commercial in vivo ERG system for transretinal ERG recordings from rod and cone photoreceptors and compared rod and cone signalling between ex vivo and in vivo environments. We found that the rod and cone a- and b-waves recorded with the transretinal ERG adapter and a standard in vivo ERG system are comparable to those obtained from live anesthetized animals. However, ex vivo responses are somewhat slower and their oscillatory potentials are suppressed as compared to those recorded in vivo. We found that rod amplification constant (A) was comparable between ex vivo and in vivo conditions, ∼10 - 30 s-2 depending on the choice of response normalization. We estimate that the A in cones is between 3 and 6 s-2 in ex vivo conditions and by assuming equal A in vivo we arrive to light funnelling factor of 3 for cones in the mouse retina. The ex vivo ERG adapter provides a simple and affordable alternative to designing a custom-built transretinal recordings setup for the study of photoreceptors. Our results provide a roadmap to the rigorous quantitative analysis of rod and cone responses made possible with such a system. PMID:24959652

  7. Targeting TMPRSS2 ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    understanding of ERG mediated oncogenesis. We used a novel method to measure gene expression in a high throughput format to screen shRNAs and small... transformation by anchorage independent growth in soft agar (months 13-24 – 75% completed) 1e. Bioinformatic analysis of results correlating gene expression...2c, measure effect on invasion using transwell invasion assay, EMT using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, and transformation by anchorage

  8. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  9. Dynamics of hERG closure allow novel insights into hERG blocking by small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Peter; Ciantar, Marine; Theret, Isabelle; Ducrot, Pierre

    2014-08-25

    Today, drug discovery routinely uses experimental assays to determine very early if a lead compound can yield certain types of off-target activity. Among such off targets is hERG. The ion channel plays a primordial role in membrane repolarization and altering its activity can cause severe heart arrhythmia and sudden death. Despite routine tests for hERG activity, rather little information is available for helping medicinal chemists and molecular modelers to rationally circumvent hERG activity. In this article novel insights into the dynamics of hERG channel closure are described. Notably, helical pairwise closure movements have been observed. Implications and relations to hERG inactivation are presented. Based on these dynamics novel insights on hERG blocker placement are presented, compared to literature, and discussed. Last, new evidence for horizontal ligand positioning is shown in light of former studies on hERG blockers.

  10. Oncogenic activation of ERG: A predominant mechanism in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taduru L Sreenath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalent gene fusions involving regulatory sequences of the androgen receptor (AR regulated genes (primarily TMPRSS2 and protein coding sequences of nuclear transcription factors of the ETS gene family (predominantly ERG result in unscheduled androgen dependent ERG expression in prostate cancer (CaP.Cumulative data from a large number of studies in the past six years accentuate ERG alterations in more than half of all CaP patients in Western countries. Studies underscore that ERG functions are involved in the biology of CaP. ERG expression in normal context is selective to endothelial cells, specific hematopoetic cells and pre-cartilage cells. Normal functions of ERG are highlighted in hematopoetic stem cells. Emerging data continues to unravel molecular and cellular mechanisms by which ERG may contribute to CaP. Herein, we focus on biological and clinical aspects of ERG oncogenic alterations, potential of ERG-based stratification of CaP and the possibilities of targeting the ERG network in developing new therapeutic strategies for the disease.

  11. On the construction of QED using ERG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, H.

    2007-08-01

    It has been known for some time that a smooth momentum cutoff is compatible with local gauge symmetries. In this paper, we show concretely how to construct QED using the exact renormalization group (ERG). First, we give a new derivation of the Ward identity for the Wilson action using the technique of composite operators. Second, parametrizing the theory by its asymptotic behaviour for a large cutoff, we show how to fine tune the parameters to satisfy the identity. Third, we recast the identity as an invariance of the Wilson action under a nonlinear BRST transformation.

  12. Spatial variability of multi-controlled aeolian supersurfaces in central-erg and marine-erg-margin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Meléndez, Nieves; de Boer, Poppe L.; Soria, Ana R.; Liesa, Carlos L.

    2013-12-01

    During the Albian Iberia was under the influence of the Northern-Hemisphere Hot Arid Belt favouring the development of an extensive sandy desert system with a marine-erg margin where prograding aeolian dunes interacted with Tethyan waters. The interplay of different controls, such as synsedimentary tectonics, compaction of the underlying coal-bearing unit, eustatic sea-level variations, climate modulation, and the autodynamics of the different sedimentary subenvironments determined the character of bounding surfaces, which separate four erg sequences. These bounding surfaces, or supersurfaces, may display a different sedimentary expression in adjacent areas. Bounding surface 1 is a sand-drift surface (SDS) in the central-erg and a transgressive surface (TS) in the marine erg margin. Bounding surface 2 is associated with a basin re-configuration associated to active extension tectonics, followed by deflation. Bounding surface 3 marks the end of erg expansion, the start of its partial destruction and redeposition and reworking in restricted marine environments. Bounding surface 4 marks the return to more arid conditions and draa progradation into Tethyan waters. These bounding surfaces separate four erg sequences. On the basis of the relative role of allocyclic processes, two megasequences are defined. The first comprises erg sequences 1-3, and the second megasequence comprises erg sequence 4. Erg megasequence 1 developed while synsedimentary tectonic activity and substrate (peat) compaction were active. Erg megasequence 2 was mainly modulated by climate (change). A nomenclature for supersurfaces is proposed based on the types of external control.

  13. ERG induces taxane resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Giuseppe; Matov, Alexandre; Beltran, Himisha; Fontugne, Jacqueline; Miguel Mosquera, Juan; Cheung, Cynthia; MacDonald, Theresa Y.; Sung, Matthew; O’Toole, Sandra; Kench, James G.; Suk Chae, Sung; Kimovski, Dragi; Tagawa, Scott T.; Nanus, David M.; Rubin, Mark A.; Horvath, Lisa G.; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Rickman, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Taxanes are the only chemotherapies used to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Despite the initial efficacy of taxanes in treating CRPC, all patients ultimately fail due to the development of drug resistance. In this study, we show that ERG overexpression in in vitro and in vivo models of CRPC is associated with decreased sensitivity to taxanes. ERG affects several parameters of microtubule dynamics and inhibits effective drug-target engagement of docetaxel or cabazitaxel with tubulin. Finally, analysis of a cohort of 34 men with metastatic CRPC treated with docetaxel chemotherapy reveals that ERG-overexpressing prostate cancers have twice the chance of docetaxel resistance than ERG-negative cancers. Our data suggest that ERG plays a role beyond regulating gene expression and functions outside the nucleus to cooperate with tubulin towards taxane insensitivity. Determining ERG rearrangement status may aid in patient selection for docetaxel or cabazitaxel therapy and/or influence co-targeting approaches. PMID:25420520

  14. The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss Kyhn, Maria; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    To establish a method allowing multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) recording with simultaneous fundus monitoring on anaesthetized pigs. In addition we characterize the peaks of the porcine mfERG trace, and compare the visual streak area with the optic nerve head, a known non-response area....... Finally we illustrate the feasibility of the method by performing mfERG after an induced laser burn in the visual streak....

  15. Novel dual-color immunohistochemical methods for detecting ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 status in prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ritu; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Tomlins, Scott A; Christopherson, Kelly; Cortez, Connie; Carskadon, Shannon; Siddiqui, Javed; Park, Kyung; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Pestano, Gary A; Rubin, Mark A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2013-06-01

    Identification of new molecular markers has led to the molecular classification of prostate cancer based on driving genetic lesions. The translation of these discoveries for clinical use necessitates the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection systems to screen patients for specific molecular aberrations. We developed two dual-color immunohistochemistry-based assays for the simultaneous assessment of ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 in prostate cancer. A total of 232 cases from 184 localized and 48 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-PTEN and 284 cases from 228 localized and 56 metastatic prostate cancers were evaluated for ERG-SPINK1. Of the 232 cases evaluated for ERG-PTEN, 81 (35%) ERG-positive and 77 (33%) PTEN-deleted cases were identified. Of the 81 ERG-positive cases, PTEN loss was confirmed in 35 (15%) cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PTEN status was concordant in 203 cases (sensitivity 90% and specificity 87%; P<0.0001) by both immunohistochemisty and FISH; however, immunohistochemisty could not distinguish between heterozygous and homozygous deletion status of PTEN. Of the 284 cases evaluated for ERG-SPINK1, 111 (39%) cases were positive for ERG. In the remaining 173 ERG-negative cases, SPINK1 was positive in 26 (9%) cases. SPINK1 expression was found to be mutually exclusive with ERG expression; however, we identified two cases, of which one showed concomitant expression of ERG and SPINK1 in the same tumor foci, and in the second case ERG and SPINK1 were seen in two independent foci of the same tumor nodule. Unlike the homogenous ERG staining in cancer tissues, heterogeneous SPINK1 staining was observed in the majority of the cases. Further studies are required to understand the molecular heterogeneity of cases with concomitant ERG-SPINK1 expression. Automated dual ERG-PTEN and ERG-SPINK1 immunohistochemisty assays are simple, reliable and portable across study sites for the simultaneous assessment of these proteins

  16. Mechanisms underlying probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-Qi; Yan, Cai-Chuan; Zhang, Xiao; Yan, Meng; Liu, Li-Rong; Geng, Huai-Ze; Lv, Lin; Li, Bao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The hERG gene encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (I Kr), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Reduction of I hERG due to genetic mutations or drug interferences causes long QT syndrome, leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (torsades de pointes) or sudden death. Probucol is a cholesterol-lowering drug that could reduce hERG current by decreasing plasma membrane hERG protein expression and eventually cause long QT syndrome. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of probucol effects on I hERG and hERG-channel expression. Our data demonstrated that probucol reduces SGK1 expression, known as SGK isoform, in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in downregulation of phosphorylated E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 expression, but not the total level of Nedd4-2. As a result, the hERG protein reduces, due to the enhanced ubiquitination level. On the contrary, carbachol could enhance the phosphorylation level of Nedd4-2 as an alternative to SGK1, and thus rescue the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of hERG channels caused by probucol. These discoveries provide a novel mechanism of probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency, and imply that carbachol or its analog may serve as potential therapeutic compounds for the handling of probucol cardiotoxicity.

  17. Development of Safe Drugs: The hERG Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaanamoorthy, Subha; Barakat, Khaled H

    2017-05-03

    Drug-induced blockade of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) remains a major impediment in delivering safe drugs to the market. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to their severe cardiotoxic side effects triggered by their off-target interactions with hERG. Thus, identifying the potential hERG blockers at early stages of lead discovery is fast evolving as a standard in drug design and development. A number of in silico structure-based models of hERG have been developed as a low-cost solution to evaluate drugs for hERG liability, and it is now agreed that the hERG blockers bind at the large central cavity of the channel. Nevertheless, there is no clear convergence on the appropriate drug binding modes against the channel. The proposed binding modes differ in their orientations and interpretations on the role of key residues in the channel. Such ambiguities in the modes of binding remain to be a significant challenge in achieving efficient computational predictive models and in saving many important already Food and Drug Administration approved drugs. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of reported binding modes for hERG blockers, the various in silico models developed for predicting a drug's affinity to hERG, and the known successful optimization strategies to avoid off-target interactions with hERG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Effects of midazolam on hERG K+ channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng-na; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effect of midazolam on human ether-a-go-go (hERG) K+ channels exogenously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record WT, Y652A and F656C hERG K+ current expressed in HEK-293 cells. Midazolam inhibited hERG K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner, the half-maximum block concentrations (IC50) values were (1.31 ± 0.32) µmol/L. The half-activation voltage (V1/2) were (2.32 ± 0.38) mV for the control and (-1.96 ± 0.83) mV for 1.0 µmol/L midazolam. The half-inactivation voltage (V1/2) was slightly shifted towards negative voltages from (-49.25 ± 0.69) mV in control to (-57.53 ± 0.53) mV after 1.0 µmol/L midazolam (P hERG channel significantly attenuated the hERG current blockade by midazolam. Midazolam can block hERG K+ channel and cause the speed of inactivation faster. Mutations in the drug-binding sites (Y652 or F656) of the hERG channel were found to attenuate hERG current blockage by midazolam.

  19. Genes encoding chimeras of Neurospora crassa erg-3 and human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sterol. C-14 reductase is encoded by the ERG24 gene and erg24 null mutants are not viable on rich medium but they are viable on synthetic medium (Crowley et al 1996). Both the Neurospora and the yeast mutants have been used previously to test for sterol C-14 reductase function ...

  20. The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss Kyhn, Maria; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    To establish a method allowing multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) recording with simultaneous fundus monitoring on anaesthetized pigs. In addition we characterize the peaks of the porcine mfERG trace, and compare the visual streak area with the optic nerve head, a known non-response area...

  1. Effects of donepezil on hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Lee, Hong Joon; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kim, In-Beom; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2015-02-09

    Donepezil is a potent, selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, which is used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique and Western blot analyses were used to study the effects of donepezil on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. Donepezil inhibited the tail current of the hERG in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 1.3 μM. The metabolites of donepezil, 6-ODD and 5-ODD, inhibited the hERG currents in a similar concentration-dependent manner; the IC50 values were 1.0 and 1.5 μM, respectively. A fast drug perfusion system demonstrated that donepezil interacted with both the open and inactivated states of the hERG. A fast application of donepezil during the tail currents inhibited the open state of the hERG in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 2.7 μM. Kinetic analysis of donepezil in an open state of the hERG yielded blocking and unblocking rate constants of 0.54 µM(-1)s(-1) and 1.82 s(-1), respectively. The block of the hERG by donepezil was voltage-dependent with a steep increase across the voltage range of channel activation. Donepezil caused a reduction in the hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane at low concentration, but decreased the channel protein expression at higher concentrations. These results suggest that donepezil inhibited the hERG at a supratherapeutic concentration, and that it did so by preferentially binding to the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channels and by inhibiting the trafficking and expression of the hERG channel protein in the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms underlying probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi YQ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Qi Shi,1,* Cai-Chuan Yan,1,* Xiao Zhang,1 Meng Yan,1 Li-Rong Liu,1 Huai-Ze Geng,1 Lin Lv,1 Bao-Xin Li1,21Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, 2State-Province Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Engineering, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The hERG gene encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr, which is important for cardiac repolarization. Reduction of IhERG due to genetic mutations or drug interferences causes long QT syndrome, leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (torsades de pointes or sudden death. Probucol is a cholesterol-lowering drug that could reduce hERG current by decreasing plasma membrane hERG protein expression and eventually cause long QT syndrome. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of probucol effects on IhERG and hERG-channel expression. Our data demonstrated that probucol reduces SGK1 expression, known as SGK isoform, in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in downregulation of phosphorylated E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 expression, but not the total level of Nedd4-2. As a result, the hERG protein reduces, due to the enhanced ubiquitination level. On the contrary, carbachol could enhance the phosphorylation level of Nedd4-2 as an alternative to SGK1, and thus rescue the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of hERG channels caused by probucol. These discoveries provide a novel mechanism of probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency, and imply that carbachol or its analog may serve as potential therapeutic compounds for the handling of probucol cardiotoxicity.Keywords: long QT, hERG potassium channels, probucol, SGK1, Nedd4-2

  3. Why are most phospholipidosis inducers also hERG blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Svetoslav; Stoyanova-Slavova, Iva; Li, Shuaizhang; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Beger, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Recent reports have noted that a number of compounds that block the human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) ion channel also induce phospholipidosis (PLD). To explore a hypothesis explaining why most PLD inducers are also hERG inhibitors, a modeling approach was undertaken with data sets comprised of 4096 compounds assayed for hERG inhibition and 5490 compounds assayed for PLD induction. To eliminate the chemical domain effect, a filtered data set of 567 compounds tested in quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) format for both hERG inhibition and PLD induction was constructed. Partial least squares (PLS) modeling followed by 3D-SDAR mapping of the most frequently occurring bins and projection on to the chemical structure suggested that both adverse effects are driven by similar structural features, namely two aromatic rings and an amino group forming a three-center toxicophore. Non-parametric U-tests performed on the original 3D-SDAR bins indicated that the distance between the two aromatic rings is the main factor determining the differences in activity; at distances of up to about 5.5 Å, a phospholipidotic compound would also inhibit hERG, while at longer distances, a sharp reduction of the PLD-inducing potential leaves only a well-pronounced hERG blocking effect. The hERG activity itself diminishes after the distance between the centroids of the two aromatic rings exceeds 12.5 Å. Further comparison of the two toxicophores revealed that the almost identical aromatic rings to amino group distances play no significant role in distinguishing between PLD and hERG activity. The hypothesis that the PLD toxicophore appears to be a subset of the hERG toxicophore explains why about 80% of all phospholipidotic chemicals (the remaining 20% are thought to act via a different mechanism) also inhibit the hERG ion channel. These models were further validated in large-scale qHTS assays testing 1085 chemicals for their PLD-inducing potential and 1570 compounds for hERG

  4. Biological and Genomic Differences of ERG Oncoprotein-Stratified Prostate Cancers from African and Caucasian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    fluorescent in situ hybridization ( FISH ) and ERG protein detection by immunohistochemistry, has greatly accelerated the evaluations of ERG protein as the... situ hybrid - ization and ERG protein detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC), has significantly accelerated the evaluation of the ERG protein as the...frequencies of ERG in AA CaP in comparison to CA CaP (10-13). Almost complete concordance between the detection of ERG gene fusions by fluorescence in

  5. Manipulation of GES and ERG20 for geraniol overproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guo-Zhen; Yao, Ming-Dong; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Liang; Song, Tian-Qing; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Manipulation of monoterpene synthases to maximize flux towards targeted products from GPP (geranyl diphosphate) is the main challenge for heterologous monoterpene overproduction, in addition to cell toxicity from compounds themselves. In our study, by manipulation of the key enzymes geraniol synthase (GES) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (Erg20), geraniol (a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol) overproduction was achieved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme reductase (tHMGR) and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI1) overexpressed. The expressions of all above engineered genes were under the control of Gal promoter for alleviating product toxicity. Geraniol production varied from trace amount to 43.19mg/L (CrGES, GES from Catharanthus roseus) by screening of nine GESs from diverse species. Further through protein structure analysis and site-directed mutation in CrGES, it was firstly demonstrated that among the high-conserved amino acid residues located in active pocket, Y436 and D501 with strong affinity to diphosphate function group, were critical for the dephosphorylation (the core step for geraniol formation). Moreover, the truncation position of the transit peptide from the N-terminus of CrGES was found to influence protein expression and activity significantly, obtaining a titer of 191.61mg/L geraniol in strain with CrGES truncated at S43 (t3CrGES). Furthermore, directed by surface electrostatics distribution of t3CrGES and Erg20(WW) (Erg20(F96W-N127W)), co-expression of the reverse fusion of Erg20(ww)/t3CrGES and another copy of Erg20(WW) promoted the geraniol titer to 523.96mg/L at shakes flask level, due to enhancing GPP accessibility led by protein interaction of t3CrGES-Erg20(WW) and the free Erg20(WW). Eventually, a highest reported titer of 1.68g/L geraniol in eukaryote cells was achieved in 2.0L fed-batch fermentation under carbon restriction strategy. Our research opens large opportunities for other

  6. Are hERG channel blockers also phospholipidosis inducers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongmao; Xia, Menghang; Shahane, Sampada A; Jadhav, Ajit; Austin, Christopher P; Huang, Ruili

    2013-08-15

    Both pharmacophore models of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blockers and phospholipidosis (PLD) inducers contain a hydrophobic moiety and a hydrophilic motif/positively charged center, so it is interesting to investigate the overlap between the ligand chemical spaces of both targets. We have assayed over 4000 non-redundant drug-like compounds for both their hERG inhibitory activity and PLD inducing potential in a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format. Seventy-seven percent of PLD inducing compounds identified from the screening were also found to be hERG channel blockers, and 96.9% of the dually active compounds were positively charged. Among the 48 compounds that induced PLD without inhibiting hERG channel, 24 compounds (50.0%) carried steroidal structures. According to our results, hERG channel blockers and PLD inducers share a large chemical space. In addition, a positively charged hERG channel blocker will most likely induce PLD, while a steroid PLD inducer is less likely a hERG channel blocker. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Accelerated molecular evolution of insect orthologues of ERG28 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    squared statistic, which is two times. Figure 1. Schematic representation of the genomic structures of ERG28 orthologues. Hsa, Homo sapiens; Dme, Drosophila melanogaster; Atha, Arabidopsis thaliana; Spo, Schizosac- charomyces pombe; Sce ...

  8. Characterization of hERG1a and hERG1b potassium channels-a possible role for hERG1b in the I (Kr) current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2008-01-01

    I (Kr) is the fast component of the delayed rectifier potassium currents responsible for the repolarization of the cardiac muscle. The molecular correlate underlying the I (Kr) current has been identified as the hERG1 channel. Recently, two splice variants of the hERG1 alpha-subunit, hERG1a and h...

  9. ERG transcriptional networks in primary acute leukemia cells implicate a role for ERG in deregulated kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bock

    Full Text Available High expression of the E26 transforming sequence related gene (ERG is associated with poor prognosis in a subgroup of leukemia patients with acute myeloid (AML and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. In a previous study we proposed that ERG overexpression may deregulate several signaling cascades in acute leukemia. Herein, we further expand those studies by identifying a consensus of biological targets in primary blasts of newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients. Our findings of chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip of primary samples revealed 48 significantly enriched single genes including DAAM1 and NUMB. Significantly enriched signaling pathways included WNT/β-catenin, p53, and PI3K/AKT with ERG overexpression inducing dephosphorylation of AKT(Ser473 relative to non ERG expressing K562 cells. Cell based ERG overexpression studies also revealed drug resistance to multi-kinase inhibitor, BAY 43-9006 (Sorafenib and to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI258. Thus in primary leukemic cells, ERG may contribute to the dysregulation of kinase signaling, which results in resistance to kinase inhibitors.

  10. Astemizole Derivatives as Fluorescent Probes for hERG Potassium Channel Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ma, Zhao; Li, Minyong; Du, Lupei

    2016-03-10

    The detection and imaging of hERG potassium channels in living cells can provide useful information for hERG-correlation studies. Herein, three small-molecule fluorescent probes, based on the potent hERG channel inhibitor astemizole, for the imaging of hERG channels in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells (hERG-HEK293) and human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29), are described. These probes are expected to be applied in the physiological and pathological studies of hERG channels.

  11. hERG quality control and the long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Brian; Williamson, Brittany; Young, Jason C; Lukacs, Gergely; Shrier, Alvin

    2016-05-01

    Long-QT syndrome type-2 (LQT2) is characterized by reduced functional expression of the human ether-à-go-go related (hERG) gene product, resulting in impaired cardiac repolarization and predisposition to fatal arrhythmia. Previous studies have implicated abnormal trafficking of misfolded hERG as the primary mechanism of LQT2, with misfolding being caused by mutations in the hERG gene (inherited) or drug treatment (acquired). More generally, environmental and metabolic stresses present a constant challenge to the folding of proteins, including hERG, and must be countered by robust protein quality control (QC) systems. Disposal of partially unfolded yet functional plasma membrane (PM) proteins by protein QC contributes to the loss-of-function phenotype in various conformational diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF) and long-QT syndrome type-2 (LQT2). The prevalent view has been that the loss of PM expression of hERG is attributed to biosynthetic block by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) QC pathways. However, there is a growing appreciation for protein QC pathways acting at post-ER cellular compartments, which may contribute to conformational disease pathogenesis. This article will provide a background on the structure and cellular trafficking of hERG as well as inherited and acquired LQT2. We will review previous work on hERG ER QC and introduce the more novel view that there is a significant peripheral QC at the PM and peripheral cellular compartments. Particular attention is drawn to the unique role of the peripheral QC system in acquired LQT2. Understanding the QC process and players may provide targets for therapeutic intervention in dealing with LQT2. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Antibody-Based Detection of ERG Rearrangement-Positive Prostate Cancer

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    Kyung Park

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions occur in 50% of prostate cancers and result in the overexpression of a chimeric fusion transcript that encodes a truncated ERG product. Previous attempts to detect truncated ERG products have been hindered by a lack of specific antibodies. Here, we characterize a rabbit anti-ERG monoclonal antibody (clone EPR 3864; Epitomics, Burlingame, CA using immunoblot analysis on prostate cancer cell lines, synthetic TMPRSS2-ERG constructs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. We correlated ERG protein expression with the presence of ERG gene rearrangements in prostate cancertissues using a combined immunohistochemistry(IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. We independently evaluated two patient cohorts and observed ERG expression confined to prostate cancer cells and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial reoplasia associated with ERG-positive cancer, as well as vessels and lymphocytes (where ERG has a known biologic role. Image analysis of 131 cases demonstrated nearly 100% sensitivity for detecting ERG rearrangement prostate cancer, with only 2 (1.5% of 131 cases demonstrating strong ERG protein expression without any known ERG gene fusion. The combired pathology evaluation of 207 patient tumors for ERG protein expression had 95.7% sensitivity and 96.5% specificity for determining ERG rearrangement prostate cancer. Ir conclusion, this study qualifies a specific anti-ERG antibody and demonstrates exquisite association between ERG gene rearrangement and truncated ERG protein product expression. Giver the ease of performing IHC versus FISH, ERG protein expression may be useful for molecularly subtypirg prostate cancer based or ERG rearrangement status and suggests clinical utility it prostate needle biopsy evaluation.

  13. Multifocal ERG wavelet packet decomposition applied to glaucoma diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ascariz José M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and early diagnosis is essential to its treatment. Current clinical methods based on multifocal electroretinography (mfERG essentially involve measurement of amplitudes and latencies and assume standard signal morphology. This paper presents a new method based on wavelet packet analysis of global-flash multifocal electroretinogram signals. Methods This study comprised twenty-five patients diagnosed with OAG and twenty-five control subjects. Their mfERG recordings data were used to develop the algorithm method based on wavelet packet analysis. By reconstructing the third wavelet packet contained in the fourth decomposition level (ADAA4 of the mfERG recording, it is possible to obtain a signal from which to extract a marker in the 60-80 ms time interval. Results The marker found comprises oscillatory potentials with a negative-slope basal line in the case of glaucomatous recordings and a positive-slope basal line in the case of normal signals. Application of the optimal threshold calculated in the validation cases showed that the technique proposed achieved a sensitivity of 0.81 and validation specificity of 0.73. Conclusions This new method based on mfERG analysis may be reliable enough to detect functional deficits that are not apparent using current automated perimetry tests. As new stimulation and analysis protocols develop, mfERG has the potential to become a useful tool in early detection of glaucoma-related functional deficits.

  14. Theory, modeling, and integrated studies in the Arase (ERG) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kanako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Katoh, Yuto; Amano, Takanobu; Saito, Shinji; Shoji, Masafumi; Nakamizo, Aoi; Keika, Kunihiro; Hori, Tomoaki; Nakano, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Shigeto; Kamiya, Kei; Takahashi, Naoko; Omura, Yoshiharu; Nose, Masahito; Fok, Mei-Ching; Tanaka, Takashi; Ieda, Akimasa; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of underlying mechanisms of drastic variations of the near-Earth space (geospace) is one of the current focuses of the magnetospheric physics. The science target of the geospace research project Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) is to understand the geospace variations with a focus on the relativistic electron acceleration and loss processes. In order to achieve the goal, the ERG project consists of the three parts: the Arase (ERG) satellite, ground-based observations, and theory/modeling/integrated studies. The role of theory/modeling/integrated studies part is to promote relevant theoretical and simulation studies as well as integrated data analysis to combine different kinds of observations and modeling. Here we provide technical reports on simulation and empirical models related to the ERG project together with their roles in the integrated studies of dynamic geospace variations. The simulation and empirical models covered include the radial diffusion model of the radiation belt electrons, GEMSIS-RB and RBW models, CIMI model with global MHD simulation REPPU, GEMSIS-RC model, plasmasphere thermosphere model, self-consistent wave-particle interaction simulations (electron hybrid code and ion hybrid code), the ionospheric electric potential (GEMSIS-POT) model, and SuperDARN electric field models with data assimilation. ERG (Arase) science center tools to support integrated studies with various kinds of data are also briefly introduced.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. N-myc Downstream Regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1 Is Fused to ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Pflueger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A step toward the molecular classification of prostate cancer was the discovery of recurrent erythroblast transformation. specific rearrangements, most commonly fusing the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 promoter to ERG. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is observed in around 90% of tumors that overexpress the oncogene ERG. The goal of the current study was to complete the characterization of these ERG-overexpressing prostate cancers. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription.polymerase chain reaction assays, we screened 101 prostate cancers, identifying 34 cases (34% with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion. Seven cases demonstrated ERG rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization without the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion messenger RNA transcripts. Screening for known 5' partners, we determined that three cases harbored the SLC45A3-ERG fusion. To discover novel 5' partners in these ERG-overexpressing and ERG-rearranged cases, we used paired-end RNA sequencing. We first confirmed the utility of this approach by identifying the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in a known positive prostate cancer case and then discovered a novel fusion involving the androgen-inducible tumor suppressor, NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene 1, and ERG in two cases. Unlike TMPRSS2-ERG and SCL45A3-ERG fusions, the NDRG1-ERG fusion is predicted to encode a chimeric protein. Like TMPRSS2, SCL45A3 and NDRG1 are inducible not only by androgen but also by estrogen. This study demonstrates that most ERG-overexpressing prostate cancers harbor hormonally regulated TMPRSS2-ERG, SLC45A3-ERG, or NDRG1-ERG fusions. Broader implications of this study support the use of RNA sequencing to discover novel cancer translocations.

  16. Pharmacological rescue of hERG currents carried out by G604S and wide type hERG co-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jianhua; Zhang, Aifeng; Guo, Xueyan; Qiang, Hua; Liu, Ping; Bai, Ling; Ma, Aiqun

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) can lead to type 2 long-QT syndrome (LQT2). The authors previously identified the hERG mutation G604S results in a loss of function and obviously decreased current amplitude and impaired channel protein trafficking when co-expressed with WT-hERG. The present study further investigates the biological and electrophysiological consequences of pharmacologic chaperones in HEK293 cells expressing G604S-hERG or co-expressing G604S-hERG and WT-hERG. It was found that a low temperature (27°C), thapsigargin, NS1643 and E-4031 fail to rescue the G604S mutation. Interestingly, only E-4031 treatment resulted in a significant increase in hERG currents in cells co-expressing G604S-hERG and WT-hERG, correspondingly more mature protein band at 155 kDa by Western blotting and an increased membrane staining by confocal microscopy. In addition, E-4031 treatment shifted the steady-state half maximal activation voltage (V1/2 ) of the inactivation curve by +8 mV in cells co-expressing G604S-hERG and WT-hERG. The present experimental results suggest that a G604S mutation is resistant to pharmacological rescue. E-4031 treatment resulted in a significant increase in hERG currents by promoting the hERG channel processing and trafficking in cells co-expressing G604S-hERG and WT-hERG. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion Causing ERG Overexpression Precedes Chromosome Copy Number Changes in Prostate Carcinomas, Paired HGPIN Lesions

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    Nuno Cerveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ETS gene fusions have been found recurrently in prostate carcinomas, but not in the presumed precursor lesion, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN. However, HGPIN lesions may share chromosomal changes with prostate cancer. To determine the relative order of genetic events in prostate carcinogenesis, we have analyzed 34 prostate carcinomas, 19 paired HGPIN lesions, 14 benign prostate hyperplasias, 11 morphologically normal prostatic tissues for TMPRSS2-ERG, TMPRSS2-ETV1 rearrangements, genomic imbalances. TMPRSS2 exon 1 was fused in-frame with ERG exon 4 in 17 of 34 (50% prostate carcinomas, in 4 of 19 (21% HGPIN lesions, but in none of controls. The findings were further validated by sequencing analysis, by the real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcript, the ERG exons 5/6:exons 1/2 expression ratio. Chromosome copy number changes were detected by comparative genomic hybridization in 42% of clinically confined carcinomas, in none of the 16 HGPIN lesions analyzed. We demonstrate for the first time that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene can be detected in a proportion of HGPIN lesions, that this molecular rearrangement is an early event that may precede chromosome-level alterations in prostate carcinogenesis.

  18. Voltage-dependent gating of hERG potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen May eCheng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4-S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-a-go-go related gene, hERG, which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure-function relationships underlying voltage-dependent gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage sensing domain and the S4-S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage sensing unit and S4-S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor.

  19. Voltage-Dependent Gating of hERG Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen May; Claydon, Tom W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4–S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-à-go-go related gene, hERG), which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure–function relationships underlying activation and deactivation gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage-sensing domain and the S4–S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter-charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage-sensing unit and S4–S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor. PMID:22586397

  20. Accelerated molecular evolution of insect orthologues of ERG28 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have analysed the evolution of ERG28/C14orf1, a gene coding for a protein involved in sterol biosynthesis. While primary sequence of the protein is well conserved in all organisms able to synthesize sterols de novo, strong divergence is noticed in insects, which are cholesterol auxotrophs. In spite of this virtual ...

  1. Polchinski ERG Equation in O(N) Scalar Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshin, Yuri; Neves, Rui; Potting, Robertus

    We investigate the Polchinski ERG equation for d-dimensional O(N) scalar field theory. In the context of the non-pertubative derivative expansion we find families of regular solutions and establish their relation with the physical fixed points of the theory. Special emphasis is given to the limit N=∞ for which many properties can be studied analytically.

  2. Polchinski ERG Equation in O(N) Scalar Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kubyshin, Yuri; Neves, Rui; Potting, Robertus

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the Polchinski ERG equation for d-dimensional O(N) scalar field theory. In the context of the non-perturbative derivative expansion we find families of regular solutions and establish their relation with the physical fixed points of the theory. Special emphasis is given to the large N limit for which many properties can be studied analytically.

  3. Up-Regulation of hERG K+ Channels by B-RAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakladok, Tatsiana; Hosseinzadeh, Zohreh; Almilaji, Ahmad; Lebedeva, Aleksandra; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Alesutan, Ioana; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Human ether-a-go-go related-gene K+ channels (hERG) participate in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. HERG channel activity is up-regulated by growth factors. Kinases sensitive to growth factor signaling include the serine/threonine protein kinase B-RAF. The present study thus explored whether B-RAF influences hERG channel expression and activity. To this end, hERG channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without wild-type B-RAF, hERG channel activity was determined utilizing dual-electrode voltage clamp and hERG protein abundance in the cell membrane was analyzed utilizing confocal microscopy as well as chemiluminescence. Moreover, in rhabdomyosarcoma RD cells the effect of B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4720 on hERG-mediated current was quantified by whole-cell patch clamp and hERG cell surface protein abundance by utilizing biotinylation of cell surface proteins as well as flow cytometry. As a result, co-expression of wild-type B-RAF in hERG-expressing Xenopus oocytes significantly increased hERG channel activity and hERG channel protein abundance in the cell membrane. Treatment for 24 hours of B-RAF and hERG-expressing Xenopus oocytes with B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4720 (10 µM) significantly decreased hERG-mediated current and hERG cell surface expression. Similarly, in rhabdomyosarcoma RD cells, treatment for 24 hours with B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4720 significantly decreased hERG cell membrane protein abundance and hERG-mediated current. In conclusion, B-RAF is a powerful regulator of hERG channel activity and cell surface hERG protein abundance. PMID:24475291

  4. Up-regulation of hERG K⁺ channels by B-RAF.

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    Tatsiana Pakladok

    Full Text Available Human ether-a-go-go related-gene K⁺ channels (hERG participate in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. HERG channel activity is up-regulated by growth factors. Kinases sensitive to growth factor signaling include the serine/threonine protein kinase B-RAF. The present study thus explored whether B-RAF influences hERG channel expression and activity. To this end, hERG channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without wild-type B-RAF, hERG channel activity was determined utilizing dual-electrode voltage clamp and hERG protein abundance in the cell membrane was analyzed utilizing confocal microscopy as well as chemiluminescence. Moreover, in rhabdomyosarcoma RD cells the effect of B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4720 on hERG-mediated current was quantified by whole-cell patch clamp and hERG cell surface protein abundance by utilizing biotinylation of cell surface proteins as well as flow cytometry. As a result, co-expression of wild-type B-RAF in hERG-expressing Xenopus oocytes significantly increased hERG channel activity and hERG channel protein abundance in the cell membrane. Treatment for 24 hours of B-RAF and hERG-expressing Xenopus oocytes with B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4720 (10 µM significantly decreased hERG-mediated current and hERG cell surface expression. Similarly, in rhabdomyosarcoma RD cells, treatment for 24 hours with B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4720 significantly decreased hERG cell membrane protein abundance and hERG-mediated current. In conclusion, B-RAF is a powerful regulator of hERG channel activity and cell surface hERG protein abundance.

  5. Trafficking-Deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG Activate Stress and Clearance Pathways in Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianqing; Yang, Xi; Li, Di; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Huan Huan; Liu, Ningsheng; Lian, Jiangfang

    2012-01-01

    Background Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is the second most common type of all long QT syndromes. It is well-known that trafficking deficient mutant human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) proteins are often involved in LQT2. Cells respond to misfolded and trafficking-deficient proteins by eliciting the unfolded protein response (UPR) and Activating Transcription Factor (ATF6) has been identified as a key regulator of the mammalian UPR. In this study, we investigated the role of ER chaperone proteins (Calnexin and Calreticulin) in the processing of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins. Methods pcDNA3-WT-hERG, pcDNA3-G572R-hERG and pcDNA3-E637K-hERG plasmids were transfected into U2OS and HEK293 cells. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to analyze subcellular localization and protein expression. Interaction between WT or mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was tested by coimmunoprecipitation. To assess the role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the degradation of mutant hERG proteins, transfected HEK293 cells were treated with proteasome inhibitors and their effects on the steady state protein levels of WT and mutant hERGs were examined. Conclusion Our results showed that levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG in association with Calnexin and Calreticulin were higher than that in WT-hERG. Both mutant hERG proteins could activate the UPR by upregulating levels of active ATF6. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition increased the levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of WT and mutant hERGs. In addition, interaction between mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was stronger after proteasome inhibition, compared to WT-hERG. These results suggest that trafficking-deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins can activate ER stress pathways and are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Calnexin and Calreticulin play important roles in these processes. PMID:22242185

  6. Trafficking-deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG activate stress and clearance pathways in endoplasmic reticulum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2 is the second most common type of all long QT syndromes. It is well-known that trafficking deficient mutant human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG proteins are often involved in LQT2. Cells respond to misfolded and trafficking-deficient proteins by eliciting the unfolded protein response (UPR and Activating Transcription Factor (ATF6 has been identified as a key regulator of the mammalian UPR. In this study, we investigated the role of ER chaperone proteins (Calnexin and Calreticulin in the processing of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins.pcDNA3-WT-hERG, pcDNA3-G572R-hERG and pcDNA3-E637K-hERG plasmids were transfected into U2OS and HEK293 cells. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to analyze subcellular localization and protein expression. Interaction between WT or mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was tested by coimmunoprecipitation. To assess the role of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the degradation of mutant hERG proteins, transfected HEK293 cells were treated with proteasome inhibitors and their effects on the steady state protein levels of WT and mutant hERGs were examined.Our results showed that levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG in association with Calnexin and Calreticulin were higher than that in WT-hERG. Both mutant hERG proteins could activate the UPR by upregulating levels of active ATF6. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition increased the levels of core-glycosylated immature forms of WT and mutant hERGs. In addition, interaction between mutant hERGs and Calnexin/Calreticulin was stronger after proteasome inhibition, compared to WT-hERG. These results suggest that trafficking-deficient G572R-hERG and E637K-hERG mutant proteins can activate ER stress pathways and are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. Calnexin and Calreticulin play important roles in these processes.

  7. Long-chain acylcarnitines regulate the hERG channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ferro

    Full Text Available In some pathological conditions carnitine concentration is high while in others it is low. In both cases,cardiac arrhythmias can occur and lead to sudden cardiac death. It has been proposed that in ischaemia, acylcarnitine (acyl-CAR, but not carnitine, is involved in arrhythmias through modulation of ionic currents. We studied the effects of acyl-CARs on hERG, K(IR2.1 and K(v7.1/minK channels (channels responsible for I(KR, I(K1 and I(KS respectively.HEK293 cells stably expressing hERG, K(IR2.1 or Kv7.1/minK were studied using the patch clamp technique. Free carnitine (CAR and acyl-CAR derivatives from medium- (C8 and C10 and long-chain (C16 and C18:1 fatty acids were applied intra- and extracellularly at different concentrations. For studies on hERG, C16 and C18:1 free fatty acid were also used.Extracellular long-chain (LCAC, but not medium-chain, acyl-CAR,induced an increase of I(hERG amplitude associated with a dose-dependent speeding of deactivation kinetics. They had no effect on K(IR2.1 or Kv7.1/minK currents.Computer simulations of these effects were consistent with changes in action potential profile. CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS: Extracellular LCAC tonically regulates I(hERG amplitude and kinetics under physiological conditions. This modulation may contribute to the changes in action potential duration that precede cardiac arrhythmias in ischaemia, diabetes and primary systemic carnitine deficiency.

  8. Spatial variability of multi-controlled aeolian supersurfaces in central-erg and marine-erg-margin systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; de Boer, P.L.; Soria, A.R.; Liesa, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    During the Albian Iberia was under the influence of the Northern-Hemisphere Hot Arid Belt favouring the development of an extensive sandy desert system with a marine-erg margin where prograding aeolian dunes interacted with Tethyan waters. The interplay of different controls, such as synsedimentary

  9. Inhibitory effects and mechanism of dihydroberberine on hERG channels expressed in HEK293 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Dahai; Lv, Lin; Fang, Li; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Junnan; Zhan, Ge; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Li, Baoxin

    2017-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel conducts rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I Kr) and contributes to phase III cardiac action potential repolarization. Drugs inhibit hERG channels by binding to aromatic residues in hERG helixes. Berberine (BBR) has multiple actions, and its hydrogenated derivative dihydroberberine (DHB) is a potential candidate for developing new drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that BBR blocks hERG channels and prolongs action ...

  10. Oncogenicity and Selective Inhibition of ERG Splicing Variants in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    other oncogenes [32]. Indeed, ERG- expressing cells, but not controls, stained positive for senescence biomarker ( beta )- Galactosidase (Figure 9C). None...prostate tumorigenesis process. In addition to Tmprss2:ERG fusion products , a group of related native ERG isoforms is also highly over-expressed in...variants of the normal ERG gene product have been described, arising from a combination of alternative splicing, polyadenilation and transcriptional

  11. Activation of ERG2 potassium channels by the diphenylurea NS1643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Three members of the ERG potassium channel family have been described (ERG1-3 or Kv 11.1-3). ERG1 is by far the best characterized subtype and it constitutes the molecular component of the cardiac I(Kr) current. All three channel subtypes are expressed in neurons but their function remains unclear...

  12. Stereoselective Blockage of Quinidine and Quinine in the hERG Channel and the Effect of Their Rescue Potency on Drug-Induced hERG Trafficking Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meng; Fan, Pan; Shi, Yanhui; Feng, Lifang; Wang, Junnan; Zhan, Ge; Li, Baoxin

    2016-09-28

    Diastereoisomers of quinidine and quinine are used to treat arrhythmia and malaria, respectively. It has been reported that both drugs block the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channel which is essential for myocardium repolarization. Abnormality of repolarization increases risk of arrhythmia. The aim of our research is to study and compare the impacts of quinidine and quinine on hERG. Results show that both drugs block the hERG channel, with quinine 14-fold less potent than quinidine. In addition, they presented distinct impacts on channel dynamics. The results imply their stereospecific block effect on the hERG channel. However, F656C-hERG reversed this stereoselectivity. The mutation decreases affinity of the two drugs with hERG, and quinine was more potent than quinidine in F656C-hERG blockage. These data suggest that F656 residue contributes to the stereoselective pocket for quinidine and quinine. Further study demonstrates that both drugs do not change hERG protein levels. In rescue experiments, we found that they exert no reverse effect on pentamidine- or desipramine-induced hERG trafficking defect, although quinidine has been reported to rescue trafficking-deficient pore mutation hERG G601S based on the interaction with F656. Our research demonstrated stereoselective effects of quinidine and quinine on the hERG channel, and this is the first study to explore their reversal potency on drug-induced hERG deficiency.

  13. The protease inhibitor atazanavir blocks hERG K(+) channels expressed in HEK293 cells and obstructs hERG protein transport to cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng-na; Sun, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-04-01

    Atazanavir (ATV) is a HIV-1 protease inhibitor for the treatment of AIDS patients, which is recently reported to provoke excessive prolongation of the QT interval and torsades de pointes (TdP). In order to elucidate its arrhythmogenic mechanisms, we investigated the effects of ATV on the hERG K(+) channels expressed in HEK293 cells. hERG K(+) currents were detected using whole-cell patch clamp recording in HEK293 cells transfected with EGFP-hERG plasmids. The expression of hERG protein was measured with Western blotting. Two mutants (Y652A and F656C) were constructed in the S6 domain within the inner helices of hERG K(+) channels that were responsible for binding of various drugs. The trafficking of hERG protein was studied with confocal microscopy. Application of ATV (0.01-30 μmol/L) concentration-dependently decreased hERG K(+) currents with an IC50 of 5.7±1.8 μmol/L. ATV (10 μmol/L) did not affect the activation and steady-state inactivation of hERG K(+) currents. Compared with the wild type hERG K(+) channels, both Y652A and F656C mutants significantly reduced the inhibition of ATV on hERG K(+) currents. Overnight treatment with ATV (0.1-30 μmol/L) concentration-dependently reduced the amount of fully glycosylated 155 kDa hERG protein without significantly affecting the core-glycosylated 135 kDa hERG protein in the cells expressing the WT-hERG protein. Confocal microscopy studies confirmed that overnight treatment with ATV obstructed the trafficking of hERG protein to the cell membrane. ATV directly blocks hERG K(+) channels via binding to the residues Y652 and F656 in the S6 domain, and indirectly obstructs the transport of the hERG protein to the cell membrane.

  14. Glycosylation stabilizes hERG channels on the plasma membrane by decreasing proteolytic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M; Hulbert, Maggie; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2017-11-21

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG)-encoded channel hERG undergoes N-linked glycosylation at position 598, which is located in the unusually long S5-pore linker of the channel. In other work we have demonstrated that hERG is uniquely susceptible to proteolytic cleavage at the S5-pore linker by proteinase K (PK) and calpain (CAPN). The scorpion toxin BeKm-1, which binds to the S5-pore linker of hERG, protects hERG from such cleavage. In the present study, our data revealed that, compared with normal glycosylated hERG channels, nonglycosylated hERG channels were significantly more susceptible to cleavage by extracellular PK. Furthermore, the protective effect of BeKm-1 on hERG from PK-cleavage was lost when glycosylation of hERG was inhibited. The inactivation-deficient mutant hERG channels S620T and S631A were resistant to PK cleavage, and inhibition of glycosylation rendered both mutants susceptible to PK cleavage. Compared with normal glycosylated channels, nonglycosylated hERG channels were also more susceptible to cleavage mediated by CAPN, which was present in the medium of human embryonic kidney cells under normal culture conditions. Inhibition of CAPN resulted in an increase of nonglycosylated hERG current. In summary, our results revealed that N-linked glycosylation protects hERG against protease-mediated degradation and thus contributes to hERG channel stability on the plasma membrane.-Lamothe, S. M., Hulbert, M., Guo, J., Li, W., Yang, T., Zhang, S. Glycosylation stabilizes hERG channels on the plasma membrane by decreasing proteolytic susceptibility. © FASEB.

  15. Antibody-independent Targeted Quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Protein Products in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jintang; Sun, Xuefei; Shi, Tujin; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Rui; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Yang, Feng; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Chae, Sung Suk; Rubin, Mark; Siddiqui, Javed; Wei, John; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.

    2014-10-01

    Fusions between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and ETS related gene (ERG) represent one of the most specific biomarkers that define a distinct molecular subtype of prostate cancer. The studies on TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions have seldom been performed at the protein level, primarily due to the lack of high-quality antibodies or an antibody-independent method that is sufficiently sensitive for detecting the truncated ERG protein products resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions and alternative splicing. Herein, we applied a recently developed PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) strategy for quantifying ERG protein in prostate cancer cell lines and tumors. The highly sensitive PRISM-SRM assays led to confident detection of 6 unique ERG peptides in either the TMPRSS2-ERG positive cell lines or tissues but not in the negative controls, indicating that ERG protein expression is highly correlated with TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangements. Significantly, our results demonstrated for the first time that at least two groups of ERG protein isoforms were simultaneously expressed at variable levels in TMPRSS2-ERG positive samples as evidenced by concomitant detection of two mutually exclusive peptides. Three peptides shared across almost all fusion protein products were determined to be the most abundant peptides, and hence can be used as “signature” peptides for detecting ERG overexpression resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These PRISM-SRM assays provide valuable tools for studying TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein products, thus improving our understanding of the role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in the biology of prostate cancer.

  16. Pattern ERG and psychophysical functions in Best's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc-Vidmar, M; Popović, P; Hawlina, M; Brecelj, J

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the study was to asses the neurosensory retinal function in 12 patients (24 eyes) with different stages of Best's disease, by determining how pattern and full field flash ERG responses were related to visual acuity, stage of disease and extent of visual field loss. All patients had typically abnormal EOG responses and normal full field-flash ERG responses. Patients were stratified in two groups according to visual acuity. In the first group 12 eyes with visual acuity better than 0.5, all amplitudes and latencies of PERG P50 and N95 responses were in the normal range. Small central scotoma was detected by static perimetry in four of these eyes. In the second group of 12 eyes with visual acuity 0.5 or less, PERG showed reduced both P50 and N95 amplitudes in five eyes, and N95 solely, in two eyes. All patients had central scotomas detected by static perimetry. Progression of the disease, seen in deterioration of visual acuity and progression of central visual field defects, corresponded well with reduction of both PERG P50 and N95 amplitudes. There was no correlation found between visual acuity and EOG responses. Our results show that in Best's distrophy, pattern ERG is getting abnormal with progression of the disease, indicating relative preservation of neurosensory retina in initial stages of the disease. In contrast to EOG - being abnormal in all the patients regardless of the stage of disease - and full field-flash ERG - being normal in most of the patients - PERG gives opportunity for electrophysiological determination of the progression of the disease.

  17. ERG is required for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells along the endothelial lineage

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    Le Bras Alexandra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms that govern stem cell differentiation along the endothelial lineage remain largely unknown. Ets related gene (ERG has recently been shown to participate in the transcriptional regulation of a number of endothelial specific genes including VE-cadherin (CD144, endoglin, and von Willebrand's Factor (vWF. The specific role of the ETS factor ERG during endothelial differentiation has not been evaluated. Results ERG expression and function were evaluated during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies (EB. The results of our study demonstrate that ERG is first expressed in a subpopulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2 expressing cells that also express VE-cadherin. During ES cell differentiation, ERG expression remains restricted to cells of the endothelial lineage that eventually coalesce into primitive vascular structures within embryoid bodies. ERG also exhibits an endothelial cell (EC-restricted pattern during embryogenesis. To further define the role of ERG during ES cell differentiation, we used a knockdown strategy to inhibit ERG expression. Delivery of three independent shRNA led to 70-85% reductions in ERG expression during ES cell differentiation compared to no change with control shRNA. ERG knockdown was associated with a marked reduction in the number of ECs, the expression of EC-restricted genes, and the formation of vascular structures. Conclusion The ETS factor ERG appears to be a critical regulator of EC differentiation.

  18. Antineoplastic Effects of siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG Junction Oncogene in Prostate Cancer.

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    Giorgia Urbinati

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene is present in more than 50% of patients with prostate cancer and its expression is frequently associated with poor prognosis. Our aim is to achieve gene knockdown by siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG and then to assess the biological consequences of this inhibition. First, we designed siRNAs against the two TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variants (III and IV, most frequently identified in patients' biopsies. Two of the five siRNAs tested were found to efficiently inhibit mRNA of both TMPRSS2-ERG variants and to decrease ERG protein expression. Microarray analysis further confirmed ERG inhibition by both siRNAs TMPRSS2-ERG and revealed one common down-regulated gene, ADRA2A, involved in cell proliferation and migration. The siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variant IV showed the highest anti-proliferative effects: Significantly decreased cell viability, increased cleaved caspase-3 and inhibited a cluster of anti-apoptotic proteins. To propose a concrete therapeutic approach, siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG IV was conjugated to squalene, which can self-organize as nanoparticles in water. The nanoparticles of siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG-squalene injected intravenously in SCID mice reduced growth of VCaP xenografted tumours, inhibited oncoprotein expression and partially restored differentiation (decrease in Ki67. In conclusion, this study offers a new prospect of treatment for prostate cancer based on siRNA-squalene nanoparticles targeting TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene.

  19. Inhibition of cloned hERG potassium channels by risperidone and paliperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joon; Choi, Jin-Sung; Choi, Bok Hee; Hahn, Sang June

    2017-06-01

    Risperidone and one of its active metabolites, paliperidone, are widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia. We used a patch-clamp study to investigate the effects of paliperidone on hERG potassium channels expressed in HEK cells. Western blot analyses were used to study the effects of risperidone and paliperidone on hERG and hERG 3.1 isoform channel trafficking. Risperidone and paliperidone inhibited the hERG tail currents in a concentration-dependent manner with IC 50 values of 0.16 and 0.57 μM, respectively. The block of hERG currents by paliperidone was voltage-dependent, increasing over a range of voltages for channel activation. A fast application of paliperidone inhibited the hERG current elicited by a 5-s depolarizing pulse to +60 mV to fully inactivate the hERG currents, suggesting an inactivated state block. A fast application of paliperidone during repolarization reversibly inhibited the hERG tail currents in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC 50 value of 1.26 μM. Kinetic analysis of paliperidone interaction with the open state of the hERG channels showed that the rate constants of association (k +1 ) and dissociation (k -1 ) for paliperidone were 0.45 μM -1  s -1 and 1.07 s -1 , respectively. Paliperidone shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of the hERG currents in a hyperpolarizing direction and also produced a use-dependent block. Risperidone and paliperidone had no effect on hERG and hERG 3.1 channel trafficking to the cell membrane. Our results indicated that paliperidone inhibited the hERG current by preferentially interacting with the open and inactivated states of the channel, but not by disruption of hERG channel protein trafficking.

  20. Axotomy induces MHC class I antigen expression on rat nerve cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Schröder, H D; Klareskog, L

    1988-01-01

    on non-neural cells in the immediate vicinity of the injured nerve cells. As nerve regeneration after axotomy includes growth of new nerve cell processes and formation of new nerve cell contacts, the present findings raise the question of a role for MHC-coded molecules in cell-cell interactions during...

  1. Inhibitory effects and mechanism of dihydroberberine on hERG channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

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    Dahai Yu

    Full Text Available The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG potassium channel conducts rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (IKr and contributes to phase III cardiac action potential repolarization. Drugs inhibit hERG channels by binding to aromatic residues in hERG helixes. Berberine (BBR has multiple actions, and its hydrogenated derivative dihydroberberine (DHB is a potential candidate for developing new drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that BBR blocks hERG channels and prolongs action potential duration (APD. Our present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of DHB on hERG channels. Protein expression and the hERG current were analyzed using western blotting and patch-clamp, respectively. DHB inhibited the hERG current concentration-dependently after instantaneous perfusion, accelerated channel inactivation by directly binding tyrosine (Tyr652 and phenylalanine (Phe656, and decreased mature (155-kDa and simultaneously increased immature (135-kDa hERG expression, respectively. This suggests disruption of forward trafficking of hERG channels. Besides, DHB remarkably reduced heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 expression and its interaction with hERG, indicating that DHB disrupted hERG trafficking by impairing channel folding. Meanwhie, DHB enhanced the expression of cleaved activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6, a biomarker of unfolded protein response (UPR. Expression of calnexin and calreticulin, chaperones activated by ATF-6 to facilitate channel folding, were also increased, which indicating UPR activation. Additionally, the degradation rate of mature 155-kDa hERG increased following DHB exposure. In conclusion, we demonstrated that DHB acutely blocked hERG channels by binding the aromatic Tyr652 and Phe656. DHB may decrease hERG plasma membrane expression through two pathways involving disruption of forward trafficking of immature hERG channels and enhanced degradation of mature hERG channels. Furthermore, forward trafficking was

  2. Inhibitory effects and mechanism of dihydroberberine on hERG channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Lv, Lin; Fang, Li; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Junnan; Zhan, Ge; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Li, Baoxin

    2017-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel conducts rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (IKr) and contributes to phase III cardiac action potential repolarization. Drugs inhibit hERG channels by binding to aromatic residues in hERG helixes. Berberine (BBR) has multiple actions, and its hydrogenated derivative dihydroberberine (DHB) is a potential candidate for developing new drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that BBR blocks hERG channels and prolongs action potential duration (APD). Our present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of DHB on hERG channels. Protein expression and the hERG current were analyzed using western blotting and patch-clamp, respectively. DHB inhibited the hERG current concentration-dependently after instantaneous perfusion, accelerated channel inactivation by directly binding tyrosine (Tyr652) and phenylalanine (Phe656), and decreased mature (155-kDa) and simultaneously increased immature (135-kDa) hERG expression, respectively. This suggests disruption of forward trafficking of hERG channels. Besides, DHB remarkably reduced heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression and its interaction with hERG, indicating that DHB disrupted hERG trafficking by impairing channel folding. Meanwhie, DHB enhanced the expression of cleaved activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), a biomarker of unfolded protein response (UPR). Expression of calnexin and calreticulin, chaperones activated by ATF-6 to facilitate channel folding, were also increased, which indicating UPR activation. Additionally, the degradation rate of mature 155-kDa hERG increased following DHB exposure. In conclusion, we demonstrated that DHB acutely blocked hERG channels by binding the aromatic Tyr652 and Phe656. DHB may decrease hERG plasma membrane expression through two pathways involving disruption of forward trafficking of immature hERG channels and enhanced degradation of mature hERG channels. Furthermore, forward trafficking was

  3. Role of the TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion in Prostate Cancer

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    Scott A. Tomlins

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are the predominant molecular subtype of prostate cancer. Here, we explored the role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion product using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Transgenic mice expressing the ERG gene fusion product under androgen-regulation develop mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, a precursor lesion of prostate cancer. Introduction of the ERG gene fusion product into primary or immortalized benign prostate epithelial cells induced an invasion-associated transcriptional program but did not increase cellular proliferation or anchorage-independent growth. These results suggest that TMPRSS2-ERG may not be sufficient for transformation in the absence of secondary molecular lesions. Transcriptional profiling of ERG knockdown in the TMPPRSS2-ERG-positive prostate cancer cell line VCaP revealed decreased expression of genes over-expressed in prostate cancer versus PIN and genes overexpressed in ETS-positive versus -negative prostate cancers in addition to inhibiting invasion. ERG knockdown in VCaP cells also induced a transcriptional program consistent with prostate differentiation. Importantly, VCaP cells and benign prostate cells overexpressing ERG directly engage components of the plasminogen activation pathway to mediate cellular invasion, potentially representing a downstream ETS target susceptible to therapeutic intervention. Our results support previous work suggesting that TMPRSS2-ERG fusions mediate invasion, consistent with the defining histologic distinction between PIN and prostate cancer.

  4. The transcription factor ERG increases expression of neurotransmitter receptors on prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissick, Haydn T; On, Seung T; Dunn, Laura K; Sanda, Martin G; Asara, John M; Pellegrini, Kathryn L; Noel, Jonathan K; Arredouani, Mohamed S

    2015-08-27

    The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in about half of prostate cancer (PCa) cases and results in overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Overexpression of ERG has many effects on cellular function. However, how these changes enhance cell growth and promote tumor development is unclear. To investigate the role of ERG, LNCaP and PC3 cells were transfected with ERG and gene expression and metabolic profile were analyzed. Our data show that expression of ERG induces overexpression of many nicotinicacetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In addition, metabolic profiling by LC-MS/MS revealed elevated production of several neurotransmitters in cells expressing ERG. Consistently, treatment of ERG-expressing cells with nicotine induced elevated calcium influx, GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Finally, we show that PCa patientswho are smokers have larger tumors if their tumors are TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion positive. Collectively, our data suggest that ERG sensitizes prostate tumor cells to neurotransmitter receptor agonists like nicotine.

  5. ERG rearrangement is associated with prostate cancer-related death in Chinese prostate cancer patients.

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    Mei Qi

    Full Text Available Recently, ETS-related gene (ERG gene rearrangements, phosphatase tensin homologue (PTEN deletions and EGFR family aberrations were characterized as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa patient management. Although ERG gene rearrangement has been identified in approximately 50% of localized prostate cancers in western countries, the prognostic significance of this critical molecular event remains unknown in Chinese patients. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated ERG, PTEN and EGFR family aberrations in a cohort of 224 Chinese prostate cancer patients diagnosed in transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P. Overall, ERG rearrangement was detected in 23.2% (44/190 cases, of which 54.5% (24/44 showed deletion of the 5'end of ERG. PTEN deletion was identified in 10.8% (19/176 cases. Amplification of EGFR and HER2 genes was present in 1.1% (2/178 and 5.8% (10/173 of cases, respectively. Significant correlation between ERG rearrangement and PTEN deletion was identified in this cohort. EGFR and HER2 aberrations occurred more frequently in PCas without ERG rearrangement than in those with ERG rearrangement, although this did not reach statistical significance. Overall, ERG rearrangement was associated with pre-operative PSA values (P = 0.038 and cancer-related death (P = 0.02, but not with the age, clinical T stage, Gleason score, or Ki-67 labeling index (LI. Notably, multivariate analysis including known prognostic markers revealed ERG rearrangement was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.022. Additionally, ERG rearrangement status was helpful to identify patients with poor prognosis from PCa group with low Ki-67 LI. In summary, we reported that ERG rearrangement was associated with cancer-related death in Chinese PCa patients. Determination of ERG rearrangement status allows stratification of PCa patients into different survival categories.

  6. Acepromazine inhibits hERG potassium ion channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Shin; Lee, Hong Joon; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug

    2017-01-01

    The effects of acepromazine on human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels were investigated using whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells transfected with hERG. The hERG currents were recorded with or without acepromazine, and the steady-state and peak tail currents were analyzed for the evaluating the drug effects. Acepromazine inhibited the hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1.5 µM and Hill coefficient of 1.1. Acepromazine blocked hERG currents in a voltage-dependent manner between -40 and +10 mV. Before and after application of acepromazine, the half activation potentials of hERG currents changed to hyperpolarizing direction. Acepromazine blocked both the steady-state hERG currents by depolarizing pulse and the peak tail currents by repolarizing pulse; however, the extent of blocking by acepromazine in the repolarizing pulse was more profound than that in the depolarizing pulse, indicating that acepromazine has a high affinity for the open state of the channels, with a relatively lower affinity for the closed state of hERG channels. A fast application of acepromazine during the tail currents inhibited the open state of hERG channels in a concentration-dependent. The steady-state inactivation of hERG currents shifted to the hyperpolarized direction by acepromazine. These results suggest that acepromazine inhibits the hERG channels probably by an open- and inactivated-channel blocking mechanism. Regarding to the fact that the hERG channels are the potential target of drug-induced long QT syndrome, our results suggest that acepromazine can possibly induce a cardiac arrhythmia through the inhibition of hERG channels.

  7. Hypoxia reduces mature hERG channels through calpain up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M; Song, WonJu; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Baranchuk, Adrian; Graham, Charles H; Zhang, Shetuan

    2017-11-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) potassium channel, which is important for cardiac repolarization. Impairment of hERG function is the primary cause of acquired long QT syndrome, which predisposes individuals to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Patients with hypoxia due to conditions such as cardiac ischemia or obstructive sleep apnea display increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. We sought to understand the mechanisms that underlie hypoxia-associated cardiac arrhythmias. Using cell biology and electrophysiologic techniques, we found that hypoxic culture of hERG-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes reduced hERG current/IKr and mature ERG channel expression with a concomitant increase in calpain expression. Calpain was actively released into the extracellular milieu and degraded cell-surface hERG. In contrast to hERG, the ether-a-go-go (EAG) channel was not reduced by hypoxic culture. By making chimeric channels between hERG and EAG, we identified that hypoxia-induced calpain degraded hERG by targeting its extracellular S5-pore linker. The scorpion toxin BeKm-1, which is known to selectively bind to the S5-pore linker of hERG, prevented hypoxia-induced hERG reduction. Our data provide novel information about hypoxia-mediated hERG dysfunction and may have biological and clinical implications in hypoxia-associated diseases.-Lamothe, S. M., Song, W., Guo, J., Li, W., Yang, T., Baranchuk, A., Graham, C. H., Zhang, S. Hypoxia reduces mature hERG channels through calpain up-regulation. © FASEB.

  8. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin Yessotoxin.

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    Sara Fernández Ferreiro

    2014-06-01

    Currently, published evidence indicates that hERG channel dysfunction can be due to more than one mechanism for many drugs (Guth, 2007. Alterations of hERG channel trafficking are considered an important factor in hERG-related cardiotoxicity. Actually, a screening study revealed that almost 40% of the drugs that block Ikr have also trafficking effects (Wible et al., 2005. Although YTX does not block hERG channels, it has been historically described as cardiotoxic due to in vivo damage to cardiomyocytes. Our results show that YTX induces a significant increase of hERG channel levels on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane in vitro. YTX causes cell death in many cell lines (Korsnes and Espenes, 2011 and the alterations of surface hERG levels might be related to the apoptotic process. However, annexin-V, a relatively early marker of apoptosis (Vermes et al., 1995, occurs later than the increase of surface hERG. Additionally, staurosporine triggered apoptosis without a simultaneous increase of surface hERG, so events are not necessarily related. Therefore YTX-induced elevated hERG in the plasma membrane seem to be independent of apoptosis. Functional implications of hERG currents have been described after alterations of cell surface hERG density (Guth, 2007. YTX did not cause significant alterations of hERG currents. Furthermore the hERG levels after YTX treatment were duplicated, so the effect on currents should be clearly evidenced if these channels were functional. The hERG channels on the cell surface are regulated by its production, translocation to the plasma membrane and degradation. The increase of extracellular channel could be a consequence of a higher production and externalization or a slower degradation. Higher synthesis in our cell model would not be physiologically relevant but our results demonstrated that the amount of immature hERG is reduced instead of increased. Fully glycosylated hERG seems slightly increased in these conditions but it is

  9. An ERG channel inhibitor from the scorpion Buthus eupeus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Y.V.; Kozlov, S.A.; Lipkin, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    and the three mutants partly inhibited the native M-like current in NG108-15 at 100 nm. The effect of the recombinant BeKm-1 on different K(+) channels was also studied. BeKm-1 inhibited hERG1 channels with an IC(50) of 3.3 nm, but had no effect at 100 nm on hEAG, hSK1, rSK2, hIK, hBK, KCNQ1/KCNE1, KCNQ2/KCNQ3...

  10. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and gene fusion pattern in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ja Hee; Park, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Cheol; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer is considered to be highly heterogeneous, with various morphologic features and biologic behaviors. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequently observed genetic aberration in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion status. ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in samples from 168 prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, and 40 cases showing ERG-positive IHC staining were selected for tissue microarray (TMA) construction. Two to six representative cores were selected from each tumor focus. In the cases with heterogeneous ERG IHC staining intensity, the areas showing different intensities were separately selected. Using the TMA blocks, IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were conducted to evaluate the heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and ERG fusion gene patterns, respectively, in a single tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was defined as the simultaneous presence of negative and positive cores in the same tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG FISH was defined by the presence of cores with positive and negative FISH signals or cores with break-apart and interstitial deletion FISH signals in the same tumor focus. A total of 202 TMA cores were isolated from 40 ERG-positive cases. Of the 202 total cores, 19 were negative for ERG IHC staining, and 46 showed 1+, 52 showed 2+, and 85 showed 3+ ERG staining intensity. Eleven cores were negative for ERG FISH signal, 119 cores showed ERG break-apart FISH signals, and the remaining 72 cores revealed interstitial deletion. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was found in 20% (8/40) of cases, and intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion pattern was found in 32.5% (13/40) of cases. In summary, this study showed significantly frequent intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression, gene fusion status and fusion pattern. This heterogeneity can be caused by the development

  11. High Glucose Represses hERG K+ Channel Expression through Trafficking Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-Qi; Yan, Meng; Liu, Li-Rong; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xue; Geng, Huai-Ze; Zhao, Xin; Li, Bao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal QT prolongation is the most prominent cardiac electrical disturbance in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is well known that the human ether-ago-go-related gene (hERG) controls the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) in cardiac cells. The expression of the hERG channel is severely down-regulated in diabetic hearts, and this down-regulation is a critical contributor to the slowing of repolarization and QT prolongation. However, the intracellular mechanisms underlying the diabetes-induced hERG deficiency remain unknown. The expression of the hERG channel was assessed via western blot analysis, and the hERG current was detected with a patch-clamp technique. The results of our study revealed that the expression of the hERG protein and the hERG current were substantially decreased in high-glucose-treated hERG-HEK cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that the high-glucose-mediated damage to the hERG channel depended on the down-regulation of protein levels but not the alteration of channel kinetics. These discoveries indicated that high glucose likely disrupted hERG channel trafficking. From the western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses, we found that high glucose induced trafficking inhibition through an effect on the expression of Hsp90 and its interaction with hERG. Furthermore, the high-glucose-induced inhibition of hERG channel trafficking could activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) by up-regulating the expression levels of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6) and the ER chaperone protein calnexin. In addition, we demonstrated that 100 nM insulin up-regulated the expression of the hERG channel and rescued the hERG channel repression caused by high glucose. The results of our study provide the first evidence of a high-glucose-induced hERG channel deficiency resulting from the inhibition of channel trafficking. Furthermore, insulin promotes the expression of the hERG channel and ameliorates the high-glucose-induced inhibition of the hERG

  12. High Glucose Represses hERG K+ Channel Expression through Trafficking Inhibition

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    Yuan-Qi Shi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Abnormal QT prolongation is the most prominent cardiac electrical disturbance in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. It is well known that the human ether-ago-go-related gene (hERG controls the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr in cardiac cells. The expression of the hERG channel is severely down-regulated in diabetic hearts, and this down-regulation is a critical contributor to the slowing of repolarization and QT prolongation. However, the intracellular mechanisms underlying the diabetes-induced hERG deficiency remain unknown. Methods: The expression of the hERG channel was assessed via western blot analysis, and the hERG current was detected with a patch-clamp technique. Results: The results of our study revealed that the expression of the hERG protein and the hERG current were substantially decreased in high-glucose-treated hERG-HEK cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that the high-glucose-mediated damage to the hERG channel depended on the down-regulation of protein levels but not the alteration of channel kinetics. These discoveries indicated that high glucose likely disrupted hERG channel trafficking. From the western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses, we found that high glucose induced trafficking inhibition through an effect on the expression of Hsp90 and its interaction with hERG. Furthermore, the high-glucose-induced inhibition of hERG channel trafficking could activate the unfolded protein response (UPR by up-regulating the expression levels of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6 and the ER chaperone protein calnexin. In addition, we demonstrated that 100 nM insulin up-regulated the expression of the hERG channel and rescued the hERG channel repression caused by high glucose. Conclusion: The results of our study provide the first evidence of a high-glucose-induced hERG channel deficiency resulting from the inhibition of channel trafficking. Furthermore, insulin promotes the expression of the hERG channel

  13. TMPRSS2-ERG expression predicts prostate cancer survival and associates with stromal biomarkers.

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    Christina Hägglöf

    Full Text Available The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is found in approximately half of all prostate cancers. The functional and prognostic significance of TMPRSS2-ERG is, however, not fully understood. Based on a historical watchful waiting cohort, an association between TMPRSS2-ERG, evaluated as positive immune staining, and shorter survival of prostate cancer patients was identified. Expression of ERG was also associated with clinical markers such as advanced tumor stage, high Gleason score, presence of metastasis and prognostic tumor cell markers such as high Ki67, pEGFR and pAkt. Novel associations between TMPRSS2-ERG and alterations in the tumor stroma, for example, increased vascular density, hyaluronan and PDGFRβ and decreased Caveolin-1, all known to be associated with an aggressive disease, were found. The present study suggests that the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene is associated with a more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype, supported by changes in the tumor stroma.

  14. Advantages and drawbacks of some ERG stimulation and data-processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, S; Szlávik, L; Sármány, J B

    1981-01-01

    In each group of diseases, electroretinographic (ERG) diagnosis requires optimal stimulation parameters and detection techniques that clearly evidence any deviations from normal values. Television tube light stimulator assemblies and stimulation techniques applying methods of the control theory are very suitable for the dynamic separation of gross ERG components. The advantages and drawbacks of flicker ERG, frequency-characteristic methods and the frequency ranges that provide useful information in data processing are discussed.

  15. Clenbuterol Attenuates hERG Channel by Promoting the Mature Channel Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ling; Hu, Peijing; Miao, Changqing; Ma, Aiqun; Wang, Tingzhong

    Clenbuterol, a β2-selective adrenergic receptor agonist, is illicitly used in weight loss and performance enhancement and animal production. Increasing evidence demonstrates that clenbuterol induces various kinds of arrhythmias and QTc interval prolongation. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Most drugs are associated with QTc prolongation through interfering with human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channels. The present study aims to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of clenbuterol on the hERG channel. HEK 293 cells were transfected with wild type and Y652A or F656A mutants of the hERG channel and treated with clenbuterol. The hERG current was recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and protein level was evaluated by Western blot. We found that clenbuterol decreases the mature form of the hERG protein at the cell membrane in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, without affecting the immature form. Correspondingly, clenbuterol chronic treatment reduced hERG current to a greater extent compared to acute treatment. In the presence of Brefeldin A (BFA), which was used to block hERG channel trafficking to cell membrane, clenbuterol reduced hERG on plasma membrane to a greater extent than BFA alone. In addition, the hERG channel's drug binding sites mutant Y652A and F656A abolished clenbuterol-mediated hERG reduction and current blockade. In conclusion, clenbuterol reduces hERG channel expression and current by promoting the channel degradation. The effect of clenbuterol on the hERG channel is related to the drug-binding sites, Tyr-652 and Phe-656, located on the S6 domain. This biophysical mechanism may underlie clenbuterol-induced QTc prolongation or arrhythmia.

  16. Febrile temperature facilitates hERG/IKr degradation through an altered K(+) dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tingzhong; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Koichopolos, Jennifer; Lamothe, Shawn M; Kang, Yudi; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-10-01

    Dysfunction of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel (IKr) encoded by the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) is the primary cause of acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Fever has been reported to trigger LQTS in various conditions. We aim to clarify the effect and underlying mechanisms of febrile temperature on hERG expressed in HEK cells, IKr in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and the QT interval in rabbits. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of hERG channel protein in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize the localization of hERG channels. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record hERG K(+) current (IhERG) in hERG expressing HEK 293 cells, as well as IKr, transient outward K(+) current (Ito), and L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa) in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Electrocardiographic recordings were performed in an in vivo rabbit model. Compared with culture at 37°C, culture at 40°C reduced the mature hERG expression and IhERG in an extracellular K(+) concentration-dependent manner. Point mutations that remove the K(+) dependence of hERG-S624T and F627Y-also abolished the febrile temperature-induced hERG reduction. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, febrile temperature prolonged the action potential duration and selectively reduced IKr in a manner similar to low K(+) culture. In an in vivo rabbit model, fever and hypokalemia synergistically prolonged the QT interval. Febrile temperature facilitates the development of LQTS by expediting hERG degradation through altered K(+) dependence. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. hERG 1a LQT2 C-terminus truncation mutants display hERG 1b-dependent dominant negative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckerin, Akil; Aromolaran, Kelly A; Chang, Donald D; Zukin, R Suzanne; Colecraft, Henry M; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Aromolaran, Ademuyiwa S

    2016-05-01

    The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG 1a) potassium channel is critical for cardiac repolarization. hERG 1b, another variant subunit, co-assembles with hERG 1a, modulates channel biophysical properties and plays an important role in repolarization. Mutations of hERG 1a lead to type 2 long QT syndrome (LQT2), and increased risk for fatal arrhythmias. The functional consequences of these mutations in the presence of hERG 1b are not known. To investigate whether hERG 1a mutants exert dominant negative gating and trafficking defects when co-expressed with hERG 1b. Electrophysiology, co-immunoprecipitation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments in HEK293 cells and guinea pig cardiomyocytes were used to assess the mutants on gating and trafficking. Mutations of 1a-G965X and 1a-R1014X, relevant to gating and trafficking were introduced in the C-terminus region. The hERG 1a mutants when expressed alone did not result in decreased current amplitude. Compared to wild-type hERG 1a currents, 1a-G965X currents were significantly larger, whereas those produced by the 1a-R1014X mutant were similar in magnitude. Only when co-expressed with wild-type hERG 1a and 1b did a mutant phenotype emerge, with a marked reduction in surface expression, current amplitude, and a corresponding positive shift in the V1/2 of the activation curve. Co-immunoprecipitation and FRET assays confirmed association of mutant and wild-type subunits. Heterologously expressed hERG 1a C-terminus truncation mutants, exert a dominant negative gating and trafficking effect only when co-expressed with hERG 1b. These findings may have potentially profound implications for LQT2 therapy. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  18. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The hERG potassium channel is essential for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Due to this vital function, absence of unintended and potentially life-threatening interactions with hERG is required for approval of new drugs. The structure of hERG is therefore one of the most sought......-after. To provide purified hERG for structural studies and new hERG biomimetic platforms for detection of undesirable interactions, we have developed a hERG expression platform generating unprecedented amounts of purified and functional hERG channels. Full-length hERG, with or without a C-terminally fused green...... fluorescent protein (GFP) His(8)-tag was produced from a codon-optimized hERG cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both constructs complemented the high potassium requirement of a knock-out Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, indicating correct tetramer assembly in vivo. Functionality was further demonstrated...

  19. Allosteric effects of erythromycin pretreatment on thioridazine block of hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumb, W J

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of concurrent use of two or more drugs that block human ether-a-go-go-related gene product (hERG) K(+) channels is not uncommon, but is not well characterized. This study defined the effects of concurrent exposure of two hERG-blocking drugs on hERG current amplitude. Experiments were conducted to determine if concomitant exposure to two potent pore hERG blockers, thioridazine and terfenadine and a weak hERG blocker, erythromycin, would result in an additive, synergistic or inhibitory effect. hERG currents from stably transfected HEK cells were measured using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp method at physiological temperatures. Concentration-response relationships for thioridazine or terfenadine were obtained with cells pre-exposed to erythromycin. Pre-exposure of cells to erythromycin resulted in an approximately 14-22-fold rightward shift in the hERG concentration-response curve for thioridazine and terfenadine respectively. This reduction in affinity was not the result of a change in the voltage-dependent characteristics of the channel. Results suggest an external binding site for erythromycin. Pretreatment with erythromycin induced an approximately 14-22-fold reduction in hERG affinity for pore-binding drugs at concentrations of erythromycin, which by themselves only block hERG by 10% or less. These results suggest distinct, allosterically linked binding sites on opposite sides of the hERG channel. Occupancy of the external site by erythromycin reduces the affinity of the pore binding site. Furthermore, these results suggest that co-administration of erythromycin may provide some reduction in cardiac liability of potent hERG-blocking drugs. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Children with complete or incomplete congenital stationary night blindness: ophthalmological findings, standard ERGs and ON-OFF ERGs for differentiation between types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šuštar

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Distinct electrophysiological characteristics can be used to differentiate between complete and incomplete CSNB. Moreover, ONOFF ERGs are important for precise localization of the retinal bipolar cell dysfunction, and these can also be reliably recorded in children.

  1. ERG Cooperates with Androgen Receptor in Regulating Trefoil Factor 3 in Prostate Cancer Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression.

  2. Effects of an hERG activator, ICA-105574, on electrophysiological properties of canine hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Mahoko; Kurokawa, Junko; Shirakawa, Kiyoshi; Okuyama, Hisashi; Kagawa, Toshiki; Okada, Jun-ichi; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Tetsushi

    2013-01-01

    In short QT syndrome, inherited gain-of-function mutations in the human ether a-gogo-related gene (hERG) K(+) channel have been associated with development of fatal arrhythmias. This implies that drugs that activate hERG as a side effect may likewise pose significant arrhythmia risk. hERG activators have been found to have diverse mechanisms of activation, which may reflect their distinct binding sites. Recently, the new hERG activator ICA-105574 was introduced, which disables inactivation of the hERG channel with very high potency. We explored characteristics of this new drug in several experimental models. Patch clamp experiments were used to verify activation of hERG channels by ICA-105574 in human embryonic kidney cells stably-expressing hERG channels. ICA-105574 significantly shortened QT and QTc intervals and monophasic action potential duration (MAP(90)) in Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig hearts. We also administered ICA-105574 to anesthetized dogs while recording ECG and drug plasma concentrations. ICA-105574 (10 mg/kg) significantly shortened QT and QTc intervals, with a free plasma concentration of approximately 1.7 µM at the point of maximal effect. Our data showed that unbound ICA-105574 caused QT shortening in dogs at concentrations comparable to the half maximal effective concentration (EC(50), 0.42 µM) of hERG activation in the patch clamp studies.

  3. ERG promotes the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells by restricting their differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kasper Jermiin; Rehn, Matilda Carolina; Hasemann, Marie Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    and functional HSCs. Molecularly, we could demonstrate that ERG, in addition to promoting the expression of HSC self-renewal genes, also represses a group of MYC targets, thereby explaining why Erg loss closely mimics Myc overexpression. Consistently, the BET domain inhibitor CPI-203, known to repress Myc...

  4. Noninvasive Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG Fusion Transcripts in the Urine of Men with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Laxman

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported the identification of recurrent gene fusions in the majority of prostate cancers involving the 5V untranslated region of the androgenregulated gene TMPRSS2, the ETS family members ERG, ETV1, ETV4. Here we report the noninvasive detection of these gene fusions in the urine of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. By quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we assessed the expression of ERG, TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts in urine samples obtained after prostatic massage from 19 patients (11 prebiopsy, 8 pre-radical prostatectomy with prostate cancer. We observed a strong concordance between ERG overexpression, TMPRSS2:ERG expression, with 8 of 19 (42% patients having detectable TMPRSS2:ERG transcripts in their urine. Importantly, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we confirmed the presence or the absence of TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions in matched prostate cancer tissue samples from three of three patients with fusion transcripts in their urine, from two of two patients without fusion transcripts in their urine. These results demonstrate that TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions can be detected in the urine of patients with prostate cancer, support larger studies on prospective cohorts for noninvasive detection of prostate cancer.

  5. hERG trafficking inhibition in drug-induced lethal cardiac arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Hisashi; Kawai, Tomoyuki

    2014-10-15

    Acquired long QT syndrome induced by non-cardiovascular drugs can cause lethal cardiac arrhythmia called torsades de points and is a significant problem in drug development. The prolongation of QT interval and cardiac action potential duration are mainly due to reduced physiological function of the rapidly activating voltage-dependent potassium channels encoded by human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). Structurally diverse groups of drugs are known to directly inhibit hERG channel conductance. Therefore, the ability of acute hERG inhibition is routinely assessed at the preclinical stages in pharmaceutical testing. Recent findings indicated that chronic treatment with various drugs not only inhibits hERG channels but also decreases hERG channel expression in the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes, which has become another concern in safety pharmacology. The mechanisms involve the disruption of hERG trafficking to the surface membrane or the acceleration of hERG protein degradation. From this perspective, we present a brief overview of mechanisms of drug-induced trafficking inhibition and pathological regulation. Understanding of drug-induced hERG trafficking inhibition may provide new strategies for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation and lethal cardiac arrhythmia in pharmaceutical drug development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Early Triassic evolving erg system (Iberian Chain, NE Spain): palaeoclimate implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soria, A.R.; Liesa, C.L.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J.P.; Melendez, N.; Boer, P.L. de; Melendez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Triassic Buntsandstein facies in the north-eastern Iberian Chain (central eastern Spain), previously considered to be fluvial in origin, is shown to contain an evolving erg system. The preserved erg accumulation comprises a succession that represents the transition from a wadi belt via inner

  7. Relation of BAALC and ERG Gene Expression with Overall Survival in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Reham A; Kadry, Dalia Y; El Taweel, Maha; Abd El Wahab, Nahed; Abd El Hameed, Thoreya

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression of brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic (BAALC) gene and erythroblast transformation-specific related gene (ERG) in de novo cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and identify roles in disease progression and outcome. This study included 50 newly diagnosed AML patients, along with 10 apparently healthy normal controls. BAALC and ERG expression was detected in the bone marrow of both patients and controls using real-time RT-PCR. BAALC and ERG expression was detected in 52% of cases but not in any controls. There was a statistically significant correlation between BAALC and ERG gene expression and age (p- value=0.004 and 0.019, respectively). No statistical significance was noted for sex, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, other hematological findings, immunophenotyping and FAB sub-classification except for ERG gene and FAB (p-value=0.058). A statistical significant correlation was found between response to treatment with ERG expression (p-value=0.028) and age (p-value=0.014). A statistically significant variation in overall survival was evident with patient age, BM blast cells, FAB subgroups, BAALC and ERG expression (p-value= <0.001, 0.045, 0.041, <0.008 and 0.025 respectively). Our results suggest that BAALC and ERG genes are specific significant molecular markers in AML disease progression, response to treatment and survival.

  8. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Helix-Nielsen, Claus; Klaerke, Dan A; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2015-02-07

    The hERG potassium channel is essential for repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Due to this vital function, absence of unintended and potentially life-threatening interactions with hERG is required for approval of new drugs. The structure of hERG is therefore one of the most sought-after. To provide purified hERG for structural studies and new hERG biomimetic platforms for detection of undesirable interactions, we have developed a hERG expression platform generating unprecedented amounts of purified and functional hERG channels. Full-length hERG, with or without a C-terminally fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) His 8-tag was produced from a codon-optimized hERG cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both constructs complemented the high potassium requirement of a knock-out Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, indicating correct tetramer assembly in vivo. Functionality was further demonstrated by Astemizole binding to membrane embedded hERG-GFP-His 8 with a stoichiometry corresponding to tetramer assembly. The 156 kDa hERG-GFP protein accumulated to a membrane density of 1.6%. Fluorescence size exclusion chromatography of hERG-GFP-His 8 solubilized in Fos-Choline-12 supplemented with cholesteryl-hemisuccinate and Astemizole resulted in a monodisperse elution profile demonstrating a high quality of the hERG channels. hERG-GFP-His 8 purified by Ni-affinity chromatography maintained the ability to bind Astemizole with the correct stoichiometry indicating that the native, tetrameric structure was preserved. To our knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays.

  9. Endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, inhibits cloned hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Lee, Keon Jin; Lee, Hong Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug; Choi, Jin-Sung; Lee, Eun Hui; Hahn, Sang June

    2015-04-05

    The effects of tamoxifen, and its active metabolite endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen), on hERG currents stably expressed in HEK cells were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and an immunoblot assay. Tamoxifen and endoxifen inhibited hERG tail currents at -50mV in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.6μM, respectively. The steady-state activation curve of the hERG currents was shifted to the hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of endoxifen. The voltage-dependent inhibition of hERG currents by endoxifen increased steeply in the voltage range of channel activation. The inhibition by endoxifen displayed a shallow voltage dependence (δ=0.18) in the full activation voltage range. A fast application of endoxifen induced a reversible block of hERG tail currents during repolarization in a concentration-dependent manner, which suggested an interaction with the open state of the channel. Endoxifen also decreased the hERG current elicited by a 5s depolarizing pulse to +60mV to inactivate the hERG currents, suggesting an interaction with the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channels. Tamoxifen and endoxifen inhibited the hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner with endoxifen being more potent than tamoxifen. These results indicated that tamoxifen and endoxifen inhibited the hERG current by direct channel blockage and by the disruption of channel trafficking to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner. A therapeutic concentration of endoxifen inhibited the hERG current by preferentially interacting with the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of norquetiapine, the active metabolite of quetiapine, on cloned hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joon; Choi, Jin-Sung; Choi, Bok Hee; Hahn, Sang June

    2017-11-11

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is mainly metabolized by a cytochrome P450 system in the liver. Norquetiapine is a major active metabolite in humans with a pharmacological profile that differs distinctly from that of quetiapine. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to investigate the effects of norquetiapine on hERG channels that are stably expressed in HEK cells. Quetiapine and norquetiapine inhibited the hERG tail currents at -50mV in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 8.3 and 10.8μM, respectively, which suggested equal potency. The block of hERG currents by norquetiapine was voltage-dependent with a steep increase over a range of voltages for channel activation. However, at more depolarized potentials where the channels were fully activated, the block by norquetiapine was voltage-independent. The steady-state inactivation curve of the hERG currents was shifted to the hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of norquetiapine. Norquetiapine did not produce a use-dependent block. A fast application of norquetiapine inhibited the hERG current elicited by a 5s depolarizing pulse to +60mV, which fully inactivated the hERG currents, suggesting an inactivated-state block. During a repolarizing pulse wherein the hERG current was slowly deactivated, albeit remaining in an open state, a fast application of norquetiapine rapidly and reversibly inhibited the open state of the hERG current. Our results indicated that quetiapine and norquetiapine had equal potency in inhibiting hERG tail currents. Norquetiapine inhibited the hERG current by preferentially interacting with the open and/or inactivated states of the channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mouse ERG K+ Channel Clones Reveal Differences in Protein Trafficking and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Eric C.; Moungey, Brooke M.; Lim, Evi; Concannon, Sarah P.; Anderson, Corey L.; Kyle, John W.; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Balijepalli, Sadguna Y.; January, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mouse ether‐a‐go‐go‐related gene 1a (mERG1a, mKCNH2) encodes mERG K+ channels in mouse cardiomyocytes. The mERG channels and their human analogue, hERG channels, conduct IKr. Mutations in hERG channels reduce IKr to cause congenital long‐QT syndrome type 2, mostly by decreasing surface membrane expression of trafficking‐deficient channels. Three cDNA sequences were originally reported for mERG channels that differ by 1 to 4 amino acid residues (mERG‐London, mERG‐Waterston, and mERG‐Nie). We characterized these mERG channels to test the postulation that they would differ in their protein trafficking and biophysical function, based on previous findings in long‐QT syndrome type 2. Methods and Results The 3 mERG and hERG channels were expressed in HEK293 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and were studied using Western blot and whole‐cell patch clamp. We then compared our findings with the recent sequencing results in the Welcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genomes Project (WTSIMGP). Conclusions First, the mERG‐London channel with amino acid substitutions in regions of highly ordered structure is trafficking deficient and undergoes temperature‐dependent and pharmacological correction of its trafficking deficiency. Second, the voltage dependence of channel gating would be different for the 3 mERG channels. Third, compared with the WTSIMGP data set, the mERG‐Nie clone is likely to represent the wild‐type mouse sequence and physiology. Fourth, the WTSIMGP analysis suggests that substrain‐specific sequence differences in mERG are a common finding in mice. These findings with mERG channels support previous findings with hERG channel structure–function analyses in long‐QT syndrome type 2, in which sequence changes in regions of highly ordered structure are likely to result in abnormal protein trafficking. PMID:25497881

  12. Association of the hERG mutation with long-QT syndrome type 2, syncope and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Shi, Rui; Wu, Jine; Han, Wenqi; Zhang, Aifeng; Cheng, Gong; Xue, Xiaolin; Sun, Chaofeng

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the human ether‑à‑go‑go‑related gene (hERG) are responsible for long‑QT syndrome (LQTS) type 2 (LQT2). In the present study, a heterozygous missense mutation (A561V) linked to LQT2, syncope and epilepsy was identified in the S5/pore region of the hERG protein. The mutation, A561V, was prepared and subcloned into hERG‑pcDNA3.0. Mutant plasmids were co‑transfected into HEK‑293 cells, which stably express wild‑type (WT) hERG, in order to mimic a heterozygous genotype, and the whole‑cell current was recorded using a patch‑clamp technique. Confocal microscopy was performed to evaluate the membrane distribution of the hERG channel protein using a green fluorescent protein tagged to the N‑terminus of hERG. A561V‑hERG decreased the amplitude of the WT‑hERG currents in a concentration‑dependent manner. In addition, A561V‑hERG resulted in alterations to activation, inactivation and recovery from inactivation in the hERG protein channels. Further evaluation of hERG membrane localization indicated that the A561V‑hERG mutant protein was unable to travel to the plasma membrane, which resulted in a trafficking‑deficient WT‑hERG protein. In conclusion, A561V‑hERG exerts a potent dominant‑negative effect on WT‑hERG channels, resulting in decreased hERG currents and impairment of hERG membrane localization. This may partially elucidate the clinical manifestations of LQTS patients who carry the A561V mutation.

  13. Molecular mechanisms underlying the pilsicainide-induced stabilization of hERG proteins in transfected mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Onohara, MD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Pilsicainide penetrates the plasma membrane, stabilizes WT-hERG proteins by acting as a chemical chaperone, and enhances WT-hERG channel currents. This mechanism could also be applicable to modulations of certain mutant-hERG proteins.

  14. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  15. The Ews-ERG fusion protein can initiate neoplasia from lineage-committed haematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Codrington

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The EWS-ERG fusion protein is found in human sarcomas with the chromosomal translocation t(21;22(q22;q12, where the translocation is considered to be an initiating event in sarcoma formation within uncommitted mesenchymal cells, probably long-lived progenitors capable of self renewal. The fusion protein may not therefore have an oncogenic capability beyond these progenitors. To assess whether EWS-ERG can be a tumour initiator in cells other than mesenchymal cells, we have analysed Ews-ERG fusion protein function in a cellular environment not typical of that found in human cancers, namely, committed lymphoid cells. We have used Ews-ERG invertor mice having an inverted ERG cDNA cassette flanked by loxP sites knocked in the Ews intron 8, crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Rag1 gene to give conditional, lymphoid-specific expression of the fusion protein. Clonal T cell neoplasias arose in these mice. This conditional Ews gene fusion model of tumourigenesis shows that Ews-ERG can cause haematopoietic tumours and the precursor cells are committed cells. Thus, Ews-ERG can function in cells that do not have to be pluripotent progenitors or mesenchymal cells.

  16. Molecular Determinants of Pentamidine-Induced hERG Trafficking Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Adrienne T.; Wang, Lu; Wan, Hanlin; Nassal, Drew; Deschenes, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal compound that clinically causes acquired long QT syndrome (acLQTS), which is associated with prolonged QT intervals, tachycardias, and sudden cardiac arrest. Pentamidine delays terminal repolarization in human heart by acutely blocking cardiac inward rectifier currents. At the same time, pentamidine reduces surface expression of the cardiac potassium channel IKr/human ether à-go-go-related gene (hERG). This is unusual in that acLQTS is caused most often by direct block of the cardiac potassium current IKr/hERG. The present study was designed to provide a more complete picture of how hERG surface expression is disrupted by pentamidine at the cellular and molecular levels. Using biochemical and electrophysiological methods, we found that pentamidine exclusively inhibits hERG export from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface in a heterologous expression system as well as in cardiomyocytes. hERG trafficking inhibition could be rescued in the presence of the pharmacological chaperone astemizole. We used rescue experiments in combination with an extensive mutational analysis to locate an interaction site for pentamidine at phenylalanine 656, a crucial residue in the canonical drug binding site of terminally folded hERG. Our data suggest that pentamidine binding to a folding intermediate of hERG arrests channel maturation in a conformational state that cannot be exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. We propose that pentamidine is the founding member of a novel pharmacological entity whose members act as small molecule antichaperones. PMID:22046004

  17. Global Analysis Reveals Families of Chemical Motifs Enriched for hERG Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fang; Babcock, Joseph J.; Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Promiscuous inhibition of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel by drugs poses a major risk for life threatening arrhythmia and costly drug withdrawals. Current knowledge of this phenomenon is derived from a limited number of known drugs and tool compounds. However, in a diverse, naïve chemical library, it remains unclear which and to what degree chemical motifs or scaffolds might be enriched for hERG inhibition. Here we report electrophysiology measurements of hERG inhibition and computational analyses of >300,000 diverse small molecules. We identify chemical ‘communities’ with high hERG liability, containing both canonical scaffolds and structurally distinctive molecules. These data enable the development of more effective classifiers to computationally assess hERG risk. The resultant predictive models now accurately classify naïve compound libraries for tendency of hERG inhibition. Together these results provide a more complete reference map of characteristic chemical motifs for hERG liability and advance a systematic approach to rank chemical collections for cardiotoxicity risk. PMID:25700001

  18. Compilation and physicochemical classification analysis of a diverse hERG inhibition database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didziapetris, Remigijus; Lanevskij, Kiril

    2016-12-01

    A large and chemically diverse hERG inhibition data set comprised of 6690 compounds was constructed on the basis of ChEMBL bioactivity database and original publications dealing with experimental determination of hERG activities using patch-clamp and competitive displacement assays. The collected data were converted to binary format at 10 µM activity threshold and subjected to gradient boosting machine classification analysis using a minimal set of physicochemical and topological descriptors. The tested parameters involved lipophilicity (log P), ionization (pK a ), polar surface area, aromaticity, molecular size and flexibility. The employed approach allowed classifying the compounds with an overall 75-80 % accuracy, even though it only accounted for non-specific interactions between hERG and ligand molecules. The observed descriptor-response profiles were consistent with common knowledge about hERG ligand binding site, but also revealed several important quantitative trends, as well as slight inter-assay variability in hERG inhibition data. The results suggest that even weakly basic groups (pK a  hERG inhibition potential, whereas the role of lipophilicity depends on the compound's ionization state, and the influence of log P decreases in the order of bases > zwitterions > neutrals > acids. Given its robust performance and clear physicochemical interpretation, the proposed model may provide valuable information to direct drug discovery efforts towards compounds with reduced risk of hERG-related cardiotoxicity.

  19. Mechanism of inhibition by olanzapine of cloned hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joon; Choi, Jin-Sung; Hahn, Sang June

    2015-11-16

    Olanzapine is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and related psychoses. We investigated the effects of olanzapine on human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) channels stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Olanzapine inhibited hERG tail currents at -50mV in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 8.0μM and a Hill coefficient of 0.9. The voltage-dependent inhibition of the hERG currents by olanzapine increased steeply in the voltage range of channel activation. Olanzapine also shifted the steady-state activation curve of the hERG currents in a hyperpolarizing direction. At more depolarized potentials where the channels were fully activated (between 0 and +50mV), the olanzapine inhibition was voltage-independent. The steady-state inactivation curve of the hERG currents was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of olanzapine. A fast application of olanzapine induced a reversible inhibition of the hERG tail currents during repolarization in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 11.9μM, suggesting an open-channel block. Olanzapine also decreased the hERG current elicited by a 5s depolarizing pulse to +60mV to inactivate the hERG currents, suggesting an inhibition of the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channels. These results indicated that olanzapine inhibited the hERG current by preferentially interacting with the activated states of the channel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antidepressant-induced Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cardiac Potassium Channel hERG*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Adrienne T.; Nassal, Drew; Deschenes, Isabelle; Thomas, Dierk; Ficker, Eckhard

    2011-01-01

    The most common cause for adverse cardiac events by antidepressants is acquired long QT syndrome (acLQTS), which produces electrocardiographic abnormalities that have been associated with syncope, torsade de pointes arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. acLQTS is often caused by direct block of the cardiac potassium current IKr/hERG, which is crucial for terminal repolarization in human heart. Importantly, desipramine belongs to a group of tricyclic antidepressant compounds that can simultaneously block hERG and inhibit its surface expression. Although up to 40% of all hERG blockers exert combined hERG block and trafficking inhibition, few of these compounds have been fully characterized at the cellular level. Here, we have studied in detail how desipramine inhibits hERG surface expression. We find a previously unrecognized combination of two entirely different mechanisms; desipramine increases hERG endocytosis and degradation as a consequence of drug-induced channel ubiquitination and simultaneously inhibits hERG forward trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum. This unique combination of cellular effects in conjunction with acute channel block may explain why tricyclic antidepressants as a compound class are notorious for their association with arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Taken together, we describe the first example of drug-induced channel ubiquitination and degradation. Our data are directly relevant to the cardiac safety of not only tricyclic antidepressants but also other therapeutic compounds that exert multiple effects on hERG, as hERG trafficking and degradation phenotypes may go undetected in most preclinical safety assays designed to screen for acLQTS. PMID:21832094

  1. Application of a systems pharmacology model for translational prediction of hERG-mediated QTc prolongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotta, Verena; Yu, Zhiyi; Cools, Frank; van Ammel, Karel; Gallacher, David J; Visser, Sandra A G; Sannajust, Frederick; Morissette, Pierre; Danhof, Meindert; van der Graaf, Piet H

    2016-12-01

    Drug-induced QTc interval prolongation (Δ QTc) is a main surrogate for proarrhythmic risk assessment. A higher in vivo than in vitro potency for hERG-mediated QTc prolongation has been suggested. Also, in vivo between-species and patient populations' sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation seems to differ. Here, a systems pharmacology model integrating preclinical in vitro (hERG binding) and in vivo (conscious dog Δ QTc) data of three hERG blockers (dofetilide, sotalol, moxifloxacin) was applied (1) to compare the operational efficacy of the three drugs in vivo and (2) to quantify dog-human differences in sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation (for dofetilide only). Scaling parameters for translational in vivo extrapolation of drug effects were derived based on the assumption of system-specific myocardial ion channel densities and transduction of ion channel block: the operational efficacy (transduction of hERG block) in dogs was drug specific (1-19% hERG block corresponded to ≥10 msec Δ QTc). System-specific maximal achievable Δ QTc was estimated to 28% from baseline in both dog and human, while %hERG block leading to half-maximal effects was 58% lower in human, suggesting a higher contribution of hERG-mediated potassium current to cardiac repolarization. These results suggest that differences in sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation may be well explained by drug- and system-specific differences in operational efficacy (transduction of hERG block), consistent with experimental reports. The proposed scaling approach may thus assist the translational risk assessment of QTc prolongation in different species and patient populations, if mediated by the hERG channel.

  2. Natural products modulating the hERG channel: heartaches and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jadel M; Grienke, Ulrike; Scheel, Olaf; Mann, Stefan A; Rollinger, Judith M

    2017-08-02

    Covering: 1996-December 2016The human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) channel is a voltage-gated potassium channel playing an essential role in the normal electrical activity in the heart. It is involved in the repolarization and termination of action potentials in excitable cardiac cells. Mutations in the hERG gene and hERG channel blockage by small molecules are associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmias. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to hERG channel-related cardiotoxicity. Moreover, as a result of its notorious ligand promiscuity, this ion channel has emerged as an important antitarget in early drug discovery and development. Surprisingly, the hERG channel blocking profile of natural compounds present in frequently consumed botanicals (i.e. dietary supplements, spices, and herbal medicinal products) is not routinely assessed. This comprehensive review will address these issues and provide a critical compilation of hERG channel data for isolated natural products and extracts over the past two decades (1996-2016). In addition, the review will provide (i) a solid basis for the molecular understanding of the physiological functions of the hERG channel, (ii) the translational potential of in vitro/in vivo results to cardiotoxicity in humans, (iii) approaches for the identification of hERG channel blockers from natural sources, (iv) future perspectives for cardiac safety guidelines and their applications within phytopharmaceuticals and dietary supplements, and (v) novel applications of hERG channel modulation (e.g. as a drug target).

  3. Channel sialic acids limit hERG channel activity during the ventricular action potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norring, Sarah A; Ednie, Andrew R; Schwetz, Tara A; Du, Dongping; Yang, Hui; Bennett, Eric S

    2013-02-01

    Activity of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) 1 voltage-gated K(+) channels is responsible for portions of phase 2 and phase 3 repolarization of the human ventricular action potential. Here, we questioned whether and how physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in surface N-glycosylation modified hERG channel function. Voltage-dependent hERG channel gating and activity were evaluated as expressed in a set of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines under conditions of full glycosylation, no sialylation, no complex N-glycans, and following enzymatic deglycosylation of surface N-glycans. For each condition of reduced glycosylation, hERG channel steady-state activation and inactivation relationships were shifted linearly by significant depolarizing ∼9 and ∼18 mV, respectively. The hERG window current increased significantly by 50-150%, and the peak shifted by a depolarizing ∼10 mV. There was no significant change in maximum hERG current density. Deglycosylated channels were significantly more active (20-80%) than glycosylated controls during phases 2 and 3 of action potential clamp protocols. Simulations of hERG current and ventricular action potentials corroborated experimental data and predicted reduced sialylation leads to a 50-70-ms decrease in action potential duration. The data describe a novel mechanism by which hERG channel gating is modulated through physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in N-glycosylation; reduced channel sialylation increases hERG channel activity during the action potential, thereby increasing the rate of action potential repolarization.

  4. Aerobic isolation of an ERG24 null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, J H; Smith, S J; Leak, F W; Parks, L W

    1996-01-01

    The ERG24 gene, encoding the C-14 sterol reductase, has been reported to be essential to the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here, however, that strains with null mutations in the ERG24 gene can grow on defined synthetic media in aerobic conditions. These sterol mutants produce ignosterol (ergosta-8,14-dienol) as the principal sterol, with no traces of ergosterol. In addition, we mapped the ERG24 gene to chromosome XIV between the MET2 and SEC2 genes. Our results indicat...

  5. Novel characteristics of a trafficking-defective G572R-hERG channel linked to hereditary long QT syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiangfang; Huang, Na; Zhou, JunBo; Ge, ShiJun; Huang, XiaoYan; Huo, JianHua; Liu, Liying; Xu, WeiFeng; Zhang, Shun; Yang, Xi; Zhou, JianQing; Huang, Chen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The congenital long QT syndrome is a heterogeneous genetic disease associated with delayed cardiac repolarization, prolonged QT intervals, the development of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Type 2 congenital long QT syndrome (LQT2) results from KCNH2 or hERG gene mutations. hERG encodes the Kv11.1 alpha subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current in the heart. Studies of mutant hERG channels indicate that most LQT2 missense mutations generate trafficking-deficient Kv11.1 channels. OBJECTIVE: To identify the mechanism underlying G572R-hERG by using molecular and electrophysiological analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: To elucidate the electrophysiological properties of the G572R-hERG mutant channels, mutant hERG subunits were heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells alone or in combination with wild-type (WT)-hERG subunits. Patch-clamp techniques were used to record currents, and double immunofluorescence protein tagging and Western blotting were performed to examine the cellular trafficking of mutant subunits. When expressed alone, G572R-hERG subunits were not present in the cell membrane and did not produce detectable currents. When coexpressed with WT-hERG subunits, G572R-hERG decreased current density and altered gating properties of the WT-hERG channel. CONCLUSION: The hERG-associated missense mutation G572R, like most LQT2 missense mutations, generates a trafficking-deficient phenotype. Furthermore, G572R-hERG causes a loss of function in hERG by a strong dominant negative effect on the WT-hERG channel. PMID:20931094

  6. Modification by KCNE1 variants of the hERG potassium channel response to premature stimulation and to pharmacological inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunyun; El Harchi, Aziza; Zhang, Henggui; Hancox, Jules C

    2013-11-01

    human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of cardiac rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I Kr) channels, which play important roles in ventricular repolarization, in protecting the myocardium from unwanted premature stimuli, and in drug-induced Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). KCNE1, a small transmembrane protein, can coassemble with hERG. However, it is not known how KCNE1 variants influence the channel's response to premature stimuli or if they influence the sensitivity of hERG to pharmacological inhibition. Accordingly, whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of hERG current (I hERG) were made at 37°C from hERG channels coexpressed with either wild-type (WT) KCNE1 or with one of three KCNE1 variants (A8V, D76N, and D85N). Under both conventional voltage clamp and ventricular action potential (AP) clamp, the amplitude of I hERG was smaller for A8V, D76N, and D85N KCNE1 + hERG than for WT KCNE1 + hERG. Using paired AP commands, with the second AP waveform applied at varying time intervals following the first to mimic premature ventricular excitation, the response of I hERG carried by each KCNE1 variant was reduced compared to that with WT KCNE1 + hERG. The I hERG blocking potency of the antiarrhythmic drug quinidine was similar between WT KCNE1 and the three KCNE1 variants. However, the I hERG inhibitory potency of the antibiotic clarithromycin and of the prokinetic drug cisapride was altered by KCNE1 variants. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring KCNE1 variants can reduce the response of hERG channels to premature excitation and also alter the sensitivity of hERG channels to inhibition by some drugs linked to acquired LQTS.

  7. Genome-scale expression and transcription factor binding profiles reveal therapeutic targets in transgenic ERG myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Liat; Tijssen, Marloes R; Birger, Yehudit; Hannah, Rebecca L; Kinston, Sarah J; Schütte, Judith; Beck, Dominik; Knezevic, Kathy; Schiby, Ginette; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Biran, Anat; Kloog, Yoel; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D; Aplan, Peter D; Pimanda, John E; Göttgens, Berthold; Izraeli, Shai

    2013-10-10

    The ETS transcription factor ERG plays a central role in definitive hematopoiesis, and its overexpression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a stem cell signature and poor prognosis. Yet how ERG causes leukemia is unclear. Here we show that pan-hematopoietic ERG expression induces an early progenitor myeloid leukemia in transgenic mice. Integrated genome-scale analysis of gene expression and ERG binding profiles revealed that ERG activates a transcriptional program similar to human AML stem/progenitor cells and to human AML with high ERG expression. This transcriptional program was associated with activation of RAS that was required for leukemia cells growth in vitro and in vivo. We further show that ERG induces expression of the Pim1 kinase oncogene through a novel hematopoietic enhancer validated in transgenic mice and human CD34(+) normal and leukemic cells. Pim1 inhibition disrupts growth and induces apoptosis of ERG-expressing leukemic cells. The importance of the ERG/PIM1 axis is further underscored by the poorer prognosis of AML highly expressing ERG and PIM1. Thus, integrative genomic analysis demonstrates that ERG causes myeloid progenitor leukemia characterized by an induction of leukemia stem cell transcriptional programs. Pim1 and the RAS pathway are potential therapeutic targets of these high-risk leukemias.

  8. In Silico Predictions of hERG Channel Blockers in Drug Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Sørensen, Flemming Steen

    2011-01-01

    . Significant progress has been made in structure-based and ligand-based drug design and a number of models have been developed to predict hERG blockage.Although approaches such as homology modeling in combination with docking and molecular dynamics bring us closer to understand the drug-channel interactions......The risk for cardiotoxic side effects represents a major problem in clinical studies of drug candidates and regulatory agencies have explicitly recommended that all new drug candidates should be tested for blockage of the human Ether-a-go-go Related-Gene (hERG) potassium channel. Indeed, several...... drugs with different therapeutic indications and recognized as hERG blockers were recently withdrawn due to the risk of QT prolongation, arrhythmia and Torsade de Pointes.In silico techniques can provide a priori knowledge of hERG blockers, thus reducing the costs associated with screening assays...

  9. Obesity and Prostate Cancer Risk According to Tumor TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusion Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egbers, Lieke; Luedeke, Manuel; Rinckleb, Antje; Kolb, Suzanne; Wright, Jonathan L; Maier, Christiane; Neuhouser, Marian L; Stanford, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    ...) with the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS)-related gene (ERG), is found in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and may characterize distinct molecular subtypes of prostate cancer with different etiologies...

  10. In silico predictions of hERG channel blockers in drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2011-01-01

    drugs with different therapeutic indications and recognized as hERG blockers were recently withdrawn due to the risk of QT prolongation, arrhythmia and Torsade de Pointes. In silico techniques can provide a priori knowledge of hERG blockers, thus reducing the costs associated with screening assays....... Significant progress has been made in structure-based and ligand-based drug design and a number of models have been developed to predict hERG blockage. Although approaches such as homology modeling in combination with docking and molecular dynamics bring us closer to understand the drug-channel interactions...... on current methods to predict hERG blockers and the need of consistent data to improve the quality and performance of the in silico models. Finally, integration of network-based analysis on drugs inducing potentially long-QT syndrome and arrhythmia will be discussed as a new perspective for a better...

  11. Zonas alvo de treino em diferentes ergómetros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Chaves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O exercício cardiovascular tem-se constituído como um dos meios fundamentais para a promoção da saúde e bem-estar das populações. As possibilidades para a sua aplicação são cada vez mais variadas, sobretudo nos ginásios, onde é usual o recurso a diversos tipos de ergómetros, seja na sala de cardiofi tness ou nas aulas de grupo de cariz aeróbio. Neste sentido, uma ajuda fundamental é facultada pelos programas de treino, que, actualmente, permitem considerar os objectivos e as limitações de cada indivíduo, potenciando os benefícios do exercício e minimizando o tempo necessário para o alcance dos mesmos. Consequentemente, têm sido desenvolvidas a nível global, diversas linhas orientadoras para a realização da actividade física aeróbia. Instituições de referência, como o American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, a American Heart Association (AHA, o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, o Department of Human and Health Services (DHHS, o Institute of Medicine (IOM, o National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE, o National Institutes of Health (NIH, o Surgeon General e o United States Dietary Guidelines (USDG, entre muitas outras, propõem várias directrizes, algumas das quais tendo inclusivamente em conta diferentes populações e patologias tentando, desta forma, personalizar e potenciar cada vez os programa de exercícios. (…

  12. First universal pharmacophore model for hERG1 K+ channel activators: acthER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdagi, Serdar; Erol, Ismail; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Patterson, Matthew; Noskov, Sergei Y

    2017-06-01

    The intra-cavitary drug blockade of hERG1 channel has been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Structurally diverse ligands inadvertently block the hERG1 K+ channel currents lead to drug induced Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Accordingly, designing either hERG1 channel openers or current activators, with the potential to target other binding pockets of the channel, has been introduced as a viable approach in modern anti-arrhythmia drug development. However, reports and investigations on the molecular mechanisms underlying activators binding to the hERG1 channel remain sparse and the overall molecular design principles are largely unknown. Most of the hERG1 activators were discovered during mandatory screening for hERG1 blockade. To fill this apparent deficit, the first universal pharmacophore model for hERG1 K+ channel activators was developed using PHASE. 3D structures of 18 hERG1 K+ channel activators and their corresponding measured binding affinity values were used in the development of pharmacophore models. These compounds spanned a range of structurally different chemotypes with moderate variation in binding affinity. A five sites AAHRR (A, hydrogen-bond accepting, H, hydrophobic, R, aromatic) pharmacophore model has shown reasonable high statistical results compared to the other developed more than 1000 hypotheses. This model was used to construct steric and electrostatic contour maps. The predictive power of the model was tested with 3 external test set compounds as true unknowns. Finally, the pharmacophore model was combined with the previously developed receptor-based model of hERG1 K+ channel to develop and screen novel activators. The results are quite striking and it suggests a greater future role for pharmacophore modeling and virtual drug screening simulations in deciphering complex patterns of molecular mechanisms of hERG1 channel openers at the target sites. The developed model is available upon request and it may serve as

  13. ERG and other discriminators between advanced hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Archana A; Marmor, Michael F

    2017-06-01

    To study whether the ERG and other clinical findings help to distinguish between advanced hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy and pericentral or diffuse retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with similar fundus appearance. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced HCQ retinopathy (n = 11), pericentral RP (n = 8) and diffuse RP (n = 8). Pericentral RP was defined as having limited fundus damage and relatively normal flicker ERG time-to-peak. Diffuse RP had typical loss of the rod ERG and flicker timing delay. All patients showed reduced amplitude of the ISCEV responses in the full-field electroretinogram (ERG). Aspects of history, visual field results, fundus appearance, fundus autofluorescence and ocular coherence tomography were also compared. Relative to pericentral RP, patients with HCQ toxicity showed delayed flicker ERG time-to-peak and lower ERG amplitudes, particularly combined rod-cone responses. Relative to diffuse RP, most HCQ toxicity patients had some preserved rod ERG response, and there was no obvious predilection for rod over cone damage. In addition, patients with HCQ toxicity usually lacked markers of long-standing degeneration such as bone spicule figures or severe loss of peripheral field. History of familial disease and long-standing night blindness were specific to RP. While the early signs of HCQ damage are typically regional in the posterior pole, advanced disease is characteristically diffuse (unlike pericentral RP). This is appropriate for a systemic toxin, as is the finding that rods and cones were both affected in the ERG to a similar degree (unlike genetic rod-cone dystrophies). For patients with severe HCQ exposure and some of our discriminatory findings, and no family history or prior night blindness, HCQ toxicity is a sufficient diagnosis without invoking a second rare disease (Occam's razor).

  14. Tbx20 controls the expression of the KCNH2 gene and of hERG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ricardo; Utrilla, Raquel G; Amorós, Irene; Matamoros, Marcos; Pérez-Hernández, Marta; Tinaquero, David; Alfayate, Silvia; Nieto-Marín, Paloma; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Liu, Qing-Hua; Ramos-Mondragón, Roberto; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Herron, Todd; Campbell, Katherine F; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Peinado, Rafael; López-Sendón, José L; Jalife, José; Delpón, Eva; Tamargo, Juan

    2017-01-17

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) exhibits great phenotype variability among family members carrying the same mutation, which can be partially attributed to genetic factors. We functionally analyzed the KCNH2 (encoding for Kv11.1 or hERG channels) and TBX20 (encoding for the transcription factor Tbx20) variants found by next-generation sequencing in two siblings with LQTS in a Spanish family of African ancestry. Affected relatives harbor a heterozygous mutation in KCNH2 that encodes for p.T152HfsX180 Kv11.1 (hERG). This peptide, by itself, failed to generate any current when transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells but, surprisingly, exerted "chaperone-like" effects over native hERG channels in both CHO cells and mouse atrial-derived HL-1 cells. Therefore, heterozygous transfection of native (WT) and p.T152HfsX180 hERG channels generated a current that was indistinguishable from that generated by WT channels alone. Some affected relatives also harbor the p.R311C mutation in Tbx20. In human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), Tbx20 enhanced human KCNH2 gene expression and hERG currents (IhERG) and shortened action-potential duration (APD). However, Tbx20 did not modify the expression or activity of any other channel involved in ventricular repolarization. Conversely, p.R311C Tbx20 did not increase KCNH2 expression in hiPSC-CMs, which led to decreased IhERG and increased APD. Our results suggest that Tbx20 controls the expression of hERG channels responsible for the rapid component of the delayed rectifier current. On the contrary, p.R311C Tbx20 specifically disables the Tbx20 protranscriptional activity over KCNH2 Therefore, TBX20 can be considered a KCNH2-modifying gene.

  15. High Glucose Represses hERG K+ Channel Expression through Trafficking Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Qi Shi; Meng Yan; Li-Rong Liu; Xiao Zhang; Xue Wang; Huai-Ze Geng; Xin Zhao; Bao-Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Abnormal QT prolongation is the most prominent cardiac electrical disturbance in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is well known that the human ether-ago-go-related gene (hERG) controls the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) in cardiac cells. The expression of the hERG channel is severely down-regulated in diabetic hearts, and this down-regulation is a critical contributor to the slowing of repolarization and QT prolongation. However, the intracellular mechanisms...

  16. Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0739 TITLE: Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer (PCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous and the development of a molecular classification is

  17. Tbx20 controls the expression of the KCNH2 gene and of hERG channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ricardo; Utrilla, Raquel G.; Amorós, Irene; Matamoros, Marcos; Pérez-Hernández, Marta; Tinaquero, David; Alfayate, Silvia; Nieto-Marín, Paloma; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Liu, Qing-hua; Ramos-Mondragón, Roberto; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Herron, Todd; Campbell, Katherine F.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Peinado, Rafael; López-Sendón, José L.; Delpón, Eva; Tamargo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) exhibits great phenotype variability among family members carrying the same mutation, which can be partially attributed to genetic factors. We functionally analyzed the KCNH2 (encoding for Kv11.1 or hERG channels) and TBX20 (encoding for the transcription factor Tbx20) variants found by next-generation sequencing in two siblings with LQTS in a Spanish family of African ancestry. Affected relatives harbor a heterozygous mutation in KCNH2 that encodes for p.T152HfsX180 Kv11.1 (hERG). This peptide, by itself, failed to generate any current when transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells but, surprisingly, exerted “chaperone-like” effects over native hERG channels in both CHO cells and mouse atrial-derived HL-1 cells. Therefore, heterozygous transfection of native (WT) and p.T152HfsX180 hERG channels generated a current that was indistinguishable from that generated by WT channels alone. Some affected relatives also harbor the p.R311C mutation in Tbx20. In human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), Tbx20 enhanced human KCNH2 gene expression and hERG currents (IhERG) and shortened action-potential duration (APD). However, Tbx20 did not modify the expression or activity of any other channel involved in ventricular repolarization. Conversely, p.R311C Tbx20 did not increase KCNH2 expression in hiPSC-CMs, which led to decreased IhERG and increased APD. Our results suggest that Tbx20 controls the expression of hERG channels responsible for the rapid component of the delayed rectifier current. On the contrary, p.R311C Tbx20 specifically disables the Tbx20 protranscriptional activity over KCNH2. Therefore, TBX20 can be considered a KCNH2-modifying gene. PMID:28049825

  18. Evaluating the Efficacy of ERG-Targeted Therapy in Vivo for Prostate Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    therapeutic attack and prevention through diet and nutrition . Semin Cancer Biol (2015). In press. PMID: 25869442. 3. Invited Articles (Since the...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0272 TITLE: Evaluating the Efficacy of ERG-Targeted Therapy in Vivo for Prostate Tumors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluating the Efficacy of ERG-Targeted Therapy in Vivo for Prostate Tumors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0272 5c

  19. Compilation and physicochemical classification analysis of a diverse hERG inhibition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didziapetris, Remigijus; Lanevskij, Kiril

    2016-12-01

    A large and chemically diverse hERG inhibition data set comprised of 6690 compounds was constructed on the basis of ChEMBL bioactivity database and original publications dealing with experimental determination of hERG activities using patch-clamp and competitive displacement assays. The collected data were converted to binary format at 10 µM activity threshold and subjected to gradient boosting machine classification analysis using a minimal set of physicochemical and topological descriptors. The tested parameters involved lipophilicity (log P), ionization (p K a ), polar surface area, aromaticity, molecular size and flexibility. The employed approach allowed classifying the compounds with an overall 75-80 % accuracy, even though it only accounted for non-specific interactions between hERG and ligand molecules. The observed descriptor-response profiles were consistent with common knowledge about hERG ligand binding site, but also revealed several important quantitative trends, as well as slight inter-assay variability in hERG inhibition data. The results suggest that even weakly basic groups (p K a zwitterions > neutrals > acids. Given its robust performance and clear physicochemical interpretation, the proposed model may provide valuable information to direct drug discovery efforts towards compounds with reduced risk of hERG-related cardiotoxicity.

  20. [Functional impact of hERG: from physiological role to target of anticancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatková, Júlia; Bébarová, Markéta

    The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG; officially designated as KCNH2) encodes the structure of protein forming α-subunit of voltage-gated ion channel which conducts the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This current plays an important role namely in the cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG result in inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes characterized by a lenghtening or shortening of QT interval on the electrocardiogram and by an increased occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias. This review also introduces hERG channels as a part of regulatory mechanisms of the smooth muscle contractility, neuronal activity, release of several hormones, and of proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. There are also mentioned some of the diseases arising from hERG channel dysfunction, and some possibilities of use of hERG gene/channel as a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target in various diseases, namely in cancer.Key words: cancer - epilepsy - hERG - KCNH2 - K+ channel - LQTS - membrane potential - muscle contraction - proliferation - schizophrenia.

  1. Characterization and structure-activity relationship of natural flavonoids as hERG K+ channel modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaorun; Xu, Bingyuan; Xue, Yucong; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Kang, Liying; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Jianping; Jia, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Flavonoids are present in varying concentrations in plant foods and have been reported to have numerous pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and vasodilator effects. We found that quercetin, fisetin, and some related flavonoid derivatives could inhibit human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channels. In this study, we tested the effects of a series of flavonoids on the hERG K+ channel expressed in HEK293 cells. For the first time, we demonstrate that quercetin and fisetin (Fise) are potent hERG current blockers. The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) and maximum efficacy (Emax) of quercetin were 11.8±0.9μM and 82±2%, while those of fisetin were 38.4±6μM and 100±6%, respectively. Luteolin (Lute) was a less potent inhibitor of hERG current (48±1% at 100μM). Galangin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin (100μM) showed weaker activity on the hERG currents. These results suggest that quercetin, fisetin, and luteolin are potent hERG K+ channel inhibitors and reveal the structure-activity relationship of natural flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction among hERG channel blockers is a potential mechanism of death in caffeine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jifeng; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Kai; Chen, Qingmao; Chen, Yingying; Shen, Yueliang; Xiao, Liping; Jiang, Liqin; Chen, Yuan

    2017-04-05

    Caffeine overdose death is due to cardiac arrest, but its mechanism has not been explored in detail. In this study, our data showed that caffeine significantly prolonged the heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) of rabbits in vivo (PCaffeine was also found to be a hERG channel blocker with an IC 50 of 5.04mM (n=5). Although these two findings likely link caffeine overdose death with hERG channel blockade, the amount of caffeine consumption needed to reach the IC 50 is very high. Further study demonstrated that addition another hERG blocker could lower the consumption of caffeine significantly, no matter whether two hERG blockers share the same binding sites. Our data does not rule out other possibility, however, it suggests that there is a potential causal relationship between caffeine overdose death with hERG channel and the interaction among these hERG blockers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. RhoJ is an endothelial cell-restricted Rho GTPase that mediates vascular morphogenesis and is regulated by the transcription factor ERG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Lei; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Stratman, Amber N.; Le Bras, Alexandra; Zwiers, Peter J.; Spokes, Katherine; Bhasin, Manoj; Shih, Shou-ching; Nagy, Janice A.; Molema, Grietje; Aird, William C.; Davis, George E.; Oettgen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ERG is a member of the ETS transcription factor family that is highly enriched in endothelial cells (ECs). To further define the role of ERG in regulating EC function, we evaluated the effect of ERG knockdown on EC lumen formation in 3D collagen matrices. Blockade of ERG using siRNA completely

  4. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr) and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2010-01-01

    The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr), is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr). Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr) has been described. We hypothesized...

  5. The eag domain regulates hERG channel inactivation gating via a direct interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustina, Ahleah S.

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-á-go-go (eag)-related gene (hERG) potassium channel kinetics are characterized by rapid inactivation upon depolarization, along with rapid recovery from inactivation and very slow closing (deactivation) upon repolarization. These factors combine to create a resurgent hERG current, where the current amplitude is paradoxically larger with repolarization than with depolarization. Previous data showed that the hERG N-terminal eag domain regulated deactivation kinetics by making a direct interaction with the C-terminal region of the channel. A primary mechanism for fast inactivation depends on residues in the channel pore; however, inactivation was also shown to be slower after deletion of a large N-terminal region. The mechanism for N-terminal region regulation of inactivation is unclear. Here, we investigated the contributions of the large N-terminal domains (amino acids 1–354), including the eag domain (amino acids 1–135), to hERG channel inactivation kinetics and steady-state inactivation properties. We found that N-deleted channels lacking just the eag domain (Δ2–135) or both the eag domain and the adjacent proximal domain (Δ2–354) had less rectifying current–voltage (I-V) relationships, slower inactivation, faster recovery from inactivation, and lessened steady-state inactivation. We coexpressed genetically encoded N-terminal fragments for the eag domain (N1–135) or the eag domain plus the proximal domain (N1–354) with N-deleted hERG Δ2–135 or hERG Δ2–354 channels and found that the resulting channels had more rectifying I-V relationships, faster inactivation, slower recovery from inactivation, and increased steady-state inactivation, similar to those properties measured for wild-type (WT) hERG. We also found that the eag domain–containing fragments regulated the time to peak and the voltage at the peak of a resurgent current elicited with a ramp voltage protocol. The eag domain–containing fragments effectively converted N

  6. Open conformation of hERG channel turrets revealed by a specific scorpion toxin BmKKx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, You-Tian; Hu, Jun; Li, Tian; Wei, Jing-Jing; Feng, Jing; Du, Yi-Mei; Cao, Zhi-Jian; Li, Wen-Xin; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channel (hERG) has an unusual long turret, whose role in recognizing scorpion toxins remains controversial. Here, BmKKx2, the first specific blocker of hERG channel derived from scorpion Mesobuthus martensii, was identified and the turret role of hERG channel was re-investigated using BmKKx2 as a molecular probe. BmKKx2 was found to block hERG channel with an IC50 of 6.7 ± 1.7 nM and share similar functional surface with the known hERG channel inhibitor BeKm-1. The alanine-scanning mutagenesis data indicate that different residue substitutions on hERG channel by alanine decreased the affinities of toxin BmKKx2 by about 10-fold compared with that of wild-type hERG channel, which reveals that channel turrets play a secondary role in toxin binding. Different from channel turret, the pore region of hERG channel was found to exert the conserved and essential function for toxin binding because the mutant hERG-S631A channel remarkably decreased toxin BmKKx2 affinity by about 104-fold. Our results not only revealed that channel turrets of hERG channel formed an open conformation in scorpion toxin binding, but also enriched the diversity of structure-function relationships among the different potassium channel turrets.

  7. The A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis causing candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jinqing; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yi; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis is still unclear. Recently, we isolated a fluconazole-resistant strain of C. tropicalis from the blood specimen of a patient with candidemia in China. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was determined by using CLSI M27-A3 and E-test methods. The sequence of ERG11 gene was then analyzed, and the three-dimensional model of Erg11p encoded by ERG11 gene was also investigated. The sequencing of ERG11 gene revealed the mutation of A395T in this fluconazole-resistant isolate of C. tropicalis, resulting in the Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional model comparison of Erg11ps showed high similarity between fluconazole-susceptible isolates of C. tropicalis and Candida albicans. The comparison of the three-dimensional models of Erg11ps demonstrated that the position of the Y132F substitution in this isolate of C. tropicalis is identical to the isolate of C. albicans with fluconazole resistance resulting from Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Hence, we ascertain that the Y132F substitution of Erg11p caused by A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers the fluconazole resistance in C. tropicalis.

  8. A novel assessment of nefazodone-induced hERG inhibition by electrophysiological and stereochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dae-Seop; Park, Myoung Joo; Lee, Hyang-Ae; Lee, Joo Yun; Chung, Hee-Chung; Yoo, Dae Seok; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Ki-Suk; Bae, Myung Ae

    2014-02-01

    Nefazodone was used widely as an antidepressant until it was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2004 due to hepatotoxicity. We have investigated methods to predict various toxic effects of drug candidates to reduce the failure rate of drug discovery. An electrophysiological method was used to assess the cardiotoxicity of drug candidates. Small molecules, including withdrawn drugs, were evaluated using a patch-clamp method to establish a database of hERG inhibition. Nefazodone inhibited hERG channel activity in our system. However, nefazodone-induced hERG inhibition indicated only a theoretical risk of cardiotoxicity. Nefazodone inhibited the hERG channel in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 45.3nM in HEK-293 cells. Nefazodone accelerated both the recovery from inactivation and its onset. Nefazodone also accelerated steady-state inactivation, although it did not modify the voltage-dependent character. Alanine mutants of hERG S6 and pore region residues were used to identify the nefazodone-binding site on hERG. The hERG S6 point mutants Y652A and F656A largely abolished the inhibition by nefazodone. The pore region mutant S624A mildly reduced the inhibition by nefazodone but T623A had little effect. A docking study showed that the aromatic rings of nefazodone interact with Y652 and F656 via π-π interactions, while an amine interacted with the S624 residue in the pore region. In conclusion, Y652 and F656 in the S6 domain play critical roles in nefazodone binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The high frequency relationship: implications for torsadogenic hERG blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeroux, P; Le Guennec, J Y; Jude, S; Laigot, C; Maurin, A; Sola, M L; Fowler, J S L; Richard, S; Thireau, J

    2016-02-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias induced by human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG; Kv 11.1 channel) blockers are a consequence of alterations in ventricular repolarisation in association with high-frequency (HF) oscillations, which act as a primary trigger; the autonomic nervous system plays a modulatory role. In the present study, we investigated the role of β1 -adrenoceptors in the HF relationship between magnitude of heart rate and QT interval changes within discrete 10 s intervals (sorted into 5 bpm heart rate increments) and its implications for torsadogenic hERG blockers. The HF relationship was studied under conditions of autonomic blockade with atenolol (β1 -adrenoceptor blocker) in the absence or presence of five hERG blockers in beagle dogs. In total, the effects of 14 hERG blockers on the HF relationship were investigated. All the torsadogenic hERG blockers tested caused a vertical shift in the HF relationship, while hERG blockers associated with a low risk of Torsades de Pointes did not cause any vertical shift. Atenolol completely prevented the effects four torsadogenic agents (quinidine, thioridazine, risperidone and terfenadine) on the HF relationship, but only partially reduced those of dofetilide, leading to the characterization of two types of torsadogenic agent. Analysis of the vertical shift in the HF relationship demonstrated that signs of transient sympathetic activation during HF oscillations in the presence of torsadogenic hERG blockers are mediated by β1 -adrenoceptors. We suggest the HF relationship as a new biomarker for assessing Torsades de pointes liability, with potential implications in both preclinical studies and the clinic. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Cryo-EM Structure of the Open Human Ether-à-go-go-Related K+ Channel hERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-04-20

    The human ether-à-go-go-related potassium channel (hERG, Kv11.1) is a voltage-dependent channel known for its role in repolarizing the cardiac action potential. hERG alteration by mutation or pharmacological inhibition produces Long QT syndrome and the lethal cardiac arrhythmia torsade de pointes. We have determined the molecular structure of hERG to 3.8 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. In this structure, the voltage sensors adopt a depolarized conformation, and the pore is open. The central cavity has an atypically small central volume surrounded by four deep hydrophobic pockets, which may explain hERG's unusual sensitivity to many drugs. A subtle structural feature of the hERG selectivity filter might correlate with its fast inactivation rate, which is key to hERG's role in cardiac action potential repolarization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacological and electrophysiological characterization of AZSMO-23, an activator of the hERG K(+) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannikko, R; Bridgland-Taylor, M H; Pye, H; Swallow, S; Abi-Gerges, N; Morton, M J; Pollard, C E

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to characterize the pharmacology and electrophysiology of N-[3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-chloro-phenyl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (AZSMO-23), an activator of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded K(+) channel (Kv 11.1). Automated electrophysiology was used to study the pharmacology of AZSMO-23 on wild-type (WT), Y652A, F656T or G628C/S631C hERG, and on other cardiac ion channels. Its mechanism of action was characterized with conventional electrophysiology. AZSMO-23 activated WT hERG pre-pulse and tail current with EC50 values of 28.6 and 11.2 μM respectively. At 100 μM, pre-pulse current at +40 mV was increased by 952 ± 41% and tail current at -30 mV by 238 ± 13% compared with vehicle values. The primary mechanism for this effect was a 74.5 mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation, without any shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Structure-activity relationships for this effect were remarkably subtle, with close analogues of AZSMO-23 acting as hERG inhibitors. AZSMO-23 blocked the mutant channel, hERG Y652A, but against another mutant channel, hERG F656T, its activator activity was enhanced. It inhibited activity of the G628C/S631C non-inactivating hERG mutant channel. AZSMO-23 was not hERG selective, as it blocked hKv 4.3-hKChIP2.2, hCav 3.2 and hKv 1.5 and activated hCav 1.2/β2/α2δ channels. The activity of AZSMO-23 and those of its close analogues suggest these compounds may be of value to elucidate the mechanism of type 2 hERG activators to better understand the pharmacology of this area from both a safety perspective and in relation to treatment of congenital long QT syndrome. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. A novel assessment of nefazodone-induced hERG inhibition by electrophysiological and stereochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dae-Seop; Park, Myoung Joo [Drug Discovery Platform Technology Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang-Ae [Korea Institute of Toxicology, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Yun; Chung, Hee-Chung; Yoo, Dae Seok; Chae, Chong Hak [Drug Discovery Platform Technology Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Suk [Korea Institute of Toxicology, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Myung Ae, E-mail: mbae@krict.re.kr [Drug Discovery Platform Technology Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Nefazodone was used widely as an antidepressant until it was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2004 due to hepatotoxicity. We have investigated methods to predict various toxic effects of drug candidates to reduce the failure rate of drug discovery. An electrophysiological method was used to assess the cardiotoxicity of drug candidates. Small molecules, including withdrawn drugs, were evaluated using a patch-clamp method to establish a database of hERG inhibition. Nefazodone inhibited hERG channel activity in our system. However, nefazodone-induced hERG inhibition indicated only a theoretical risk of cardiotoxicity. Nefazodone inhibited the hERG channel in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC{sub 50} of 45.3 nM in HEK-293 cells. Nefazodone accelerated both the recovery from inactivation and its onset. Nefazodone also accelerated steady-state inactivation, although it did not modify the voltage-dependent character. Alanine mutants of hERG S6 and pore region residues were used to identify the nefazodone-binding site on hERG. The hERG S6 point mutants Y652A and F656A largely abolished the inhibition by nefazodone. The pore region mutant S624A mildly reduced the inhibition by nefazodone but T623A had little effect. A docking study showed that the aromatic rings of nefazodone interact with Y652 and F656 via π–π interactions, while an amine interacted with the S624 residue in the pore region. In conclusion, Y652 and F656 in the S6 domain play critical roles in nefazodone binding. - Highlights: • Nefazodone inhibits hERG channels with an IC{sub 50} of 45.3 nM in HEK-293 cells. • Nefazodone blocks hERG channels by binding to the open channels. • Y652 and F656 are important for binding of nefazodone. • The aromatic rings of nefazodone interact with Y652 and F656 via π–π interactions.

  13. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm eDanker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by hERG can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms.

  14. Prediction of hERG Liability - Using SVM Classification, Bootstrapping and Jackknifing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongmao; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Shahane, Sampada; Southall, Noel; Wang, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    Drug-induced QT prolongation leads to life-threatening cardiotoxicity, mostly through blockage of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encoded potassium ion (K+ ) channels. The hERG channel is one of the most important antitargets to be addressed in the early stage of drug discovery process, in order to avoid more costly failures in the development phase. Using a thallium flux assay, 4,323 molecules were screened for hERG channel inhibition in a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format. Here, we present support vector classification (SVC) models of hERG channel inhibition with the averaged area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.93 for the tested compounds. Both Jackknifing and bootstrapping have been employed to rebalance the heavily biased training datasets, and the impact of these two under-sampling rebalance methods on the performance of the predictive models is discussed. Our results indicated that the rebalancing techniques did not enhance the predictive power of the resulting models; instead, adoption of optimal cutoffs could restore the desirable balance of sensitivity and specificity of the binary classifiers. In an external validation set of 66 drug molecules, the SVC model exhibited an AUC-ROC of 0.86, further demonstrating the utility of this modeling approach to predict hERG liabilities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Pred-hERG: A Novel web-Accessible Computational Tool for Predicting Cardiac Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Silva, Meryck F B; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Lião, Luciano M; Tropsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina H

    2015-10-01

    The blockage of the hERG K(+) channels is closely associated with lethal cardiac arrhythmia. The notorious ligand promiscuity of this channel earmarked hERG as one of the most important antitargets to be considered in early stages of drug development process. Herein we report on the development of an innovative and freely accessible web server for early identification of putative hERG blockers and non-blockers in chemical libraries. We have collected the largest publicly available curated hERG dataset of 5,984 compounds. We succeed in developing robust and externally predictive binary (CCR≈0.8) and multiclass models (accuracy≈0.7). These models are available as a web-service freely available for public at http://labmol.farmacia.ufg.br/predherg/. Three following outcomes are available for the users: prediction by binary model, prediction by multi-class model, and the probability maps of atomic contribution. The Pred-hERG will be continuously updated and upgraded as new information became available. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker, Timm; Möller, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by human ether-à-gogo-related gene (hERG) can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms.

  17. Computational modeling reveals key contributions of KCNQ and hERG currents to the malleability of uterine action potentials underpinning labor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Chiu Tong

    Full Text Available The electrical excitability of uterine smooth muscle cells is a key determinant of the contraction of the organ during labor and is manifested by spontaneous, periodic action potentials (APs. Near the end of term, APs vary in shape and size reflecting an ability to change the frequency, duration and amplitude of uterine contractions. A recent mathematical model quantified several ionic features of the electrical excitability in uterine smooth muscle cells. It replicated many of the experimentally recorded uterine AP configurations but its limitations were evident when trying to simulate the long-duration bursting APs characteristic of labor. A computational parameter search suggested that delayed rectifying K(+ currents could be a key model component requiring improvement to produce the longer-lasting bursting APs. Of the delayed rectifying K(+ currents family it is of interest that KCNQ and hERG channels have been reported to be gestationally regulated in the uterus. These currents exhibit features similar to the broadly defined uterine IK1 of the original mathematical model. We thus formulated new quantitative descriptions for several I(KCNQ and I(hERG. Incorporation of these currents into the uterine cell model enabled simulations of the long-lasting bursting APs. Moreover, we used this modified model to simulate the effects of different contributions of I(KCNQ and I(hERG on AP form. Our findings suggest that the alterations in expression of hERG and KCNQ channels can potentially provide a mechanism for fine tuning of AP forms that lends a malleability for changing between plateau-like and long-lasting bursting-type APs as uterine cells prepare for parturition.

  18. Computational modeling reveals key contributions of KCNQ and hERG currents to the malleability of uterine action potentials underpinning labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wing-Chiu; Tribe, Rachel M; Smith, Roger; Taggart, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The electrical excitability of uterine smooth muscle cells is a key determinant of the contraction of the organ during labor and is manifested by spontaneous, periodic action potentials (APs). Near the end of term, APs vary in shape and size reflecting an ability to change the frequency, duration and amplitude of uterine contractions. A recent mathematical model quantified several ionic features of the electrical excitability in uterine smooth muscle cells. It replicated many of the experimentally recorded uterine AP configurations but its limitations were evident when trying to simulate the long-duration bursting APs characteristic of labor. A computational parameter search suggested that delayed rectifying K(+) currents could be a key model component requiring improvement to produce the longer-lasting bursting APs. Of the delayed rectifying K(+) currents family it is of interest that KCNQ and hERG channels have been reported to be gestationally regulated in the uterus. These currents exhibit features similar to the broadly defined uterine IK1 of the original mathematical model. We thus formulated new quantitative descriptions for several I(KCNQ) and I(hERG). Incorporation of these currents into the uterine cell model enabled simulations of the long-lasting bursting APs. Moreover, we used this modified model to simulate the effects of different contributions of I(KCNQ) and I(hERG) on AP form. Our findings suggest that the alterations in expression of hERG and KCNQ channels can potentially provide a mechanism for fine tuning of AP forms that lends a malleability for changing between plateau-like and long-lasting bursting-type APs as uterine cells prepare for parturition.

  19. Rab11-dependent Recycling of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channel*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeffery; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Lamothe, Shawn M.; Kang, Yudi; Szendrey, John A.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2015-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). A reduction in the hERG current causes long QT syndrome, which predisposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. We reported previously that hERG channels in the plasma membrane undergo vigorous internalization under low K+ conditions. In the present study, we addressed whether hERG internalization occurs under normal K+ conditions and whether/how internalized channels are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Using patch clamp, Western blot, and confocal imaging analyses, we demonstrated that internalized hERG channels can effectively recycle back to the plasma membrane. Low K+-enhanced hERG internalization is accompanied by an increased rate of hERG recovery in the plasma membrane upon reculture following proteinase K-mediated clearance of cell-surface proteins. The increased recovery rate is not due to enhanced protein synthesis, as hERG mRNA expression was not altered by low K+ exposure, and the increased recovery was observed in the presence of the protein biosynthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. GTPase Rab11, but not Rab4, is involved in the recycling of hERG channels. Interfering with Rab11 function not only delayed hERG recovery in cells after exposure to low K+ medium but also decreased hERG expression and function in cells under normal culture conditions. We concluded that the recycling pathway plays an important role in the homeostasis of plasma membrane-bound hERG channels. PMID:26152716

  20. Rab11-dependent Recycling of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeffery; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Lamothe, Shawn M; Kang, Yudi; Szendrey, John A; Zhang, Shetuan

    2015-08-21

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). A reduction in the hERG current causes long QT syndrome, which predisposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. We reported previously that hERG channels in the plasma membrane undergo vigorous internalization under low K(+) conditions. In the present study, we addressed whether hERG internalization occurs under normal K(+) conditions and whether/how internalized channels are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Using patch clamp, Western blot, and confocal imaging analyses, we demonstrated that internalized hERG channels can effectively recycle back to the plasma membrane. Low K(+)-enhanced hERG internalization is accompanied by an increased rate of hERG recovery in the plasma membrane upon reculture following proteinase K-mediated clearance of cell-surface proteins. The increased recovery rate is not due to enhanced protein synthesis, as hERG mRNA expression was not altered by low K(+) exposure, and the increased recovery was observed in the presence of the protein biosynthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. GTPase Rab11, but not Rab4, is involved in the recycling of hERG channels. Interfering with Rab11 function not only delayed hERG recovery in cells after exposure to low K(+) medium but also decreased hERG expression and function in cells under normal culture conditions. We concluded that the recycling pathway plays an important role in the homeostasis of plasma membrane-bound hERG channels. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin azaspiracid-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Sara F; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Nicolaou, K C; Frederick, Michael O; Botana, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in many shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning caused by AZA-contaminated seafood consumption is primarily manifested by diarrhea in humans. To protect human health, AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3 content in seafood has been regulated by food safety authorities in many countries. Recently AZAs have been reported as a low/moderate hERG channel blockers. Furthermore AZA-2 has been related to arrhythmia appearance in rats, suggesting potential heart toxicity. In this study AZA-2 in vitro effects on hERG channel after chronic exposure are analyzed to further explore potential cardiotoxicity. The amount of hERG channel in the plasma membrane, hERG channel trafficking and hERG currents were evaluated up to 12 h of toxin exposure. In these conditions AZA-2 caused an increase of hERG levels in the plasma membrane, probably related to hERG retrograde trafficking impairment. Although this alteration did not translate into an increase of hERG channel-related current, more studies will be necessary to understand its mechanism and to know what consequences could have in vivo. These findings suggest that azaspiracids might have chronic cardiotoxicity related to hERG channel trafficking and they should not be overlooked when evaluating the threat to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying the pilsicainide-induced stabilization of hERG proteins in transfected mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onohara, Takeshi; Hisatome, Ichiro; Kurata, Yasutaka; Li, Peili; Notsu, Tomomi; Morikawa, Kumi; Otani, Naoyuki; Yoshida, Akio; Iitsuka, Kazuhiko; Kato, Masaru; Miake, Junichiro; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Higaki, Katsumi; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Nishimura, Motonobu

    2017-06-01

    Pilsicainide, classified as a relatively selective Na+ channel blocker, also has an inhibitory action on the rapidly-activating delayed-rectifier K+ current (IKr ) through human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels. We studied the effects of chronic exposure to pilsicainide on the expression of wild-type (WT) hERG proteins and WT-hERG channel currents, as well as on the expression of mutant hERG proteins, in a heterologous expression system. HEK293 cells stably expressing WT or mutant hERG proteins were subjected to Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and patch-clamp experiments. Acute exposure to pilsicainide at 0.03-10 μM influenced neither the expression of WT-hERG proteins nor WT-hERG channel currents. Chronic treatment with 0.03-10 μM pilsicainide for 48 h, however, increased the expression of WT-hERG proteins and channel currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Chronic treatment with 3 μM pilsicainide for 48 h delayed degradation of WT-hERG proteins and increased the channels expressed on the plasma membrane. A cell membrane-impermeant pilsicainide derivative did not influence the expression of WT-hERG, indicating that pilsicainide stabilized the protein inside the cell. Pilsicainide did not influence phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) or expression of heat shock protein families such as HSF-1, hsp70 and hsp90. E4031, a chemical chaperone for hERG, abolished the pilsicainide effect on hERG. Chronic treatment with pilsicainide could also increase the protein expression of trafficking-defective mutant hERG, G601S and R752W. Pilsicainide penetrates the plasma membrane, stabilizes WT-hERG proteins by acting as a chemical chaperone, and enhances WT-hERG channel currents. This mechanism could also be applicable to modulations of certain mutant-hERG proteins.

  3. Functional recovery after experimental RPE debridement, mfERG studies in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Lassota, Nathan; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The correlation between histologically identified regeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and functional outcome measured by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) following surgical debridement is examined in a porcine model. In humans, visual acuity is reduced in diseases...... with RPE loss such as RPE tears and geographic atrophy. Hypopigmented RPE is known to cover the lesion after RPE debridement in the pig, but it is unclear whether this leads to a return of photoreceptor function. METHODS: RPE debridement was performed in ten pigs by vitrectomy and retinotomy......, and by brushing the Bruch's membrane with a silicone catheter. Immediately following surgery (baseline) and after 2 and 6 weeks respectively, the animals were examined by mfERG, fundus photographs (FPs), fluorescein angiograms (FAs), and histopathology. RESULTS: The mfERG P1 amplitude was decreased 2 weeks (T2...

  4. The Influence of Brightness on Functional Assessment by mfERG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A T; Kiilgaard, J F; Smith, M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of membrane brightness on multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), we implanted poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membranes in the subretinal space of 11 porcine eyes. We compared membranes with their native shiny white color with membranes that were stained with a blue dye...... (Brilliant Blue). Histological and electrophysiological evaluation of the overlying retina was carried out 6 weeks after implantation. Histologically, both white and blue membranes degraded in a spongiform manner leaving a disrupted outer retina with no preserved photoreceptor segments. Multifocal ERG...... revealed the white membranes to have a significantly higher P1-amplitude ratio than the blue (P = 0.027), and a correlation between brightness ratio and P1-amplitude ratio was found (r = 0.762). Based on our findings, we conclude that bright subretinal objects can produce normal mfERG amplitude ratios even...

  5. External protons destabilize the activated voltage sensor in hERG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu Patrick; Cheng, Yen May; Van Slyke, Aaron C; Claydon, Tom W

    2014-03-01

    Extracellular acidosis shifts hERG channel activation to more depolarized potentials and accelerates channel deactivation; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. External divalent cations, e.g., Ca(2+) and Cd(2+), mimic these effects and coordinate within a metal ion binding pocket composed of three acidic residues in hERG: D456 and D460 in S2 and D509 in S3. A common mechanism may underlie divalent cation and proton effects on hERG gating. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we show proton sensitivity of hERG channel activation (pKa = 5.6), but not deactivation, was greatly reduced in the presence of Cd(2+) (0.1 mM), suggesting a common binding site for the Cd(2+) and proton effect on activation and separable effects of protons on activation and deactivation. Mutational analysis confirmed that D509 plays a critical role in the pH dependence of activation, as shown previously, and that cooperative actions involving D456 and D460 are also required. Importantly, neutralization of all three acidic residues abolished the proton-induced shift of activation, suggesting that the metal ion binding pocket alone accounts for the effects of protons on hERG channel activation. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry measurements demonstrated that protons shifted the voltage dependence of S4 movement to more depolarized potentials. The data indicate a site and mechanism of action for protons on hERG activation gating; protonation of D456, D460 and D509 disrupts interactions between these residues and S4 gating charges to destabilize the activated configuration of S4.

  6. hERG 1b is critical for human cardiac repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David K; Liu, Fang; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Eckhardt, L Lee; Trudeau, Matthew C; Robertson, Gail A

    2014-12-16

    The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG; or KCNH2) encodes the voltage-gated potassium channel underlying IKr, a repolarizing current in the heart. Mutations in KCNH2 or pharmacological agents that reduce IKr slow action potential (AP) repolarization and can trigger cardiac arrhythmias associated with long QT syndrome. Two channel-forming subunits encoded by KCNH2 (hERG 1a and 1b) are expressed in cardiac tissue. In heterologous expression systems, these subunits avidly coassemble and exhibit biophysical and pharmacological properties distinct from those of homomeric hERG 1a channels. Despite these findings, adoption of hERG 1a/1b heteromeric channels as a model for cardiac IKr has been hampered by the lack of evidence for a direct functional role for the 1b subunit in native tissue. In this study, we measured IKr and APs at physiological temperature in cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs). We found that specific knockdown of the 1b subunit using shRNA caused reductions in 1b mRNA, 1b protein levels, and IKr magnitude by roughly one-half. AP duration was increased and AP variability was enhanced relative to controls. Early afterdepolarizations, considered cellular substrates for arrhythmia, were also observed in cells with reduced 1b expression. Similar behavior was elicited when channels were effectively converted from heteromers to 1a homomers by expressing a fragment corresponding to the 1a-specific N-terminal Per-Arnt-Sim domain, which is omitted from hERG 1b by alternate transcription. These findings establish that hERG 1b is critical for normal repolarization and that loss of 1b is proarrhythmic in human cardiac cells.

  7. Functional Consequences of Methionine Oxidation of hERG Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi; Limberis, James; Martin, Ruth L.; Xu, Rong; Kolbe, Katrin; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Cox, Bryan F.; Gintant, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive species oxidatively modify numerous proteins including ion channels. Oxidative sensitivity of ion channels is often conferred by amino acids containing sulfur atoms, such as cysteine and methionine. Functional consequences of oxidative modification of methionine in hERG1 (human ether à go-go related gene 1), which encodes cardiac IKr channels, are unknown. Here we used chloramine-T (ChT), which preferentially oxidizes methionine, to examine the functional consequences of methionine oxidation of hERG channels stably expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) and native hERG channels in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). ChT (300 µM) significantly decreased whole-cell hERG current in both HEK 293 and SH-SY5Y cells. In HEK 293 cells, the effects of ChT on hERG current were time- and concentration-dependent, and were markedly attenuated in the presence of enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A that specifically repairs oxidized methionine. After treatment with ChT, the channel deactivation upon repolarization to −60 or −100 mV was significantly accelerated. The effect of ChT on channel activation kinetics was voltage-dependent; activation slowed during depolarization to +30 mV but accelerated during depolarization to 0 or −10 mV. In contrast, the reversal potential, inactivation kinetics, and voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation remained unaltered. Our results demonstrate that the redox status of methionine is an important modulator of hERG channel. PMID:17624316

  8. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Peter Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr, is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr. Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr has been described. We hypothesized that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr can be reproduced by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Furthermore, the functional consequences of differential expression of ERG1 isoforms were explored as a potential mechanism underlying native heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD and restitution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results show that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr can be reproduced in heterologous expression systems by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Characterization of the macroscopic kinetics of ERG1 currents demonstrated that these were dependent on the relative abundance of ERG1a and ERG1b. Furthermore, we used a computational model of the ventricular cardiomyocyte to show that both APD and the slope of the restitution curve may be modulated by varying the relative abundance of ERG1a and ERG1b. As the relative abundance of ERG1b was increased, APD was gradually shortened and the slope of the restitution curve was decreased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that differential expression of ERG1 isoforms may explain regional heterogeneity of I(Kr kinetics. The data demonstrate that subunit dependent changes in channel kinetics are important for the functional properties of ERG1 currents and hence I(Kr. Importantly, our results suggest that regional differences in the relative abundance of ERG1 isoforms may represent a potential mechanism underlying the heterogeneity of both APD and APD restitution observed in mammalian hearts.

  9. Propofol inhibits hERG K+ channels and enhances the inhibition effects on its mutations in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng-Na; Jing, Ying; Yang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2016-11-15

    QT interval prolongation, a potential risk for arrhythmias, may result from gene polymorphisms relevant to cardiomyocyte repolarization. Another noted cause of QT interval prolongation is the administration of chemical compounds such as anesthetics, which may affect a specific type of cardiac K+ channel encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). hERG K+ current was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells expressing wild type (WT) or mutated hERG channels. Expression of hERG K+ channel proteins was evaluated using western blot and confirmed by fluorescent staining and imaging. Computational modeling was adopted to identify the possible binding site(s) of propofol with hERG K+ channels. Propofol had a significant inhibitory effect on WT hERG K+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 60.9±6.4μM. Mutations in drug-binding sites (Y652A or F656C) of the hERG channel were found to attenuate hERG current blockage by propofol. However, propofol did not inhibit the trafficking of hERG protein to the cell membrane. Meanwhile, for the three selective hERG K+ channel mutant heterozygotes WT/Q738X-hERG, WT/A422T-hERG, and WT/H562P-hERG, the IC50 of propofol was calculated as 14.2±2.8μM, 3.3±1.2μM, and 5.9±1.9μM, respectively, which were much lower than that for the wild type. These findings indicate that propofol may potentially increase QT interval prolongation risk in patients via direct inhibition of the hERG K+ channel, especially in those with other concurrent triggering factors such as hERG gene mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TMPRSS2/ERG promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through the ZEB1/ZEB2 axis in a prostate cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Leshem

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-dermatologic malignancy in men in the Western world. Recently, a frequent chromosomal aberration fusing androgen regulated TMPRSS2 promoter and the ERG gene (TMPRSS2/ERG was discovered in prostate cancer. Several studies demonstrated cooperation between TMPRSS2/ERG and other defective pathways in cancer progression. However, the unveiling of more specific pathways in which TMPRSS2/ERG takes part, requires further investigation. Using immortalized prostate epithelial cells we were able to show that TMPRSS2/ERG over-expressing cells undergo an Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT, manifested by acquisition of mesenchymal morphology and markers as well as migration and invasion capabilities. These findings were corroborated in vivo, where the control cells gave rise to discrete nodules while the TMPRSS2/ERG-expressing cells formed malignant tumors, which expressed EMT markers. To further investigate the general transcription scheme induced by TMPRSS2/ERG, cells were subjected to a microarray analysis that revealed a distinct EMT expression program, including up-regulation of the EMT facilitators, ZEB1 and ZEB2, and down-regulation of the epithelial marker CDH1(E-Cadherin. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of TMPRSS2/ERG to the promoter of ZEB1 but not ZEB2. However, TMPRSS2/ERG was able to bind the promoters of the ZEB2 modulators, IL1R2 and SPINT1. This set of experiments further illuminates the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion affects prostate cancer progression and might assist in targeting TMPRSS2/ERG and its downstream targets in future drug design efforts.

  11. TMPRSS2- driven ERG expression in vivo increases self-renewal and maintains expression in a castration resistant subpopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla M Casey

    Full Text Available Genomic rearrangements commonly occur in many types of cancers and often initiate or alter the progression of disease. Here we describe an in vivo mouse model that recapitulates the most frequent rearrangement in prostate cancer, the fusion of the promoter region of TMPRSS2 with the coding region of the transcription factor, ERG. A recombinant bacterial artificial chromosome including an extended TMPRSS2 promoter driving genomic ERG was constructed and used for transgenesis in mice. TMPRSS2-ERG expression was evaluated in tissue sections and FACS-fractionated prostate cell populations. In addition to the anticipated expression in luminal cells, TMPRSS2-ERG was similarly expressed in the Sca-1(hi/EpCAM(+ basal/progenitor fraction, where expanded numbers of clonogenic self-renewing progenitors were found, as assayed by in vitro sphere formation. These clonogenic cells increased intrinsic self renewal in subsequent generations. In addition, ERG dependent self-renewal and invasion in vitro was demonstrated in prostate cell lines derived from the model. Clinical studies have suggested that the TMPRSS2-ERG translocation occurs early in prostate cancer development. In the model described here, the presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion alone was not transforming but synergized with heterozygous Pten deletion to promote PIN. Taken together, these data suggest that one function of TMPRSS2-ERG is the expansion of self-renewing cells, which may serve as targets for subsequent mutations. Primary prostate epithelial cells demonstrated increased post transcriptional turnover of ERG compared to the TMPRSS2-ERG positive VCaP cell line, originally isolated from a prostate cancer metastasis. Finally, we determined that TMPRSS2-ERG expression occurred in both castration-sensitive and resistant prostate epithelial subpopulations, suggesting the existence of androgen-independent mechanisms of TMPRSS2 expression in prostate epithelium.

  12. ERG and FLI1 binding sites demarcate targets for aberrant epigenetic regulation by AML1-ETO in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Joost H. A.; Mandoli, Amit; Simmer, Femke; Wierenga, Bart-Jan; Saeed, Sadia; Singh, Abhishek A.; Altucci, Lucia; Vellenga, Edo; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    ERG and FLI1 are closely related members of the ETS family of transcription factors and have been identified as essential factors for the function and maintenance of normal hematopoietic stem cells. Here genome-wide analysis revealed that both ERG and FLI1 occupy similar genomic regions as AML1-ETO

  13. Rational basis for the combination of PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion for prostate cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, G.Y.M.; Jannink, S.A.; Smit, F.; Aalders, T.; Hessels, D.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion are promising prostate cancer (PCa) specific biomarkers. Our aim was to simultaneously quantify the expression levels of PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG in a panel of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), normal prostate adjacent to PCa

  14. Investigation of miscellaneous hERG inhibition in large diverse compound collection using automated patch-clamp assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-bo; Zou, Bei-yan; Wang, Xiao-liang; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    hERG potassium channels display miscellaneous interactions with diverse chemical scaffolds. In this study we assessed the hERG inhibition in a large compound library of diverse chemical entities and provided data for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying promiscuity of hERG inhibition. Approximately 300 000 compounds contained in Molecular Library Small Molecular Repository (MLSMR) library were tested. Compound profiling was conducted on hERG-CHO cells using the automated patch-clamp platform-IonWorks Quattro(™). The compound library was tested at 1 and 10 μmol/L. IC50 values were predicted using a modified 4-parameter logistic model. Inhibitor hits were binned into three groups based on their potency: high (IC5010 μmol/L) with hit rates of 1.64%, 9.17% and 16.63%, respectively. Six physiochemical properties of each compound were acquired and calculated using ACD software to evaluate the correlation between hERG inhibition and the properties: hERG inhibition was positively correlative to the physiochemical properties ALogP, molecular weight and RTB, and negatively correlative to TPSA. Based on a large diverse compound collection, this study provides experimental evidence to understand the promiscuity of hERG inhibition. This study further demonstrates that hERG liability compounds tend to be more hydrophobic, high-molecular, flexible and polarizable.

  15. Comparative analysis of prostate cancer specific biomarkers PCA3 and ERG in whole urine, urinary sediments and exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, R.J.; Dijkstra, S.; Jannink, S.A.; Steffens, M.G.; Oort, I.M. van; Mulders, P.F.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PCA3 and ERG are mRNA-based prostate cancer (PCa) specific biomarkers that can be detected in urine. However, urine is a complex substrate that can be separated in several fractions. In this study we compared the levels of PCa-specific biomarkers (PCA3 and ERG) and KLK3 as

  16. A mechanism underlying compound-induced voltage shift in the current activation of hERG by antiarrhythmic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Kazuharu; Yamakawa, Yuko; Inanobe, Atsushi; Iwata, Miki; Ohno, Yuko; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2011-11-11

    Nifekalant and azimilide, Class III antiarrhythmic agents, block the human ether-à-go-go-related gene K(+) (hERG) channel. However, when a depolarizing membrane potential is applied, they also increase the current at low potentials by shifting its activation curve towards hyperpolarizing voltages. This phenomenon is called 'facilitation'. In this study, we tried to address the mechanism underlying the facilitation by analyzing the effects of various compounds on hERG expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Like nifekalant, amiodarone, quinidine and carvedilol, but not by dofetilide, caused the current facilitation of hERG, suggesting that the facilitation is a common effect to a subset of hERG blockers. As the concentration of each compound was increased, the total hERG current was suppressed progressively, while the current at low potentials was augmented. Activation curves of the remaining hERG current in the facilitation condition could be described as the sum of two Boltzmann functions reflecting two populations of hERG currents having different activation curves. The voltage shift in the activation curve from control was constant for each compound even at different concentrations; -31 mV in amiodarone, -27 mV in nifekalant, -17 mV in quinidine and -12 mV in carvedilol. Therefore, the facilitation is based on the appearance of hERG whose voltage-dependence for the activation is shifted towards hyperpolarizing voltages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling the mechanism of GR/c-Jun/Erg crosstalk in apoptosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne eChen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL is one of the most common forms of malignancy that occurs in lymphoid progenitor cells, particularly in children. Synthetic steroid hormones glucocorticoids (GCs are widely used as part of the ALL treatment regimens due to their apoptotic function, but their use also brings about various side effects and drug resistance. The identification of the molecular differences between the GCs responsive and resistant cells therefore are essential to decipher such complexity and can be used to improve therapy. However, the emerging picture is complicated as the activities of genes and proteins involved are controlled by multiple factors. By adapting the systems biology framework to address this issue, we here integrated the available knowledge together with experimental data via the building of a series of mathematical models. This rationale enabled us to unravel molecular interactions involving c-Jun in GC induced apoptosis and identify Erg as determinant for GC resistance. The results revealed an alternative potential mechanism where c-Jun may be an indirect GR target that is controlled via an upstream repressor protein. The models also highlight the importance of Erg for GR function, particularly in GC sensitive C7 cells where Erg directly regulates GR in agreement with our previous experimental results. Our models describe potential GR-controlled molecular mechanisms of c-Jun/Bim and Erg regulation. We also demonstrate the importance of using a systematic approach to translate human disease processes into computational models in order to derive information-driven new hypotheses.

  18. Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    presentations. Nothing to report Website(s) or other Internet site(s) Nothing to report Technologies or techniques Nothing to report... Inventions , patent applications, and/or licenses 8 Nothing to report Other Products Database of PTEN/ERG/ETS status in HPFS/PHS cohort, JHU Natural

  19. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  20. Diagnostic Value of ERG in Prostate Needle Biopsies Containing Minute Cancer Foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachurska Svitlana Y.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate carcinoma (PC is the second most diagnosed cancer in men population worldwide. The small amount of the tissue in prostate needle biopsy is often sufficient for the correct interpretation. Novel antibodies, as ERG, could add to the diagnostic value of IHC study in analysing difficult core biopsies.

  1. Effect of Voriconazole on Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Relation with ERG Genes Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tânia; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    Candida tropicalis has emerged as the third most prevalent fungal pathogens and its ability to form biofilms has been considered one of the most important virulence factors, since biofilms represent high tolerance to antifungal agents. However, the mechanisms of C. tropicalis biofilm resistance to antifungals remain poorly understood. Thus, the main aim of this work was to infer about the effect of voriconazole on the formation and control of C. tropicalis biofilms and disclose its relationship with ERG genes' expression. Planktonic cells tolerance of several C. tropicalis clinical isolates to voriconazole was determined through of antifungal susceptibility test, and the effect of this azole against C. tropicalis biofilm formation and pre-formed biofilms was evaluated by cultivable cells determination and total biomass quantification. ERG genes expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This work showed that C. tropicalis resistance to voriconazole is strain dependent and that voriconazole was able to partially control biofilm formation, but was unable to eradicate C. tropicalis pre-formed biofilms. Moreover, C. tropicalis biofilms resistance to voriconazole seems to be associated with alterations of sterol content in the cell membrane, resulting in ERG genes overexpression. Voriconazole is unable to control C. tropicalis biofilms, and the overexpression of ERG genes is a possible mechanism of biofilm resistance.

  2. Nain's Hierarchy of Needs: An Alternative to Maslow's & ERG's Hierarchy of Needs

    OpenAIRE

    nain, bhavya

    2013-01-01

    This article gives reasons as to why Maslow's & ERG Theory of Needs is inaccurate. It also gives reasons why the same is inaccurate in an organizational perspective. The author also gives a alternative model of needs, namely the Nain Model, which is particularly applicable in an organizational perspective. This article has been written for those interested in Organizational Behaviour.

  3. Tubin: Sinfonie nr. 11 (ergänzt von Kaljo Raid) / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tubin: Sinfonie nr. 11 (ergänzt von Kaljo Raid); Pärt: Nekrolog op. 5, Sinfonie nr. 1; Tüür: Searching for Roots, Insula deserta, Zeitraum. Königliches Philharmonisches Orchester Stockholm, Paavo Järvi". Virgin/EMI CD 5 45212 2 (WD:71'34") DDD

  4. Quantitative Gene Expression of ERG9 in Model Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Chamomile Extract For Human Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Maryam; Mobini-Dehkordi, Mohsen; Teimori, Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Over expression of squalene synthase gene causes induction of growth tumour and reduction of apoptosis. This gene which is conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and humans, is named (ERG9). In this work, we studied the effect of Matricaria recutita extract on ERG9 gene (squalene synthase) expression in S.cerevisiae which was used as organism model in cancer therapy. S. cerevisiae was cultured in YPD medium plus 0,250, 1000 and 3000 μg/ml of Matricaria recutita extract and we evaluated the (ERG9) gene expression by Real-time RT-PCR method after 24 hours. At least 3 independent experiments were done. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test. A p-value of less than 0.01 was considered as significant. We found that 250, 1000 and 3000 μg/ml of Matricaria recutita extract could reduce expression of ERG9 gene significantly (p<0.01). Interestingly, the expression of this gene was completely inhibited in 1000 and 3000 μg/ml concentrations. This study predicted that Matricaria recutita extract produced anti-cancer effects in humans, because it could inhibit the expression of an analogue key gene in this malignant disease. Further investigations should be made, to study its molecular mechanism of action at the mammal cell level.

  5. Modeling the Mechanism of GR/c-Jun/Erg Crosstalk in Apoptosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daphne Wei-Chen; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Schwartz, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common forms of malignancy that occurs in lymphoid progenitor cells, particularly in children. Synthetic steroid hormones glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as part of the ALL treatment regimens due to their apoptotic function, but their use also brings about various side effects and drug resistance. The identification of the molecular differences between the GCs responsive and resistant cells therefore are essential to decipher such complexity and can be used to improve therapy. However, the emerging picture is complicated as the activities of genes and proteins involved are controlled by multiple factors. By adopting the systems biology framework to address this issue, we here integrated the available knowledge together with experimental data by building a series of mathematical models. This rationale enabled us to unravel molecular interactions involving c-Jun in GC induced apoptosis and identify Ets-related gene (Erg) as potential biomarker of GC resistance. The results revealed an alternative possible mechanism where c-Jun may be an indirect GR target that is controlled via an upstream repressor protein. The models also highlight the importance of Erg for GR function, particularly in GC sensitive C7 cells where Erg directly regulates GR in agreement with our previous experimental results. Our models describe potential GR-controlled molecular mechanisms of c-Jun/Bim and Erg regulation. We also demonstrate the importance of using a systematic approach to translate human disease processes into computational models in order to derive information-driven new hypotheses.

  6. Pharmacologic Approach to Defective Protein Trafficking in the E637K-hERG Mutant with PD-118057 and Thapsigargin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Xi; Ba, Yanna; Wang, Ying; Liu, Ningsheng; Zhou, Jianqing; Lian, Jiangfang

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of LQT2 is inadequate. Many drugs which can pharmacologically rescue defective protein trafficking in LQT2 also result in potent blockade of HERG current, negating their therapeutic benefit. It is reported that PD-118057 and thapsigargin can rescue LQT2 without hERG channel blockade, but the precise mechanism of action is unknown. Furthermore, the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the dominant negative E637K-hERG mutant has not been previously investigated. Objective In this study, we investigated: (a) the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the current amplitudes of WT-hERG and WT/E637K-hERG channels; (b) the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the biophysical properties of WT-hERG and WT/E637K-hERG channels; (c) whether drug treatment can rescue channel processing and trafficking defects of the WT/E637K-hERG mutant. Methods The whole-cell Patch-clamp technique was used to assess the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the electrophysiological characteristics of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (Ikr) of the hERG protein channel. Western blot was done to investigate pharmacological rescue on hERG protein channel function. Results In our study, PD-118057 was shown to significantly enhance both the maximum current amplitude and tail current amplitude, but did not alter the gating and kinetic properties of the WT-hERG channel, with the exception of accelerating steady-state inactivation. Additionally, thapsigargin shows a similar result as PD-118057 for the WT-hERG channel, but with the exception of attenuating steady-state inactivation. However, for the WT/E637K-hERG channel, PD-118057 had no effect on either the current or on the gating and kinetic properties. Furthermore, thapsigargin treatment did not alter the current or the gating and kinetic properties of the WT/E637K-hERG channel, with the exception of opening at more positive voltages. Conclusion Our findings illustrate that neither PD-118057 nor

  7. Pharmacologic Approach to Defective Protein Trafficking in the E637K-hERG Mutant with PD-118057 and Thapsigargin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Mao

    Full Text Available Treatment of LQT2 is inadequate. Many drugs which can pharmacologically rescue defective protein trafficking in LQT2 also result in potent blockade of HERG current, negating their therapeutic benefit. It is reported that PD-118057 and thapsigargin can rescue LQT2 without hERG channel blockade, but the precise mechanism of action is unknown. Furthermore, the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the dominant negative E637K-hERG mutant has not been previously investigated.IN THIS STUDY, WE INVESTIGATED: (a the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the current amplitudes of WT-hERG and WT/E637K-hERG channels; (b the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the biophysical properties of WT-hERG and WT/E637K-hERG channels; (c whether drug treatment can rescue channel processing and trafficking defects of the WT/E637K-hERG mutant.The whole-cell Patch-clamp technique was used to assess the effect of PD-118057 and thapsigargin on the electrophysiological characteristics of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+ current (Ikr of the hERG protein channel. Western blot was done to investigate pharmacological rescue on hERG protein channel function.In our study, PD-118057 was shown to significantly enhance both the maximum current amplitude and tail current amplitude, but did not alter the gating and kinetic properties of the WT-hERG channel, with the exception of accelerating steady-state inactivation. Additionally, thapsigargin shows a similar result as PD-118057 for the WT-hERG channel, but with the exception of attenuating steady-state inactivation. However, for the WT/E637K-hERG channel, PD-118057 had no effect on either the current or on the gating and kinetic properties. Furthermore, thapsigargin treatment did not alter the current or the gating and kinetic properties of the WT/E637K-hERG channel, with the exception of opening at more positive voltages.Our findings illustrate that neither PD-118057 nor thapsigargin play a role in correcting

  8. Allosteric modulators of the hERG K{sup +} channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyi, E-mail: z.yu@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl; Klaasse, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabethklaasse@hotmail.com; Heitman, Laura H., E-mail: l.h.heitman@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl; IJzerman, Adriaan P., E-mail: ijzerman@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-01-01

    Drugs that block the cardiac K{sup +} channel encoded by the human ether-à-go-go gene (hERG) have been associated with QT interval prolongation leading to proarrhythmia, and in some cases, sudden cardiac death. Because of special structural features of the hERG K{sup +} channel, it has become a promiscuous target that interacts with pharmaceuticals of widely varying chemical structures and a reason for concern in the pharmaceutical industry. The structural diversity suggests that multiple binding sites are available on the channel with possible allosteric interactions between them. In the present study, three reference compounds and nine compounds of a previously disclosed series were evaluated for their allosteric effects on the binding of [{sup 3}H]astemizole and [{sup 3}H]dofetilide to the hERG K{sup +} channel. LUF6200 was identified as an allosteric inhibitor in dissociation assays with both radioligands, yielding similar EC{sub 50} values in the low micromolar range. However, potassium ions increased the binding of the two radioligands in a concentration-dependent manner, and their EC{sub 50} values were not significantly different, indicating that potassium ions behaved as allosteric enhancers. Furthermore, addition of potassium ions resulted in a concentration-dependent leftward shift of the LUF6200 response curve, suggesting positive cooperativity and distinct allosteric sites for them. In conclusion, our investigations provide evidence for allosteric modulation of the hERG K{sup +} channel, which is discussed in the light of findings on other ion channels. - Highlights: • Allosteric modulators on the hERG K{sup +} channel were evaluated in binding assays. • LUF6200 was identified as a potent allosteric inhibitor. • Potassium ions were found to behave as allosteric enhancers. • Positive cooperativity and distinct allosteric sites for them were proposed.

  9. Ranolazine inhibition of hERG potassium channels: drug-pore interactions and reduced potency against inactivation mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunyun; Zhang, Yihong; El Harchi, Aziza; Dempsey, Christopher E; Hancox, Jules C

    2014-09-01

    The antianginal drug ranolazine, which combines inhibitory actions on rapid and sustained sodium currents with inhibition of the hERG/IKr potassium channel, shows promise as an antiarrhythmic agent. This study investigated the structural basis of hERG block by ranolazine, with lidocaine used as a low potency, structurally similar comparator. Recordings of hERG current (IhERG) were made from cell lines expressing wild-type (WT) or mutant hERG channels. Docking simulations were performed using homology models built on MthK and KvAP templates. In conventional voltage clamp, ranolazine inhibited IhERG with an IC50 of 8.03μM; peak IhERG during ventricular action potential clamp was inhibited ~62% at 10μM. The IC50 values for ranolazine inhibition of the S620T inactivation deficient and N588K attenuated inactivation mutants were respectively ~73-fold and ~15-fold that for WT IhERG. Mutations near the bottom of the selectivity filter (V625A, S624A, T623A) exhibited IC50s between ~8 and 19-fold that for WT IhERG, whilst the Y652A and F656A S6 mutations had IC50s ~22-fold and 53-fold WT controls. Low potency lidocaine was comparatively insensitive to both pore helix and S6 mutations, but was sensitive to direction of K(+) flux and particularly to loss of inactivation, with an IC50 for S620T-hERG ~49-fold that for WT IhERG. Docking simulations indicated that the larger size of ranolazine gives it potential for a greater range of interactions with hERG pore side chains compared to lidocaine, in particular enabling interaction of its two aromatic groups with side chains of both Y652 and F656. The N588K mutation is responsible for the SQT1 variant of short QT syndrome and our data suggest that ranolazine is unlikely to be effective against IKr/hERG in SQT1 patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High-resolution ERG-expression profiling on GeneChip exon 1.0 ST arrays in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.P.; Salagierski, M.; Jannink, S.A.; Schalken, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether oestrogen-regulated gene (ERG) expression analysis using GeneChip arrays can predict transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion. The expression level of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene was studied in various histological grades of prostate cancer and castration-resistant

  11. Data on the construction of a recombinant HEK293 cell line overexpressing hERG potassium channel and examining the presence of hERG mRNA and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teah, Yi Fan; Abduraman, Muhammad Asyraf; Amanah, Azimah; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida; Tan, Mei Lan

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr) and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expression" (Y.F. Teah, M.A. Abduraman, A. Amanah, M.I. Adenan, S.F. Sulaiman, M.L. Tan) [1], which the possible hERG blocking properties of deoxyelephantopin were investigated. This article describes the construction of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells overexpressing HERG potassium channel and verification of the presence of hERG mRNA and protein expression in this recombinant cell line.

  12. Increased adipogenesis in cultured embryonic chondrocytes and in adult bone marrow of dominant negative Erg transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Flajollet

    Full Text Available In monolayer culture, primary articular chondrocytes have an intrinsic tendency to lose their phenotype during expansion. The molecular events underlying this chondrocyte dedifferentiation are still largely unknown. Several transcription factors are important for chondrocyte differentiation. The Ets transcription factor family may be involved in skeletal development. One family member, the Erg gene, is mainly expressed during cartilage formation. To further investigate the potential role of Erg in the maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, we isolated and cultured chondrocytes from the rib cartilage of embryos of transgenic mice that express a dominant negative form of Erg (DN-Erg during cartilage formation. DN-Erg expression in chondrocytes cultured for up to 20 days did not affect the early dedifferentiation usually observed in cultured chondrocytes. However, lipid droplets accumulated in DN-Erg chondrocytes, suggesting adipocyte emergence. Transcriptomic analysis using a DNA microarray, validated by quantitative RT-PCR, revealed strong differential gene expression, with a decrease in chondrogenesis-related markers and an increase in adipogenesis-related gene expression in cultured DN-Erg chondrocytes. These results indicate that Erg is involved in either maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype in vitro or in cell fate orientation. Along with the in vitro studies, we compared adipocyte presence in wild-type and transgenic mice skeletons. Histological investigations revealed an increase in the number of adipocytes in the bone marrow of adult DN-Erg mice even though no adipocytes were detected in embryonic cartilage or bone. These findings suggest that the Ets transcription factor family may contribute to the homeostatic balance in skeleton cell plasticity.

  13. Pigment epithelial changes in a strain of pigmented rabbits with low ERG b-wave amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigstad, Anders; Hanitzsch, Renate

    2004-01-01

    Retinas from a strain of rabbits with low dark-adapted electroretinographic (ERG) b-wave amplitudes, and declining ERG responses with time, were examined by light and electron microscopy. Seven rabbits from the affected strain (13 months to 5 years old) and six control animals (6-26 months old) were included in the study. Small inclusions with an electron dense border, about 0.2-1.5 microm in diameter, were significantly (p<0.01) more numerous within the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the affected rabbits than in the control animals. No morphological evidence of retinal degeneration was found. Further studies are needed to establish the functional defect in this strain of rabbits.

  14. Study physico-chemical of the sand of the western ERG (Western South Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, M.; Tafraoui, A. [Faculty of sciences and technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email: allammessaouda@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Silica is gaining increasing importance as it is the base for the production of pure silicon, for which several applications are under development in the electronic and solar energy sectors. The aim of this study is to characterize the sand taken from the Western Erg of Algeria to determine the percentage of silicon it contains. Characterization was done through physical analysis to determine the granulometry of the sand. A chemical analysis was next performed, using diffraction of X-rays and a scanning electron microscope to determine the chemical composition of the sand. Results showed that the sand is mainly made of quartz in the form of rounded and subbarrondis grains and that silicon is prevalent, accounting for 98% of the composition. This study demonstrated that sand from the Western Erg of Algeria is rich in silicon and could be used for silicon production.

  15. hERG1 potassium channel in cancer cells: a tool to reprogram immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Saverio

    2016-10-01

    It has been well established that changes in ion fluxes across cellular membranes as a function of time is fundamental in maintaining cellular homeostasis of every living cell. Consequently, dysregulation of ion channels activity is a critical event in pathological conditions of several tissues, including cancer. Nevertheless, the role of ion channels in cancer biology is still not well understood and very little is known about the possible therapeutic opportunities offered by the use of the vast collection of drugs that target ion channels. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding the role of the voltage-gated hERG1 potassium channel in cancer and on the effects of pharmacologic manipulation of the hERG1 in cancer cells aiming to provide insights into the biochemical signaling and cellular processes that are altered by using these drugs.

  16. Web 2.0 Dienste als Ergänzung zu algorithmischen Suchmaschinen

    CERN Document Server

    Deutschland. Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie; Maas, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentiert die Ergebnisse des Fachprojekts "Einbingung von Frage-Antwort-Diensten in die Web-Suche", Wintersemester 2007/2008, Dept. Information, Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg. Mit sozialen Suchdiensten - wie z.B. Yahoo Clever, Lycos iQ oder Mister Wong - ist eine Ergänzung zu den bisherigen Ansätzen in der Web-Suche entstanden. Während Google und Co. automatisch generierte Trefferlisten bieten, binden soziale Suchdienste die Anwender zur Generierung der Suchergebnisse in den Suchprozess ein. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird in diesem Buch der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit soziale Suchdienste mit traditionellen Suchmaschinen konkurrieren oder diese qualitativ ergänzen können. Der vorliegende Band beleuchtet die hier aufgeworfene Fragestellung aus verschiedenen Perspektiven, um auf die Bedeutung von sozialen Suchdiensten zu schließen.

  17. ERG and Schwinger-Dyson Equations - Comparison in Formulations and Applications -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Haruhiko

    The advantageous points of ERG in applications to non-perturbative analyses of quantum field theories are discussed in comparison with the Schwinger-Dyson equations. First we consider the relation between these two formulations specially by examining the large N field theories. In the second part we study the phase structure of dynamical symmetry breaking in three dimensional QED as a typical example of the practical application.

  18. Measuring kinetics and potency of hERG block for CiPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Monique J; Abi-Gerges, Najah; Fermini, Bernard; Hancox, Jules C; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2017-09-01

    The Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmic Assay (CiPA) aims to update current cardiac safety testing to better evaluate arrhythmic risk. A central theme of CiPA is the use of in silico approaches to risk prediction incorporating models of drug binding to hERG. To parameterize these models, accurate in vitro measurement of potency and kinetics of block is required. The Ion Channel Working Group was tasked with: i) selecting a protocol that could measure kinetics of block and was easily implementable on automated platforms for future rollout in industry and ii) acquiring a reference dataset using the standardized protocol. Data were acquired using a 'step depolarisation' protocol using manual patch-clamp at ambient temperature. Potency, kinetics and trapping characteristics of hERG block for the CiPA training panel of twelve drugs were measured. Timecourse of block and trapping characteristics could be reliably measured if the time constant for onset of block was between ~500ms and ~15s. Seven drugs, however had time courses of block faster than this cut-off. Here we describe the implementation of the standardized protocol for measurement of kinetics and potency of hERG block for CiPA. The results highlight the challenges in identifying a single protocol to measure hERG block over a range of kinetics. The dataset from this study is being used by the In Silico Working Group to develop models of drug binding for risk prediction and is freely available as a 'gold standard' ambient temperature dataset to evaluate variability across high throughput platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NY-ESO-1 expression is tightly linked to TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Katharina; Ospina-Klinck, Daniel; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Wilczak, Waldemar; Adam, Meike; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Izbicki, Jakob Robert; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Steurer, Stefan; Schlomm, Thorsten; Minner, Sarah; Quaas, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been suggested as therapeutic cancer vaccine in prostate cancer. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship of NY-ESO-1 with tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, and molecular subgroups in hormone-naive prostate cancers. NY-ESO-1 immunohistochemistry was analyzed on a tissue microarray containing 11,152 prostate cancer samples. Results were compared to clinically follow-up data, ERG status, and deletions on PTEN, 3p13, 5q21, and 6q15. NY-ESO-1 expression was absent in benign prostate glands. In prostate cancer, NY-ESO-1 positivity was found 8.8% of our 8,761 interpretable tumors including 5.8% with weak, 2.5% with moderate, and 0.5% with strong expression. There was a threefold higher rate of NY-ESO-1 expression in ERG fusion positive tumors than in ERG negative cancers (P ESO-1 expression was associated with early biochemical recurrence (P = 0.0002) and high Gleason grade (P ESO-1 expression was also linked to PTEN (P = 0.0012) and 6q15 deletions (P = 0.0005). Our observations indicate a tight link of NY-ESO-1 expression to ERG activation and (to a lesser extent) PTEN- and 6q15-deletions in prostate cancer. The impact of these interactions on the likelihood of response to immunotherapy is unclear. The prognostic impact of NY-ESO-1 expression is little and not independent of histologic variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Computational tool for fast in silico evaluation of hERG K+ channel affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemi, Giulia; Gemma, Sandra; Campiani, Giuseppe; Brogi, Simone; Butini, Stefania; Brindisi, Margherita

    2017-02-01

    The development of a novel comprehensive approach for the prediction of hERG activity is herein presented. Software Phase has been used to derive a 3D-QSAR model, employing as alignment rule a common pharmacophore built on a subset of 22 highly active compounds (threshold Ki: 50 nM) against hERG K+ channel. Five features comprised the pharmacophore: two aromatic rings (R1 and R2), one hydrogen-bond acceptor (A), one hydrophobic site (H), and one positive ionizable function (P). The sequential 3D-QSAR model developed with a set of 421 compounds (randomly divided in training and test set) yielded a test set (Q2) equal to 0.802 and proved to be predictive with respect to an external test set of 309 compounds that were not used to generate the model (r2ext_ts = 0.86). Furthermore, the model was submitted to an in silico validation for assessing the reliability of the approach, by applying a decoys set, evaluating the Güner and Henry score (GH) and the Enrichment Factor (EF), and by using the ROC curve analysis. The outcome demonstrated the high predictive power of the inclusive 3D-QSAR model developed for the hERG K+ channel blockers, confirming the fundamental validity of the chosen approach for obtaining a fast proprietary cardiotoxicity predictive tool to be employed for rationally designing compounds with reduced hERG K+ channel activity at the early steps of the drug discovery trajectory.

  1. Small Molecule Inhibitors of ERG and ETV1 in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0399 TITLE: Small Molecule Inhibitors of ERG and ETV1 in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Colm Morrissey...REPORT DATE June 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1Sep2012 - 31Mar2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Small Molecule Inhibitors...utilizing xenograft models to test the hypothesis that targeting a member of the ETS transcription factor family with small molecules such as YK-4-279

  2. Development, interpretation and temporal evaluation of a global QSAR of hERG electrophysiology screening data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, Claire L.; Arnby, Catrin Hasselgren; Blomberg, Niklas; Strandlund, Gert; Boyer, Scott

    2007-04-01

    A `global' model of hERG K+ channel was built to satisfy three basic criteria for QSAR models in drug discovery: (1) assessment of the applicability domain, (2) assuring that model decisions can be interpreted by medicinal chemists and (3) assessment of model performance after the model was built. A combination of D-optimal onion design and hierarchical partial least squares modelling was applied to construct a global model of hERG blockade in order to maximize the applicability domain of the model and to enhance its interpretability. Additionally, easily interpretable hERG specific fragment-based descriptors were developed. Model performance was monitored, throughout a time period of 15 months, after model implementation. It was found that after this time duration a greater proportion of molecules were outside the model's applicability domain and that these compounds had a markedly higher average prediction error than those from molecules within the model's applicability domain. The model's predictive performance deteriorated within 4 months after building, illustrating the necessity of regular updating of global models within a drug discovery environment.

  3. Integrated analysis of drug-induced gene expression profiles predicts novel hERG inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Babcock

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that drugs interact with diverse molecular targets mediating both therapeutic and toxic effects. Prediction of these complex interactions from chemical structures alone remains challenging, as compounds with different structures may possess similar toxicity profiles. In contrast, predictions based on systems-level measurements of drug effect may reveal pharmacologic similarities not evident from structure or known therapeutic indications. Here we utilized drug-induced transcriptional responses in the Connectivity Map (CMap to discover such similarities among diverse antagonists of the human ether-à-go-go related (hERG potassium channel, a common target of promiscuous inhibition by small molecules. Analysis of transcriptional profiles generated in three independent cell lines revealed clusters enriched for hERG inhibitors annotated using a database of experimental measurements (hERGcentral and clinical indications. As a validation, we experimentally identified novel hERG inhibitors among the unannotated drugs in these enriched clusters, suggesting transcriptional responses may serve as predictive surrogates of cardiotoxicity complementing existing functional assays.

  4. Electrophysiological analysis of mammalian cells expressing hERG using automated 384-well-patch-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Ohtsuki, Atsushi; Oka, Takayuki; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2015-12-16

    An in vitro electrophysiological assay system, which can assess compound effects and thus show cardiotoxicity including arrhythmia risks of test drugs, is an essential method in the field of drug development and toxicology. In this study, high-throughput electrophysiological recordings of human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) were performed utilizing an automated 384-well-patch-clamp system, which records up to 384 cells simultaneously. hERG channel inhibition, which is closely related to a drug-induced QT prolongation and is increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death, was investigated in the high-throughput screening patch-clamp system. In the automated patch-clamp measurements performed here, Kv currents were investigated with high efficiency. Various hERG channel blockers showed concentration-dependent inhibition, the 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of those blockers were in good agreement with previous reports. The high-throughput patch-clamp system has a high potential in the field of pharmacology, toxicology, and cardiac physiology, and will contribute to the acceleration of pharmaceutical drug development and drug safety testing.

  5. Timing of early activity in the visual cortex as revealed by simultaneous MEG and ERG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Koji; Sannan, Hiromi; Miki, Kensaku; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2006-03-01

    To clarify the latency of the earliest cortical activity in visual processing, electroretinograms (ERGs) and visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs) following flash stimulation were recorded simultaneously in six human subjects. Flash stimuli were applied to the right eye and ERGs were recorded from a skin electrode placed on the lower lid. ERGs showed two major deflections in all subjects: an eyelid-negativity around 20 ms and a positivity around 60 ms corresponding to an a- and b-waves, respectively. The mean onset and peak latency of the earliest component of VEFs (37 M) was 30.2 and 36.9 ms, respectively. There was a linear correlation between the peak latency of the a-wave and the onset latency of the 37 M (r=0.90, P=0.011). When a single equivalent current dipole analysis was applied to the 37 M, four out of six subjects showed highly reliable results. The generator of the 37 M was estimated to be located in the striate cortex in all four subjects. Since post-receptoral activities in the retina are expected to start around the peak of the a-wave (20 ms), the early cortical activity, which appears 10 ms later than the a-wave peak, is considered to be the earliest cortical activity following flash stimulation.

  6. mf-ERG effective evaluation of early and background diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun-Wen Pei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To measure the retinal electrical activities in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRby applying multifocal electroretinogram(mf-ERGand evaluate the degree of visual damage at different stages of DRMETHODS: Thirty cases(30 eyesaged 50~70 years old, excluding other diseases, were as normal group, and 99 cases(99 eyes diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were as experiment group. The cases received mf-ERG examination in the standard state, respectively. The results were statistically analyzedRESULTS: For DR patients with early and background stage, the reaction density of mf-ERG P1 wave decreased as the disease worsened, significantly reduced in non-proliferating stage and decreased more significantly in the background of the stage Ⅲ. This showed that in the macula, electrical activity had weakened before the retina without visual or morphological changes, and with the development of the disease, the electrical activity decreased more obviously. CONCLUSION: mf-ERG can evaluate the severity of DR, especially suit in the early and background period of DR.

  7. Subcellular localization of the delayed rectifier K(+) channels KCNQ1 and ERG1 in the rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Møller, Morten; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2003-01-01

    In the heart, several K(+) channels are responsible for the repolarization of the cardiac action potential, including transient outward and delayed rectifier K(+) currents. In the present study, the cellular and subcellular localization of the two delayed rectifier K(+) channels, KCNQ1 and ether......-a-go-go-related gene-1 (ERG1), was investigated in the adult rat heart. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of atrial and ventricular cells revealed that whereas KCNQ1 labeling was detected in both the peripheral sarcolemma and a structure transversing the myocytes, ERG1 immunoreactivity was confined to the latter....... Immunoelectron microscopy of atrial and ventricular myocytes showed that the ERG1 channel was primarily expressed in the transverse tubular system and its entrance, whereas KCNQ1 was detected in both the peripheral sarcolemma and in the T tubules. Thus, whereas ERG1 displays a very restricted subcellular...

  8. Micro-RNA-204 Participates in TMPRSS2/ERG Regulation and Androgen Receptor Reprogramming in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Krassimira; Metodiev, Metodi V; Metodieva, Gergana; Mincheff, Milcho; Fernández, Nelson; Hayrabedyan, Soren

    2017-02-01

    Cancer progression is driven by genome instability incurred rearrangements such as transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)/v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene (ERG) that could possibly turn some of the tumor suppressor micro-RNAs into pro-oncogenic ones. Previously, we found dualistic miR-204 effects, acting either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncomiR in ERG fusion-dependent manner. Here, we provided further evidence for an important role of miR-204 for TMPRSS2/ERG and androgen receptor (AR) signaling modulation and fine tuning that prevents TMPRSS2/ERG overexpression in prostate cancer. Based on proximity-based ligation assay, we designed a novel method for detection of TMPRSS2/ERG protein products. We found that miR-204 is TMPRSS2/ERG oncofusion negative regulator, and this was mediated by DNA methylation of TMPRSS2 promoter. Transcriptional factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and ETS proto-oncogene 1 (ETS1) were positive regulators of TMPRSS2/ERG expression and promoter hypo-methylation. Clustering of patients' sera for fusion protein, transcript expression, and wild-type ERG transcript isoforms, demonstrated not all patients harboring fusion transcripts had fusion protein products, and only few fusion positive ones exhibited increased wild-type ERG transcripts. miR-204 upregulated AR through direct promoter hypo-methylation, potentiated by the presence of ERG fusion and RUNX2 and ETS1. Proteomics studies provided evidence that miR-204 has dualistic role in AR cancer-related reprogramming, promoting prostate cancer-related androgen-responsive genes and AR target genes, as well as AR co-regulatory molecules. miR-204 methylation regulation was supported by changes in molecules responsible for chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and its regulation. In summary, miR-204 is a mild regulator of the AR function during the phase of preserved AR sensitivity as the latter one is required for ERG-fusion translocation.

  9. Interactions between amiodarone and the hERG potassium channel pore determined with mutagenesis and in silico docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihong; Colenso, Charlotte K; El Harchi, Aziza; Cheng, Hongwei; Witchel, Harry J; Dempsey, Chris E; Hancox, Jules C

    2016-08-01

    The antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone delays cardiac repolarisation through inhibition of hERG-encoded potassium channels responsible for the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). This study aimed to elucidate molecular determinants of amiodarone binding to the hERG channel. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made at 37°C of ionic current (IhERG) carried by wild-type (WT) or mutant hERG channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Alanine mutagenesis and ligand docking were used to investigate the roles of pore cavity amino-acid residues in amiodarone binding. Amiodarone inhibited WT outward IhERG tails with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ∼45nM, whilst inward IhERG tails in a high K(+) external solution ([K(+)]e) of 94mM were blocked with an IC50 of 117.8nM. Amiodarone's inhibitory action was contingent upon channel gating. Alanine-mutagenesis identified multiple residues directly or indirectly involved in amiodarone binding. The IC50 for the S6 aromatic Y652A mutation was increased to ∼20-fold that of WT IhERG, similar to the pore helical mutant S624A (∼22-fold WT control). The IC50 for F656A mutant IhERG was ∼17-fold its corresponding WT control. Computational docking using a MthK-based hERG model differentiated residues likely to interact directly with drug and those whose Ala mutation may affect drug block allosterically. The requirements for amiodarone block of aromatic residues F656 and Y652 within the hERG pore cavity are smaller than for other high affinity IhERG inhibitors, with relative importance to amiodarone binding of the residues investigated being S624A∼Y652A>F656A>V659A>G648A>T623A. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and Function of the Splice Variants of TMPRSS2-ERG, a Prevalent Genomic Alteration in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    component of bone, heart muscle, kidney, liver, lung, spleen urinary bladder . Erg expression was also evident in the lymphatic endothelial cells in adult...Detection and characterization of the ERG oncoprotein in CaP and other neoplasms has recently been reported by our group (Furusato et al., 2010...rearrangement is shared by concurrent prostatic adenocarcinoma and prostatic small cell carcinoma and absent in small cell carcinoma of the urinary

  11. Inhibition of hERG potassium channel by the antiarrhythmic agent mexiletine and its metabolite m-hydroxymexiletine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdani, Roberta; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Roselli, Mariagrazia; Defrenza, Ivana; Contino, Marialessandra; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Lentini, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Mexiletine is a sodium channel blocker, primarily used in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated its therapeutic value to treat myotonic syndromes and to relieve neuropathic pain. The present study aims at investigating the direct blockade of hERG potassium channel by mexiletine and its metabolite m-hydroxymexiletine (MHM). Our data show that mexiletine inhibits hERG in a time- and voltage-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 3.7 ± 0.7 μmol/L. Analysis of the initial onset of current inhibition during a depolarizing test pulse indicates mexiletine binds preferentially to the open state of the hERG channel. Looking for a possible mexiletine alternative, we show that m-hydroxymexiletine (MHM), a minor mexiletine metabolite recently reported to be as active as the parent compound in an arrhythmia animal model, is a weaker hERG channel blocker, compared to mexiletine (IC50 = 22.4 ± 1.2 μmol/L). The hERG aromatic residues located in the S6 helix (Tyr652 and Phe656) are crucial in the binding of mexiletine and the different affinities of mexiletine and MHM with hERG channel are interpreted by modeling their corresponding binding interactions through ab initio calculations. The simulations demonstrate that the introduction of a hydroxyl group on the meta-position of the aromatic portion of mexiletine weakens the interaction of the drug xylyloxy moiety with Tyr652. These results provide further insights into the molecular basis of drug/hERG interactions and, in agreement with previously reported results on clofilium and ibutilide analogs, support the possibility of reducing hERG potency and related toxicity by modifying the aromatic pattern of substitution of clinically relevant compounds.

  12. Observations on conducting whole-cell patch clamping of the hERG cardiac K+ channel in pure human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jiesheng; Luo, Yongyi; Searles, Michelle; Rampe, David

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel by drugs leads to QT prolongation on the electrocardiogram and can result in serious cardiac arrhythmia. For this reason, screening of drugs on hERG is mandatory during the drug development process. Patch clamp electrophysiology in a defined physiological saline solution (PSS) represents the standard method for assaying drug effects on the channel. To make the assay more translatable to clinical studies, we have conducted whole-cell patch clamping of hERG using pure human serum as the extracellular medium. Pure human serum had little effect on the hERG channel waveform or the current-voltage relationship when compared to PSS. hERG current recordings were highly stable in serum at room temperature, but prolonged recordings at the physiological temperature required prior heat inactivation of the serum. Compared to PSS, the IC50 values, conducted at room temperature, of the classic hERG blocking drugs cisapride, moxifloxacin, and terfenadine were shifted to the right by an extent predicted by their known plasma protein binding, but we did not detect any differences in IC50 s between male and female serum. Total plasma levels of these drugs associated with clinical QT prolongation corresponded to small (hERG current in pure serum suggesting that minor inhibition of the channel leads to observable pharmacodynamic effects. Conducting whole-cell patch clamping of hERG in human serum has the potential to make the assay more translatable to clinical studies and improve its predictive value for safety testing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

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    Xi Chu

    Full Text Available Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells, and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV. Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively. Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  14. ADMET Evaluation in Drug Discovery. 16. Predicting hERG Blockers by Combining Multiple Pharmacophores and Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangquan; Sun, Huiyong; Liu, Hui; Li, Dan; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-08-01

    Blockade of human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) channel by compounds may lead to drug-induced QT prolongation, arrhythmia, and Torsades de Pointes (TdP), and therefore reliable prediction of hERG liability in the early stages of drug design is quite important to reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity-related attritions in the later development stages. In this study, pharmacophore modeling and machine learning approaches were combined to construct classification models to distinguish hERG active from inactive compounds based on a diverse data set. First, an optimal ensemble of pharmacophore hypotheses that had good capability to differentiate hERG active from inactive compounds was identified by the recursive partitioning (RP) approach. Then, the naive Bayesian classification (NBC) and support vector machine (SVM) approaches were employed to construct classification models by integrating multiple important pharmacophore hypotheses. The integrated classification models showed improved predictive capability over any single pharmacophore hypothesis, suggesting that the broad binding polyspecificity of hERG can only be well characterized by multiple pharmacophores. The best SVM model achieved the prediction accuracies of 84.7% for the training set and 82.1% for the external test set. Notably, the accuracies for the hERG blockers and nonblockers in the test set reached 83.6% and 78.2%, respectively. Analysis of significant pharmacophores helps to understand the multimechanisms of action of hERG blockers. We believe that the combination of pharmacophore modeling and SVM is a powerful strategy to develop reliable theoretical models for the prediction of potential hERG liability.

  15. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xi; Guo, Yusong; Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities.

  16. Administration of Non-Torsadogenic human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene Inhibitors Is Associated with Better Survival for High hERG-Expressing Glioblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Kelli B; Clark, Paul A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Salamat, M Shahriar; Robertson, Gail A; Kuo, John S

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant primary brain tumor, with a median survival of less than 2 years. More effective therapeutic approaches are needed to improve clinical outcomes. Glioblastoma patient-derived cells (GPDC) were isolated from patient glioblastomas and implanted in mice to form xenografts. IHC was performed for human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) expression and tumor proliferation. Sphere-forming assays with the hERG blocker E-4031 were performed on a high and low hERG-expressing lines. A glioblastoma tissue microarray (TMA; 115 patients) was used to correlate hERG expression with patient survival. Clinical data were analyzed to determine whether patient survival was affected by incidental administration of hERG inhibitory drugs and the correlative effect of patient glioblastoma hERG expression levels. hERG expression was upregulated in glioblastoma xenografts with higher proliferative indices. High hERG-expressing GPDCs showed a reduction in sphere formation when treated with hERG inhibitors compared with low hERG-expressing GPDCs. Glioblastoma TMA analysis showed worse survival for glioblastoma patients with high hERG expression versus low expression-43.5 weeks versus 60.9 weeks, respectively (P = 0.022). Furthermore, patients who received at least one hERG blocker had a better survival rate compared with patients who did not (P = 0.0015). Subgroup analysis showed that glioblastoma patients with high hERG expression who received hERG blockers had improved survival (P = 0.0458). There was no difference in survival for low hERG-expressing glioblastoma patients who received hERG blockers (P = 0.4136). Our findings suggest that hERG is a potential glioblastoma survival marker, and that already approved drugs with non-torsadogenic hERG inhibitory activity may potentially be repurposed as adjuvant glioblastoma therapy in high hERG-expressing glioblastoma patients. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 73-80. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Arcangeli and

  17. Modeling of the hERG K+ Channel Blockage Using Online Chemical Database and Modeling Environment (OCHEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channel plays an important role in cardiac action potential. Blockage of hERG channel may result in long QT syndrome (LQTS), even cause sudden cardiac death. Many drugs have been withdrawn from the market because of the serious hERG-related cardiotoxicity. Therefore, it is quite essential to estimate the chemical blockage of hERG in the early stage of drug discovery. In this study, a diverse set of 3721 compounds with hERG inhibition data was assembled from literature. Then, we make full use of the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM), which supplies rich machine learning methods and descriptor sets, to build a series of classification models for hERG blockage. We also generated two consensus models based on the top-performing individual models. The consensus models performed much better than the individual models both on 5-fold cross validation and external validation. Especially, consensus model II yielded the prediction accuracy of 89.5 % and MCC of 0.670 on external validation. This result indicated that the predictive power of consensus model II should be stronger than most of the previously reported models. The 17 top-performing individual models and the consensus models and the data sets used for model development are available at https://ochem.eu/article/103592. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Use of molecular modeling aided design to dial out hERG liability in adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiaolin; Lim, Yeon-Hee; Anand, Rajan; Yu, Younong; Kim, Jae-hun; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Junying; Tempest, Paul; Levorse, Dorothy; Zhang, Xiaoping; Greene, Scott; Mullins, Deborra; Culberson, Chris; Sherborne, Brad; Parker, Eric M; Stamford, Andrew; Ali, Amjad

    2015-08-01

    Molecular modeling was performed on a triazolo quinazoline lead compound to help develop a series of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists with improved hERG profile. Superposition of the lead compound onto MK-499, a benchmark hERG inhibitor, combined with pKa calculations and measurement, identified terminal fluorobenzene to be responsible for hERG activity. Docking of the lead compound into an A2A crystal structure suggested that this group is located at a flexible, spacious, and solvent-exposed opening of the binding pocket, making it possible to tolerate various functional groups. Transformation analysis (MMP, matched molecular pair) of in-house available experimental data on hERG provided suggestions for modifications in order to mitigate this liability. This led to the synthesis of a series of compounds with significantly reduced hERG activity. The strategy used in the modeling work can be applied to other medicinal chemistry programs to help improve hERG profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Translational toxicology and rescue strategies of the hERG channel dysfunction: biochemical and molecular mechanistic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-ping; Yang, Bao-feng; Li, Bao-xin

    2014-01-01

    The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel is an obligatory anti-target for drug development on account of its essential role in cardiac repolarization and its close association with arrhythmia. Diverse drugs have been removed from the market owing to their inhibitory activity on the hERG channel and their contribution to acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Moreover, mutations that cause hERG channel dysfunction may induce congenital LQTS. Recently, an increasing number of biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying hERG-associated LQTS have been reported. In fact, numerous potential biochemical and molecular rescue strategies are hidden within the biogenesis and regulating network. So far, rescue strategies of hERG channel dysfunction and LQTS mainly include activators, blockers, and molecules that interfere with specific links and other mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss the rescue strategies based on hERG channel toxicology from the biochemical and molecular perspectives. PMID:25418379

  20. Inner retinal contributions to the multifocal electroretinogram: patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Multifocal ERG in patients with LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenbach, Anne; Leo-Kottler, Beate; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2004-05-01

    In this study we examine the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) recorded from patients suffering from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a degeneration of the ganglion cell and nerve fibre layers of the retina. We compared the mfERGs recorded from 11 patients with LHON, to those from 11 control subjects. The pattern ERG (PERG) was additionally performed with 9 of the patients. MfERGs were recorded and analysed using the VERIS 3.01 system with a stimulus of 103 equal-sized hexagons. For analysis, hexagons were grouped according to distance from the optic nerve head (ONH) and according to distance from the fovea. Two significant differences were found between the waveforms of the two groups: In the first order kernel, the control group showed a component around 34 ms that decreased with distance from the ONH. This component was reduced in the LHON group of subjects. In the second order (first slice) kernel, the patient group was missing features that decrease with distance from the fovea in the control group. PERG amplitudes showed a significant correlation with the amplitude of the second order mfERG kernel. The results show that the damage to ganglion cells and nerve fibres caused by LHON can be detected in mfERG recordings and indicate that activity from the inner retina can contribute significantly to first and second order waveforms.

  1. Arsenic trioxide inhibits breast cancer cell growth via microRNA-328/hERG pathway in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Leqiu; Yin, Changhao; An, Baizhu; Hao, Yankun; Wei, Tao; Li, Li; Song, Gaochen

    2015-07-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been widely used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia and has been observed to exhibit therapeutic effects in various types of solid tumor. In a previous study by this group, it was shown that As2O3 induces the apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through inhibition of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel. The present study was designed to further investigate the effect of As2O3 on breast cancer cells and to examine the mechanism underlying the regulation of hERG expression. The present study confirmed that As2O3 inhibited tumor growth in vivo, following MCF-7 cell implantation into nude mice. Using computational prediction , it was identified that microRNA (miR)-328 had a binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of hERG mRNA. A luciferase activity assay demonstrated that hERG is a target gene of miR-328. Further investigation using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that As2O3 downregulated hERG expression via upregulation of miR-328 expression in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, As2O3 was observed to inhibit breast cancer cell growth, at least in part, through the miR-328/hERG pathway.

  2. Celastrol suppresses tumor cell growth through targeting an AR-ERG-NF-κB pathway in TMPRSS2/ERG fusion gene expressing prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjiang Shao

    Full Text Available The TMPRSS2/ERG (T/E fusion gene is present in the majority of all prostate cancers (PCa. We have shown previously that NF-kB signaling is highly activated in these T/E fusion expressing cells via phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 Ser536 (p536. We therefore hypothesize that targeting NF-kB signaling may be an efficacious approach for the subgroup of PCas that carry T/E fusions. Celastrol is a well known NF-kB inhibitor, and thus may inhibit T/E fusion expressing PCa cell growth. We therefore evaluated Celastrol's effects in vitro and in vivo in VCaP cells, which express the T/E fusion gene. VCaP cells were treated with different concentrations of Celastrol and growth inhibition and target expression were evaluated. To test its ability to inhibit growth in vivo, 0.5 mg/kg Celastrol was used to treat mice bearing subcutaneous VCaP xenograft tumors. Our results show Celastrol can significantly inhibit the growth of T/E fusion expressing PCa cells both in vitro and in vivo through targeting three critical signaling pathways: AR, ERG and NF-kB in these cells. When mice received 0.5 mg/kg Celastrol for 4 times/week, significant growth inhibition was seen with no obvious toxicity or significant weight loss. Therefore, Celastrol is a promising candidate drug for T/E fusion expressing PCa. Our findings provide a novel strategy for the targeted therapy which may benefit the more than half of PCa patients who have T/E fusion expressing PCas.

  3. Eag Domains Regulate LQT Mutant hERG Channels in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang-Ni; Trudeau, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    Human Ether á go-go Related Gene potassium channels form the rapid component of the delayed-rectifier (IKr) current in the heart. The N-terminal 'eag' domain, which is composed of a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain and a short PAS-cap region, is a critical regulator of hERG channel function. In previous studies, we showed that isolated eag (i-eag) domains rescued the dysfunction of long QT type-2 associated mutant hERG R56Q channels, by substituting for defective eag domains, when the channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes or HEK 293 cells.Here, our goal was to determine whether the rescue of hERG R56Q channels by i-eag domains could be translated into the environment of cardiac myocytes. We expressed hERG R56Q channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and measured electrical properties of the cells with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that, like in non-myocyte cells, hERG R56Q had defective, fast closing (deactivation) kinetics when expressed in hiPSC-CMs. We report here that i-eag domains slowed the deactivation kinetics of hERG R56Q channels in hiPSC-CMs. hERG R56Q channels prolonged the AP of hiPSCs, and the AP was shortened by co-expression of i-eag domains and hERG R56Q channels. We measured robust Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between i-eag domains tagged with Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and hERG R56Q channels tagged with Citrine fluorescent proteins (Citrine), indicating their close proximity at the cell membrane in live iPSC-CMs. Together, functional regulation and FRET spectroscopy measurements indicated that i-eag domains interacted directly with hERG R56Q channels in hiPSC-CMs. These results mean that the regulatory role of i-eag domains is conserved in the cellular environment of human cardiomyocytes, indicating that i-eag domains may be useful as a biological therapeutic.

  4. Eag Domains Regulate LQT Mutant hERG Channels in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Ni Liu

    Full Text Available Human Ether á go-go Related Gene potassium channels form the rapid component of the delayed-rectifier (IKr current in the heart. The N-terminal 'eag' domain, which is composed of a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS domain and a short PAS-cap region, is a critical regulator of hERG channel function. In previous studies, we showed that isolated eag (i-eag domains rescued the dysfunction of long QT type-2 associated mutant hERG R56Q channels, by substituting for defective eag domains, when the channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes or HEK 293 cells.Here, our goal was to determine whether the rescue of hERG R56Q channels by i-eag domains could be translated into the environment of cardiac myocytes. We expressed hERG R56Q channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs and measured electrical properties of the cells with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that, like in non-myocyte cells, hERG R56Q had defective, fast closing (deactivation kinetics when expressed in hiPSC-CMs. We report here that i-eag domains slowed the deactivation kinetics of hERG R56Q channels in hiPSC-CMs. hERG R56Q channels prolonged the AP of hiPSCs, and the AP was shortened by co-expression of i-eag domains and hERG R56Q channels. We measured robust Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET between i-eag domains tagged with Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP and hERG R56Q channels tagged with Citrine fluorescent proteins (Citrine, indicating their close proximity at the cell membrane in live iPSC-CMs. Together, functional regulation and FRET spectroscopy measurements indicated that i-eag domains interacted directly with hERG R56Q channels in hiPSC-CMs. These results mean that the regulatory role of i-eag domains is conserved in the cellular environment of human cardiomyocytes, indicating that i-eag domains may be useful as a biological therapeutic.

  5. The Role of Monoubiquitination in Endocytic Degradation of Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channels under Low K+ Conditions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Guo, Jun; Shallow, Heidi; Yang, Tonghua; Xu, Jianmin; Li, Wentao; Hanson, Christian; Wu, James G.; Li, Xian; Massaeli, Hamid; Zhang, Shetuan

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) causes cardiac arrhythmias and triggers internalization of the cardiac rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr) encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). We investigated the role of ubiquitin (Ub) in endocytic degradation of hERG channels stably expressed in HEK cells. Under low K+ conditions, UbKO, a lysine-less mutant Ub that only supports monoubiquitination, preferentially interacted and selectively enhanced degradation of the mature hERG channels. Overexpression of Vps24 protein, also known as charged multivesicular body protein 3, significantly accelerated degradation of mature hERG channels, whereas knockdown of Vps24 impeded this process. Moreover, the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1 inhibited degradation of the internalized mature hERG channels. Thus, monoubiquitination directs mature hERG channels to degrade through the multivesicular body/lysosome pathway. Interestingly, the protease inhibitor lactacystin inhibited the low K+-induced hERG endocytosis and concomitantly led to an accumulation of monoubiquitinated mature hERG channels, suggesting that deubiquitination is also required for the endocytic degradation. Consistently, overexpression of the endosomal deubiquitinating enzyme signal transducing adaptor molecule-binding protein significantly accelerated whereas knockdown of endogenous signal transducing adaptor molecule-binding protein impeded degradation of the mature hERG channels under low K+ conditions. Thus, monoubiquitin dynamically mediates endocytic degradation of mature hERG channels under low K+ conditions. PMID:21177251

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Compound That Protects Cardiac Tissue from Human Ether-à-go-go-related Gene (hERG)-related Drug-induced Arrhythmias*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potet, Franck; Lorinc, Amanda N.; Chaigne, Sebastien; Hopkins, Corey R.; Venkataraman, Raghav; Stepanovic, Svetlana Z.; Lewis, L. Michelle; Days, Emily; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.; Engers, Darren W.; Zou, Beiyan; Afshartous, David; George, Alfred L.; Campbell, Courtney M.; Balser, Jeffrey R.; Li, Min; Baudenbacher, Franz J.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Weaver, C. David; Kupershmidt, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The human Ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded K+ current, IKr is essential for cardiac repolarization but is also a source of cardiotoxicity because unintended hERG inhibition by diverse pharmaceuticals can cause arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that a small molecule that diminishes IKr block by a known hERG antagonist would constitute a first step toward preventing hERG-related arrhythmias and facilitating drug discovery. Using a high-throughput assay, we screened a library of compounds for agents that increase the IC70 of dofetilide, a well characterized hERG blocker. One compound, VU0405601, with the desired activity was further characterized. In isolated, Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts, optical mapping revealed that dofetilide-induced arrhythmias were reduced after pretreatment with VU0405601. Patch clamp analysis in stable hERG-HEK cells showed effects on current amplitude, inactivation, and deactivation. VU0405601 increased the IC50 of dofetilide from 38.7 to 76.3 nm. VU0405601 mitigates the effects of hERG blockers from the extracellular aspect primarily by reducing inactivation, whereas most clinically relevant hERG inhibitors act at an inner pore site. Structure-activity relationships surrounding VU0405601 identified a 3-pyridiyl and a naphthyridine ring system as key structural components important for preventing hERG inhibition by multiple inhibitors. These findings indicate that small molecules can be designed to reduce the sensitivity of hERG to inhibitors. PMID:23033485

  7. The Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channel Represents an Unusual Target for Protease-mediated Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-09-23

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Dysfunction of hERG causes long QT syndrome and sudden death, which occur in patients with cardiac ischemia. Cardiac ischemia is also associated with activation, up-regulation, and secretion of various proteolytic enzymes. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp and Western blotting analysis, we demonstrate that the hERG/IKr channel was selectively cleaved by the serine protease, proteinase K (PK). Using molecular biology techniques including making a chimeric channel between protease-sensitive hERG and insensitive human ether-a-go-go (hEAG), as well as application of the scorpion toxin BeKm-1, we identified that the S5-pore linker of hERG is the target domain for proteinase K cleavage. To investigate the physiological relevance of the unique susceptibility of hERG to proteases, we show that cardiac ischemia in a rabbit model was associated with a reduction in mature ERG expression and an increase in the expression of several proteases, including calpain. Using cell biology approaches, we found that calpain-1 was actively released into the extracellular milieu and cleaved hERG at the S5-pore linker. Using protease cleavage-predicting software and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified that calpain-1 cleaves hERG at position Gly-603 in the S5-pore linker of hERG. Clarification of protease-mediated damage of hERG extends our understanding of hERG regulation. Damage of hERG mediated by proteases such as calpain may contribute to ischemia-associated QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. NS1643 enhances ionic currents in a G604S-WT hERG co-expression system associated with long QT syndrome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, JianHua; Guo, Xueyan; Lu, Qun; Qiang, Hua; Liu, Ping; Bai, Ling; Huang, Christopher Lh; Zhang, Yanmin; Ma, Aiqun

    2017-11-01

    Loss of function mutations in the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). Most LQT2 patients are heterozygous mutation carriers in which the mutant hERG exerts potent dominant-negative effects. 1, 3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643) is known to enhance IKr in WT-hERG. We investigated its actions following lipofectamine-induced expression of both mutant G604S- and WT-hERG in the heterologous HEK293 expression system. Cells transfected with pcDNA3-G604S-hERG did not lead to any expression of detectable currents whether before or following NS1643 challenge. Cells transfected with both pcDNA3-WT-hERG and pcDNA3-G604S-hERG showed reduced hERG currents compared to those transfected with pcDNA3-G604S-hERG consistent with the reduced trafficking and formation of modified heteromeric WT-G604S channels reported on earlier occasions. Nevertheless, NS1643 then continued to produce concentration- and voltage-dependent increases in hERG current amplitude. It did not affect the voltage dependence of activation, recovery from inactivation and deactivation. However, NS1643 (30 μmol/L) slowed steady state inactivation and shifted the steady state half maximal activation voltage (V1/2 ) of the inactivation curve by +10 mV, and significantly increased the time constants of inactivation. Our present experimental results suggest that NS1643 significantly increases ion current and attenuates its inactivation in cells co-expressing G604S-hERG and WT-hERG. These findings raise the possibility that hERG channel activators offer potential treatment strategies for inherited LQT2. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. The Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channel Represents an Unusual Target for Protease-mediated Damage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M.; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Dysfunction of hERG causes long QT syndrome and sudden death, which occur in patients with cardiac ischemia. Cardiac ischemia is also associated with activation, up-regulation, and secretion of various proteolytic enzymes. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp and Western blotting analysis, we demonstrate that the hERG/IKr channel was selectively cleaved by the serine protease, proteinase K (PK). Using molecular biology techniques including making a chimeric channel between protease-sensitive hERG and insensitive human ether-a-go-go (hEAG), as well as application of the scorpion toxin BeKm-1, we identified that the S5-pore linker of hERG is the target domain for proteinase K cleavage. To investigate the physiological relevance of the unique susceptibility of hERG to proteases, we show that cardiac ischemia in a rabbit model was associated with a reduction in mature ERG expression and an increase in the expression of several proteases, including calpain. Using cell biology approaches, we found that calpain-1 was actively released into the extracellular milieu and cleaved hERG at the S5-pore linker. Using protease cleavage-predicting software and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified that calpain-1 cleaves hERG at position Gly-603 in the S5-pore linker of hERG. Clarification of protease-mediated damage of hERG extends our understanding of hERG regulation. Damage of hERG mediated by proteases such as calpain may contribute to ischemia-associated QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death. PMID:27502273

  10. Recovery in ERG gene expression with biventricular pacing in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

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    Saba S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Samir Saba,* Haider Mehdi,* William Barrington, Fardeen Mehdi, Zahid Islam, Barry LondonCardiovascular Institute of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Improved clinical and echocardiographic parameters have been documented with biventricular (BIV pacing in patients after myocardial infarction (MI. We investigated the changes in gene expression in cardiac tissue with BIV pacing, using a rabbit model of MI.Method: New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups: sham-operated controls, MI with no pacing, MI with right ventricle (RV pacing (MI + RV, and MI with BIV pacing (MI + BIV. Pacing was initiated 1–2 weeks after the coronary ligation. At 5 weeks, the hearts were excised. The tissue extracted from the left ventricle (LV and RV underwent analysis for protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels.Results: The ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG protein levels recovered from the base of the LV away from the MI area were two- to threefold lower in the MI and the MI + RV compared with the MI + BIV groups (P = 0.07. The ERG protein levels were similar between the MI + BIV and the control groups. However, the RNA levels were comparable between the four study groups, suggesting that a posttranscriptional mechanism accounted for the difference in protein levels.Conclusion: In this rabbit model of MI, we demonstrated a recovery in ERG protein levels with BIV pacing, after MI. This recovery may underlie some of the benefits seen with BIV pacing in ischemic cardiomyopathy.Keywords: heart failure, biventricular pacing, cardiac reverse remodeling, ether-a-go-go-related gene

  11. Dominant negative consequences of a hERG 1b-specific mutation associated with intrauterine fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David K; Liu, Fang; Dombrowski, Natasha; Joshi, Sunita; Robertson, Gail A

    2016-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) encodes two subunits, hERG 1a and hERG 1b, that combine in vivo to conduct the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). Reduced IKr slows cardiac action potential (AP) repolarization and is an underlying cause of cardiac arrhythmias associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). Although the physiological importance of hERG 1b has been elucidated, the effects of hERG 1b disease mutations on cardiac IKr and AP behavior have not been described. To explore the disease mechanism of a 1b-specific mutation associated with a case of intrauterine fetal death, we examined the effects of the 1b-R25W mutation on total protein, trafficking and membrane current levels in HEK293 cells at physiological temperatures. By all measures the 1b-R25W mutation conferred diminished expression, and exerted a temperature-sensitive, dominant-negative effect over the WT hERG 1a protein with which it was co-expressed. Membrane currents were reduced by 60% with no apparent effect on voltage dependence or deactivation kinetics. The dominant-negative effects of R25W were demonstrated in iPSC-CMs, where 1b-R25W transfection diminished native IKr compared to controls. R25W also slowed AP repolarization, and increased AP triangulation and variability in iPSC-CMs, reflecting cellular manifestations of pro-arrhythmia. These data demonstrate that R25W is a dominant-negative mutation with significant pathophysiological consequences, and provide the first direct link between hERG 1b mutation and cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exclusion of aldose reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Ivy S; Lee, Chieh-Allen; Petrash, J Mark; Peachey, Neal S; Kern, Timothy S

    2012-11-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes is associated with reductions in the electrical response of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to light. Aldose reductase (AR) is the first enzyme required in the polyol-mediated metabolism of glucose, and AR inhibitors have been shown to improve diabetes-induced electroretinogram (ERG) defects. Here, we used control and AR -/- mice to determine if genetic inactivation of this enzyme likewise inhibits retinal electrophysiological defects observed in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. STZ was used to induce hyperglycemia and type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and age-matched nondiabetic controls of each genotype were maintained for 22 weeks, after which ERGs were used to measure the light-evoked components of the RPE (dc-ERG) and the neural retina (a-wave, b-wave). In comparison to their nondiabetic controls, wildtype (WT) and AR -/- diabetic mice displayed significant decreases in the c-wave, fast oscillation, and off response components of the dc-ERG but not in the light peak response. Nondiabetic AR -/- mice displayed larger ERG component amplitudes than did nondiabetic WT mice; however, the amplitude of dc-ERG components in diabetic AR -/- animals were similar to WT diabetics. ERG a-wave amplitudes were not reduced in either diabetic group, but b-wave amplitudes were lower in WT and AR -/-diabetic mice. These findings demonstrate that the light-induced responses of the RPE and outer retina are disrupted in diabetic mice, but these defects are not due to photoreceptor dysfunction, nor are they ameliorated by deletion of AR. This latter finding suggests that benefits observed in other studies utilizing pharmacological inhibitors of AR might have been secondary to off-target effects of the drugs.

  13. Lack of ERG-antibody in Benign Mimickers of Prostate Cancer

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    Bachurska Svitlana Y.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate carcinoma (PC is the second most diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Prostate tissue in needle biopsy expresses a wide variety of architectural patterns some of which are difficult to interpret. Immunohistochemical markers, such as AMACR, p63 and 34βE12 that are currently used in diagnosing prostate cancer, are of great value, but often their interpretation is ambiguous. In 2005 Tomlins et al. identified an emerging marker, erythroblastosis E26 rearrangement gene (ERG, which is a member of the family of genes encoding erythroblast-transformation specific transcription factors (ETS with frequent expression in PC.

  14. Tbx20 controls the expression of the KCNH2 gene and of hERG channels

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo; Utrilla, Raquel G.; Amor?s, Irene; Matamoros, Marcos; P?rez-Hern?ndez, Marta; Tinaquero, David; Alfayate, Silvia; Nieto-Mar?n, Paloma; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Liu, Qing-Hua; Ramos-Mondrag?n, Roberto; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Herron, Todd; Campbell, Katherine F.; Filgueiras-Rama, David

    2017-01-01

    Tbx20 is a transcription factor whose critical role in cardiogenesis is well-established. Here we functionally analyzed the electrophysiological effects produced by a mutation (p.R311C) in Tbx20 found in some affected individuals belonging to a family with long QT syndrome (an inherited cardiac arrhythmia due to delayed ventricular repolarization). We demonstrated that Tbx20 selectively increases the expression of KCNH2, which encodes for the channel Kv11.1 (hERG) that generates the main vent...

  15. MicroRNA-224 targets ERG2 and contributes to malignant progressions of meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Maomao; Deng, Xiaodong; Ying, Qi; Jin, Tingyan [The 411 Hospital of PLA, Department of Neurosurgery, 15 Dongjiangwan Road, Shanghai 200081 (China); Li, Ming [The 81 Hospital of PLA, Department of Neurosurgery, 34 Taiping Road, Nanjing 210002 (China); Liang, Chong, E-mail: liangchong1984@163.com [The 81 Hospital of PLA, Department of Neurosurgery, 34 Taiping Road, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNA-224 is overexpressed in various malignant tumors with poor prognosis, which plays a critical role in biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis and several developmental and physiological progressions. However, the potential association between miR-224 and clinical outcome in patients with meningiomas remains unknown. Here, we investigate miR-224 expression and biological functions in meningiomas. MiR-224 expression was measured by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in meningioma and normal brain tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to exam its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognostic value. The biological effects of miR-224 on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in meningioma cells were examined by MTT assay and apoptosis assay. We found the expression levels of miR-224 were significantly higher in meningioma tissues than that in normal brain, positively correlated with advanced pathological grade. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that meningioma patients with low miR-224 expression exhibited significantly prolonged overall and recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ERG2 was an identical candidate target gene of MiR-224 in vitro. Our results indicated that downregulation of miR-224 suppressed cell growth and resulted in the enhancement of cell apoptosis through activation of the ERG2-BAK-induced apoptosis pathway. Our findings imply the miR-224 expression could predict the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of patients with meningioma and it might be a promising therapeutic target for treating malignant meningiomas. - Highlights: • MiR-224 expression is correlates with prognosis in meningioma patients. • ERG2 is a novel downstream target of miR-224. • MiR-224 suppressed cell growth and enhanced apoptosis in IOMM-Lee and CH157 cells. • MiR-224 is an upstream regulator of the ERG2

  16. TMPRSS2-ERG -specific transcriptional modulation is associated with prostate cancer biomarkers and TGF-β signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brase Jan C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions occur in about 50% of all prostate cancer cases and represent promising markers for molecular subtyping. Although TMPRSS2-ERG fusion seems to be a critical event in prostate cancer, the precise functional role in cancer development and progression is still unclear. Methods We studied large-scale gene expression profiles in 47 prostate tumor tissue samples and in 48 normal prostate tissue samples taken from the non-suspect area of clinical low-risk tumors using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST microarrays. Results Comparison of gene expression levels among TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive and negative tumors as well as benign samples demonstrated a distinct transcriptional program induced by the gene fusion event. Well-known biomarkers for prostate cancer detection like CRISP3 were found to be associated with the gene fusion status. WNT and TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways were significantly associated with genes upregulated in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive tumors. Conclusions The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion results in the modulation of transcriptional patterns and cellular pathways with potential consequences for prostate cancer progression. Well-known biomarkers for prostate cancer detection were found to be associated with the gene fusion. Our results suggest that the fusion status should be considered in retrospective and future studies to assess biomarkers for prostate cancer detection, progression and targeted therapy.

  17. The new mutation L321F in Candida albicans ERG11 gene may be associated with fluconazole resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Carvalho, Vagner; Okay, Thelma S; Melhem, Márcia S C; Walderez Szeszs, Maria; del Negro, Gilda M B

    2013-01-01

    For many years fluconazole has been commonly used to treat Candida infections. However, the indiscriminate use of this antimycotic therapy has favored the emergence of resistant isolates. Mutations in the ERG11 gene have been described as one of the primary mechanisms of resistance in Candida species. In this study we investigated missense mutations in ERG11 genes of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis isolates previously evaluated by susceptibility testing to fluconazole. Screening for these mutations was performed on 19 Candida clinical isolates (eight C. albicans, five C. glabrata and six C. tropicalis) resistant and susceptible to fluconazole. The ERG11 gene was amplified by PCR with specific primers for each Candida species and analyzed by automated sequencing. We identified 14 different missense mutations, five of which had not been described previously. Among them, a new mutation L321F was identified in a fluconazole resistant C. albicans isolate and it was analyzed by a theoretical three-dimensional structure of the ERG11p. The L321F mutation in C. albicans ERG11 gene may be associated with fluconazole resistance. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A

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    Sanguinetti Maurizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluconazole (FLC, a triazole antifungal drug, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. In this study, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of the C. neoformans reference strain H99 (serotype A following FLC treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results Simultaneous analysis of over 6823 transcripts revealed that 476 genes were responsive to FLC. As expected up-regulation of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis was observed, including the azole target gene ERG11 and ERG13, ERG1, ERG7, ERG25, ERG2, ERG3 and ERG5. In addition, SRE1 which is a gene encoding a well-known regulator of sterol homeostasis in C. neoformans was up-regulated. Several other genes such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e. lipid and fatty acid metabolism, cell wall maintenance, stress and virulence were found to be up-regulated in response to FLC treatment. Conversely, expression of AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans, was not regulated by FLC. Conclusions Short-term exposure of C. neoformans to FLC resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the observed changes could represent specific adaptive responses to the antifungal agent in this pathogenic yeast.

  19. Interaction between the Cardiac Rapidly (IKr) and Slowly (IKs) Activating Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels Revealed by Low K+-induced hERG Endocytic Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Tingzhong; Yang, Tonghua; Xu, Jianmin; Li, Wentao; Fridman, Michael D.; Fisher, John T.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac repolarization is controlled by the rapidly (IKr) and slowly (IKs) activating delayed rectifier potassium channels. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes IKr, whereas KCNQ1 and KCNE1 together encode IKs. Decreases in IKr or IKs cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), a cardiac disorder with a high risk of sudden death. A reduction in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) induces LQTS and selectively causes endocytic degradation of mature hERG channels from the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated whether IKs compensates for the reduced IKr under low K+ conditions. Our data show that when hERG and KCNQ1 were expressed separately in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, exposure to 0 mm K+ for 6 h completely eliminated the mature hERG channel expression but had no effect on KCNQ1. When hERG and KCNQ1 were co-expressed, KCNQ1 significantly delayed 0 mm K+-induced hERG reduction. Also, hERG degradation led to a significant reduction in KCNQ1 in 0 mm K+ conditions. An interaction between hERG and KCNQ1 was identified in hERG+KCNQ1-expressing HEK cells. Furthermore, KCNQ1 preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with mature hERG channels that are localized in the plasma membrane. Biophysical and pharmacological analyses indicate that although hERG and KCNQ1 closely interact with each other, they form distinct hERG and KCNQ1 channels. These data extend our understanding of delayed rectifier potassium channel trafficking and regulation, as well as the pathology of LQTS. PMID:21844197

  20. Data on the construction of a recombinant HEK293 cell line overexpressing hERG potassium channel and examining the presence of hERG mRNA and protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fan Teah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG expression” (Y.F. Teah, M.A. Abduraman, A. Amanah, M.I. Adenan, S.F. Sulaiman, M.L. Tan [1], which the possible hERG blocking properties of deoxyelephantopin were investigated. This article describes the construction of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells overexpressing HERG potassium channel and verification of the presence of hERG mRNA and protein expression in this recombinant cell line.

  1. Effects of red ginseng extract on visual sensitivity and ERG b-wave of bullfrog's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Fazli; Jung, Hyuk; Khan, Taous; Hwang, Kyung-Hee; Kim, You Young

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of red ginseng (Panax ginseng) extracts on the visual process in bullfrog's eye. The results obtained indicated that both dark-adapted and light-adapted ERG b-wave peak amplitude was increased with red ginseng treatment. Furthermore, the ERG sensitivity was elevated by 1.4 log units of light intensity. It was found that red ginseng acts as a retinal neural antagonist but not as a GABA receptor antagonist. Red ginseng improved the alcohol dehydrogenase activity and speeded up the delivery of 11 CIS-retinal from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to the outer disc of the photoreceptors which resulted in decreased regeneration time of rhodopsin. In the spectral scan, red ginseng treatment brings an increment in absorbance over the whole spectral range (300-800 nm) with maximum difference at around 500 nm. It is concluded that red ginseng may be used to improve visual process, and can potentially be used to treat certain ophthalmic diseases. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  2. Bias-correction of regression models: a case study on hERG inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Katja; Rathke, Fabian; Schroeter, Timon; Rast, Georg; Fox, Thomas; Kriegl, Jan M; Mika, Sebastian

    2009-06-01

    In the present work we develop a predictive QSAR model for the blockade of the hERG channel. Additionally, this specific end point is used as a test scenario to develop and evaluate several techniques for fusing predictions from multiple regression models. hERG inhibition models which are presented here are based on a combined data set of roughly 550 proprietary and 110 public domain compounds. Models are built using various statistical learning techniques and different sets of molecular descriptors. Single Support Vector Regression, Gaussian Process, or Random Forest models achieve root mean-squared errors of roughly 0.6 log units as determined from leave-group-out cross-validation. An analysis of the evaluation strategy on the performance estimates shows that standard leave-group-out cross-validation yields overly optimistic results. As an alternative, a clustered cross-validation scheme is introduced to obtain a more realistic estimate of the model performance. The evaluation of several techniques to combine multiple prediction models shows that the root mean squared error as determined from clustered cross-validation can be reduced from 0.73 +/- 0.01 to 0.57 +/- 0.01 using a local bias correction strategy.

  3. A functional Kv1.2-hERG chimaeric channel expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S.; Cockcroft, Christopher J.; Munsey, Tim; Smith, Kathrine J.; Powell, Andrew J.; Carter, Paul; Wrighton, David C.; Rong, Hong-Lin; Yusaf, Shahnaz P.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2014-02-01

    Members of the six-transmembrane segment family of ion channels share a common structural design. However, there are sequence differences between the members that confer distinct biophysical properties on individual channels. Currently, we do not have 3D structures for all members of the family to help explain the molecular basis for the differences in their biophysical properties and pharmacology. This is due to low-level expression of many members in native or heterologous systems. One exception is rat Kv1.2 which has been overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and crystallised. Here, we tested chimaeras of rat Kv1.2 with the hERG channel for function in Xenopus oocytes and for overexpression in Pichia. Chimaera containing the S1-S6 transmembrane region of HERG showed functional and pharmacological properties similar to hERG and could be overexpressed and purified from Pichia. Our results demonstrate that rat Kv1.2 could serve as a surrogate to express difficult-to-overexpress members of the six-transmembrane segment channel family.

  4. Regulation of hERG and hEAG Channels by Src and by SHP-1 Tyrosine Phosphatase via an ITIM Region in the Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichter, Lyanne C.; Jiahua Jiang; John Wang; Evan W Newell; Tsui, Florence W.L.; Doris Lam

    2014-01-01

    Members of the EAG K(+) channel superfamily (EAG/Kv10.x, ERG/Kv11.x, ELK/Kv12.x subfamilies) are expressed in many cells and tissues. In particular, two prototypes, EAG1/Kv10.1/KCNH1 and ERG1/Kv11.1/KCNH2 contribute to both normal and pathological functions. Proliferation of numerous cancer cells depends on hEAG1, and in some cases, hERG. hERG is best known for contributing to the cardiac action potential, and for numerous channel mutations that underlie 'long-QT syndrome'. Many cells, partic...

  5. Use of the ERG and EOG in evaluating the effect of sleep deprivation on visual function in flying personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, D I; Kinel, S G; Tredici, T J

    1975-07-01

    The electroretinogram (ERG) and electrooculogram (EOG) are electrophysiological tests employed in ophthalmology to diagnose degeneration or injury to the outer half of the retina, including the rods and cones of the visual system. This pilot study was undertaken to determine if sleep deprivation of more than 24 h in rated flying personnel may show an abnormality in retinal function as measured by the ERG and/or EOG. This may give insight to the visual function in flying personnel on deployment or other long missions where uninterrupted sleep may be a problem. The results of this study showed that some subjects deprived of sleep exhibited a statistically significant variance in their EOG ratios as compared to a nondeprived control group. No significant changes in ERG were detected. Principles and theory of electrophysiological testing in ophthalmology are presented.

  6. Characterization of loperamide-mediated block of hERG channels at physiological temperature and its proarrhythmia propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiansong; Tran, Phu N; Li, Zhihua; Dutta, Sara; Chang, Kelly; Colatsky, Thomas; Wu, Wendy W

    Loperamide (Immodium®) is indicated for symptomatic control of diarrhea. It is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, and recently has been associated with misuse and abuse. At therapeutic doses loperamide has not been associated with cardiotoxicity. However, loperamide overdose is associated with proarrhythmia and death - two effects that are likely attributable to its block of cardiac ion channels that are critical for generating action potentials. In this study, we defined loperamide-hERG channel interaction characteristics, and used a ventricular myocyte action potential model to compare loperamide's proarrhythmia propensity to twelve drugs with defined levels of clinical risk. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were performed at 37°C on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing the hERG channel proteins, and loperamide was bath-applied to assess its effects on hERG current. Loperamide suppressed hERG current in a use- and voltage-dependent but frequency-independent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration hERG current properties. Electrophysiological data were integrated into a myocyte model that simulated dynamic drug-hERG channel interaction to estimate Torsade de Pointes risk through comparisons with reference drugs with defined clinical risk. In the context of overdose that would result in loperamide levels far exceeding those produced by therapeutic doses, loperamide is placed in the high risk category, alongside quinidine, bepridil, dofetilide, and sotalol. The combined in vitro and in silico approach provides mechanistic insight regarding the potential for loperamide to generate cardiotoxicity in overdose situations. This strategy holds promise for improving cardiac safety assessment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Re-trafficking of hERG reverses long QT syndrome 2 phenotype in human iPS-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ashish; Sequiera, Glen Lester; Ramachandra, Chrishan J A; Sudibyo, Yuliansa; Chung, Yingying; Sheng, Jingwei; Wong, Keng Yean; Tan, Teng Hong; Wong, Philip; Liew, Reginald; Shim, Winston

    2014-06-01

    Long QT syndrome 2 (LQTS2) caused by missense mutations in hERG channel is clinically associated with abnormally prolonged ventricular repolarization and sudden cardiac deaths. Modelling monogenic arrhythmogenic diseases using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offers unprecedented mechanistic insights into disease pathogenesis. We utilized LQTS2-hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) to elucidate pathological changes and to demonstrate reversal of LQTS2 phenotype in a therapeutic intervention using a pharmacological agent, (N-[N-(N-acetyl-l-leucyl)-l-leucyl]-l-norleucine) (ALLN). We generated LQTS2-specific CMs (A561V missense mutation in KCNH2) from iPSCs using the virus-free reprogramming method. These CMs recapitulate dysfunction of hERG potassium channel with diminished IKr currents, prolonged repolarization durations, and elevated arrhythmogenesis due to reduced membrane localization of glycosylated/mature hERG. Dysregulated expression of folding chaperones and processing proteasomes coupled with sequestered hERG in the endoplasmic reticulum confirmed trafficking-induced disease manifestation. Treatment with ALLN, not only increased membrane localization of mature hERG but also reduced repolarization, increased IKr currents and reduced arrhythmogenic events. Diverged from biophysical interference of hERG channel, our results show that modulation of chaperone proteins could be therapeutic in LQTS2 treatment. Our in vitro study shows an alternative approach to rescue diseased LQTS2 phenotype via corrective re-trafficking therapy using a small chemical molecule, such as ALLN. This potentially novel approach may have ramifications in other clinically relevant trafficking disorders. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Computational analysis of the effects of the hERG channel opener NS1643 in a human ventricular cell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Torben; Grunnet, Morten; Benson, Alan P

    2008-01-01

    on the diphenylurea compound NS1643, which acts on hERG channels in two distinct ways: by increasing overall conductance and by shifting the inactivation curve in the depolarized direction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine which of the two components contributes more to the antiarrhythmic effects...... of premature action potentials and unidirectional blocks around APD(90). During normokalemia, shifting the inactivation curve has greater impact than increasing conductance, whereas the opposite occurs during hypokalemia. CONCLUSION: Increased hERG conductance and the depolarizing shift of the inactivation...... curve both contribute to the antiarrhythmic actions of NS1643, with relative effects dependent on external K(+) concentration....

  9. IV. Discovery of CXCR3 antagonists substituted with heterocycles as amide surrogates: improved PK, hERG and metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anilkumar G; Wong, Michael K C; Shu, Youheng; Jiang, Yueheng; Jenh, Chung-Her; Kim, Seong Heon; Yang, De-Yi; Zeng, Qingbei; Shao, Yuefei; Zawacki, Lisa Guise; Duo, Jingqi; McGuinness, Brian F; Carroll, Carolyn Diianni; Hobbs, Doug W; Shih, Neng-Yang; Rosenblum, Stuart B; Kozlowski, Joseph A

    2014-02-15

    The structure-human CXCR3 binding affinity relationship of a series of pyridyl/pyrazinyl-piperazinyl-piperidine derivatives were explored with a focus to improve PK, hERG and metabolic profiles. Several small heterocycles were identified as amide surrogates, which minimized many potential metabolite issues. During the course of SAR development, we have observed the additive effect of desirable functional groups to improve hERG and PK profiles which lead to the discovery of many clinically developable CXCR3 antagonists with excellent overall profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ELECTROOCULOGRAPHY AND PATTERN ERG IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF BEST’S VITELLIFORM DISTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jarc-Vidmar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to develop electrooculography in accordance with ISCEV standards and to test its accuracy in the diagnosis of Best’s disease, where the EOG results should be invariably abnormal in all affected members. The pathophysiology of Best’s disease is not yet completely understood, so pattern and full field flash ERG responses compared to visual acuity and stage of the disease were used to asses the neurosensory retinal function in different stages of Best’s disease.Patients and methods. The EOG was recorded in accordance with ISCEV standards on 30 healthy individuals to determine normal values of our laboratory. Pattern as well as photopic and scotopic ERG were recorded on 24 eyes of 12 patients with typical Best’s disease with abnormal EOG responses. The results were compared to visual acuity and stage of the disease.Results. Our EOG normative data are comparable with results from other laboratories: the mean value of Arden ratio is 2.32, the range of 2 standard deviations from the mean value is from 1.6 to 3.04. The patients with Best’s disease have statisticaly significant lower values of Arden ratio (the mean value beeing 1.19. 12 patients (24 eyes with Best’s disease with abnormal EOG values were divided in two groups according to visual acuity. In the first group of 12 eyes with visual acuity > 0.5 PERG P50 and N95 responses were all in the normal range. In the second group of 12 eyes with visual acuity 0.5 or less PERG showed reduced both P50 and N95 responses in 5 eyes, and N95 solely, in two eyes.The photopic and scotopic electroretinographic responses were normal in all patients. Progression of the disease, seen in the deterioration of visual acuity, corresponded well with reduction of both PERG P50 and N95 responses. There was no correlation found between visual acuity and EOG responses.Conclusions. In the study on patients with Best’s disease, it was confirmed that EOG is a very sensitive

  11. Cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP3 is strongly up-regulated in prostate carcinomas with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franclim R Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A large percentage of prostate cancers harbor TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions, leading to aberrant overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. The target genes deregulated by this rearrangement, however, remain mostly unknown. To address this subject we performed genome-wide mRNA expression analysis on 6 non-malignant prostate samples and 24 prostate carcinomas with (n = 16 and without (n = 8 TMPRSS2-ERG fusion as determined by FISH. The top-most differentially expressed genes and their associations with ERG over-expression were technically validated by quantitative real-time PCR and biologically validated in an independent series of 200 prostate carcinomas. Several genes encoding metabolic enzymes or extracellular/transmembrane proteins involved in cell adhesion, matrix remodeling and signal transduction pathways were found to be co-expressed with ERG. Within those significantly over-expressed in fusion-positive carcinomas, CRISP3 showed more than a 50-fold increase when compared to fusion-negative carcinomas, whose expression levels were in turn similar to that of non-malignant samples. In the independent validation series, ERG and CRISP3 mRNA levels were strongly correlated (r(s = 0.65, p<0.001 and both were associated with pT3 disease staging. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results showed CRISP3 protein overexpression in 63% of the carcinomas and chromatin immunoprecipitation with an anti-ERG antibody showed that CRISP3 is a direct target of the transcription factor ERG. We conclude that ERG rearrangement is associated with significant expression alterations in genes involved in critical cellular pathways that define a subset of locally advanced PCa. In particular, we show that CRISP3 is a direct target of ERG that is strongly overexpressed in PCa with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene.

  12. Impact of the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration on the pharmacological assessment of the hERG channel: trazodone as a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Ferrer, Tania; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A; Sanchez-Chapula, Jose A; Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G

    2014-01-01

    Voltage- and state-dependent blocks are important mechanisms by which drugs affect voltage-gated ionic channels. However, spontaneous (i.e. drug-free) time-dependent changes in the activation and inactivation of hERG and Na(+) channels have been reported when using conventional whole-cell patch-clamp in HEK-293 cells. hERG channels were heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. hERG current (IhERG) was recorded using both conventional and perforated whole-cell patch-clamp (HEK-293 cells), and two microelectrode voltage-clamp (Xenopus oocytes) in drug-free solution, and in the presence of the drug trazodone. In conventional whole-cell setup, we observed a spontaneous time-dependent hyperpolarizing shift in the activation curve of IhERG. Conversely, in perforated patch whole-cell (HEK-293 cells) or in two microelectrode voltage-clamp (Xenopus oocytes) activation curves of IhERG were very stable for periods ~50min. Voltage-dependent inactivation of IhERG was not significantly altered in the three voltage clamp configurations tested. When comparing voltage- and state-dependent effects of the antidepressant drug trazodone on IhERG, similar changes between the three voltage clamp configurations were observed as under drug-free conditions. The comparative analysis performed in this work showed that only under conventional whole-cell voltage-clamp conditions, a leftward shift in the activation curve of IhERG occurred, both in the presence and absence of drugs. These spontaneous time-dependent changes in the voltage activation gate of IhERG are a potential confounder in pharmacological studies on hERG channels expressed in HEK-293 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal behavior and ice-table depth within the north polar erg of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Ewer, Kenneth J.; Bowers, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    We fully resolve a long-standing thermal discrepancy concerning the north polar erg of Mars. Several recent studies have shown that the erg’s thermal properties are consistent with normal basaltic sand overlying shallow ground ice or ice-cemented sand. Our findings bolster that conclusion by thoroughly characterizing the thermal behavior of the erg, demonstrating that other likely forms of physical heterogeneity play only a minor role, and obviating the need to invoke exotic materials. Thermal inertia as calculated from orbital temperature observations of the dunes has previously been found to be more consistent with dust-sized materials than with sand. Since theory and laboratory data show that dunes will only form out of sand-sized particles, exotic sand-sized agglomerations of dust have been invoked to explain the low values of thermal inertia. However, the polar dunes exhibit the same darker appearance and color as that of dunes found elsewhere on the planet that have thermal inertia consistent with normal sand-sized basaltic grains, whereas Martian dust deposits are generally lighter and redder. The alternative explanation for the discrepancy as a thermal effect of a shallow ice table is supported by our analysis of observations from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System and by forward modeling of physical heterogeneity. In addition, our results exclude a uniform composition of dark dust-sized materials, and they show that the thermal effects of the dune slopes and bright interdune materials evident in high-resolution images cannot account for the erg’s thermal behavior.

  14. The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr) and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teah, Yi Fan; Abduraman, Muhammad Asyraf; Amanah, Azimah; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Tan, Mei Lan

    2017-09-01

    Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac IKr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation. This study investigated the effects of deoxyelephantopin on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were insignificantly affected by deoxyelephantopin in the transfected cell line. Current reduction was less than 40% as compared with baseline at the highest concentration of 50 μM. The results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation and hERG surface protein expression. Interestingly, it does not affect the hERG expression at both transcriptional and translational level at most concentrations, although higher concentration at 10 μM caused protein accumulation. In conclusion, deoxyelephantopin is unlikely a clinically significant hERG channel and Ikr blocker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. hERG Channel Inhibitory Daphnane Diterpenoid Orthoesters and Polycephalones A and B with Unprecedented Skeletons from Gnidia polycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mieri, Maria; Du, Kun; Neuburger, Markus; Saxena, Priyanka; Zietsman, Pieter C; Hering, Steffen; van der Westhuizen, Jan H; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-07-24

    The hERG channel is an important antitarget in safety pharmacology. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market or received severe usage restrictions because of hERG-related cardiotoxicity. In a screening of medicinal plants for hERG channel inhibition using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp assay with Xenopus laevis oocytes, a dichloromethane extract of the roots of Gnidia polycephala reduced the peak tail hERG current by 58.8 ± 13.4% (n = 3) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. By means of HPLC-based activity profiling daphnane-type diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs) 1, 4, and 5 were identified as the active compounds [55.4 ± 7.0% (n = 4), 42.5 ± 16.0% (n = 3), and 51.3 ± 9.4% (n = 4), respectively, at 100 μM]. In a detailed phytochemical profiling of the active extract, 16 compounds were isolated and characterized, including two 2-phenylpyranones (15 and 16) with an unprecedented tetrahydro-4H-5,8-epoxypyrano[2,3-d]oxepin-4-one skeleton, two new DDOs (3 and 4), two new guaiane sesquiterpenoids (11 and 12), and 10 known compounds (1, 2, 5-10, 13, and 14). Structure elucidation was achieved by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism), computational methods, and X-ray crystallography.

  16. Overexpression of erg1 gene in Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413: effect on the induction of tomato defence-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, R E; Malmierca, M G; Gutiérrez, S

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the overexpression of erg1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 (T34) on the Trichoderma-plant interactions and in the biocontrol ability of this fungus. Transformants of T34 strain overexpressing erg1 gene did not show effect on the ergosterol level, although a drastic decrease in the squalene level was observed in the transformants at 96 h of growth. During interaction with plants, the erg1 overexpression resulted in a reduction of the priming ability of several tomato defence-related genes belonging to the salicylate pathway, and also of the TomLoxA gene, which is related to the jasmonate pathway. Interestingly, other jasmonate-related genes, such as PINI and PINII, were slightly induced. The erg1 overexpressed transformants also showed a reduced ability to colonize tomato roots. The ergosterol biosynthetic pathway might play an important role in regulating Trichoderma-plant interactions, although this role does not seem to be restricted to the final product; instead, other intermediates such as squalene, whose role in the Trichoderma-plant interaction has not been characterized, would also play an important role. The functional analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of ergosterol could provide additional strategies to improve the ability of biocontrol of the Trichoderma strains and their interaction with plants. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Effect of compound plate composition on measurement of hERG current IC(50) using PatchXpress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zun-Li; Faxel, Tracy; Yang, Young-Sun; Gallavan, Robert; Messing, Dean; Bahinski, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Inhibition of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel by pharmaceutical agents can lead to acquired long QT syndrome and the generation of potentially lethal arrhythmias. Higher throughput automated patch clamp systems, such as PatchXpress, can greatly increase the speed and capacity of evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds for hERG blocking activity. A factor that may affect the IC(50) value of a compound measured in this system is the composition of the multi-well compound plate. Hydrophobic compounds may adsorb to the surfaces of multi-well plates resulting in a reduction in the effective concentration of the compound delivered to the cell and altered IC(50) values. In the present study, we investigated the effects of four different compound plates--glass vials, non-binding polystyrene, hydrophilic polystyrene, and polystyrene--on determination of IC(50)s for four compounds--sotalol, dofetilide, cisapride, and bepridil--which ranged in hydrophobicity. In addition, we investigated the effects of incubation time in the compound plate on determination of IC(50)s. hERG currents were measured using the PatchXpress 7000A Automated Parallel Patch Clamp System (Molecular Devices Corporation; Sunnyvale, CA) and hERG channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells. The results suggest that more hydrophobic compounds may adsorb to non-binding polystyrene, hydrophilic, and polystyrene compound plates versus glass plates, especially with increasing time on the plates, resulting in altered IC(50) values.

  18. Enhancement of hERG channel activity by scFv antibody fragments targeted to the PAS domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Carol A; Starek, Greg; Jones, David K; Fernandes, Andreia S; Robertson, Gail A; Morais-Cabral, João H

    2016-08-30

    The human human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Changes in hERG channel function underlie long QT syndrome (LQTS) and are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. A striking feature of this channel and KCNH channels in general is the presence of an N-terminal Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain. In other proteins, PAS domains bind ligands and modulate effector domains. However, the PAS domains of KCNH channels are orphan receptors. We have uncovered a family of positive modulators of hERG that specifically bind to the PAS domain. We generated two single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) that recognize different epitopes on the PAS domain. Both antibodies increase the rate of deactivation but have different effects on channel activation and inactivation. Importantly, we show that both antibodies, on binding to the PAS domain, increase the total amount of current that permeates the channel during a ventricular action potential and significantly reduce the action potential duration recorded in human cardiomyocytes. Overall, these molecules constitute a previously unidentified class of positive modulators and establish that allosteric modulation of hERG channel function through ligand binding to the PAS domain can be attained.

  19. Molecular Characterization and Clinical Impact of TMPRSS2-ERG Rearrangement on Prostate Cancer: Comparison between FISH and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández-Serra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a very heterogeneous disease, and there are constraints in its current diagnosis. Serum PSA levels, digital rectal examination (DRE, and histopathologic analysis often drive to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Since 2005, the presence of the genetic rearrangement between transmembrane-serine protease gene (TMPRSS2 and the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS member ERG (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog avian has been demonstrated in almost half of PCa cases. Both FISH and RT-PCR are useful tools for detecting these rearrangements, but very few comparatives between both techniques have been published. In this study, we included FFPE tumors from 294 PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy with more than 5 years of followup. We constructed a total of 20 tissue microarrays in order to perform break-apart and tricolor probe FISH approaches that were compared with RT-PCR, showing a concordance of 80.6% (P<0.001. The presence of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement was observed in 56.6% of cases. No association between TMPRSS2-ERG status and clinicopathological parameters nor biochemical progression and clinical progression free survival was found. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that both FISH and RT-PCR are useful tools in the assessment of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene status in PCa patients and that this genetic feature per se lacks prognostic value.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of MCPA-Degrading Sphingomonas sp. Strain ERG5, Isolated from a Groundwater Aquifer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Kot, Witold; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain ERG5 was isolated from a bacterial community, originating from a groundwater aquifer polluted with low pesticide concentrations. This bacterium degrades 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in a wide spectrum of concentrations and has been shown to function in bioaug...... in bioaugmented sand filters. Genes associated with MCPA degradation are situated on a putative conjugative plasmid....

  1. Onderzoek naar implementatie COBRA-strategie: patiënt vindt starten met veel medicatie niet erg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, L. van; Plass, A.M.C.; Lems, W.F.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Boers, M.

    2006-01-01

    Een combinatie van ‘oude’ reumamedicijnen, COBRA genaamd, is zeer effectief gebleken bij vroege reumatoïde artritis. Waarom wordt deze relatief goedkope combinatie dan niet vaker voorgeschreven? Reumatologen blijken toepassing ervan als ingewikkeld te ervaren. Patiënten vinden het niet zo erg met

  2. In vitro fluconazole susceptibility of 1,903 clinical isolates of Candida albicans and the identification of ERG11 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ying; Zhao, Yingjie; Hu, Xuefei; Cai, Zhenyu; Liu, Xin; Jin, Guilin; Zhang, Jieyu; Zhang, Jingyi; Liu, Jinhui; Huang, Xiaotian

    2013-08-01

    Abstract Fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans has been reported to be the result of one or more specific point mutations in ERG11 gene. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the entire ERG11 coding sequence of 72 isolates of C. albicans to search for possible mutations. Twenty-seven silent mutations and 14 missense mutations were identified. While the mutations K342R and V437I were found as single-amino-acid changes in Erg11p, other mutations were detected simultaneously in individual isolates. Several different clinical isolates had the same pattern of multiple amino acid alternations: (1) A114S with Y257H was identified in 11 resistant and 3 susceptible dose-dependent isolates without any other silent mutation and may be associated with resistance; (2) Y132H combined with G450E was identified in two fluconazole-resistant isolates and is known to contribute to resistance; and (3) the coexistence of D116E, K128T, Y132H, and G465S was first described in five reduced-susceptibility isolates, but the correlation of this pattern with resistance is still uncertain. These data indicate that multiple amino acid substitutions in Erg11p were found frequently in clinical isolates and may be associated with fluconazole resistance.

  3. Direct interaction of eag domains and cyclic nucleotide–binding homology domains regulate deactivation gating in hERG channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C.; Liu, Qiangni

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-á-go-go (eag)-related gene (hERG) potassium channels play a critical role in cardiac repolarization and are characterized by unusually slow closing (deactivation) kinetics. The N-terminal “eag” domain and a C-terminal C-linker/cyclic nucleotide–binding homology domain (CNBHD) are required for regulation of slow deactivation. The region between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domains (S4–S5 linker) is also implicated in this process, but the mechanism for regulation of slow deactivation is unclear. Here, using an eag domain–deleted channel (hERG Δeag) fused to Citrine fluorescent protein, we found that most channels bearing individual alanine mutations in the S4–S5 linker were directly regulated by recombinant eag domains fused to a cyan fluorescent protein (N-eag-CFP) and had robust Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Additionally, a channel bearing a group of eight alanine residues in the S4–S5 linker was not measurably regulated by N-eag-CFP domains, but robust FRET was measured. These findings demonstrate that the eag domain associated with all of the S4–S5 linker mutant channels. In contrast, channels that also lacked the CNBHD (hERG Δeag ΔCNBHD-Citrine) were not measurably regulated by N-eag-CFP nor was FRET detected, suggesting that the C-linker/CNBHD was required for eag domains to directly associate with the channel. In a FRET hybridization assay, N-eag-CFP had robust FRET with a C-linker/CNBHD-Citrine, suggesting a direct and specific interaction between the eag domain and the C-linker/CNBHD. Lastly, coexpression of a hERG subunit lacking the CNBHD and the distal C-terminal region (hERG ΔpCT-Citrine) with hERG Δeag-CFP subunits had FRET and partial restoration of slow deactivation. Collectively, these findings reveal that the C-linker/CNBHD, but not the S4–S5 linker, was necessary for the eag domain to associate with the channel, that the eag domain and the C-linker/CNBHD were sufficient for a direct interaction, and

  4. Evidence for the hERG Liability of Antihistamines, Antipsychotics, and Anti-Infective Agents: A Systematic Literature Review From the ARITMO Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Lorna; Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Thomas, Simon H L; Salvo, Francesco; Ahlberg Helgee, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Shakir, Saad

    2017-05-01

    A systematic review was performed to categorize the hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) liability of antihistamines, antipsychotics, and anti-infectives and to compare it with current clinical risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Eligible studies were hERG assays reporting half-minimal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). A "hERG safety margin" was calculated from the IC50 divided by the peak human plasma concentration (free Cmax ). A margin below 30 defined hERG liability. Each drug was assigned an "uncertainty score" based on volume, consistency, precision, and internal and external validity of evidence. The hERG liability was compared to existing knowledge on TdP risk (www.credibledrugs.org). Of 1828 studies, 82 were eligible, allowing calculation of safety margins for 61 drugs. Thirty-one drugs (51%) had evidence of hERG liability including 6 with no previous mention of TdP risk (eg, desloratadine, lopinavir). Conversely, 16 drugs (26%) had no evidence of hERG liability including 6 with known, or at least conditional or possible, TdP risk (eg, chlorpromazine, sulpiride). The main sources of uncertainty were the validity of the experimental conditions used (antihistamines and antipsychotics) and nonuse of reference compounds (anti-infectives). In summary, hERG liability was categorized for 3 widely used drug classes, incorporating a qualitative assessment of the strength of available evidence. Some concordance with TdP risk was observed, although several drugs had hERG liability without evidence of clinical risk and vice versa. This may be due to gaps in clinical evidence, limitations of hERG/Cmax data, or other patient/drug-specific factors that contribute to real-life TdP risk. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Effect of Celastrol on Growth Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Cells through the Regulation of hERG Channel In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the antiprostate cancer effects of Celastrol on prostate cancer cells’ proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution, as well as the correlation to the regulation of hERG. Methods. DU145 cells were treated with various concentrations of Celastrol (0.25–16.0 μmol/L for 0–72 hours. MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibition effect of Celastrol on the growth of DU145 cells. Cell apoptosis was detected through both Annexin-V FITC/PI double-labeled cytometry and Hoechst 33258. Cell cycle regulation was examined by a propidium iodide method. Western blot and RT-PCR technologies were applied to assess the expression level of hERG in DU145 cells. Results. Celastrol presented striking growth inhibition and apoptosis induction potency on DU145 cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IC50 value of Celastrol for 24 hours was 2.349 ± 0.213 μmol/L. Moreover, Celastrol induced DU145 cell apoptosis in a cell cycle-dependent manner, which means Celastrol could arrest DU145 cells in G0/G1 phase; accordingly, cells in S phase decreased gradually and no obvious changes were found in G2/M phase cells. Through transmission electron microscope, apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were found in Celastrol-treated DU145 cells. Overexpression of hERG channel was found in DU145 cells, while Celastrol could downregulate it at both protein and mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01. Conclusions. Celastrol exhibits its antiprostate cancer effects partially through the downregulation of the expression level of hERG channel in DU145 cells, suggesting that Celastrol may be a potential agent against prostate cancer with a mechanism of blocking the hERG channel.

  6. Molecular Characterization of TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion in the NCI-H660 Prostate Cancer Cell Line: A New Perspective for an Old Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten D. Mertz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have established that a significant fraction of prostate cancers harbor a signature gene fusion between the 5' region of androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 and an ETS family transcription factor, most commonly ERG. Studies on the molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of this important chromosomal rearrangement are currently limited to the VCaP cell line derived from a vertebral bone metastasis of a hormone-refractory prostate tumor. Here we report on the NCI-H660 cell line, derived from a metastasic site of an extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma arising from the prostate. NCI-H660 harbors TMPRSS2-ERG fusion with a homozygous intronic deletion between TMPRSS2 and ERG. We demonstrate this by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, a two-stage dual-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assay testing for TMPRSS2 and ERG break-aparts, and single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays. The deletion is consistent with the common intronic deletion found on chromosome 21q22.2-3 in human prostate cancer samples. We demonstrate the physical juxtaposition of TMPRSS2 and ERG on the DNA level by fiber FISH. The androgen receptor-negative NCI-H660 cell line expresses ERG in an androgen-independent fashion. This in vitro model system has the potential to provide important pathobiologic insights into TMPRSS2-ERG fusion prostate cancer.

  7. Assessing hERG Pore Models As Templates for Drug Docking Using Published Experimental Constraints: The Inactivated State in the Context of Drug Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Many structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs interact with the human heart K+ channel hERG by binding within the K+ permeation pathway of the open channel, leading to drug-induced ‘long QT syndrome’. Drug binding to hERG is often stabilized by inactivation gating. In the absence of a crystal structure, hERG pore homology models have been used to characterize drug interactions. Here we assess potentially inactivated states of the bacterial K+ channel, KcsA, as templates for inactivated state hERG pore models in the context of drug binding using computational docking. Although Flexidock and GOLD docking produced low energy score poses in the models tested, each method selected a MthK K+ channel-based model over models based on the putative inactivated state KcsA structures for each of the 9 drugs tested. The variety of docking poses found indicates that an optimal arrangement for drug binding of aromatic side chains in the hERG pore can be achieved in several different configurations. This plasticity of the drug “binding site” is likely to be a feature of the hERG inactivated state. The results demonstrate that experimental data on specific drug interactions can be used as structural constraints to assess and refine hERG homology models. PMID:24471705

  8. Novel intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer-based probe for the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Yubin; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2015-12-21

    Drug induced long QT syndrome is a high risk event in clinic, which mainly results from their high affinity to the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel. Therefore, evaluation of the drug's inhibitory activity against the hERG potassium channel is a required step in drug discovery and development. In this study, we developed a series of novel conformation-mediated intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer fluorogenic probes for the hERG potassium channel. After careful evaluation, probes N4 and N6 showed good activity and may have a promising application in the cell-based hERG potassium channel inhibitory activity assay, as well as potential hERG-associated cardiotoxicity evaluation. Compared with other assay methods, such as patch clamp assay, radio-ligand competitive binding assay, fluorescence polarization and potential-sensitive fluorescent probes, this method is convenient and can also selectively measure the inhibitory activity in the native state of the hERG potassium channel. Meanwhile, these probes can also be used for hERG potassium channel imaging without complex washing steps.

  9. A New Amino Acid Substitution at G150S in Lanosterol 14-α Demethylase (Erg11 protein) in Multi-azole-resistant Trichosporon asahii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushima, Hisako; Tokimatsu, Issei; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kawano, Rie; Watanabe, Kentaro; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of azole resistance in Trichosporon asahii have not yet been fully clarified. We previously showed that T. asahii has the ERG11 gene, coding lanosterol 14-α-demethylase (Erg11 protein; Erg11p), which is the primary target of azoles. A single amino acid substitution at G453R in Erg11p was found to induce changes in the affinity of this enzyme for azoles, especially fluconazole, in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the DNA sequences of the ERG11 gene using six different strains of clinically isolated T. asahii that were highly resistant to multi-azoles, including fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. All of the T. asahii strains had a point mutation (G448A) that caused a single amino acid substitution at G150S in Erg11p. This amino acid is highly conserved among major fungal pathogens. We identified a new point mutation in the ERG11 gene that is common to clinically isolated azole-resistant T. asahii strains, suggesting that this mutation is associated with the multi-azole resistance of T. asahii.

  10. Regulation of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel by Nedd4 family interacting proteins (Ndfips).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yudi; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Zhang, Shetuan

    2015-11-15

    The cardiac electrical disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS) pre-disposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Dysfunction of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG)-encoded rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) channel (IKr) is a major cause of LQTS. The expression of hERG channels is controlled by anterograde trafficking of newly synthesized channels to and retrograde degradation of existing channels from the plasma membrane. We have previously shown that the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Nedd4-2 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2) targets the PY motif of hERG channels to initiate channel degradation. Although both immature and mature hERG channels contain the PY motif, Nedd4-2 selectively mediates the degradation of mature hERG channels. In the present study, we demonstrate that Nedd4-2 is directed to specific cellular compartments by the Nedd4 family interacting proteins, Nedd4 family-interacting protein 1 (Ndfip1) and Ndfip2. Ndfip1 is primarily localized in the Golgi apparatus where it recruits Nedd4-2 to mediate the degradation of mature hERG proteins during channel trafficking to the plasma membrane. Although Ndfip2 directs Nedd4-2 to the Golgi apparatus, it also recruits Nedd4-2 to the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which may impair MVB function and impede the degradation of mature hERG proteins mediated by Nedd4-2. These findings extend our understanding of hERG channel regulation and provide information which may be useful for the rescue of impaired hERG function in LQTS. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Reduced expression of voltage-gated Kv11.1 (hERG) K(+) channels in aganglionic colon in Hirschsprung's disease.

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    Tomuschat, Christian; O'Donnell, Anne Marie; Coyle, David; Puri, Prem

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is not entirely understood. There is no clear explanation for the occurrence of the spastic or tonically contracted aganglionic segment of bowel. Kv11.1 (hERG) channels play a critical role in the regulation of the resting membrane potential as well as affecting either the force or frequency of contraction of smooth muscles. We designed this study to investigate the expression and distribution of hERG channels in the normal colon and the colon of patients with HSCR. We investigated hERG protein expression in both the ganglionic and aganglionic regions of HSCR patients (n = 10) versus normal control colon (n = 10). Protein distribution was assessed using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Gene and protein expressions were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and densitometry. Confocal microscopy of the normal colon revealed strong hERG channel expression in interstitial cells of Cajal, platelet-derived growth factor-alpha receptor- (PDGFRα(+)) positive cells and enteric neurons. hERG expression was markedly decreased in aganglionic bowel, whereas colonic hERG gene expression levels were significantly decreased in aganglionic compared to ganglionic bowel and controls (p < 0.05). Western blotting revealed decreased colonic hERG protein expression in aganglionic HSCR specimens compared to controls. We demonstrate, for the first time, the expression and distribution of hERG channels in the human colon. The decreased expression of hERG in the aganglionic colon may be responsible for the increased tone in the aganglionic narrow spastic segment of bowel.

  12. High-resolution ERG-expression profiling on GeneChip exon 1.0 ST arrays in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer.

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    Smit, Frank P; Salagierski, Maciej; Jannink, Sander; Schalken, Jack A

    2013-05-01

    To assess whether oestrogen-regulated gene (ERG) expression analysis using GeneChip arrays can predict transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion. The expression level of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene was studied in various histological grades of prostate cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). GeneChip Affymetrix exon 1.0 ST arrays were used for expression profiling of ERG, erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) variant gene 1 (ETV1), ETV4 and ETV5 genes in 67 prostate cancer tissue specimens. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and in some cases DNA sequencing was used to validate the presence and the expression levels of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions. In our series of patients with prostate cancer over expression of the ERG gene predicted the presence of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements in almost all cases. ETS expression by itself outmatched the diagnostic performance of the ERG exons ratioing allowing equal detection of the less frequent ETS gene fusion transcripts. The gene fusions were expressed at significantly lower levels in CPRC but occurred more frequently than in primary prostate cancer. ERG expression analysis using GeneChip arrays appears to be an excellent diagnostic tool for identifying gene rearrangements. In coming years, measuring expression of the ETS gene family by itself might become a clinically relevant surrogate test to identify patients with fusion-positive prostate cancer. The variation of gene fusion expression levels, particularly in CPRC, needs to be taken into account when using quantitative molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer. © 2013 BJU International.

  13. Realization of Symmetry in the ERG Approach to Quantum Field Theory

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    Igarashi, Yuji; Itoh, Katsumi; Sonoda, Hidenori

    We review the use of the exact renormalization group forrealization of symmetry in renormalizable field theories. The review consists of three parts. In part I (sect. 2--4), we start with the perturbative construction of a renormalizable field theory as a solution of the exact renormalization group (ERG) differential equation. We show how to characterize renormalizability by an appropriate asymptotic behavior of the solution for a large momentum cutoff. Renormalized parameters are introduced to control the asymptotic behavior. In part II (sect. 5--9), we introduce two formalisms to incorporate symmetry: one by imposing the Ward-Takahashi identity, and the other by imposing the generalized Ward-Takahashi identity via sources that generate symmetry transformations. We apply the two formalisms to concrete models such as QED, YM theories, and the Wess-Zumino model in four dimensions, and the O(N) non-linear sigma model in two dimensions. We end this part with calculations of the abelian axial and chiral anomalies. In part III (sect. 10 and 11), we overview the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism adapted to the Wilson action of a bare theory with a UV cutoff. We provide a few appendices to give details and extensions that can be omitted for the understanding of the main text. The last appendix is a quick summary for the reader's convenience.

  14. A temperature-dependent in silico model of the human ether-à-go-go-related (hERG) gene channel.

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    Li, Zhihua; Dutta, Sara; Sheng, Jiansong; Tran, Phu N; Wu, Wendy; Colatsky, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Current regulatory guidelines for assessing the risk of QT prolongation include in vitro assays assessing drug effects on the human ether-à-go-go-related (hERG; also known as Kv11.1) channel expressed in cell lines. These assays are typically conducted at room temperature to promote the ease and stability of recording hERG currents. However, the new Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) paradigm proposes to use an in silico model of the human ventricular myocyte to assess risk, requiring as input hERG channel pharmacology data obtained at physiological temperatures. To accommodate current industry safety pharmacology practices for measuring hERG channel activity, an in silico model of hERG channel that allows for the extrapolation of hERG assay data across different temperatures is desired. Because temperature may have an effect on both channel gating and drug binding rate, such models may need to have two components: a base model dealing with temperature-dependent gating changes without drug, and a pharmacodynamic component simulating temperature-dependent drug binding kinetics. As a first step, a base mode that can capture temperature effects on hERG channel gating without drug is needed. To meet this need for a temperature-dependent base model, a Markov model of the hERG channel with state transition rates explicitly dependent on temperature was developed and calibrated using data from a variety of published experiments conducted over a range of temperatures. The model was able to reproduce observed temperature-dependent changes in key channel gating properties and also to predict the results obtained in independent sets of new experiments. This new temperature-sensitive model of hERG gating represents an attempt to improve the predictivity of safety pharmacology testing by enabling the translation of room temperature hERG assay data to more physiological conditions. With further development, this model can be incorporated into the CiPA paradigm and

  15. Setting up a new gold standard: automated temperature-controlled hERG test on Patchliner®

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    Liudmila ePolonchuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Patchliner® temperature-controlled automated patch clamp system was evaluated for testing actions of drugs on K+ currents through hERG channels expressed in CHO cells at 35-37°C. Obtained IC50 values for a set of reference drugs were matched with those obtained using conventional voltage clamp technique. Comparison of the results demonstrated good correlation between the data obtained by means of conventional and automated electrophysiology. Based on these results, Patchliner® offers innovative automated electrophysiology platform for conducting the hERG assay with substantial throughput increase and advantage of physiological temperature. The Patchliner® -based automated patch clamp system with temperature control allows a fast, accurate direct assessment of channel function in a short timeframeand sets a new standard to study ion channels and identify potential proarrhythmic side effects in drug safety testing.

  16. Age-dependent electrical and morphological remodeling of the Drosophila heart caused by hERG/seizure mutations.

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    Ocorr, Karen; Zambon, Alexander; Nudell, Yoav; Pineda, Santiago; Diop, Soda; Tang, Min; Akasaka, Takeshi; Taylor, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the cellular-molecular substrates of heart disease is key to the development of cardiac specific therapies and to the prevention of off-target effects by non-cardiac targeted drugs. One of the primary targets for therapeutic intervention has been the human ether a go-go (hERG) K+ channel that, together with the KCNQ channel, controls the rate and efficiency of repolarization in human myocardial cells. Neither of these channels plays a major role in adult mouse heart function; however, we show here that the hERG homolog seizure (sei), along with KCNQ, both contribute significantly to adult heart function as they do in humans. In Drosophila, mutations in or cardiac knockdown of sei channels cause arrhythmias that become progressively more severe with age. Intracellular recordings of semi-intact heart preparations revealed that these perturbations also cause electrical remodeling that is reminiscent of the early afterdepolarizations seen in human myocardial cells defective in these channels. In contrast to KCNQ, however, mutations in sei also cause extensive structural remodeling of the myofibrillar organization, which suggests that hERG channel function has a novel link to sarcomeric and myofibrillar integrity. We conclude that deficiency of ion channels with similar electrical functions in cardiomyocytes can lead to different types or extents of electrical and/or structural remodeling impacting cardiac output.

  17. Molecular Characterization and Clinical Impact of TMPRSS2-ERG Rearrangement on Prostate Cancer: Comparison between FISH and RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Serra, A.; Rubio, L.; Calatrava, A.; Rubio-Briones, J.; Salgado, R.; Gil-Benso, R.; Espinet, B.; García-Casado, Z.; López-Guerrero, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a very heterogeneous disease, and there are constraints in its current diagnosis. Serum PSA levels, digital rectal examination (DRE), and histopathologic analysis often drive to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Since 2005, the presence of the genetic rearrangement between transmembrane-serine protease gene (TMPRSS2) and the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) member ERG (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog avian) has been demonstrated in almost half of PCa cases. Both FISH and RT-PCR are useful tools for detecting these rearrangements, but very few comparatives between both techniques have been published. In this study, we included FFPE tumors from 294 PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy with more than 5 years of followup. We constructed a total of 20 tissue microarrays in order to perform break-apart and tricolor probe FISH approaches that were compared with RT-PCR, showing a concordance of 80.6% (P cases. No association between TMPRSS2-ERG status and clinicopathological parameters nor biochemical progression and clinical progression free survival was found. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that both FISH and RT-PCR are useful tools in the assessment of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene status in PCa patients and that this genetic feature per se lacks prognostic value. PMID:23781502

  18. In situ sequencing identifies TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts, somatic point mutations and gene expression levels in prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflemariam, Sara; Mignardi, Marco; Ali, Muhammad Akhtar; Bergh, Anders; Nilsson, Mats; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    Translocations contribute to the genesis and progression of epithelial tumours and in particular to prostate cancer development. To better understand the contribution of fusion transcripts and visualize the clonal composition of multifocal tumours, we have developed a technology for multiplex in situ detection and identification of expressed fusion transcripts. When compared to immunohistochemistry, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-negative and fusion-positive prostate tumours were correctly classified. The most prevalent TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variants were visualized, identified, and quantitated in human prostate cancer tissues, and the ratio of the variant fusion transcripts could for the first time be directly determined by in situ sequencing. Further, we demonstrate concurrent in situ detection of gene expression, point mutations, and gene fusions of the prostate cancer relevant targets AMACR, AR, TP53, and TMPRSS2-ERG. This unified approach to in situ analyses of somatic mutations can empower studies of intra-tumoural heterogeneity and future tissue-based diagnostics of mutations and translocations. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Overexpression of ERG and Wild-Type PTEN Are Associated with Favorable Clinical Prognosis and Low Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer.

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    Sung Han Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of two commonly altered genes ERG and PTEN in prostate cancer (PC and evaluate their prognostic significance. Despite conflicting published results, TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and PTEN loss are generally considered unfavorable markers for PC progression.Of the 762 prostatic adenocarcinoma specimens obtained from radical prostatectomy, 613 without neoadjuvant hormone therapy were included in tissue microarrays for quantitatively assessment of ERG and PTEN expression via immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis of the association between such expression and clinicopathological parameters, including clinical prognosis, was performed with a p-value of 6, pathologic T stage (≥T3, positive surgical margin, and extraprostatic capsule extension as significant risk factors for BCR (p<0.05.Our results indicated that ERG overexpression was associated with favorable BCR-free survival after radical prostatectomy for PC, whereas PTEN loss was with unfavorable outcomes.

  20. Three-Color FISH Analysis of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusions in Prostate Cancer Indicates That Genomic Microdeletion of Chromosome 21 Is Associated with Rearrangement

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    Maisa Yoshimoto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent description of novel recurrent gene fusions in ~80% of prostate cancer (PCa cases has generated increased interest in the search for new translocations in other epithelial cancers and emphasizes the importance of understanding the origins and biologic implications of these genomic rearrangements. Analysis of 15 PCa cases by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect six ERG-related gene fusion transcripts with TMPRSS2. No TMPRSS2/ETV1 chimeric fusion was detected in this series. Three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirms that TMPRSS2/ERG fusion may be accompanied by a small hemizygous sequence deletion on chromosome 21 between ERG and TMPRSS2 genes. Analysis of genomic architecture in the region of genomic rearrangement suggests that tracts of microhomology could facilitate TMPRSS2/ERG fusion events.

  1. Up-regulation of miR-21 and miR-23a Contributes to As2 O3 -induced hERG Channel Deficiency.

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    Zhao, Xin; Shi, Yuan-Qi; Yan, Cai-Chuan; Feng, Pan-feng; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Bao-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is used to treat acute pro-myelocytic leukaemia. However, the cardiotoxicity of long QT syndrome restricts its clinical application. Previous studies showed that As2O3 can damage the hERG current via disturbing its trafficking to cellular membrane. Consistent with these findings, in this study, we reported that As2O3 inhibited hERG channel at both protein and mRNA levels and damaged hERG current but did not affect channel kinetics. Further, we demonstrated that As2O3 up-regulated miR-21 and miR-23a expression in hERG-HEK293 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes. In addition, knock-down of miR-21 by its specific antisense molecules AMO-21 was able to rescue Sp1 and hERG inhibition caused by As2O3. Consistently, phosphorylation of NF-κB, the upstream regulatory factor of miR-21, was significantly up-regulated by As2O3 . This finding revealed that regulation of the NF-κB-miR-21-Sp1 signalling pathway is a novel mechanism for As2O3-induced hERG inhibition. Meanwhile, the expression of Hsp90 and hERG was rescued by transfection with AMO-23a. And the hERG channel inhibition induced by As2O3 was rescued after being transfected with AMO-23a, which may be a molecular mechanism for the role of As2O3 in hERG trafficking deficiency. In brief, our study revealed that miR-21 and miR-23a are involved in As2O3-induced hERG deficiency at transcriptional and transportational levels. This discovery may provide a novel mechanism of As2O3-induced hERG channel deficiency, and these miRNAs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the handling of As2O3 cardiotoxicity. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. hERG inhibitors with similar potency but different binding kinetics do not pose the same proarrhythmic risk: implications for drug safety assessment.

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    DI Veroli, Giovanni Y; Davies, Mark R; Zhang, Henggui; Abi-Gerges, Najah; Boyett, Mark R

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of the link that exists between drug-induced hERG inhibition and Torsade de Pointes (TdP), extreme attention has been given to avoid new drugs inhibiting this channel. hERG inhibition is routinely screened for in new drugs and, typically, IC50 values are compared to projected plasma concentrations to define a safety margin. We aimed to show that drugs with similar hERG potency are not uniformly pro-arrhythmic-this depends on the drug binding kinetics and mode of action (trapped or not) rather than the IC50 value only. We used a mathematical model of hERG and its related encoded current IKr to simulate drug binding in different configurations. Expression systems mimicking the screening process were first investigated. hERG model was then incorporated into a canine action potential (AP) and tissue model to study the impact of drug binding configurations on AP and pseudo-ECG (QT interval prolongation). Our data show that: (1) trapped and not trapped configurations and different binding kinetics could be identified during hERG screening; (2) slow binding, not trapped drugs, induced less AP prolongation and minimal QT interval prolongation (4.7%) at a concentration equal to the IC50 whereas maximal pro-arrhythmic risk was observed for trapped drugs at the same concentration (QT interval prolongation, 23.1%). Our study demonstrates the need for screening for hERG binding configurations rather than potency alone. It also demonstrates the potential link between hERG, drug mode of action and TdP, and the need to question the current regulatory guidance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The variant hERG/R148W associated with LQTS is a mutation that reduces current density on co-expression with the WT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechakra, Asma; Vincent, Yohann; Chevalier, Philippe; Millat, Gilles; Ficker, Eckhard; Jastrzebski, Marek; Poulin, Hugo; Pouliot, Valérie; Chahine, Mohamed; Christé, Georges

    2014-02-25

    A variant of the ether-à-go-go related channel (hERG), p.Arg148Trp (R148W) was found at heterozygous state in two infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), one with documented prolonged QTc and Torsade de Pointes (TdP), and in an adult woman with QTc >500 ms, atrioventricular block and TdP. This variant was previously reported in cases of severe ventricular arrhythmia but very rarely in control subjects. Its classification as mutation or polymorphism awaited electrophysiological characterization. The properties of this N-terminal, proximal domain, hERG variant were explored in Xenopus oocytes injected with the same amount of RNA encoding for either hERG/WT or hERG/R148W or their equimolar mixture. The human ventricular cell (TNNP) model was used to test the effects of changes in hERG current. R148W alone produced a current similar to the WT (369 ± 76 nA (mean ± SEM), n=13 versus 342 ± 55 nA in WT, n=13), while the co-expression of 1/2 WT+1/2 R148W lowered the current by 29% versus WT (243 ± 35 nA, n=13, phERG current as evidenced here when co-expressing the hERG/R148W variant with the WT may have predisposed to the observed long QT syndrome and associated TdP. Therefore, the heterozygous carriers of hERG/R148W may be at risk of cardiac sudden death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ERK and RSK are necessary for TRH-induced inhibition of r-ERG potassium currents in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Luis; Llavona, Pablo; López-Hernández, Alejandro; Casado, Pedro; Cutillas, Pedro R; de la Peña, Pilar; Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro

    2015-09-01

    The transduction pathway mediating the inhibitory effect that TRH exerts on r-ERG channels has been thoroughly studied in GH3 rat pituitary cells but some elements have yet to be discovered, including those involved in a phosphorylation event(s). Using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach we studied the changes in phosphorylation caused by treatment with 1μM TRH for 5min in GH3 cells. The activating residues of Erk2 and Erk1 undergo phosphorylation increases of 5.26 and 4.87 fold, respectively, in agreement with previous reports of ERK activation by TRH in GH3 cells. Thus, we studied the possible involvement of ERK pathway in the signal transduction from TRH receptor to r-ERG channels. The MEK inhibitor U0126 at 0.5μM caused no major blockade of the basal r-ERG current, but impaired the TRH inhibitory effect on r-ERG. Indeed, the TRH effect on r-ERG was also reduced when GH3 cells were transfected with siRNAs against either Erk1 or Erk2. Using antibodies, we found that TRH treatment also causes activating phosphorylation of Rsk. The TRH effect on r-ERG current was also impaired when cells were transfected with any of two different siRNAs mixtures against Rsk1. However, treatment of GH3 cells with 20nM EGF for 5min, which causes ERK and RSK activation, had no effect on the r-ERG currents. Therefore, we conclude that in the native GH3 cell system, ERK and RSK are involved in the pathway linking TRH receptor to r-ERG channel inhibition, but additional components must participate to cause such inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. hERG1 Channels and Glut-1 as Independent Prognostic Indicators of Worse Outcome in Stage I and II Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastraioli, Elena; Bencini, Lapo; Bianchini, Elisa; Romoli, Maria Raffaella; Crociani, Olivia; Giommoni, Elisa; Messerini, Luca; Gasperoni, Silvia; Moretti, Renato; Di Costanzo, Francesco; Boni, Luca; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to identify new markers to assess recurrence risk in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We explored the prognostic impact of ether-a-gò-gò-related gene 1 channels and some hypoxia markers, in patients with nonmetastatic (stage I, II, and III) CRC. The expression of hERG1, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), glucose transporter 1, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), and p53 was tested by immunohistochemistry in 135 patients. The median follow-up was 35 months. Clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival were evaluated. hERG1 displayed a statistically significant association with Glut-1, VEGF-A, CA-IX, and EGF-R; p53 with VEGF-A and CA-IX; Glut-1 with the age of the patients; and EGF-R with TNM and mucin content. TNM and CA-IX were prognostic factors at the univariate analysis; TNM, hERG1, and Glut-1, at the multivariate analysis. Risk scores calculated from the final multivariate model allowed to stratify patients into four different risk groups: A) stage I-II, Glut-1 positivity, any hERG1; B) stage I-II, Glut-1 and hERG1 negativity; C) stage I-II, Glut-1 negativity, hERG1 positivity; D) stage III, any Glut-1 and any hERG1. hERG1 positivity with Glut-1 negativity identifies a patient group with poor prognosis within stage I-II CRC. The possibility that these patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy, independently from the TNM stage, is discussed. More robust prognostic and predictive markers, supplementing standard clinical and pathologic staging, are needed for node-negative patients.

  6. The Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinases SGK1 and SGK3 Regulate hERG Channel Expression via Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-2 and GTPase Rab11*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2013-01-01

    The hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) encodes the α subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). Dysfunction of hERG channels due to mutations or certain medications causes long QT syndrome, which can lead to fatal ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death. Although the abundance of hERG in the plasma membrane is a key determinant of hERG functionality, the mechanisms underlying its regulation are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that overexpression of the stress-responsive serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) isoforms SGK1 and SGK3 increased the current and expression level of the membrane-localized mature proteins of hERG channels stably expressed in HEK 293 (hERG-HEK) cells. Furthermore, the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, increased the current and abundance of mature ERG proteins in both hERG-HEK cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes through the enhancement of SGK1 but not SGK3 expression. We have previously shown that mature hERG channels are degraded by ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 via enhanced channel ubiquitination. Here, we showed that SGK1 or SGK3 overexpression increased Nedd4-2 phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit Nedd4-2 activity. Nonetheless, disruption of the Nedd4-2 binding site in hERG channels did not eliminate the SGK-induced increase in hERG expression. Additional disruption of Rab11 proteins led to a complete elimination of SGK-mediated increase in hERG expression. These results show that SGK enhances the expression level of mature hERG channels by inhibiting Nedd4-2 as well as by promoting Rab11-mediated hERG recycling. PMID:23589291

  7. Human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) Channel Blocking Aporphine Alkaloids from Lotus Leaves and Their Quantitative Analysis in Dietary Weight Loss Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Mair, Christina E; Saxena, Priyanka; Baburin, Igor; Scheel, Olaf; Ganzera, Markus; Schuster, Daniela; Hering, Steffen; Rollinger, Judith M

    2015-06-17

    Blockage of the human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) channel can result in life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia. In an in vitro screening of herbal materials for hERG blockers using an automated two-microelectrode voltage clamp assay on Xenopus oocytes, an alkaloid fraction of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus) leaves induced ∼50% of hERG current inhibition at 100 μg/mL. Chromatographic separation resulted in the isolation and identification of (-)-asimilobine, 1, nuciferine, 2, O-nornuciferine, 3, N-nornuciferine, 4, and liensinine, 5. In agreement with in silico predicted ligand-target interactions, 2, 3, and 4 revealed distinct in vitro hERG blockages measured in HEK293 cells with IC50 values of 2.89, 7.91, and 9.75 μM, respectively. Because lotus leaf dietary weight loss supplements are becoming increasingly popular, the identified hERG-blocking alkaloids were quantitated in five commercially available products. Results showed pronounced differences in the content of hERG-blocking alkaloids ranging up to 992 μg (2) in the daily recommended dose.

  8. Nifedipine and nimodipine protect dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons against axotomy-induced cell death in rat vibrosections via modulating inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschil, Nina; Humpel, Christian

    2014-09-18

    Neurodegeneration of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons is a major hallmark in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, respectively. A dysregulation in calcium homeostasis may be part of this process and counteracting calcium influx may have neuroprotective properties in both diseases. Therefore, we investigated the putative neuroprotective or neurotoxic activity of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) inhibitors on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons in a rat organotypic vibrosection model. Sagittal or coronal vibrosections (200 μm thick) of postnatal day 10 rats were cultured on 0.4 μm semipermeable membranes for 2 weeks with 10 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or glial-cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to maintain survival of cholinergic or dopaminergic neurons, respectively. Thereafter, sections were incubated with 0.1, 1 or 10 μM isradipine, nicardipine or verapamil for 2 weeks to explore cytotoxicity. Alternatively, in order to explore neuroprotective activity, vibrosections were incubated without growth factors but with isradipine or verapamil or with nicardipine, nimodipine or nifedipine from the beginning for 4 weeks. Our data show that all LTCC inhibitors exhibited no neurotoxic effect on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Further, LTCC inhibitors did not have any neuroprotective activity on cholinergic neurons. However, nimodipine and nifedipine significantly enhanced the survival of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) but not ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, while nicardipine, isradipine and verapamil had no effect. Nifedipine (and more potently GDNF) reduced inflammatory cytokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, tumor necrosis factor-α), but did not influence oxidative stress or caspase-3 activity and did not interfere with iron-mediated overload. Our data show that nifedipine and nimodipine are very potent to enhance the survival of axotomized SN neurons, possibly influencing inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic interaction between Tmprss2-ERG gene fusion and Nkx3.1-loss does not enhance prostate tumorigenesis in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E Linn

    Full Text Available Gene fusions involving ETS family transcription factors (mainly TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusions have been found in ~50% of human prostate cancer cases. Although expression of TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusion alone is insufficient to initiate prostate tumorigenesis, they appear to sensitize prostate epithelial cells for cooperation with additional oncogenic mutations to drive frank prostate adenocarcinoma. To search for such ETS-cooperating oncogenic events, we focused on a well-studied prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1, as loss of NKX3.1 is another common genetic alteration in human prostate cancer. Previous studies have shown that deletions at 8p21 (harboring NKX3.1 and 21q22 (resulting in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion were both present in a subtype of prostate cancer cases, and that ERG can lead to epigenetic silencing of NKX3.1 in prostate cancer cells, whereas NKX3.1 can in turn negatively regulate TMPRSS2-ERG fusion expression via suppression of the TMPRSS2 promoter activity. We recently generated knockin mouse models for TMPRSS2-ERG and TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusions, utilizing the endogenous Tmprss2 promoter. We crossed these knockin models to an Nkx3.1 knockout mouse model. In Tmprss2-ERG;Nkx3.1+/- (or -/- male mice, although we observed a slight but significant upregulation of Tmprss2-ERG fusion expression upon Nkx3.1 loss, we did not detect any significant cooperation between these two genetic events to enhance prostate tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, retrospective analysis of a previously published human prostate cancer dataset revealed that within ERG-overexpressing prostate cancer cases, NKX3.1 loss or deletion did not predict biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. Collectively, these data suggest that although TMPRSS2-ERG fusion and loss of NKX3.1 are among the most common mutational events found in prostate cancer, and although each of them can sensitize prostate epithelial cells for cooperating with other oncogenic events, these

  10. hERG potassium channel blockage by scorpion toxin BmKKx2 enhances erythroid differentiation of human leukemia cells K562.

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    Jian Ma

    Full Text Available The hERG potassium channel can modulate the proliferation of the chronic myelogenous leukemic K562 cells, and its role in the erythroid differentiation of K562 cells still remains unclear.The hERG potassium channel blockage by a new 36-residue scorpion toxin BmKKx2, a potent hERG channel blocker with IC50 of 6.7 ± 1.7 nM, enhanced the erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. The mean values of GPA (CD235a fluorescence intensity in the group of K562 cells pretreated by the toxin for 24 h and followed by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C treatment for 72 h were about 2-fold stronger than those of K562 cells induced by Ara-C alone. Such unique role of hERG potassium channel was also supported by the evidence that the effect of the toxin BmKKx2 on cell differentiation was nullified in hERG-deficient cell lines. During the K562 cell differentiation, BmKKx2 could also suppress the expression of hERG channels at both mRNA and protein levels. Besides the function of differentiation enhancement, BmKKx2 was also found to promote the differentiation-dependent apoptosis during the differentiation process of K562 cells. In addition, the blockage of hERG potassium channel by toxin BmKKx2 was able to decrease the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration during the K562 cell differentiation, providing an insight into the mechanism of hERG potassium channel regulating this cellular process.Our results revealed scorpion toxin BmKKx2 could enhance the erythroid differentiation of leukemic K562 cells via inhibiting hERG potassium channel currents. These findings would not only accelerate the functional research of hERG channel in different leukemic cells, but also present the prospects of natural scorpion toxins as anti-leukemic drugs.

  11. MiR-17-5p impairs trafficking of H-ERG K+ channel protein by targeting multiple er stress-related chaperones during chronic oxidative stress.

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    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate if microRNAs (miRNAs play a role in regulating h-ERG trafficking in the setting of chronic oxidative stress as a common deleterious factor for many cardiac disorders. METHODS: We treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and HEK293 cells with stable expression of h-ERG with H2O2 for 12 h and 48 h. Expression of miR-17-5p seed miRNAs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels of chaperones and h-ERG trafficking were measured by Western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to study miRNA and target interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to record h-ERG K(+ current. RESULTS: H-ERG trafficking was impaired by H2O2 after 48 h treatment, accompanied by reciprocal changes of expression between miR-17-5p seed miRNAs and several chaperones (Hsp70, Hsc70, CANX, and Golga2, with the former upregulated and the latter downregulated. We established these chaperones as targets for miR-17-5p. Application miR-17-5p inhibitor rescued H2O2-induced impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Upregulation of endogenous by H2O2 or forced miR-17-5p expression either reduced h-ERG current. Sequestration of AP1 by its decoy molecule eliminated the upregulation of miR-17-5p, and ameliorated impairment of h-ERG trafficking. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, deregulation of the miR-17-5p seed family miRNAs can cause severe impairment of h-ERG trafficking through targeting multiple ER stress-related chaperones, and activation of AP1 likely accounts for the deleterious upregulation of these miRNAs, in the setting of prolonged duration of oxidative stress. These findings revealed the role of miRNAs in h-ERG trafficking, which may contribute to the cardiac electrical disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  12. Bag1 Co-chaperone Promotes TRC8 E3 Ligase-dependent Degradation of Misfolded Human Ether a Go-Go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, Christine; Williamson, Brittany; Valinsky, William C; Solomon, Joshua; Shrier, Alvin; Young, Jason C

    2017-02-10

    Cardiac long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, many of which cause misfolding and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum instead of normal trafficking to the cell surface. The Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperones assist the folding of the hERG cytosolic domains. Here, we demonstrate that the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Bag1 promotes hERG degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system at the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate hERG levels and channel activity. Dissociation of hERG complexes containing Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP requires the interaction of Bag1 with Hsp70, but this does not involve the Bag1 ubiquitin-like domain. The interaction with Bag1 then shifts hERG degradation to the membrane-anchored E3 ligase TRC8 and its E2-conjugating enzyme Ube2g2, as determined by siRNA screening. TRC8 interacts through the transmembrane region with hERG and decreases hERG functional expression. TRC8 also mediates degradation of the misfolded hERG-G601S disease mutant, but pharmacological stabilization of the mutant structure prevents degradation. Our results identify TRC8 as a previously unknown Hsp70-independent quality control E3 ligase for hERG. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. PDE9A is Expressed in the Inner Retina and Contributes to the Normal Shape of the Photopic ERG Waveform

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    Anuradha eDhingra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous second messenger cGMP is synthesized by guanylyl cyclase and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE. cGMP mediates numerous signaling pathways in multiple tissues. In the retina, cGMP regulates signaling in nearly every cell class including photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. In order to understand the specific role of cGMP and its regulating enzymes in different cell types, it is first necessary to localize these components and dissect their influence on the circuits. Here we tested the contribution of PDE9A to retinal processing by recording the electroretinograms (ERG of PDE9A-/- (KO mice and by localizing the enzyme. We found that while the scotopic ERG of KO was the same as that of wild type (WT in both amplitude and kinetics, the photopic ERG was greatly affected. The greatest effect was on the recovery of the b-wave; the falling phase and the b-wave duration were significantly longer in the KO mice for all photopic stimuli (UV, green, or saturating white flashes. The rising phase was slower in KO than in WT for UV and green stimuli. For certain stimuli, amplitudes of both the a- and b-waves were smaller than in WT. Using Lac-Z expression in KO retinas as a reporter for PDE9A expression pattern, we found that PDE9A is localized to GABA-positive and GABA-negative amacrine cells, and likely also to certain types of ganglion cells. Our results indicate that PDE9A, by controlling the level of cGMP, modulates inhibitory processes within the cone pathway. We speculate that these circuits involve NO/cGMP signaling pathways.

  14. ICA-105574 interacts with a common binding site to elicit opposite effects on inactivation gating of EAG and ERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vivek; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2013-04-01

    Rapid and voltage-dependent inactivation greatly attenuates outward currents in ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG) K(+) channels. In contrast, inactivation of related ether-a-go-go (EAG) K(+) channels is very slow and minimally reduces outward currents. ICA-105574 (ICA, or 3-nitro-N-[4-phenoxyphenyl]-benzamide) has opposite effects on inactivation of these two channel types. Although ICA greatly attenuates ERG inactivation by shifting its voltage dependence to more positive potentials, it enhances the rate and extent of EAG inactivation without altering its voltage dependence. Here, we investigate whether the inverse functional response to ICA in EAG and ERG channels is related to differences in ICA binding site or to intrinsic mechanisms of inactivation. Molecular modeling coupled with site-directed mutagenesis suggests that ICA binds in a channel-specific orientation to a hydrophobic pocket bounded by the S5/pore helix/S6 of one subunit and S6 of an adjacent subunit. ICA is a mixed agonist of mutant EAG and EAG/ERG chimera channels that inactivate by a combination of slow and fast mechanisms. With the exception of three residues, the specific amino acids that form the putative binding pocket for ICA in ERG are conserved in EAG. Mutations introduced into EAG to replicate the ICA binding site in ERG did not alter the functional response to ICA. Together these findings suggest that ICA binds to the same site in EAG and ERG channels to elicit opposite functional effects. The resultant agonist or antagonist activity is determined solely by channel-specific differences in the mechanisms of inactivation gating.

  15. A high-density tissue microarray from patients with clinically localized prostate cancer reveals ERG and TATI exclusivity in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, G; Edsjö, A; Stenman, U-H; Bjartell, A

    2013-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized by high tumor heterogeneity. In 2005, the fusion between the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and members of the ETS family was discovered in prostate cancer. In particular, fusion of TMPRSS2 with ERG was found in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and considered as an early event in the onset of the disease. The prognostic value of this fusion is still contradictory. Bioinformatics showed that overexpression of SPINK1 gene in a subset of fusion-gene-negative prostate cancers was associated with a poor prognosis. In theory, overexpression of the tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) protein encoded by SPINK1 in fusion-gene-negative tumor cells opens the way to selected treatments for genotypically different cases. However, their expression has never been assessed at the cellular level in the same tissue samples. As ERG expression has been shown to be a surrogate of fusion gene occurrence in prostate cancer, we have used double immunohistochemical staining to assess expression of ERG and TATI on a large tissue microarray comprising 4177 cases of localized prostate cancer. We did not detect any co-expression of ERG and TATI in the same cancer cells, which confirms previous suggestions from in silico studies. ERG was associated with Gleason score (GS), surgical margins and pathological stage, but had no prognostic value in this cohort. TATI was weakly associated with pathological stage but had no significant association with outcome. We here provide a morphological basis for ERG and TATI exclusivity in prostate cancer cells. Future therapies should be based on a combination of different targets in order to eradicate tumor cells with gene fusions and cells expressing other tumor-associated antigens. Further studies are needed to understand why ERG and TATI are not co-expressed in the same prostatic tumor cells.

  16. Discovery and electrophysiological characterization of SKF-32802: A novel hERG agonist found through a large-scale structural similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Brian T; Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Duraiswami, Chaya; Nixon, Christopher J; Townsend, Claire Y; Martens, Stan F

    2017-10-16

    Despite the importance of the hERG channel in drug discovery and the sizable number of antagonist molecules discovered, only a few hERG agonists have been discovered. Here we report a novel hERG agonist; SKF-32802 and a structural analog of the agonist NS3623, SB-335573. These were discovered through a similarity search of published hERG agonists. SKF-32802 incorporates an amide linker rather than NS3623's urea, resulting in a compound with a different mechanism of action. We find that both compounds decrease the time constant of open channel kinetics, increase the amplitude of the envelope of tails assay, mildly increased the amplitude of the IV curve, bind the hERG channel in either open or closed states, increase the plateau of the voltage dependence of activation and modulate the effects of the hERG antagonist, quinidine. Neither compound affects inactivation nor deactivation kinetics, a property unique among hERG agonists. Additionally, SKF-32802 induces a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Our structural models show that both compounds make strong bridging interactions with multiple channel subunits and are stabilized by internal hydrogen bonding similar to NS3623, PD-307243 and RPR26024. While SB-335573 binds in a nearly identical fashion as NS3623, SKF-32802 makes an additional hydrogen bond with neighboring threonine 623. In summary, SB-335573 is a type 4 agonist which increases open channel probability while SKF-32802 is a type 3 agonist which induces a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rehabilitating drug-induced long-QT promoters: in-silico design of hERG-neutral cisapride analogues with retained pharmacological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdagi, Serdar; Randall, Trevor; Duff, Henry J; Chamberlin, Adam; Noskov, Sergei Y

    2014-03-08

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene 1 (hERG1), which codes for a potassium ion channel, is a key element in the cardiac delayed rectified potassium current, IKr, and plays an important role in the normal repolarization of the heart's action potential. Many approved drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to their prolongation of the QT interval. Most of these drugs have high potencies for their principal targets and are often irreplaceable, thus "rehabilitation" studies for decreasing their high hERG1 blocking affinities, while keeping them active at the binding sites of their targets, have been proposed to enable these drugs to re-enter the market. In this proof-of-principle study, we focus on cisapride, a gastroprokinetic agent withdrawn from the market due to its high hERG1 blocking affinity. Here we tested an a priori strategy to predict a compound's cardiotoxicity using de novo drug design with molecular docking and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to generate a strategy for the rehabilitation of cisapride. We focused on two key receptors, a target interaction with the (adenosine) receptor and an off-target interaction with hERG1 channels. An analysis of the fragment interactions of cisapride at human A2A adenosine receptors and hERG1 central cavities helped us to identify the key chemical groups responsible for the drug activity and hERG1 blockade. A set of cisapride derivatives with reduced cardiotoxicity was then proposed using an in-silico two-tier approach. This set was compared against a large dataset of commercially available cisapride analogs and derivatives. An interaction decomposition of cisapride and cisapride derivatives allowed for the identification of key active scaffolds and functional groups that may be responsible for the unwanted blockade of hERG1.

  18. Combined hERG channel inhibition and disruption of trafficking in drug-induced long QT syndrome by fluoxetine: a case-study in cardiac safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, J C; Mitcheson, J S

    2006-11-01

    Drug-induced prolongation of the rate-corrected QT interval (QTCI) on the electrocardiogram occurs as an unwanted effect of diverse clinical and investigational drugs and carries a risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) is the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of channels mediating the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current, which plays a vital role in repolarising the ventricles of the heart. Most QTCI prolonging drugs can inhibit the function of recombinant hERG K+ channels, consequently in vitro hERG assays are used widely as front-line screens in cardiac safety-testing of novel chemical entities. In this issue, Rajamani and colleagues report a case of QTCI prolongation with the antidepressant fluoxetine and correlate this with a dual effect of the drug and of its major metabolite norfluoxetine on hERG channels. Both compounds were found to produce an acute inhibition of the hERG channel by pharmacological blockade, but in addition they also were able to disrupt the normal trafficking of hERG protein to the cell membrane. Mutations to a key component of the drug binding site in the S6 region of the channel greatly attenuated channel block, but did not impair disruption of trafficking; this suggests that channel block and drug effects on trafficking were mediated by different mechanisms. These findings add to growing evidence for disruption of hERG channel trafficking as a mechanism for drug-induced long QT syndrome and raise questions as to possible limitations of acute screening methods in the assessment of QTcI prolonging liability of drugs in development.

  19. hERG blocking potential of acids and zwitterions characterized by three thresholds for acidity, size and reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2014-01-01

    with a concordance of 91% by a decision tree based on the rule. Two external validations were performed with sets of 35 and 48 observations, respectively, both showing concordances of 91%. In addition, a global QSAR model of hERG blocking was constructed based on a large diverse training set of 1374 chemicals...... covering all ionization classes, externally validated showing high predictivity and compared to the decision tree. The decision tree was found to be superior for the acids and zwitterionic ampholytes classes....

  20. The predictive value of ERG protein expression for development of castration-resistant prostate cancer in hormone-naïve advanced prostate cancer treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin A; Thomsen, Frederik B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers predicting response to primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and risk of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is lacking. We aimed to analyse the predictive value of ERG expression for development of CRPC. METHODS: In total, 194 patients with advanced and....../or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) treated with first-line castration-based ADT were included. ERG protein expression was analysed in diagnostic specimens using immunohistochemistry (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Time to CRPC was compared between ERG subgroups using multiple cause-specific Cox regression stratified...... on ERG-status. Risk reclassification and time-dependent area under the ROC curves were used to assess the discriminative ability of ERG-status. Time to PSA-nadir, proportion achieving PSA-nadir ≤0.2 ng/ml, and risk of PCa-specific death were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 6.8 years...

  1. A new transformant selection system for the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea based on the expression of fenhexamid-insensitive ERG27 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Kim Christopher; Burbank, Joachim; Schumacher, Julia

    2017-03-01

    The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea features a wide host range and causes severe economic losses, making it an important object for molecular research. Thus far, genetic modification of the fungus mainly is relied on two selection systems (nourseothricin and hygromycin), while other selection systems hold significant disadvantages. To broaden the spectrum of available molecular tools, a new selection system based on the cheap and widely used fungicide fenhexamid (hydroxyanilide group) was established. Fenhexamid specifically targets the 3-ketoreductase ERG27 from the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. We generated a set of expression vectors suitable for deletion or expression of genes of interest (GOIs) in B. cinerea based on fenhexamid-insensitive ERG27 variants. Expression of BcERG27F412I and Fusarium fujikuroi ERG27 in the sensitive B. cinerea strain B05.10 causes resistance towards fenhexamid (fenR) and allows for the selection of transformants and their genetic purification. A modified split-marker approach facilitates the site-specific integration and expression of GOIs at the bcerg27 locus. No undesired secondary phenotypes regarding virulence, stress responses, the formation of reproductive structures or conidial germination were observed in strains expressing fenhexamid-insensitive ERG27 variants. Thus, the fenR system represents a third reliable selection system for genetic modifications of fenhexamid-sensitive B. cinerea strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG Scores and Serum PHI in Predicting Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tallon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2 scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3, while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy, the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12% when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  3. Electroretinogram (ERG) to photic stimuli should be carefully distinct from photic brainstem reflex in patients with deep coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Masahiro; Hitomi, Takefumi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2017-08-31

    Patient 1: A 35-year-old woman became deep coma because of intracranial hemorrhage after pulmonary surgery. Patient 2: A 39-year-old woman became deep coma because of cerebellar hemorrhage after hepatic surgery. Scalp-recorded digital electroencephalography (EEG) showed electrocerebral inactivity in both cases. In addition, both EEG showed repetitive discharges at bilateral frontopolar electrodes in response to photic stimuli. The amplitude and latency of the discharges was 17 μV and 24 msec in case 1, and 9 μV and 27 msec in case 2 respectively. The activity at left frontopolar electrode disappeared after coverage of the ipsilateral eye. Based on these findings, we could exclude the possibility of brainstem response and judged it as electroretinogram (ERG). Photic stimulation is a useful activation method in EEG recording, and we can also evaluate brainstem function by checking photic blink reflex if it is evoked. However, we should be cautious about the distinction of ERG from photic blink reflex when brain death is clinically suspected.

  4. hERG classification model based on a combination of support vector machine method and GRIND descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiyuan; Jorgensen, Flemming Steen; Oprea, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    invest substantial effort in the assessment of cardiac toxicity of drugs. The development of in silico tools to filter out potential hERG channel inhibitors in earlystages of the drug discovery process is of considerable interest. Here, we describe binary classification models based on a large...... and diverse library of 495 compounds. The models combine pharmacophore-based GRIND descriptors with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier in order to discriminate between hERG blockers and nonblockers. Our models were applied at different thresholds from 1 to 40 mu m and achieved an overall accuracy up...... to 94% with a Matthews coefficient correlation (MCC) of 0.86 (F-measure of 0.90 for blockers and 0.95 for nonblockers). The model at a 40 urn threshold showed the best performance and was validated internally (MCC of 0.40 and F-measure of 0.57 for blockers and 0.81 for nonblockers, using a leave...

  5. Integration of tissue metabolomics, transcriptomics and immunohistochemistry reveals ERG- and gleason score-specific metabolomic alterations in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Sebastian; Meyer, Hellmuth-A; Bethan, Bianca; Dietrich, Dimo; Maldonado, Sandra González; Lein, Michael; Montani, Matteo; Reszka, Regina; Schatz, Philipp; Peter, Erik; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Kamlage, Beate; Kristiansen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Integrated analysis of metabolomics, transcriptomics and immunohistochemistry can contribute to a deeper understanding of biological processes altered in cancer and possibly enable improved diagnostic or prognostic tests. In this study, a set of 254 metabolites was determined by gas-chromatography/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in matched malignant and non-malignant prostatectomy samples of 106 prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Transcription analysis of matched samples was performed on a set of 15 PCa patients using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Expression of several proteins was immunohistochemically determined in 41 matched patient samples and the association with clinico-pathological parameters was analyzed by an integrated data analysis. These results further outline the highly deregulated metabolism of fatty acids, sphingolipids and polyamines in PCa. For the first time, the impact of the ERG translocation on the metabolome was demonstrated, highlighting an altered fatty acid oxidation in TMPRSS2-ERG translocation positive PCa specimens. Furthermore, alterations in cholesterol metabolism were found preferentially in high grade tumors, enabling the cells to create energy storage. With this integrated analysis we could not only confirm several findings from previous metabolomic studies, but also contradict others and finally expand our concepts of deregulated biological pathways in PCa. PMID:26623558

  6. hERG1 positivity and Glut-1 negativity identifies high-risk TNM stage I and II colorectal cancer patients, regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy.

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    Muratori, Leonardo; Petroni, Giulia; Antonuzzo, Lorenzo; Boni, Luca; Iorio, Jessica; Lastraioli, Elena; Bartoli, Gianluca; Messerini, Luca; Di Costanzo, Francesco; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2016-01-01

    The identification of early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) with high risk of progression is one major clinical challenge, mainly due to lack of validated biomarkers. The aims of the present study were to analyze the prognostic impact of three molecular markers belonging to the ion channels and transporters family: the ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1) and the calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channels, as well as the glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1); and to define the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in conjunction with the abovementioned biomarkers, in a cohort of radically resected stage I-III CRC patients. The expressions of hERG1, KCa3.1, and Glut-1 were tested by immunohistochemistry on 162 surgical samples of nonmetastatic, stage I-III CRC patients. The median follow-up was 32 months. The association between biological markers, clinicopathological features, and survival outcomes was investigated by evaluating both disease-free survival and overall survival. Although no prognostic valence emerged for KCa3.1, evidence of a negative impact of hERG1 expression on survival outcomes was provided. On the contrary, Glut-1 expression had a positive impact. According to the results of the multivariate analysis, patients were stratified in four risk groups, based on TNM stage and hERG1/Glut-1 expression. After adjusting for adjuvant therapy, stage I and II, Glut-1-negative, and hERG1-positive patients showed the worst survival experience. This study strongly indicates that the combination of hERG1 positivity and Glut-1 negativity behaves as a prognostic biomarker in radically resected CRC patients. This combination identifies a group of stage I and II CRC patients with a bad prognosis, even worse than that of stage III patients, regardless of adjuvant therapy accomplishment.

  7. Interactions between hERG and KCNQ1 α-subunits are mediated by their COOH termini and modulated by cAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ-Darling, Louise E.; Vernon, Amanda N.; Giovanniello, Jacqueline R.; Lu, Yichun; Moshal, Karni; Roder, Karim; Li, Weiyan

    2013-01-01

    KCNQ1 and hERG encode the voltage-gated potassium channel α-subunits of the cardiac repolarizing currents IKs and IKr, respectively. These currents function in vivo with some redundancy to maintain appropriate action potential durations (APDs), and loss-of-function mutations in these channels manifest clinically as long QT syndrome, characterized by the prolongation of the QT interval, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death. Previous cellular electrophysiology experiments in transgenic rabbit cardiomyocytes and heterologous cell lines demonstrated functional downregulation of complementary repolarizing currents. Biochemical assays indicated direct, protein-protein interactions between KCNQ1 and hERG may underlie the interplay between IKs and IKr. Our objective was to investigate hERG-KCNQ1 interactions in the intact cellular environment primarily through acceptor photobleach FRET (apFRET) experiments. We quantitatively assessed the extent of interactions based on fluorophore location and the potential regulation of interactions by physiologically relevant signals. apFRET experiments established specific hERG-KCNQ1 associations in both heterologous and primary cardiomyocytes. The largest FRET efficiency (Ef; 12.0 ± 5.2%) was seen between ion channels with GFP variants fused to the COOH termini. Acute treatment with forskolin + IBMX or a membrane-permeable cAMP analog significantly and specifically reduced the extent of hERG-KCNQ1 interactions (by 41 and 38%, respectively). Our results demonstrate direct interactions between KCNQ1 and hERG occur in both intact heterologous cells and primary cardiomyocytes and are mediated by their COOH termini. Furthermore, this interplay between channel proteins is regulated by intracellular cAMP. PMID:23241319

  8. Regulation of hERG and hEAG channels by Src and by SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase via an ITIM region in the cyclic nucleotide binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyanne C Schlichter

    Full Text Available Members of the EAG K(+ channel superfamily (EAG/Kv10.x, ERG/Kv11.x, ELK/Kv12.x subfamilies are expressed in many cells and tissues. In particular, two prototypes, EAG1/Kv10.1/KCNH1 and ERG1/Kv11.1/KCNH2 contribute to both normal and pathological functions. Proliferation of numerous cancer cells depends on hEAG1, and in some cases, hERG. hERG is best known for contributing to the cardiac action potential, and for numerous channel mutations that underlie 'long-QT syndrome'. Many cells, particularly cancer cells, express Src-family tyrosine kinases and SHP tyrosine phosphatases; and an imbalance in tyrosine phosphorylation can lead to malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Ion channel contributions to cell functions are governed, to a large degree, by post-translational modulation, especially phosphorylation. However, almost nothing is known about roles of specific tyrosine kinases and phosphatases in regulating K(+ channels in the EAG superfamily. First, we show that tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PP1, and the selective Src inhibitory peptide, Src40-58, reduce the hERG current amplitude, without altering its voltage dependence or kinetics. PP1 similarly reduces the hEAG1 current. Surprisingly, an 'immuno-receptor tyrosine inhibitory motif' (ITIM is present within the cyclic nucleotide binding domain of all EAG-superfamily members, and is conserved in the human, rat and mouse sequences. When tyrosine phosphorylated, this ITIM directly bound to and activated SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase (PTP-1C/PTPN6/HCP; the first report that a portion of an ion channel is a binding site and activator of a tyrosine phosphatase. Both hERG and hEAG1 currents were decreased by applying active recombinant SHP-1, and increased by the inhibitory substrate-trapping SHP-1 mutant. Thus, hERG and hEAG1 currents are regulated by activated SHP-1, in a manner opposite to their regulation by Src. Given the widespread distribution of these channels, Src and SHP

  9. MiR-133b contributes to arsenic-induced apoptosis in U251 glioma cells by targeting the hERG channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Yongli; Jiang, Chuanlu

    2015-04-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channel (hERG, Kv11.1, KCNH2) is overexpressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens and plays an essential role in the malignant proliferation of glioma cells. However, its upstream regulator in glioma cells is not fully elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether the expression of hERG gene is regulated by miR-133b or miR-34a, thereby contributing to the anti-proliferation effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in U251 human glioma cells. Real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) and Western blot results demonstrated that hERG mRNA and protein levels were dramatically upregulated in clinical GBM specimens. Conversely, both miR-133b and miR-34a were markedly downregulated in clinical GBM specimens by qRT-PCR. The hERG gene was a direct target of miR-133b and miR-34a by bioinformatics analyses and luciferase reporter assays. Moreover, ATO, which is an emerging chemotherapy drug for glioma disease, remarkably elevated the level of miR-133b, but not miR-34a in U251 glioma cells. The level of miR-133b upstream transactivator serum response factor (SRF) was also suppressed by ATO. The transfection of anti-miR-133b oligonucleotide (AMO-133b) remarkably prevented the decrease of hERG protein by 5 μM ATO treatment for 24 h in U251 cells, whereas anti-miR-34a oligonucleotide (AMO-34a) did not exhibit recuperated effect. Finally, the transient overexpression by miR-133b mimics and treatment with the hERG channel-specific blocker E4031 markedly facilitated the ATO inhibition of proliferation of and induced apoptosis in U251 cells, whereas AMO-miR-133b attenuated these changes. Our study provided the evidence for the pathological role of miR-133b and miR-34a in the development of GBM and thus expanded our understanding of the hERG gene expression and ATO chemotherapeutic roles of miRNAs. Targeting miR-133b/hERG pathway may be a new strategy for chemotherapy of

  10. Co-production of ethanol and squalene using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG1 (squalene epoxidase) mutant and agro-industrial feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Rolley, Nicola J; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Steven L; Kelly, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Genetically customised Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can produce ethanol and additional bio-based chemicals from sustainable agro-industrial feedstocks (for example, residual plant biomass) are of major interest to the biofuel industry. We investigated the microbial biorefinery concept of ethanol and squalene co-production using S. cerevisiae (strain YUG37-ERG1) wherein ERG1 (squalene epoxidase) transcription is under the control of a doxycycline-repressible tet0 7 -CYC1 promoter. The production of ethanol and squalene by YUG37-ERG1 grown using agriculturally sourced grass juice supplemented with doxycycline was assessed. Use of the tet0 7 -CYC1 promoter permitted regulation of ERG1 expression and squalene accumulation in YUG37-ERG1, allowing us to circumvent the lethal growth phenotype seen when ERG1 is disrupted completely. In experiments using grass juice feedstock supplemented with 0 to 50 μg doxycycline mL(-1), YUG37-ERG1 fermented ethanol (22.5 [±0.5] mg mL(-1)) and accumulated the highest squalene content (7.89 ± 0.25 mg g(-1) dry biomass) and yield (18.0 ± 4.18 mg squalene L(-1)) with supplements of 5.0 and 0.025 μg doxycycline mL(-1), respectively. Grass juice was found to be rich in water-soluble carbohydrates (61.1 [±3.6] mg sugars mL(-1)) and provided excellent feedstock for growth and fermentation studies using YUG37-ERG1. Residual plant biomass components from crop production and rotation systems represent possible substrates for microbial fermentation of biofuels and bio-based compounds. This study is the first to utilise S. cerevisiae for the co-production of ethanol and squalene from grass juice. Our findings underscore the value of the biorefinery approach and demonstrate the potential to integrate microbial bioprocess engineering with existing agriculture.

  11. Improved functional expression of recombinant human ether-a-go-go (hERG K+ channels by cultivation at reduced temperature

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    Hamilton Bruce

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HERG potassium channel blockade is the major cause for drug-induced long QT syndrome, which sometimes cause cardiac disrhythmias and sudden death. There is a strong interest in the pharmaceutical industry to develop high quality medium to high-throughput assays for detecting compounds with potential cardiac liability at the earliest stages of drug development. Cultivation of cells at lower temperature has been used to improve the folding and membrane localization of trafficking defective hERG mutant proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lower temperature maintenance on wild type hERG expression and assay performance. Results Wild type hERG was stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells, with the majority of channel protein being located in the cytoplasm, but relatively little on the cell surface. Expression at both locations was increased several-fold by cultivation at lower growth temperatures. Intracellular hERG protein levels were highest at 27°C and this correlated with maximal 3H-dofetilide binding activity. In contrast, the expression of functionally active cell surface-associated hERG measured by patch clamp electrophysiology was optimal at 30°C. The majority of the cytoplasmic hERG protein was associated with the membranes of cytoplasmic vesicles, which markedly increased in quantity and size at lower temperatures or in the presence of the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin. Incubation with the endocytic trafficking blocker, nocodazole, led to an increase in hERG activity at 37°C, but not at 30°C. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the concept that maintenance of cells at reduced temperature can be used to boost the functional expression of difficult-to-express membrane proteins and improve the quality of assays for medium to high-throughput compound screening. In addition, these results shed some light on the trafficking of hERG protein under these growth conditions.

  12. Cell Surface Expression of Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channels Is Regulated by Caveolin-3 Protein via the Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-2*

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    Guo, Jun; Wang, Tingzhong; Li, Xian; Shallow, Heidi; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Xu, Jianmin; Fridman, Michael D.; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shetuan

    2012-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr) which plays an important role in cardiac repolarization. A reduction or increase in hERG current can cause long or short QT syndrome, respectively, leading to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The channel density in the plasma membrane is a key determinant of the whole cell current amplitude. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of hERG density at the plasma membrane, we used whole cell voltage clamp, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical methods to investigate the effects of an integral membrane protein, caveolin-3 (Cav3) on hERG expression levels. Our data demonstrate that Cav3, hERG, and ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4-2 interact with each other and form a complex. Expression of Cav3 thus enhances the hERG-Nedd4-2 interaction, leading to an increased ubiquitination and degradation of mature, plasma-membrane localized hERG channels. Disrupting Nedd4-2 interaction with hERG by mutations eliminates the effects of Cav3 on hERG channels. Knockdown of endogenous Cav3 or Nedd4-2 in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes using siRNA led to an increase in native IKr. Our data demonstrate that hERG expression in the plasma membrane is regulated by Cav3 via Nedd4-2. These findings extend our understanding of the regulation of hERG channels and cardiac electrophysiology. PMID:22879586

  13. Eletrorretinograma multifocal em pacientes tratadas com tamoxifeno em baixa dosagem Multifocal ERG in patients treated with low-dose tamoxifen

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    Adriana Berezovsky

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tamoxifeno é um antiestrógeno utilizado como agente terapêutico eficaz no câncer de mama. A droga pode causar efeitos tóxicos oculares em dosagens altas. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar possíveis efeitos retino-tóxicos centrais usando o eletrorretinograma multifocal (mfERG em grupo de pacientes tratadas com baixa dosagem de tamoxifeno (20 mg/dia após cirurgia do câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: O eletrorretinograma multifocal (mfERG de 30 graus centrais da retina foi obtido em 3 diferentes grupos: Grupo experimental - 15 mulheres (41-59 anos, média 48,6 ± 4,5 com fundo de olho normal, tratadas com tamoxifeno em baixa dosagem por 1 a 55 meses. Grupo controle - 6 mulheres (30 -76 anos, média 49,9±18,8 com diagnóstico prévio de câncer de mama que não receberam tratamento com tamoxifeno até o teste do eletrorretinograma multifocal. Grupo controle normal - 15 voluntárias normais (30-71 anos, média 47,7 ± 12,9. A amplitude e a latência de eletrorretinograma multifocal para N1-P1 foram analisados estatisticamente (análise de variância de uma via. RESULTADOS: As amplitudes médias N1-P1 (nV/grau² foram comparáveis para respostas de diferentes excentricidades (0 a 25 graus nos três grupos. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa para a latência de N1 e P1 (ms do eletrorretinograma multifocal entre os 3 grupos. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento com baixa dosagem de tamoxifeno não mostrou efeitos retino-tóxicos em pequeno grupo de mulheres após cirurgia do câncer de mama. Investigação seriada proporcionará melhor compreensão desses efeitos.PURPOSE: Tamoxifen, an antiestrogen, has been used as an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer. The drug has been shown to cause ocular toxic effects. The purpose of this study was to determine possible central retinal toxicity by multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs in a cohort of patients treated with low-dose tamoxifen (20 mg/day for breast

  14. Incorporating sprint training with endurance training improves anaerobic capacity and 2,000-m Erg performance in trained oarsmen.

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    Stevens, Alexander W J; Olver, Terry T; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A 2,000-m time-trial performance, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic capacity were assessed in 16 trained oarsmen after sprint interval training (SIT) replaced a portion of an endurance-based training program (EBTSIT) vs. an endurance-based program alone (EBTAlone). The EBTSIT involved 10 SIT sessions over 4 weeks, in addition to 12 continuous exercise sessions, 2 anaerobic threshold exercise sessions, and 4 strength training sessions. The EBTAlone consisted of 20 continuous, 6 anaerobic threshold, 2 interval exercise sessions, and 8 strength training sessions. Time-trial performance (2,000-m erg performance) improved with EBTSIT (baseline = 414.6 ± 18.5, post = 410.6 ± 17.5 seconds; p anaerobic capacity test, peak power output (PPO) increased significantly with EBTSIT (PPO: EBTSIT: baseline = 566 ± 82, post = 623 ± 60 W; p = 0.02) but not with EBTAlone (EBTAlone: baseline = 603 ± 81, post = 591 ± 123 W; p = 0.59). Changes in average power output (APO) also approached significance (p = 0.07) (APO: EBTSIT: baseline = 508 ± 48, post = 530 ± 52 W; EBTAlone: baseline = 532 ± 55, post = 533 ± 68 W). Neither group experienced any change in aerobic capacity ((Equation is included in full-text article.)or ventilatory threshold; p ≥ 0.16). We conclude that replacing a portion of EBT with SIT can improve both 2,000-m erg performance and anaerobic capacity, while maintaining aerobic fitness in trained oarsmen. Incorporating SIT within endurance training programs may be useful during periods of low-volume training, to improve performance without sacrificing aerobic capacity.

  15. EPS Biomarkers Improve Stratification of NCCN Active Surveillance Candidates: Performance of Secretion Capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG Models

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    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D.; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a viable patient option for prostate cancer where a clinical determination of low-risk and presumably organ-confined disease can be made. In an effort to standardize risk stratification schemes, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has provided guidelines for the AS option. Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) biomarkers in detecting occult risk factors in NCCN AS candidates. Materials and Methods EPS specimens were obtained prior to Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RARP). Secretion capacity biomarkers: total RNA and EPS specimen volume were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers: TXNRD1-mRNA, PSA-mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3-mRNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Results Of the 528 patients from whom EPS was collected, 216 were eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. Variable Selection in logistic regression identified two models, one featuring Type III and Type VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring two secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the two high performing models, the secretion capacity model was the most effective in detecting patients within this group that were upstaged or both upstaged and upgraded. It reduced the risk of upstaging in patients with a negative test by nearly 8 fold, and reduced the risk of being both upstaged and upgraded by about 5 fold, while doubling the prevalence upstaging in the positive test group. Conclusions Non-invasive EPS testing may improve patient acceptance of AS by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among patients eligible for AS under NCCN guidelines. PMID:23669563

  16. Expressed prostatic secretion biomarkers improve stratification of NCCN active surveillance candidates: performance of secretion capacity and TMPRSS2:ERG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher; Kawachi, Mark; Smith, David D; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Mejia, Rosa; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance is a viable patient option for prostate cancer provided that a clinical determination of low risk and presumably organ confined disease can be made. To standardize risk stratification schemes the NCCN (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) provides guidelines for the active surveillance option. We determined the effectiveness of expressed prostatic secretion biomarkers for detecting occult risk factors in NCCN active surveillance candidates. Expressed prostatic secretion specimens were obtained before robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Secretion capacity biomarkers, including total RNA and expressed prostatic secretion specimen volume, were measured by standard techniques. RNA expression biomarkers, including TXNRD1 mRNA, prostate specific antigen mRNA, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion mRNA and PCA3 mRNA, were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Of the 528 patients from whom expressed prostatic secretions were collected 216 were eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines. Variable selection on logistic regression identified 2 models, including one featuring types III and VI TMPRSS2:ERG variants, and one featuring 2 secretion capacity biomarkers. Of the 2 high performing models the secretion capacity model was most effective for detecting cases in this group that were up-staged or up-staged plus upgraded. It decreased the risk of up-staging in patients with a negative test almost eightfold and decreased the risk of up-staging plus upgrading about fivefold while doubling the prevalence of up-staging in the positive test group. Noninvasive expressed prostatic secretion testing may improve patient acceptance of active surveillance by dramatically reducing the presence of occult risk factors among those eligible for active surveillance under NCCN guidelines. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Brightness on Functional Assessment by mfERG: A Study on Scaffolds Used in Retinal Cell Transplantation in Pigs

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    A. T. Christiansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of membrane brightness on multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs, we implanted poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA membranes in the subretinal space of 11 porcine eyes. We compared membranes with their native shiny white color with membranes that were stained with a blue dye (Brilliant Blue. Histological and electrophysiological evaluation of the overlying retina was carried out 6 weeks after implantation. Histologically, both white and blue membranes degraded in a spongiform manner leaving a disrupted outer retina with no preserved photoreceptor segments. Multifocal ERG revealed the white membranes to have a significantly higher P1-amplitude ratio than the blue (P=0.027, and a correlation between brightness ratio and P1-amplitude ratio was found (r=0.762. Based on our findings, we conclude that bright subretinal objects can produce normal mfERG amplitude ratios even when the adjacent photoreceptors are missing. Functional assessment with mfERG in scaffold implant studies should therefore be evaluated with care.

  18. Express with caution: Epitope tags and cDNA variants effects on hERG channel trafficking, half-life and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbur Badhey, Marika L; Bertalovitz, Alexander C; McDonald, Thomas V

    2017-09-01

    Genetic mutations in KCNH2, which encodes hERG, the alpha subunit of the potassium channel responsible for the IKr current, cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), an inherited cardiac arrhythmia disorder. Electrophysiology techniques are used to correlate genotype with molecular phenotype to determine which mutations identified in patients diagnosed with LQTS are disease causing, and which are benign. These investigations are usually done using heterologous expression in cell lines, and often, epitope fusion tags are used to enable isolation and identification of the protein of interest. Here, we demonstrate through electrophysiology techniques and immunohistochemistry, that both N-terminal and C-terminal myc fusion tags may perturb hERG protein channel expression and kinetics of the IKr current. We also characterize the impact of 2 previously reported inadvertent cDNA variants on hERG channel expression and half-life. Our results underscore the importance of careful characterization of the impact of epitope fusion tags and of confirming complete sequence accuracy prior to genotype-phenotype studies for ion channel proteins such as hERG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ubiquitination-dependent quality control of hERG K+ channel with acquired and inherited conformational defect at the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaja, Pirjo M.; Foo, Brian; Okiyoneda, Tsukasa; Valinsky, William C.; Barriere, Herve; Atanasiu, Roxana; Ficker, Eckhard; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Shrier, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Membrane trafficking in concert with the peripheral quality control machinery plays a critical role in preserving plasma membrane (PM) protein homeostasis. Unfortunately, the peripheral quality control may also dispose of partially or transiently unfolded polypeptides and thereby contribute to the loss-of-expression phenotype of conformational diseases. Defective functional PM expression of the human ether-a-go-go–related gene (hERG) K+ channel leads to the prolongation of the ventricular action potential that causes long QT syndrome 2 (LQT2), with increased propensity for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac arrest. LQT2 syndrome is attributed to channel biosynthetic processing defects due to mutation, drug-induced misfolding, or direct channel blockade. Here we provide evidence that a peripheral quality control mechanism can contribute to development of the LQT2 syndrome. We show that PM hERG structural and metabolic stability is compromised by the reduction of extracellular or intracellular K+ concentration. Cardiac glycoside–induced intracellular K+ depletion conformationally impairs the complex-glycosylated channel, which provokes chaperone- and C-terminal Hsp70-interacting protein–dependent polyubiquitination, accelerated internalization, and endosomal sorting complex required for transport–dependent lysosomal degradation. A similar mechanism contributes to the down-regulation of PM hERG harboring LQT2 missense mutations, with incomplete secretion defect. These results suggest that PM quality control plays a determining role in the loss-of-expression phenotype of hERG in certain hereditary and acquired LTQ2 syndromes. PMID:24152733

  20. Fluconazole-induced long QT syndrome via impaired human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) protein trafficking in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinli; Wang, Guan; Quan, Xiaoqing; Ruan, Lei; Liu, Yang; Ruan, Yanfei; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Cuntai; Bai, Rong

    2017-07-01

    hERG protein trafficking deficiency has long been known in drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS). However, validated evidence from in vivo data kept scanty. Our goal was to investigate the proarrhythmic action of fluconazole and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Twenty female Japanese long-eared white rabbits were randomly distributed into a control group and a fluconazole group for a chronic 2-week treatment. The control group was treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa), and the fluconazole group was treated with fluconazole. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded during the experimental period. Isolated arterially perfused left ventricular wedge preparations from the rabbits were made 2 weeks after treatment, and the arrhythmia events, the transmural ECG, and action potential from both the endocardium and epicardium were recorded. The changes in hERG protein expression were measured by western blot. The fluconazole group showed a longer QT interval 1 week after treatment (P hERG protein was lower in the fluconazole group than that in the control group. Fluconazole can prolong the QT interval and possess proarrhythmic activity due to its inhibition of hERG protein trafficking in our experimental model. These findings may impact the clinical potential of fluconazole in humans.

  1. Functional and Morphological Evaluation of Traumatized Eyes With Berlin's Edema Affecting the Macula Using mfERG, Microperimetry, and SD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Joseph Daniel; Tosi, Joaquin; Glybina, Inna; Tewari, Asheesh; Abrams, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the structural and functional changes that occur in traumatic Berlin's edema involving the macula through assessment with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), microperimetry, fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Retrospective case series of five eyes from four patients with macular traumatic Berlin's edema. Patients underwent baseline mfERG (three eyes), MP1 microperimetry (three eyes), fundus photography (five eyes), and SD-OCT (five eyes). All eyes with Berlin's edema showed abnormal findings on baseline SD-OCT, including disruption and fragmentation of the inner segment/ outer segment layer. In two patients with unilateral blunt ocular trauma who underwent mfERG, there was complete loss of the foveal peak in affected eyes. All three eyes that underwent microperimetry showed depressed retinal sensitivity in the area of Berlin's edema. SD-OCT, microperimetry, and mfERG can be used to help diagnose, stratify traumatic severity, and follow structural and functional progression over time in patients with Berlin's edema. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:114-121.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXPRESSION OF ERG/ PBOV1 PROTEINS AND LYMPH NODE METASTASIS AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ACINAR ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE PROSTATE

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    N. V. Bezgodova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When examining prostate cancer, a great attention is currently paid to the study of specific molecular characteristics of the tumor. It has been found that TMPRSS2-ERG is the most common fusion gene in prostate cancer. The fusion between TMPRSS2 and ERG/ ETV1 transcription factor genes participating in the processes of growth, differentiation and transformation of cells has been described in prostate cancer. During carcinogenesis, TMPRSS2 allele loses its promoter, and one of the ERG alleles gains that promoter leading to its overexpression in these tumor cells. Prostate and breast cancer overexpressed 1 (PBOV1 promotes proliferation of tumor cells by inhibiting the cell cycle and increasing the level of cyclin D1. It has been shown that the PBOV1 gene expression is regulated by androgens through FOXA-1 and FOXA-2 transcription factors and participates in the organogenesis in the embryo, as well as it controls the division of stem cells in adults, and plays a role in the development of certain types of malignant tumors. The purpose of the study was to analyze the expression of ERG and PBOV1 genes in acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma and evaluate their relationship with morphological characteristics and lymph node metastases. Material and methods. Surgical specimens from 85 patients with stage T1–3N0–3M0 prostate cancer were morphologically studied using standard techniques. All patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Histological type of the tumor was evaluated according to the 2016 WHO classification of tumors, and the tumor grade was assessed using the Gleason scoring system. Immunohistochemical examination was performed according to the standard technique. The expression of ERG (Clone, EP 111 and PBOV1 (Polyclonal was assessed using histological scoring system. Proliferative activity was analyzed using Ki67 nuclear staining (Clone, SP6. Data analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. Results. The high expression level of ERG and PBOV1

  3. Association of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion with clinical characteristics and outcomes: results from a population-based study of prostate cancer

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    Gleave Martin E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer. These associations suggest the hypothesis that the gene fusion may be used as a prognostic indicator for prostate cancer. Methods In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH assays were used to assess TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in a group of 214 prostate cancer cases from two population-based studies. The FISH assays were designed to detect both fusion type (deletion vs. translocation and the number of fusion copies (single vs. multiple. Genotyping of four ERG and one TMPRSS2 SNPs using germline DNA was also performed in a sample of the cases (n = 127. Results Of the 214 tumors scored for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, 64.5% were negative and 35.5% were positive for the fusion. Cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion did not exhibit reduced prostate cancer survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.22–3.93, nor was there a significant difference in cause-specific survival when stratifying by translocation or deletion (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23–3.12 or by the number of retained fusion copies (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.45–3.34. However, evidence for reduced prostate cancer-specific survival was apparent in those cases whose tumor had multiple copies of the fusion. The variant T allele of the TMPRSS2 SNP, rs12329760, was positively associated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion by translocation (p = 0.05 and with multiple copies of the gene fusion (p = 0.03. Conclusion If replicated, the results presented here may provide insight into the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion arises and also contribute to diagnostic evaluations for determining the subset of men who will go on to develop metastatic prostate cancer.

  4. ergm.graphlets: A Package for ERG Modeling Based on Graphlet Statistics

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    Ömer Nebil Yavero?lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exponential-family random graph models are probabilistic network models that are parametrized by sufficient statistics based on structural (i.e., graph-theoretic properties. The ergm package for the R statistical computing environment is a collection of tools for the analysis of network data within an exponential-family random graph model framework. Many different network properties can be employed as sufficient statistics for exponential- family random graph models by using the model terms defined in the ergm package; this functionality can be expanded by the creation of packages that code for additional network statistics. Here, our focus is on the addition of statistics based on graphlets. Graphlets are classes of small, connected, induced subgraphs that can be used to describe the topological structure of a network. We introduce an R package called ergm.graphlets that enables the use of graphlet properties of a network within the ergm package of R. The ergm.graphlets package provides a complete list of model terms that allows to incorporate statistics of any 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-node graphlets into exponential-family random graph models. The new model terms of the ergm.graphlets package enable both exponential-family random graph modeling of global structural properties and investigation of relationships between node attributes (i.e., covariates and local topologies around nodes.

  5. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  6. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) current inhibition selectively prolongs action potential of midmyocardial cells to augment transmural dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, C; Yasuda, S; Yamashita, H; Okada, J; Hisada, T; Sugiura, S

    2015-08-01

    The majority of drug induced arrhythmias are related to the prolongation of action potential duration following inhibition of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)) mediated by the hERG channel. However, for arrhythmias to develop and be sustained, not only the prolongation of action potential duration but also its transmural dispersion are required. Herein, we evaluated the effect of hERG inhibition on transmural dispersion of action potential duration using the action potential clamp technique that combined an in silico myocyte model with the actual I(Kr) measurement. Whole cell I(Kr) current was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the hERG channel. The measured current was coupled with models of ventricular endocardial, M-, and epicardial cells to calculate the action potentials. Action potentials were evaluated under control condition and in the presence of 1, 10, or 100 μM disopyramide, an hERG inhibitor. Disopyramide dose-dependently increased the action potential durations of the three cell types. However, action potential duration of M-cells increased disproportionately at higher doses, and was significantly different from that of epicardial and endocardial cells (dispersion of repolarization). By contrast, the effects of disopyramide on peak I(Kr) and instantaneous current-voltage relation were similar in all cell types. Simulation study suggested that the reduced repolarization reserve of M-cell with smaller amount of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current levels off at longer action potential duration to make such differences. The action potential clamp technique is useful for studying the mechanism of arrhythmogenesis by hERG inhibition through the transmural dispersion of repolarization.

  7. The human ether-a'-go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channel blockade by the investigative selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor CONA-437: limited dependence on S6 aromatic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, A J; Milnes, J T; Sun, S Z; Fermini, B; Kim, S C; Jenkinson, S; Leishman, D J; Witchel, H J; Hancox, J C; Leaney, J L

    2014-08-01

    Diverse non-cardiac drugs adversely influence cardiac electrophysiology by inhibiting repolarising K(+) currents mediated by channels encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). In this study, pharmacological blockade of hERG K(+) channel current (I(hERG)) by a novel investigative serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), CONA-437, was investigated. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of I(hERG) were made from human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells expressing wild-type (WT) or mutant forms of the hERG channel. With a step-ramp voltage-command, peak I(hERG) was inhibited with an IC(50) of 1.34 μM at 35 ±1°C; the IC(50) with the same protocol was not significantly different at room temperature. Voltage-command waveform selection had only a modest effect on the potency of I(hERG) block: the IC50 with a ventricular action potential command was 0.72 μM. I(hERG) blockade developed rapidly with time following membrane depolarisation and showed a weak dependence on voltage, accompanied by a shift of ≈ -5 mV in voltage-dependence of activation. There was no significant effect of CONA-437 on voltage-dependence of I(hERG) inactivation, though at some voltages an apparent acceleration of the time-course of inactivation was observed. Significantly, mutation of the S6 aromatic amino acid residues Y652 and F656 had only a modest effect on I(hERG) blockade by CONA-437 (a 3-4 fold shift in affinity). CONA-437 at up to 30 μM had no significant effect on either Nav1.5 sodium channels or L-type calcium channels. In conclusion, the novel SSRI CONA-437 is particularly notable as a gating-dependent hERG channel inhibitor for which neither S6 aromatic amino-acid constituent of the canonical drug binding site on the hERG channel appears obligatory for I(hERG) inhibition to occur.

  8. Increased vulnerability of human ventricle to re-entrant excitation in hERG-linked variant 1 short QT syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Adeniran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by abbreviated QT intervals and an increased susceptibility to arrhythmia and sudden death. This simulation study identifies arrhythmogenic mechanisms in the rapid-delayed rectifier K(+ current (I(Kr-linked SQT1 variant of the SQTS. Markov chain (MC models were found to be superior to Hodgkin-Huxley (HH models in reproducing experimental data regarding effects of the N588K mutation on KCNH2-encoded hERG. These ionic channel models were then incorporated into human ventricular action potential (AP models and into 1D and 2D idealised and realistic transmural ventricular tissue simulations and into a 3D anatomical model. In single cell models, the N588K mutation abbreviated ventricular cell AP duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90 and decreased the maximal transmural voltage heterogeneity (δV during APs. This resulted in decreased transmural heterogeneity of APD(90 and of the effective refractory period (ERP: effects that are anticipated to be anti-arrhythmic rather than pro-arrhythmic. However, with consideration of transmural heterogeneity of I(Kr density in the intact tissue model based on the ten Tusscher-Noble-Noble-Panfilov ventricular model, not only did the N588K mutation lead to QT-shortening and increases in T-wave amplitude, but δV was found to be augmented in some local regions of ventricle tissue, resulting in increased tissue vulnerability for uni-directional conduction block and predisposing to formation of re-entrant excitation waves. In 2D and 3D tissue models, the N588K mutation facilitated and maintained re-entrant excitation waves due to the reduced substrate size necessary for sustaining re-entry. Thus, in SQT1 the N588K-hERG mutation facilitates initiation and maintenance of ventricular re-entry, increasing the lifespan of re-entrant spiral waves and the stability of scroll waves in 3D tissue.

  9. A human ether-á-go-go-related (hERG) ion channel atomistic model generated by long supercomputer molecular dynamics simulations and its use in predicting drug cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Barakat, Khaled H; Bhat, Rakesh; Noskov, Sergei Y; Tyrrell, D Lorne; Tuszynski, Jack A; Houghton, Michael

    2014-11-04

    Acquired cardiac long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a frequent drug-induced toxic event that is often caused through blocking of the human ether-á-go-go-related (hERG) K(+) ion channel. This has led to the removal of several major drugs post-approval and is a frequent cause of termination of clinical trials. We report here a computational atomistic model derived using long molecular dynamics that allows sensitive prediction of hERG blockage. It identified drug-mediated hERG blocking activity of a test panel of 18 compounds with high sensitivity and specificity and was experimentally validated using hERG binding assays and patch clamp electrophysiological assays. The model discriminates between potent, weak, and non-hERG blockers and is superior to previous computational methods. This computational model serves as a powerful new tool to predict hERG blocking thus rendering drug development safer and more efficient. As an example, we show that a drug that was halted recently in clinical development because of severe cardiotoxicity is a potent inhibitor of hERG in two different biological assays which could have been predicted using our new computational model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. hERG1 positivity and Glut-1 negativity identifies high-risk TNM stage I and II colorectal cancer patients, regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratori L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Muratori,1,* Giulia Petroni,1,* Lorenzo Antonuzzo,2,3 Luca Boni,4 Jessica Iorio,1,3 Elena Lastraioli,1 Gianluca Bartoli,1 Luca Messerini,1 Francesco Di Costanzo,2 Annarosa Arcangeli1 1Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 2Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, 3Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, 4Clinical Trials Coordinating Center, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The identification of early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC with high risk of progression is one major clinical challenge, mainly due to lack of validated biomarkers. The aims of the present study were to analyze the prognostic impact of three molecular markers belonging to the ion channels and transporters family: the ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1 and the calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channels, as well as the glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1; and to define the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in conjunction with the abovementioned biomarkers, in a cohort of radically resected stage I–III CRC patients. Patients and methods: The expressions of hERG1, KCa3.1, and Glut-1 were tested by immunohistochemistry on 162 surgical samples of nonmetastatic, stage I–III CRC patients. The median follow-up was 32 months. The association between biological markers, clinicopathological features, and survival outcomes was investigated by evaluating both disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: Although no prognostic valence emerged for KCa3.1, evidence of a negative impact of hERG1 expression on survival outcomes was provided. On the contrary, Glut-1 expression had a positive impact. According to the results of the multivariate analysis, patients were stratified in four risk groups, based on TNM stage and hERG1/Glut-1 expression. After adjusting for adjuvant therapy

  11. Regulation of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channel by Rab4 Protein through Neural Precursor Cell-expressed Developmentally Down-regulated Protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhi; Zhang, Shetuan

    2013-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ channel in the heart, which plays a critical role in cardiac action potential repolarization. Dysfunction of IKr causes long QT syndrome, a cardiac electrical disorder that predisposes affected individuals to fatal arrhythmias and sudden death. The homeostasis of hERG channels in the plasma membrane depends on a balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Our recent data indicate that hERG channels undergo enhanced endocytic degradation under low potassium (hypokalemia) conditions. The GTPase Rab4 is known to mediate rapid recycling of various internalized proteins to the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Rab4 on the expression level of hERG channels. Our data revealed that overexpression of Rab4 decreases the expression level of hERG in the plasma membrane. Rab4 does not affect the expression level of the Kv1.5 or EAG K+ channels. Mechanistically, our data demonstrate that overexpression of Rab4 increases the expression level of endogenous Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin ligase that targets hERG but not Kv1.5 or EAG channels for ubiquitination and degradation. Nedd4-2 undergoes self- ubiquitination and degradation. Rab4 interferes with Nedd4-2 degradation, resulting in an increased expression level of Nedd4-2, which targets hERG. In summary, the present study demonstrates a novel pathway for hERG regulation; Rab4 decreases the hERG density at the plasma membrane by increasing the endogenous Nedd4-2 expression. PMID:23792956

  12. A direct interaction between the sigma-1 receptor and the hERG voltage-gated K+ channel revealed by atomic force microscopy and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; D'Sa, Lauren; Talker, Ronel; Dupuis, Elodie; Maurin, Fabrice; Martin, Patrick; Borgese, Franck; Soriani, Olivier; Edwardson, J Michael

    2014-11-14

    The sigma-1 receptor is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues, which can translocate to the plasma membrane and modulate the function of various ion channels. The human ether-à-go-go-related gene encodes hERG, a cardiac voltage-gated K(+) channel that is abnormally expressed in many human cancers and is known to interact functionally with the sigma-1 receptor. Our aim was to investigate the nature of the interaction between the sigma-1 receptor and hERG. We show that the two proteins can be co-isolated from a detergent extract of stably transfected HEK-293 cells, consistent with a direct interaction between them. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the isolated protein confirmed the direct binding of the sigma-1 receptor to hERG monomers, dimers, and tetramers. hERG dimers and tetramers became both singly and doubly decorated by sigma-1 receptors; however, hERG monomers were only singly decorated. The distribution of angles between pairs of sigma-1 receptors bound to hERG tetramers had two peaks, at ∼90 and ∼180° in a ratio of ∼2:1, indicating that the sigma-1 receptor interacts with hERG with 4-fold symmetry. Homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF®) allowed the detection of the interaction between the sigma-1 receptor and hERG within the plane of the plasma membrane. This interaction was resistant to sigma ligands, but was decreased in response to cholesterol depletion of the membrane. We suggest that the sigma-1 receptor may bind to hERG in the endoplasmic reticulum, aiding its assembly and trafficking to the plasma membrane. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Aspirin and NSAID use in association with molecular subtypes of prostate cancer defined by TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J L; Chéry, L; Holt, S; Lin, D W; Luedeke, M; Rinckleb, A E; Maier, C; Stanford, J L

    2016-03-01

    The TMPRSS2:ERG (T2E) gene fusion is the most common rearrangement in prostate cancer (PCa). It is unknown if these molecular subtypes have a different etiology. We evaluated aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in association with T2E fusion status. Subjects were from a population-based case-control study of PCa. T2E fusion status for prostatectomy cases (n=346) was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Medication use was determined from questionnaires. Logistic regression, controlling for age, race, PCa family history and PSA screening, was used to evaluate the association of T2E fusion status according to medication use. T2E fusion was present in 171 (49%) cases, with younger cases more likely to be fusion positive (Paspirin use was associated with a 37% risk reduction of T2E-positive tumors (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.93). Aspirin use was not associated with T2E negative PCa (adjusted OR 0.99, 0.69-1.42). There were no associations between PCa fusion status and use of nonaspirin NSAIDs or acetaminophen. Aspirin was associated with a significant reduction in the relative risk of T2E fusion positive, but not T2E negative, PCa. As inflammation and androgen pathways are implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, additional studies of anti-inflammatory medications in relation to these PCa subtypes are warranted.

  14. Combination of ERG9 Repression and Enzyme Fusion Technology for Improved Production of Amorphadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Raju Baadhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 3157 was selected for combinatorial biosynthesis of plant sesquiterpene amorpha-4,11-diene. Our main objective was to overproduce amorpha 4-11-diene, which is a key precursor molecule of artemisinin (antimalarial drug produced naturally in plant Artemisia annua through mevalonate pathway. Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP is a common intermediate metabolite of a variety of compounds in the mevalonate pathway of yeast and leads to the production of ergosterols, dolichol and ubiquinone, and so forth. In our studies, FPP converted to amorphadiene (AD by expressing heterologous amorphadiene synthase (ADS in yeast. First, ERG9 (squalane synthase promoter of yeast was replaced with repressible methionine (MET3 promoter by using bipartite gene fusion method. Further to overcome the loss of the intermediate FPP through competitive pathways in yeast, fusion protein technology was adopted and farnesyldiphosphate synthase (FPPS of yeast has been coupled with amorphadiene synthase (ADS of plant origin (Artemisia annua L. where amorphadiene production was improved by 2-fold (11.2 mg/L and 4-fold (25.02 mg/L in yeast strains YCF-002 and YCF-005 compared with control strain YCF-AD (5.5 mg/L, respectively.

  15. Engineering Erg10 thiolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a synthetic toolkit for the production of branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Salas, Pamela; Bernal, Vicente; López-Gallego, Fernando; Martínez-Crespo, Javier; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro Alejandro; Barrera, Víctor; Morales-Jiménez, Rocío; García-Sánchez, Ana; Mañas-Fernández, Aurora; Seoane, José Miguel; Sagrera Polo, Marta; Miranda, Juande D; Calvo, Javier; Huertas, Sonia; Torres, José Luis; Alcalde-Bascones, Ana; González-Barrera, Sergio; Gago, Federico; Morreale, Antonio; González-Barroso, María Del Mar

    2018-01-23

    Thiolases catalyze the condensation of acyl-CoA thioesters through the Claisen condensation reaction. The best described enzymes usually yield linear condensation products. Using a combined computational/experimental approach, and guided by structural information, we have studied the potential of thiolases to synthesize branched compounds. We have identified a bulky residue located at the active site that blocks proper accommodation of substrates longer than acetyl-CoA. Amino acid replacements at such position exert effects on the activity and product selectivity of the enzymes that are highly dependent on protein scaffold. Among the set of five thiolases studied, Erg10 thiolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no acetyl-CoA/butyryl-CoA branched condensation activity, but variants in position F293 resulted the most active and selective biocatalysts for this reaction. This is the first time that a thiolase has been engineered to synthesize branched compounds. These novel enzymes enrich the toolbox of combinatorial (bio)chemistry, paving the way for manufacturing a variety of α-substituted synthons. As a proof of concept, we have engineered Clostridium's 1-butanol pathway to obtain 2-ethyl-1-butanol, an alcohol which is interesting as branched model compound.

  16. EmERGE project: Evaluating mHealth technology in HIV to improve Empowerment and healthcare utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausa, P.; Gomez, A.J.; Apers, L.; Henwood, F.; Mandalia, S.; Wallitt, E.; Leon, A.; Begovac, J.; Borges, M.; Brown, A.; Block, K.; Glaysher, B.; Whetham, J.

    2016-07-01

    The EmERGE project (http://www.emergeproject.eu/) will develop a mHealth platform to enable self-management of HIV in patients with stable disease. The platform will build upon and integrate the existing mHealth solutions operated by pioneering healthcare providers in the UK and Spain and apply a rigorous co-design approach to ensure patient and clinician input to the solution. The platform will provide users with web based (clinicians) and mobile device applications (patients) which interface securely with relevant medical data and facilitate remote access to key healthcare providers. EATG, the leading European HIV patient organisation, will provide a direct and deep interaction with representative patients and clinicians from 5 EU countries. The platform and interfaces will be validated in a large study of 3900 patients using a tailored Health Technology Assessment process: the Model for Assessment of Telemedicine applications, specifically developed for the assessment of mHealth solutions including translatability as a key factor. (Author)

  17. Combination of ERG9 Repression and Enzyme Fusion Technology for Improved Production of Amorphadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadhe, Rama Raju; Mekala, Naveen Kumar; Parcha, Sreenivasa Rao; Prameela Devi, Yalavarthy

    2013-01-01

    The yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) MTCC 3157 was selected for combinatorial biosynthesis of plant sesquiterpene amorpha-4,11-diene. Our main objective was to overproduce amorpha 4-11-diene, which is a key precursor molecule of artemisinin (antimalarial drug) produced naturally in plant Artemisia annua through mevalonate pathway. Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) is a common intermediate metabolite of a variety of compounds in the mevalonate pathway of yeast and leads to the production of ergosterols, dolichol and ubiquinone, and so forth. In our studies, FPP converted to amorphadiene (AD) by expressing heterologous amorphadiene synthase (ADS) in yeast. First, ERG9 (squalane synthase) promoter of yeast was replaced with repressible methionine (MET3) promoter by using bipartite gene fusion method. Further to overcome the loss of the intermediate FPP through competitive pathways in yeast, fusion protein technology was adopted and farnesyldiphosphate synthase (FPPS) of yeast has been coupled with amorphadiene synthase (ADS) of plant origin (Artemisia annua L.) where amorphadiene production was improved by 2-fold (11.2 mg/L) and 4-fold (25.02 mg/L) in yeast strains YCF-002 and YCF-005 compared with control strain YCF-AD (5.5 mg/L), respectively. PMID:24282652

  18. Effects of Chelidonium majus extracts and major alkaloids on hERG potassium channels and on dog cardiac action potential - a safety approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvos, Péter; Virág, László; Tálosi, László; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Csupor, Dezső; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Szél, Tamás; Varró, András; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Chelidonium majus or greater celandine is spread throughout the world, and it is a very common and frequent component of modern phytotherapy. Although C. majus contains alkaloids with remarkable physiological effect, moreover, safety pharmacology properties of this plant are not widely clarified, medications prepared from this plant are often used internally. In our study the inhibitory effects of C. majus herb extracts and alkaloids on hERG potassium current as well as on cardiac action potential were investigated. Our data show that hydroalcoholic extracts of greater celandine and its alkaloids, especially berberine, chelidonine and sanguinarine have a significant hERG potassium channel blocking effect. These extracts and alkaloids also prolong the cardiac action potential in dog ventricular muscle. Therefore these compounds may consequently delay cardiac repolarization, which may result in the prolongation of the QT interval and increase the risk of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribuição dos sistemas energéticos na água e em diferentes ergômetros de remo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Campos Mello

    2008-01-01

    O remo é uma modalidade que depende muito das condições ambientais para ser praticada, tais como vento, chuva e frio, as quais podem atrapalhar e, dependendo da variação, até impedir a sua prática. Por esses motivos, a realização de atividades em ambiente fechado torna-se importante nesse esporte. A alternativa mais utilizada para treinamento e avaliação é o ergômetro de remo Concept2. Contudo, a dinâmica do ergômetro de remo é diferente da dinâmica na água. Na tentativa de contornar parte do...

  20. Revisión sistemática cualitativa del uso de cuestionarios para el diagnóstico de ERGE en pediatría

    OpenAIRE

    RR Hernández-Pliego; J Asbun-Bojalil; L Anguiano-Robledo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el uso de cuestionarios para identificar síntomas de enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) y su aplicación en población pediátrica es limitado, sobre todo en niños menores y lactantes, en los que resulta imposible conocer los síntomas debido a la incapacidad de manifestarlos de manera objetiva.   OBJETIVO: realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura en población pediátrica con sospecha de ERGE, para evaluar el uso de cuestionarios como herramienta diagnóst...

  1. Structural refinement of the hERG1 pore and voltage-sensing domains with ROSETTA-membrane and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, Julia; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Lees-Miller, James; Durdagi, Serdar; Guo, Jiqing; Duff, Henry J; Noskov, Sergei Yu

    2010-11-01

    The hERG1 gene (Kv11.1) encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel. Mutations in this gene lead to one form of the Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) in humans. Promiscuous binding of drugs to hERG1 is known to alter the structure/function of the channel leading to an acquired form of the LQTS. Expectably, creation and validation of reliable 3D model of the channel have been a key target in molecular cardiology and pharmacology for the last decade. Although many models were built, they all were limited to pore domain. In this work, a full model of the hERG1 channel is developed which includes all transmembrane segments. We tested a template-driven de-novo design with ROSETTA-membrane modeling using side-chain placements optimized by subsequent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Although backbone templates for the homology modeled parts of the pore and voltage sensors were based on the available structures of KvAP, Kv1.2 and Kv1.2-Kv2.1 chimera channels, the missing parts are modeled de-novo. The impact of several alignments on the structure of the S4 helix in the voltage-sensing domain was also tested. Herein, final models are evaluated for consistency to the reported structural elements discovered mainly on the basis of mutagenesis and electrophysiology. These structural elements include salt bridges and close contacts in the voltage-sensor domain; and the topology of the extracellular S5-pore linker compared with that established by toxin foot-printing and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Implications of the refined hERG1 model to binding of blockers and channels activators (potent new ligands for channel activations) are discussed. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Blogs und Journalismus – Konkurrenz oder Ergänzung? – Das Verhältnis von Blogs und Journalismus in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Leidinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der Frage, ob „Blogs und Journalismus - Konkurrenz oder Ergänzung“ sind, beschäftigt sich Saskia Leidinger in dem gleichnamigen Essay über „das Verhältnis von Blogs und Journalismus in Deutschland“. In vergleichender Perspektive richtet die Autorin ihr Hauptaugenmerk auf die Arbeitsweise sowie die Eigen- und Fremdwahrnehmung von Bloggern und Journalisten, um Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede herauszustellen und ihre je spezifische Funktion innerhalb der der heutigen Informationsgesellschaft einzugrenzen.

  3. Evaluation of tissue PCA3 expression in prostate cancer by RNA in situ hybridization--a correlative study with urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Joshua I; Tomlins, Scott A; Carskadon, Shannon L; Young, Allison M; Siddiqui, Javed; Wei, John T; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2014-04-01

    PCA3 is a prostate-specific non-coding RNA, with utility as a urine-based early detection biomarker. Here, we report the evaluation of tissue PCA3 expression by RNA in situ hybridization in a cohort of 41 mapped prostatectomy specimens. We compared tissue PCA3 expression with tissue level ERG expression and matched pre-prostatectomy urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels. Across 136 slides containing 138 foci of prostate cancer, PCA3 was expressed in 55% of cancer foci and 71% of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia foci. Overall, the specificity of tissue PCA3 was >90% for prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia combined. Tissue PCA3 cancer expression was not significantly associated with urine PCA3 expression. PCA3 and ERG positivity in cancer foci was positively associated (P<0.01). We report the first comprehensive assessment of PCA3 expression in prostatectomy specimens, and find limited correlation between tissue PCA3 and matched urine in prostate cancer.

  4. In silico analysis of conformational changes induced by mutation of aromatic binding residues: consequences for drug binding in the hERG K+ channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Knape

    Full Text Available Pharmacological inhibition of cardiac hERG K(+ channels is associated with increased risk of lethal arrhythmias. Many drugs reduce hERG current by directly binding to the channel, thereby blocking ion conduction. Mutation of two aromatic residues (F656 and Y652 substantially decreases the potency of numerous structurally diverse compounds. Nevertheless, some drugs are only weakly affected by mutation Y652A. In this study we utilize molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies to analyze the different effects of mutation Y652A on a selected number of hERG blockers. MD simulations reveal conformational changes in the binding site induced by mutation Y652A. Loss of π-π-stacking between the two aromatic residues induces a conformational change of the F656 side chain from a cavity facing to cavity lining orientation. Docking studies and MD simulations qualitatively reproduce the diverse experimentally observed modulatory effects of mutation Y652A and provide a new structural interpretation for the sensitivity differences.

  5. Analysis of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway cloning, molecular characterization and phylogeny of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (ERG11 gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geruza de Oliveira Ceita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Philips-Mora, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cocoa, causes countless damage to cocoa production in Brazil. Molecular studies have attempted to identify genes that play important roles in fungal survival and virulence. In this study, sequences deposited in the M. perniciosa Genome Sequencing Project database were analyzed to identify potential biological targets. For the first time, the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in M. perniciosa was studied and the lanosterol 14α-demethylase gene (ERG11 that encodes the main enzyme of this pathway and is a target for fungicides was cloned, characterized molecularly and its phylogeny analyzed. ERG11 genomic DNA and cDNA were characterized and sequence analysis of the ERG11 protein identified highly conserved domains typical of this enzyme, such as SRS1, SRS4, EXXR and the heme-binding region (HBR. Comparison of the protein sequences and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M. perniciosa enzyme was most closely related to that of Coprinopsis cinerea.

  6. Development of Electric Field and Plasma Wave Investigations for Future Space Weather Missions: ERG, SCOPE, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Misawa, H.; Kojima, H.; Yagitani, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    The electric field and plasma wave investigation is important for the clarification of global plasma dynamics and energetic processes in the planetary Magnetospheric studies. We have several missions which will contribute those objectives. the small-sized radiation belt mission, ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace), the cross-scale formation flight mission, SCOPE, the BepiColombo mission to Mercury, and the small-sized and full-scale Jovian mission in future. Those will prevail the universal plasma mechanism and processes in the space laboratory. The main purposes of electric field and plasma wave observation for those missions are: (1) Examination of the theories of high-energy particle acceleration by plasma waves, (2) identification of the origin of electric fields in the magnetosphere associated with cross-scale coupling processes, (3) diagnosis of plasma density, temperature and composition, and (4) investigation of wave-particle interaction and mode conversion processes. Simultaneous observation of plasma waves and energetic particles with high resolution will enable us to investigate the wave-particle interaction based on quasi-linear theory and non-linear models. In this paper, we will summarize the current plan and efforts for those future activities. In order to achieve those objectives, the instrument including sensitive sensors (the long wire / stem antennae, the search-coil / loop antennae) and integrated receiver systems are now in development, including the direct identification of nonlinear wave-particle interactions associated will be tried by Wave-particle Correlator. And, as applications of those development, we will mention to the space interferometer and the radar sounder technologies.

  7. Hypaconitine-induced QT prolongation mediated through inhibition of KCNH2 (hERG) potassium channels in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuilin; Jia, Ying; Liu, Aiming; Dai, Renke; Huang, Lizhen

    2015-05-26

    Hypaconitine is one of the main aconitum alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines prepared with herbs from the genus Acotinum. These herbs are widely used for the treatment of cardiac insufficiency and arrhythmias. However, Acotinum alkaloids are known for their toxicity as well as their pharmacological activity, especially cardiotoxicity including QT prolongation, and the mechanism of this toxicity is not clear. In this study, hypaconitine was administered orally to conscious Beagle dogs, and electrocardiograms were recorded by telemetry. Pharmacokinetic studies (6h) were conducted to evaluate the relationship between QT prolongation and exposure level. HEK293 cells stably transfected with KCNH2 (hERG) cDNA were used to examine the effects of hypaconitine on the KCNH2 channel by using the manual patch clamp technique. In the conscious dogs, all doses of hypaconitine induced QTcV (QT interval corrected according to the Van de Water formula) prolongation by more than 23% (67ms) of control in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum QTcV prolongation was observed at 2h after dosing. Maximum prolongation percentages were plotted against plasma concentrations of hypaconitine and showed a strong correlation (R(2)=0.789). In the in vitro study in HEK293 cells, hypaconitine inhibited the KCNH2 currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 8.1nM. These data suggest that hypaconitine inhibits KCNH2 potassium channels and this effect might be the molecular mechanism underlying QT prolongation in conscious dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of the Sinai-Negev erg, Egypt and Israel: mineralogical and geochemical evidence for the importance of the Nile and sea level history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Roskin, Joel; Tsoar, Haim; Skipp, Gary; Budahn, James R.; Sneh, Amihai; Porat, Naomi; Stanley, Jean-Daniel; Katra, Itzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2013-01-01

    The Sinai–Negev erg occupies an area of 13,000 km2 in the deserts of Egypt and Israel. Aeolian sand of this erg has been proposed to be derived from the Nile Delta, but empirical data supporting this view are lacking. An alternative source sediment is sand from the large Wadi El Arish drainage system in central and northern Sinai. Mineralogy of the Negev and Sinai dunes shows that they are high in quartz, with much smaller amounts of K-feldspar and plagioclase. Both Nile Delta sands and Sinai wadi sands, upstream of the dunes, also have high amounts of quartz relative to K-feldspar and plagioclase. However, Sinai wadi sands have abundant calcite, whereas Nile Delta sands have little or no calcite. Overall, the mineralogical data suggest that the dunes are derived dominantly from the Nile Delta, with Sinai wadi sands being a minor contributor. Geochemical data that proxy for both the light mineral fraction (SiO2/10–Al2O3 + Na2O + K2O–CaO) and heavy mineral fraction (Fe2O3–MgO–TiO2) also indicate a dominant Nile Delta source for the dunes. Thus, we report here the first empirical evidence that the Sinai–Negev dunes are derived dominantly from the Nile Delta. Linkage of the Sinai–Negev erg to the Nile Delta as a source is consistent with the distribution of OSL ages of Negev dunes in recent studies. Stratigraphic studies show that during the Last Glacial period, when dune incursions in the Sinai–Negev erg began, what is now the Nile Delta area was characterized by a broad, sandy, minimally vegetated plain, with seasonally dry anastomosing channels. Such conditions were ideal for providing a ready source of sand for aeolian transport under what were probably much stronger glacial-age winds. With the post-glacial rise in sea level, the Nile River began to aggrade. Post-glacial sedimentation has been dominated by fine-grained silts and clays. Thus, sea level, along with favorable climatic conditions, emerges as a major influence on the timing of dune

  9. The KCNH2-IVS9-28A/G mutation causes aberrant isoform expression and hERG trafficking defect in cardiomyocytes derived from patients affected by Long QT Syndrome type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Manuela; Mehta, Ashish; Ramachandra, Chrishan J; Zappatore, Rita; Pisano, Federica; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Barbaccia, Vincenzo; Crotti, Lia; Schwartz, Peter J; Shim, Winston; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2017-08-01

    Long QT Syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the KCNH2 gene that encodes for the α-subunit (hERG) of the ion channel conducting the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). We have previously identified a disease causing mutation (IVS9-28A/G) in the branch point of the splicing of KCNH2 intron 9. However, the mechanism through which this mutation causes the disease is unknown. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from fibroblasts of two IVS9-28A/G mutation carriers. IVS9-28A/G iPSC-CMs showed prolonged repolarization time, mimicking what observed at the ECG level in the same patients. The expression of the full-length ERG1a isoform resulted reduced, whereas the C-terminally truncated ERG1aUSO isoform was upregulated in mutant iPSC-CMs, with consequent alteration of the physiological ERG1aUSO/ERG1a ratio. Importantly, we observed an impairment of hERG trafficking to the cell membrane. The severity of the alterations in hERG expression and trafficking correlated with the clinical severity of the disease in the two patients under study. Finally, we were able to revert the trafficking defect and reduce the repolarization duration in LQT2 iPSC-CMs using the proteasome inhibitor ALLN. Our results highlight the key role of the KCNH2 intron 9 branch point in the regulation of KCNH2 isoform expression and hERG channel function, and allow to categorize the IVS9-28A/G mutation as LQT2 class 2 mutation. These findings may result in a more personalized clinical management of IVS9-28A/G mutation carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integral equations for ERG

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hidenori

    2005-01-01

    An application of the exact renormalization group equations to the scalar field theory in three dimensional euclidean space is discussed. We show how to modify the original formulation by J. Polchinski in order to find the Wilson-Fisher fixed point using perturbation theory.

  11. A hERG mutation E1039X produced a synergistic lesion on IKstogether with KCNQ1-R174C mutation in a LQTS family with three compound mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Mizusawa, Yuka; Ohno, Seiko; Ding, Wei-Guang; Higaki, Takashi; Wang, Qi; Kohjitani, Hirohiko; Makiyama, Takeru; Itoh, Hideki; Toyoda, Futoshi; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Horie, Minoru

    2018-02-15

    Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) caused by compound mutations is usually associated with more severe clinical phenotypes. We identified a LQTS family harboring three compound mutations in different genes (KCNQ1-R174C, hERG-E1039X and SCN5A-E428K). KCNQ1-R174C, hERG-E1039X and SCN5A-E428K mutations and/or relevant wild-type (WT) cDNAs were respectively expressed in mammalian cells. I Ks -like, I Kr -like, I Na -like currents and the functional interaction between KCNQ1-R174C and hERG-E1039X channels were studied using patch-clamp and immunocytochemistry techniques. (1) Expression of KCNQ1-R174C alone showed no I Ks . Co-expression of KCNQ1-WT + KCNQ1-R174C caused a loss-of-function in I Ks and blunted the activation of I Ks in response to isoproterenol. (2) Expression of hERG-E1039X alone and co-expression of hERG-WT + hERG-E1039X negatively shifted inactivation curves and decelerated the recovery time from inactivation. (3) Expression of SCN5A-E428K increased peak I Na , but had no effect on late I Na . (4) I Ks and I Kr interact, and hERG-E1039X caused a loss-of-function in I Ks . (5) Immunocytochemical studies indicated that KCNQ1-R174C is trafficking defective and hERG-E1039X is defective in biosynthesis/degradation, but the abnormities were rescued by co-expression with WT. Thus, KCNQ1-R174C and hERG-E1039X disrupted I Ks and I Kr functions, respectively. The synergistic lesion, caused by KCNQ1-R174C and hERG-E1039X in I Ks , is very likely why patients showed more severe phenotypes in the compound mutation case.

  12. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of phenoxyphenyl-methanamine compounds with 5HT2A, SERT, and hERG activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Scot; Gallaschun, Randall; Schmidt, Anne; Lebel, Lorrie; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Fliri, Anton

    2008-12-01

    QSAR models have been used to evaluate activities for compounds in the phenoxyphenyl-methanamine (PPMA) class of compounds. These models utilize Hammett-type donating-withdrawing substituent values as well as simple parameters to describe substituent size and elucidate the SAR of the 'A' and 'B' rings. Using this methodology, intuitive QSAR relationships were found for the three biological activities with R(2) values of 0.73, 0.45, and 0.58 for 5HT(2A), SerT, and hERG activities.

  13. First complete genome sequence of a species in the genus Microterricola, an extremophilic cold active enzyme producing bacterial strain ERGS5:02 isolated from Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Dharam; Kumar, Rakshak

    2016-03-20

    Here, we report the first ever complete genome sequence of any species in the genus Microterricola. The bacterium Microterricola viridarii ERGS5:02 isolated from the glacial stream of Sikkim Himalaya survived at low temperature and exhibited enhanced growth upon UV treatment, in addition, it also produced cold active enzymes. The complete genome assembly of 3.7 Mb suggested for the presence of genetic elements favoring the survival of bacterium under extreme conditions of UV and low temperature besides producing amylase, lipase and protease of industrial relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D-SDAR modeling of hERG potassium channel affinity: A case study in model design and toxicophore identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova-Slavova, Iva B; Slavov, Svetoslav H; Buzatu, Dan A; Beger, Richard D; Wilkes, Jon G

    2017-03-01

    A dataset of 237 human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel inhibitors (180 of which were used for model building and validation, whereas 57 constituted the "true" external prediction set) collected from 22 literature sources was modeled by 3D-SDAR. To produce reliable and reproducible classification models for hERG blocking, the initial set of 180 chemicals was split into two subsets: a balanced modeling set consisting of 118 compounds and an unbalanced validation set comprised of 62 compounds. A PLS bagging-like algorithm written in Matlab was used to process the data and assign each compound to one of the two (hERG+ or hERG-) activity classes. The best predictive model evaluated on the basis of a fully randomized hold-out test set (comprising 20% of the modeling set) used 4 latent variables and a grid of 6ppm×6ppm×1Å in the C-C region, 6ppm×30ppm×1Å in the C-N region, and 30ppm×30ppm×1Å in the N-N region. An overall accuracy of 0.84 was obtained for both the hold-out test set and the validation set. Further, an external prediction set consisting of 57 drugs and drug derivatives was used to estimate the true predictive power of the reported 3D-SDAR model - a slight reduction of the overall accuracy down to 0.77 was observed. 3D-SDAR map of the most frequently occurring bins and their projection on the standard coordinate space of the chemical structures allowed identification of a three-center toxicophore composed of two aromatic rings and an amino group. A U test along the distance axis of the most frequently occurring 3D-SDAR bins was used to set the distance limits of the toxicophore. This toxicophore was found to be similar to an earlier reported phospholipidosis (PLD) toxicophore. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Oxycodone is associated with dose-dependent QTc prolongation in patients and low-affinity inhibiting of hERG activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanoe, Søren; Jensen, Gorm Boje; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: During recent years some opioids have been associated with prolonged QT and torsade de pointes (TdP). In vitro testing has shown that most opioids can block the cardiac potassium channels. This indicates that QT prolongation and TdP could be a more general problem associated...... with the use of these drugs. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: This study is the first to show that oxycodone dose is associated with QT prolongation and in vitro blockade of hERG channels expressed in HEK293. Neither morphine nor tramadol doses are associated with the QT interval length. AIMS: During recent years some......ERG channels. RESULTS: There were no differences in gender distribution or age between the treatment groups. The known association between methadone dose and QTc was confirmed (R(2) = 0.09; P = 0.02). Higher oxycodone dose was also associated with longer QTc (R(2) = 0.21; P = 0.02). A 100 mg higher oxycodone...

  16. NMR solution structure of the N-terminal domain of hERG and its interaction with the S4-S5 linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingxin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Huang, Qiwei; Raida, Manfred [Experimental Therapeutics Center, The Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 31 Biopolis Way Nanos, 03-01, Singapore 138669 (Singapore); Kang, CongBao, E-mail: cbkang@etc.a-star.edu.sg [Experimental Therapeutics Center, The Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 31 Biopolis Way Nanos, 03-01, Singapore 138669 (Singapore)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} The N-terminal domain (NTD, eag domain) containing 135 residues of hERG was expressed and purified from E. coli cells. {yields} Solution structure of NTD was determined with NMR spectroscopy. {yields} The alpha-helical region (residues 13-23) was demonstrated to possess the characteristics of an amphipathic helix. {yields} NMR titration confirmed the interaction between NTD and the peptide from the S4-S5 linker. -- Abstract: The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel mediates the rapid delayed rectifier current (IKr) in the cardiac action potential. Mutations in the 135 amino acid residue N-terminal domain (NTD) cause channel dysfunction or mis-translocation. To study the structure of NTD, it was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells using affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein behaved as a monomer under purification conditions. Far- and near-UV, circular dichroism (CD) and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that the purified protein was well-folded. The solution structure of NTD was obtained and the N-terminal residues 13-23 forming an amphipathic helix which may be important for the protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions. NMR titration experiment also demonstrated that residues from 88 to 94 in NTD are important for the molecular interaction with the peptide derived from the S4-S5 linker.

  17. Evaluation of urinary prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG score changes when starting androgen-deprivation therapy with triptorelin 6-month formulation in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Schalken, Jack A; Cabri, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    . PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Triptocare study was a prospective, open-label, multicentre, single-arm, Phase III study of triptorelin 22.5 mg in men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, who were naïve to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). The primary objective was to model the urinary PCA3....... CONCLUSION: These data from the Triptocare study suggest that urinary PCA3 or TMPRSS2-ERG score are not reliable markers of cancer stage in advanced prostate cancer. Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores do not appear to be useful in assessing response to ADT in advanced prostate cancer, with most patients...

  18. Revisión sistemática cualitativa del uso de cuestionarios para el diagnóstico de ERGE en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RR Hernández-Pliego

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el uso de cuestionarios para identificar síntomas de enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE y su aplicación en población pediátrica es limitado, sobre todo en niños menores y lactantes, en los que resulta imposible conocer los síntomas debido a la incapacidad de manifestarlos de manera objetiva.   OBJETIVO: realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura en población pediátrica con sospecha de ERGE, para evaluar el uso de cuestionarios como herramienta diagnóstica para esta enfermedad.   MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en diversas bases de datos. La selección de los estudios fue realizada por dos investigadores expertos en el tema. La estrategia de búsqueda estuvo compuesta de las palabras clave: Gastroesophageal Reflux disease, Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire (IGERQ, infant, child, children, questionnaire. La calidad de los estudios fue evaluada con la escala Newcastle-Ottawa.   RESULTADOS: con la estrategia de búsqueda realizada fueron seleccionados tres estudios, los cuales utilizaron diferentes cuestionarios en poblaciones distintas: en 2006, Kleinman evaluó la confiabilidad del cuestionario IGER-Q en 185 pacientes menores de 18 meses obteniéndose 0.86 0.87; en 2005, Deal evaluó 64 pacientes de 1-11 meses y 63 pacientes de 1-4 años reportando una sensibilidad de 90 y 85% para cada grupo de edad, respectivamente y especificidad de 83 y 81.5%, respectivamente; y Stordal, en 2005, evaluó 99 pacientes de 7-16 años con una sensibilidad de 75% y especificidad de 96%.    CONCLUSIÓN: el uso de los cuestionarios como herramienta diagnóstica de ERGE en pacientes pediátricos es escaso y la evidencia clínica disponible no es suficiente para realizar una recomendación apropiada.

  19. Irresponsiveness of two retinoblastoma cases to conservative therapy correlates with up- regulation of hERG1 channels and of the VEGF-A pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Torre Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment strategies for Retinoblastoma (RB, the most common primary intraocular tumor in children, have evolved over the past few decades and chemoreduction is currently the most popular treatment strategy. Despite success, systemic chemotherapeutic treatment has relevant toxicity, especially in the pediatric population. Antiangiogenic therapy has thus been proposed as a valuable alternative for pediatric malignancies, in particolar RB. Indeed, it has been shown that vessel density correlates with both local invasive growth and presence of metastases in RB, suggesting that angiogenesis could play a pivotal role for both local and systemic invasive growth in RB. We present here two cases of sporadic, bilateral RB that did not benefit from the conservative treatment and we provide evidence that the VEGF-A pathway is significantly up-regulated in both RB cases along with an over expression of hERG1 K+ channels. Case presentation Two patients showed a sporadic, bilateral RB, classified at Stage II of the Reese-Elsworth Classification. Neither of them got benefits from conservative treatment, and the two eyes were enucleated. In samples from both RB cases we studied the VEGF-A pathway: VEGF-A showed high levels in the vitreous, the vegf-a, flt-1, kdr, and hif1-α transcripts were over-expressed. Moreover, both the transcripts and proteins of the hERG1 K+ channels turned out to be up-regulated in the two RB cases compared to the non cancerous retinal tissue. Conclusions We provide evidence that the VEGF-A pathway is up-regulated in two particular aggressive cases of bilateral RB, which did not experience any benefit from conservative treatment, showing the overexpression of the vegf-a, flt-1, kdr and hif1-α transcripts and the high secretion of VEGF-A. Moreover we also show for the first time that the herg1 gene transcripts and protein are over expressed in RB, as occurs in several aggressive tumors. These results further stress

  20. Biophysical characterization of the short QT mutation hERG-N588K reveals a mixed gain-and loss-of-function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M.; Diness, T.G.; Hansen, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The short QT syndrome is a newly discovered pro-arrhythmic condition, which may cause ventricular fibrillation and sudden death. Short QT can originate from the apparent gain-of-function mutation N588K in the hERG potassium channel that conducts repolarising I(Kr) current. The present study...... describes a profound biophysical characterization of HERG-N588K revealing both loss-of-function and gain-of-function properties of the mutant. Experiments were conducted after heterologous expression in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and mammalian cells and at both room temperature and at 37 degrees C. Also...... the impact of the beta-subunits KCNE2 was investigated. The most prominent loss-of-function property of HERG-N588K was reduced tail currents but also the activation properties was compromised. Based on these biophysical results we suggest that the general view of HERG-N588K being a gain...

  1. Epigenomic profiling of prostate cancer identifies differentially methylated genes in TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive versus fusion-negative tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Alumkal, Joshi J; Luedeke, Manuel; Rinckleb, Antje; Zhao, Shanshan; Shui, Irene M; Bibikova, Marina; Klotzle, Brandy; van den Brandt, Piet A; Ostrander, Elaine A; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Maier, Christiane; Stanford, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    About half of all prostate cancers harbor the TMPRSS2:ERG (T2E) gene fusion. While T2E-positive and T2E-negative tumors represent specific molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa), previous studies have not yet comprehensively investigated how these tumor subtypes differ at the epigenetic level. We therefore investigated epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiles of PCa stratified by T2E status. The study included 496 patients with clinically localized PCa who had a radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for PCa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) "break-apart" assays were used to determine tumor T2E-fusion status, which showed that 266 patients (53.6 %) had T2E-positive PCa. The study showed global DNA methylation differences between tumor subtypes. A large number of differentially methylated CpG sites were identified (false-discovery rate [FDR] Q-value <0.00001; n = 27,876) and DNA methylation profiles accurately distinguished between tumor T2E subgroups. A number of top-ranked differentially methylated CpGs in genes (FDR Q-values ≤1.53E-29) were identified: C3orf14, CACNA1D, GREM1, KLK10, NT5C, PDE4D, RAB40C, SEPT9, and TRIB2, several of which had a corresponding alteration in mRNA expression. These genes may have various roles in the pathogenesis of PCa, and the calcium-channel gene CACNA1D is a known ERG-target. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data provided confirmatory evidence for our findings. This study identified substantial differences in DNA methylation profiles of T2E-positive and T2E-negative tumors, thereby providing further evidence that different underlying oncogenic pathways characterize these molecular subtypes.

  2. PARP inhibition sensitizes to low dose-rate radiation TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene-expressing and PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Exposure to genotoxic agents, such as irradiation produces DNA damage, the toxicity of which is augmented when the DNA repair is impaired. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors were found to be "synthetic lethal" in cells deficient in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that impair homologous recombination. However, since many tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa rarely have on such mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. We evaluated the effectiveness of radiation in combination with the PARP inhibitor, rucaparib in PCa cells. The combination index for clonogenic survival following radiation and rucaparib treatments revealed synergistic interactions in a panel of PCa cell lines, being strongest for LNCaP and VCaP cells that express ETS gene fusion proteins. These findings correlated with synergistic interactions for senescence activation, as indicated by β--galactosidase staining. Absence of PTEN and presence of ETS gene fusion thus facilitated activation of senescence, which contributed to decreased clonogenic survival. Increased radiosensitivity in the presence of rucaparib was associated with persistent DNA breaks, as determined by χ-H2AX, p53BP1, and Rad51 foci. VCaP cells, which harbor the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and PC3 cells that stably express a similar construct (fusion III showed enhanced sensitivity towards rucaparib, which, in turn, increased the radiation response to a similar extent as the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441. Rucaparib radiosensitized PCa cells, with a clear benefit of low dose-rate radiation (LDR administered over a longer period of time that caused enhanced DNA damage. LDR mimicking brachytherapy, which is used successfully in the clinic, was most effective when combined with rucaparib by inducing persistent DNA damage and senescence, leading to decreased clonogenic survival. This combination was most effective in the presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG and in the

  3. Fluvial channel-belts, floodbasins, and aeolian ergs in the Precambrian Meall Dearg Formation (Torridonian of Scotland): Inferring climate regimes from pre-vegetation clastic rock records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Lorraine E.; Ielpi, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    The interpretation of climate regimes from facies analysis of Precambrian clastic rocks has been challenging thus far, hindering full reconstructions of landscape dynamics in pre-vegetation environments. Yet, comparisons between different and co-active sedimentary realms, including fluvial-channelised, floodplain, and aeolian hold the potential to shed further light on this thematic. This research discusses a fluvial-aeolian record from the 1.2 Ga Meall Dearg Formation, part of the classic Torridonian succession of Scotland. Tentatively considered to date as a braided-fluvial deposit, this unit is here reappraised as the record of fluvial channel-belts, floodbasins, and aeolian ergs. Fluvial deposits with abundant transitional- to upper-flow regime structures (mostly cross-beds with tangential sets and plane/antidunal beds) and simple, low-relief sediment bars indicate a low-sinuosity, ephemeral style. Floodbasin deposits consist of plane and cross-beds ubiquitously bounded by symmetrical ripples, and rare sediment bars related to the progradation of splay complexes in temporary flooded depressions. Aeolian deposits occur nearby basement topography, and are dominated by large-scale, pin-stripe laminated cross-beds, indicative of intermountain ergs. Neither ephemeral-fluvial nor intermountain aeolian systems can be considered as reliable indicators of local climate, since their sedimentary style is respectively controlled by catchment size and shape, and basin topography relative to groundwater tables. Contrarily, the occurrence of purely clastic - rather than carbonate or evaporitic - floodplain strata can be more confidently related to humid regimes. In brief, this study provides new insight into an overlooked portion of the Torridonian succession of Scotland, and discusses climate inferences for Precambrian clastic terrestrial rocks.

  4. Term Context

    OpenAIRE

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the co...

  5. Term Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two construction functors: simple term with a variable and compound term with an operation and argument terms and schemes of term induction are introduced. The degree of construction as a number of used operation symbols is defined. Next, the term context is investigated. An x-context is a term which includes a variable x once only. The compound term is x-context iff the argument terms include an x-context once only. The context induction is shown and used many times. As a key concept, the context substitution is introduced. Finally, the translations and endomorphisms are expressed by context substitution.

  6. Evaluation of urinary prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG score changes when starting androgen-deprivation therapy with triptorelin 6-month formulation in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Pineiro, L.; Schalken, J.A.; Cabri, P.; Maisonobe, P.; Taille, A. De La; Study, G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG scores in patients with advanced and metastatic prostate cancer at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with triptorelin 22.5 mg, and analyse these scores in patient-groups defined by different disease characteristics.

  7. VE-statin/egfl7 expression in endothelial cells is regulated by a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter under the direct control of Erg and GATA-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Le Bras

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels arise from existing ones by the budding out of endothelial cell capillaries from the luminal side of blood vessels. Blood vessel formation is essential for organ development during embryogenesis and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing and tumor development. The VE-statin/egfl7 gene is specifically expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic development and in the adult. We studied here the regulatory mechanisms that control this tissue-specific expression. RT-qPCR analyses showed that the specificity of expression of VE-statin/egfl7 in endothelial cells is not shared with its closest neighbor genes notch1 and agpat2 on the mouse chromosome 2. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis of histone modifications at the VE-statin/egfl7 locus showed that the chromatin is specifically opened in endothelial cells, but not in fibroblasts at the transcription start sites. A 13 kb genomic fragment of promoter was cloned and analyzed by gene reporter assays which showed that two conserved regions are important for the specific expression of VE-statin/egfl7 in endothelial cells; a -8409/-7563 enhancer and the -252/+38 region encompassing the exon-1b transcription start site. The latter contains essential GATA and ETS-binding sites, as assessed by linker-scanning analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. An analysis of expression of the ETS and GATA transcription factors showed that Erg, Fli-1 and GATA-2 are the most highly expressed factors in endothelial cells. Erg and GATA-2 directly control the expression of the endogenous VE-statin/egfl7 while Fli-1 probably exerts an indirect control, as assessed by RNA interference and chromatin immunoprecipitation. This first detailed analysis of the mechanisms that govern the expression of the VE-statin/egfl7 gene in endothelial cells pinpoints the specific importance of ETS and GATA factors in the specific

  8. Hyperglycemia Promotes TMPRSS2-ERG Gene Fusion in Prostate Cancer Cells via Upregulating Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-2

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    Jeff M. P. Holly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpidemiologic evidence shows that obesity is associated with a greater risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa and PCa-specific mortality and this is observed mainly in men with the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Obesity is often associated with comorbid conditions such as type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia: we investigated whether some of the exposures associated with disturbed metabolism can also affect the frequency of this gene fusion.MethodsFusion was induced in LNCaP PCa cells in normal or high levels of glucose, with or without insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 silenced or the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I, insulin, or epidermal growth factor (EGF. RNA was extracted for analysis by nested PCR. Abundance of IGFBP-2, γH2AX, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNAPKcs, and β-actin were analyzed by Western immunoblotting.ResultsOur data suggest that hyperglycemia-induced IGFBP-2 increased the frequency of the gene fusion that was accompanied by decreased levels of DNAPKcs implying that they were mediated by alterations in the rate of repair of double-strand breaks. In contrast insulin, IGF-I and EGF all decreased gene fusion events.ConclusionThese novel observations may represent a further mechanism by which obesity can exert an effect aggravating PCa progression.

  9. Protocol standardization for detection of TMPRSS2 fusions: ERG and gene expression of EZH2, SPINK-1 and NKX3.1 in prostate cancer (PCa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yamile Segura Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At present doesn't exist tool to differentiate patients with prostate cancer (PCa of poor prognosis of those with indolent disease that only require a controlled monitoring of the disease. Because of the coexistence of different premalignant and malignant foci in CaP, the understanding of the carcinogenesis process requires a better understanding. Currently, the morphological heterogeneity in PCa is evaluated with Gleason score, which is closely related to the prognosis of the disease, but this is insufficient so it is currently to work on identifying molecular alterations to identify subtypes that can establish more precisely the patient's prognosis. This preliminary study aimed to standardization of the method of quantification in prostatic samples of FFPE of expression of transcripts of possible biomarkers, such as the oncogenes, SPINK-1 y EZH2, the tumour suppressor, NKX3.1, together with the determination of the presence/absence of gene fusion, TMPRSS2:ERG, being that these transcripts are involved in apparent exclusive events of the natural evolution of PCa, that support the possibility of a molecular classification for this disease.

  10. Acute and Chronic Toxicity, Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Inhibition, and hERG Channel Blockade Studies with a Polyherbal, Ayurvedic Formulation for Inflammation

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    Debendranath Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic plants are known for thousands of years to have anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effect. We have recently shown that BV-9238, a proprietary formulation of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa, inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production from mouse macrophage and reduces inflammation in different animal models. To evaluate the safety parameters of BV-9238, we conducted a cytotoxicity study in RAW 264.7 cells (0.005–1 mg/mL by MTT/formazan method, an acute single dose (2–10 g/kg bodyweight toxicity study and a 180-day chronic study with 1 g and 2 g/kg bodyweight in Sprague Dawley rats. Some sedation, ptosis, and ataxia were observed for first 15–20 min in very high acute doses and hence not used for further chronic studies. At the end of 180 days, gross and histopathology, blood cell counts, liver and renal functions were all at normal levels. Further, a modest attempt was made to assess the effects of BV-9238 (0.5 µg/mL on six major human cytochrome P450 enzymes and 3H radioligand binding assay with human hERG receptors. BV-9238 did not show any significant inhibition of these enzymes at the tested dose. All these suggest that BV-9238 has potential as a safe and well tolerated anti-inflammatory formulation for future use.

  11. Complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG11/CYP51 (Sterol 14α-Demethylase) Doxycycline-Regulated Mutant and Screening of the Azole Sensitivity of Aspergillus fumigatus Isoenzymes CYP51A and CYP51B▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Rolley, Nicola J.; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2010-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus sterol 14α-demethylase isoenzymes CYP51A and CYP51B were heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (YUG37-erg11), wherein native ERG11/CYP51 expression is controlled using a doxycycline-regulatable promoter. When cultured in the presence of doxycycline, recombinant YUG37-pcyp51A and YUG37-pcyp51B yeasts were able to synthesize ergosterol and grow; a control strain harboring reverse-oriented cyp51A could not. YUG37-pcyp51A and YUG37-pcyp51B constructs showed identical sensitivity to itraconazole, posaconazole, clotrimazole, and voriconazole. Conversely, YUG37-pcyp51A withstood 16-fold-higher concentrations of fluconazole than YUG37-pcyp51B (8 and 0.5 μg ml−1, respectively). PMID:20733045

  12. Máxima fase estável de lactato é ergômetro-dependente em modelo experimental utilizando ratos Máxima fase de estabilidad de lactato es ergómetro-dependiente en modelo experimental utilizando ratones The maximal lactate steady state is ergometer-dependent in experimental model using rats

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    Fúlvia de Barros Manchado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL é considerada padrão-ouro para a determinação da intensidade de transição metabólica aeróbia-anaeróbia em exercício contínuo, porém a resposta lactacidêmica nessa intensidade é, em humanos, dependente do ergômetro utilizado na avaliação. Uma ferramenta importante para estudos em fisiologia e áreas correlatas é a aplicação de modelos experimentais utilizando animais. Entretanto, ainda são restritas as pesquisas destinadas a investigar protocolos de avaliação em ratos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se a MFEL é dependente do ergômetro utilizado para a avaliação aeróbia de ratos. Para isso, 40 ratos Wistar adultos foram avaliados em dois diferentes exercícios: natação e corrida em esteira. Em ambos, a MFEL foi verificada após aplicação de quatro testes contínuos, em diferentes intensidades, com duração de 25 minutos, separados por intervalo de 48 horas. Em todos os testes houve coleta sanguínea da cauda dos animais a cada cinco minutos de exercício para análise do lactato sanguíneo. Os testes de natação ocorreram em tanque cilíndrico profundo, com a temperatura da água a 31 ± 1°C. As cargas adotadas para os testes foram de 4,5; 5,0; 5,5; 6,0% do peso corporal, atadas ao dorso dos animais. Para a determinação da MFEL em corrida, houve seleção dos ratos corredores e as velocidades dos testes foram de 15, 20, 25, 30m.min¹. A MFEL foi interpretada como a mais alta intensidade de exercício na qual o aumento da lactacidemia foi igual ou inferior a 1mM, do 10º ao 25º minuto. Anova one-way identificou diferenças entre as concentrações de lactato sanguíneo nos diversos tempos de exercício e ergômetros. A MFEL na natação ocorreu a 5,0% do peso corporal (pc, em concentração de lactato de 5,20 ± 0,22mM. Para o exercício em esteira rolante, observou-se MFEL a 20m.min¹, em concentração 3,87 ± 0,33mM. Dessa forma, é possível concluir que a MFEL

  13. Cardio-vascular safety beyond hERG: in silico modelling of a guinea pig right atrium assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, Luca A; Teisman, Ard; De Buck, Stefan S; Sinha, Vikash K; Gilissen, Ron A H J; Nijsen, Marjoleen J M A; Mackie, Claire E; Sanderson, Wendy E

    2009-12-01

    terms of the descriptors used to highlight the undesirable areas in the explored chemical space, specifically regions of low polarity, high lipophilicity and high molecular weight. In conclusion, we developed a predictive in silico model of a complex physiological assay based on a large and high quality set of experimental data. This model allows high throughput in silico safety screening based on chemical structure within a given chemical space.

  14. Cardio-vascular safety beyond hERG: in silico modelling of a guinea pig right atrium assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, Luca A.; Teisman, Ard; De Buck, Stefan S.; Sinha, Vikash K.; Gilissen, Ron A. H. J.; Nijsen, Marjoleen J. M. A.; Mackie, Claire E.; Sanderson, Wendy E.

    2009-12-01

    terms of the descriptors used to highlight the undesirable areas in the explored chemical space, specifically regions of low polarity, high lipophilicity and high molecular weight. In conclusion, we developed a predictive in silico model of a complex physiological assay based on a large and high quality set of experimental data. This model allows high throughput in silico safety screening based on chemical structure within a given chemical space.

  15. A three-marker FISH panel detects more genetic aberrations of AR, PTEN and TMPRSS2/ERG in castration-resistant or metastatic prostate cancers than in primary prostate tumors.

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    Xiaoyu Qu

    Full Text Available TMPRSS2/ERG rearrangement, PTEN gene deletion, and androgen receptor (AR gene amplification have been observed in various stages of human prostate cancer. We hypothesized that using these markers as a combined panel would allow better differentiation between low-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. We analyzed 110 primary prostate cancer samples, 70 metastatic tumor samples from 11 patients, and 27 xenograft tissues derived from 22 advanced prostate cancer patients using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis with probes targeting the TMPRSS2/ERG, PTEN, and AR gene loci. Heterogeneity of the aberrations detected was evaluated. Genetic patterns were also correlated with transcript levels. Among samples with complete data available, the three-marker FISH panel detected chromosomal abnormalities in 53% of primary prostate cancers and 87% of metastatic (Met or castration-resistant (CRPC tumors. The number of markers with abnormal FISH result had a different distribution between the two groups (P<0.001. At the patient level, Met/CRPC tumors are 4.5 times more likely to show abnormalities than primary cancer patients (P<0.05. Heterogeneity among Met/CRPC tumors is mostly inter-patient. Intra-patient heterogeneity is primarily due to differences between the primary prostate tumor and the metastases while multiple metastatic sites show consistent abnormalities. Intra-tumor variability is most prominent with the AR copy number in primary tumors. AR copy number correlated well with the AR mRNA expression (rho = 0.52, P<0.001. Especially among TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive CRPC tumors, AR mRNA and ERG mRNA levels are strongly correlated (rho = 0.64, P<0.001. Overall, the three-marker FISH panel may represent a useful tool for risk stratification of prostate cancer patients.

  16. Drug interaction at hERG channel: In vitro assessment of the electrophysiological consequences of drug combinations and comparison against theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniowska, Barbara; Lisowski, Bartosz; Kulig, Magdalena; Polak, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    Drugs carry a proarrhythmic risk, which gets even greater when they are used in combination. In vitro assessment of the proarrhythmic potential of drugs is limited to one compound and thus neglects the potential of drug-drug interactions, including those involving active metabolites. Here we present the results of an in vitro study of potential drug-drug interactions at the level of the hERG channel for the combination of up to three compounds: loratadine, desloratadine and ketoconazole. Experiments were performed at room temperature on an automated patch-clamp device CytoPatch 2, with the use of heterogeneously, stably transfected HEK cells. Single drugs, pairs and triplets were used. The results provided as the inhibition of the I Kr current for pairs were compared against the calculated theoretical interaction. Models applied to calculate the combined effect of inhibitory actions of simultaneously given drugs include: (1) simple additive model with a maximal inhibition limit of 1 (all channels blocked in 100%); (2) Bliss independence; and (3) Loewe additivity. The observed IC 50 values for loratadine, desloratadine and ketoconazole were 5.15, 1.95 and 0.74 μm respectively. For the combination of drugs tested in pairs, the effect was concentration dependent. In lower concentrations, the synergistic effect was observed, while for the highest tested concentrations it was subadditive. To triple the effect, it was subadditive regardless of concentrations. The square root of sum of squares of differences between the observed and predicted total inhibition was calculated to assess the theoretical interaction models. For most of the drugs, the allotopic model offered the best fit. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Molecular determinants of interactions between the N-terminal domain and the transmembrane core that modulate hERG K+ channel gating.

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    Jorge Fernández-Trillo

    Full Text Available A conserved eag domain in the cytoplasmic amino terminus of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG potassium channel is critical for its slow deactivation gating. Introduction of gene fragments encoding the eag domain are able to restore normal deactivation properties of channels from which most of the amino terminus has been deleted, and also those lacking exclusively the eag domain or carrying a single point mutation in the initial residues of the N-terminus. Deactivation slowing in the presence of the recombinant domain is not observed with channels carrying a specific Y542C point mutation in the S4-S5 linker. On the other hand, mutations in some initial positions of the recombinant fragment also impair its ability to restore normal deactivation. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis of fluorophore-tagged proteins under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF conditions revealed a substantial level of FRET between the introduced N-terminal eag fragments and the eag domain-deleted channels expressed at the membrane, but not between the recombinant eag domain and full-length channels with an intact amino terminus. The FRET signals were also minimized when the recombinant eag fragments carried single point mutations in the initial portion of their amino end, and when Y542C mutated channels were used. These data suggest that the restoration of normal deactivation gating by the N-terminal recombinant eag fragment is an intrinsic effect of this domain directed by the interaction of its N-terminal segment with the gating machinery, likely at the level of the S4-S5 linker.

  18. Gating mechanism of Kv11.1 (hERG) K+channels without covalent connection between voltage sensor and pore domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Pilar; Domínguez, Pedro; Barros, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    Kv11.1 (hERG, KCNH2) is a voltage-gated potassium channel crucial in setting the cardiac rhythm and the electrical behaviour of several non-cardiac cell types. Voltage-dependent gating of Kv11.1 can be reconstructed from non-covalently linked voltage sensing and pore modules (split channels), challenging classical views of voltage-dependent channel activation based on a S4-S5 linker acting as a rigid mechanical lever to open the gate. Progressive displacement of the split position from the end to the beginning of the S4-S5 linker induces an increasing negative shift in activation voltage dependence, a reduced z g value and a more negative ΔG 0 for current activation, an almost complete abolition of the activation time course sigmoid shape and a slowing of the voltage-dependent deactivation. Channels disconnected at the S4-S5 linker near the S4 helix show a destabilization of the closed state(s). Furthermore, the isochronal ion current mode shift magnitude is clearly reduced in the different splits. Interestingly, the progressive modifications of voltage dependence activation gating by changing the split position are accompanied by a shift in the voltage-dependent availability to a methanethiosulfonate reagent of a Cys introduced at the upper S4 helix. Our data demonstrate for the first time that alterations in the covalent connection between the voltage sensor and the pore domains impact on the structural reorganizations of the voltage sensor domain. Also, they support the hypothesis that the S4-S5 linker integrates signals coming from other cytoplasmic domains that constitute either an important component or a crucial regulator of the gating machinery in Kv11.1 and other KCNH channels.

  19. Utilização do questionário ERG na avaliação do grau de satisfação dos pacientes submetidos à otoplastia em um serviço de residência médica de otorrinolaringologia Using ERG inquiry to evaluate otoplasty satisfaction in an otorhinolaryngology medical residency training hospital

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    Silvio Antonio Monteiro Marone

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A importância da intervenção cirúrgica em diminuir o sofrimento psicológico e melhorar a autoestima em pacientes com deformidades auriculares já está bem documentada. As pesquisas têm focado nos resultados das terapias com ênfase no paciente, observando principalmente satisfação, resultado funcional e impacto na qualidade de vida. Quantificar alterações na qualidade de vida tem sido um desafio. O uso de inquéritos válidos, a exemplo da Escala de Resultados de Glasgow (ERG, auxiliam na obtenção dos dados. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto na qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos à otoplastia realizada em serviço de residência médica, utilizando como base a ERG, bem como sua funcionalidade. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo incluindo pacientes submetidos à otoplastia entre julho de 2009 e julho de 2010. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário oferecido ao paciente no retorno pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes responderam ao questionário. Houve aumento na qualidade de vida, demonstrado pelas medianas positivas obtidas pelo questionário. Não houve diferença significativa quanto aos valores obtidos entre os sexos e entre diferentes faixas etárias. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes mostraram-se satisfeitos com o resultado pós-operatório. Houve aumento de qualidade de vida, conforme demonstrado pelos resultados positivos. A ERG pareceu-nos fácil e elucidativa.The ear deformity surgery intervention impact on psychological and self-esteem aspects, in adults and children, is well documented. Recently, the studys are focused on patient satisfaction, funcional result and impact on quality of life. Any modification on patient's quality of life has been a challenge. The use of valid and established questionnairies, like Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI, assists on data analyse, turning it consistent. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact on patients quality of life after otoplasty

  20. Trigger vs. Substrate: Multi-Dimensional Modulation of QT-Prolongation Associated Arrhythmic Dynamics by a hERG Channel Activator

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    Michael A. Colman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolongation of the QT interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG, underlain by prolongation of the action potential duration (APD at the cellular level, is linked to increased vulnerability to cardiac arrhythmia. Pharmacological management of arrhythmia associated with QT prolongation is typically achieved through attempting to restore APD to control ranges, reversing the enhanced vulnerability to Ca2+-dependent afterdepolarisations (arrhythmia triggers and increased transmural dispersion of repolarisation (arrhythmia substrate associated with APD prolongation. However, such pharmacological modulation has been demonstrated to have limited effectiveness. Understanding the integrative functional impact of pharmacological modulation requires simultaneous investigation of both the trigger and substrate.Methods: We implemented a multi-scale (cell and tissue in silico approach using a model of the human ventricular action potential, integrated with a model of stochastic 3D spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics, and parameter modification to mimic prolonged QT conditions. We used these models to examine the efficacy of the hERG activator MC-II-157c in restoring APD to control ranges, examined its effects on arrhythmia triggers and substrates, and the interaction of these arrhythmia triggers and substrates.Results: QT prolongation conditions promoted the development of spontaneous release events underlying afterdepolarisations during rapid pacing. MC-II-157c applied to prolonged QT conditions shortened the APD, inhibited the development of afterdepolarisations and reduced the probability of afterdepolarisations manifesting as triggered activity in single cells. In tissue, QT prolongation resulted in an increased transmural dispersion of repolarisation, which manifested as an increased vulnerable window for uni-directional conduction block. In some cases, MC-II-157c further increased the vulnerable window through its effects on INa. The combination of

  1. Trigger vs. Substrate: Multi-Dimensional Modulation of QT-Prolongation Associated Arrhythmic Dynamics by a hERG Channel Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Michael A; Perez Alday, Erick A; Holden, Arun V; Benson, Alan P

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prolongation of the QT interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG), underlain by prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) at the cellular level, is linked to increased vulnerability to cardiac arrhythmia. Pharmacological management of arrhythmia associated with QT prolongation is typically achieved through attempting to restore APD to control ranges, reversing the enhanced vulnerability to Ca2+-dependent afterdepolarisations (arrhythmia triggers) and increased transmural dispersion of repolarisation (arrhythmia substrate) associated with APD prolongation. However, such pharmacological modulation has been demonstrated to have limited effectiveness. Understanding the integrative functional impact of pharmacological modulation requires simultaneous investigation of both the trigger and substrate. Methods: We implemented a multi-scale (cell and tissue) in silico approach using a model of the human ventricular action potential, integrated with a model of stochastic 3D spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics, and parameter modification to mimic prolonged QT conditions. We used these models to examine the efficacy of the hERG activator MC-II-157c in restoring APD to control ranges, examined its effects on arrhythmia triggers and substrates, and the interaction of these arrhythmia triggers and substrates. Results: QT prolongation conditions promoted the development of spontaneous release events underlying afterdepolarisations during rapid pacing. MC-II-157c applied to prolonged QT conditions shortened the APD, inhibited the development of afterdepolarisations and reduced the probability of afterdepolarisations manifesting as triggered activity in single cells. In tissue, QT prolongation resulted in an increased transmural dispersion of repolarisation, which manifested as an increased vulnerable window for uni-directional conduction block. In some cases, MC-II-157c further increased the vulnerable window through its effects on INa. The combination of stochastic

  2. Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia

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    Célia Couzigou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast.

  3. DNA repair genes RAD52 and SRS2, a cell wall synthesis regulator gene SMI1, and the membrane sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 are important in efficient Agrobacterium-mediated yeast transformation with chromosomal T-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmine, Yuta; Satoh, Yukari; Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-04-02

    Plant pathogenic Agrobacterium strains can transfer T-DNA regions of their Ti plasmids to a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, including fungi, in vitro. In the recent decade, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a model host to reveal important host proteins for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Further investigation is required to understand the fundamental mechanism of AMT, including interaction at the cell surface, to expand the host range, and to develop new tools. In this study, we screened a yeast mutant library for low AMT mutant strains by advantage of a chromosome type T-DNA, which transfer is efficient and independent on integration into host chromosome. By the mutant screening, we identified four mutant strains (srs2Δ, rad52Δ, smi1Δ and erg28Δ), which showed considerably low AMT efficiency. Structural analysis of T-DNA product replicons in AMT colonies of mutants lacking each of the two DNA repair genes, SRS2 and RAD52, suggested that the genes act soon after T-DNA entry for modification of the chromosomal T-DNA to stably maintain them as linear replicons and to circularize certain T-DNA simultaneously. The cell wall synthesis regulator SMI1 might have a role in the cell surface interaction between the donor and recipient cells, but the smi1Δ mutant exhibited pleiotropic effect, i.e. low effector protein transport as well as low AMT for the chromosomal T-DNA, but relatively high AMT for integrative T-DNAs. The ergosterol synthesis regulator/enzyme-scaffold gene ERG28 probably contributes by sensing a congested environment, because growth of erg28Δ strain was unaffected by the presence of donor bacterial cells, while the growth of the wild-type and other mutant yeast strains was suppressed by their presence. RAD52 and the DNA helicase/anti-recombinase gene SRS2 are necessary to form and maintain artificial chromosomes through the AMT of chromosomal T-DNA. A sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 is important in the high

  4. The GEMSIS-Magnetosphere project: New models of the inner magnetosphere to investigate high-energy particle variation and the ERG science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Amano, T.; Saito, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Umeda, T.; Ebihara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    enhancement of the solar wind dynamic pressure. Isolated electrons outside of the split have a narrow pitch angle distribution around 90° and are confined to a narrow range of the L shell. The existence of the isolated electrons depends on the large geomagnetic tilt angle. It indicates that the split can be seen during summer and winter after MPS occurs. We suggest that this split in the outer radiation belt during summer and winter is evidence that MPS actually causes the loss of the outer radiation belt. Another important task of the GEMSIS project is contribution to the ERG science center that facilitates the close collaboration between the satellite, ground-based observation, and theory/simulation/modeling for geospace studies by providing integrated data analysis tools and combined database. In this presentation, we report on some of recent studies and activities from the GEMSIS-Magnetosphere project with an emphasis on the models of the ring current and radiation belt.

  5. Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Marker of Prostatic Origin in Prostate Cancer Metastases: Comparison to PSA, Prostein, Androgen Receptor, ERG, NKX3.1, PSAP, and PSMA

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    Ilka Kristiansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13 has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of HOXB13 in comparison to commonly used immunohistochemical markers for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Histologically confirmed prostate cancer lymph node metastases from 64 cases were used to test the diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers: prostate specific antigen (PSA, Prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, homeobox gene NKX3.1, prostein, androgen receptor (AR, HOXB13, and ETS-related gene (ERG. All markers were evaluated semi-quantitatively using Remmele's immune reactive score. Results: The detection rate of prostate origin of metastasis for single markers was 100% for NKX3.1, 98.1% for AR, 84.3% for PSMA, 80.8% for PSA, 66% for PSAP, 60.4% for HOXB13, 59.6% for prostein, and 50.0% for ERG. Conclusions: Our data suggest that HOXB13 on its own lacks sensitivity for the detection of prostatic origin. Therefore, this marker should be only used in conjunction with other markers, preferably the highly specific PSA. The combination of PSA with NKX3.1 shows a higher sensitivity and thus appears preferable in this setting.

  6. Importância do eletrorretinograma de campo total (Full field ERG em cães da raça Cocker Spaniel Inglês portadores de catarata

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    Angélica M.V. Safatle

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento do número de intervenções cirúrgicas para a remoção da catarata em cães, observa-se a necessidade de exames específicos que devem ser realizados antes da indicação cirúrgica. A catarata é uma das principais causas de cegueira em cães. Nos estágios mais avançados, impossibilita o exame fundoscópico e inviabiliza a observação de alterações retinianas como a atrofia progressiva da retina (APR, degeneração retiniana hereditária de acometimento bilateral que, quando diagnosticada, contra-indica a cirurgia. Com o intuito de reestabelecer a visão, o eletrorretinograma de campo total (Full field ERG torna-se indispensável na avaliação pré-cirúrgica da remoção da catarata. Como os cães da raça Cocker Spaniel Inglês são predispostos à catarata e a degenerações retinianas, objetivamos neste estudo avaliar as respostas dos ERGs realizados nestes animais. Foram avaliados 136 eletrorretinogramas de cães da raça Cocker Spaniel Inglês (62 machos e 74 fêmeas, com idades entre 3 e 15 anos no período de Setembro de 2004 a Maio de 2009. Todos os animais apresentavam baixa de visão e catarata durante o exame. O diagnóstico de degeneração retiniana foi baseado nos valores de amplitude pico a pico e tempo de culminação da onda-b nas 3 respostas (resposta escotópica de bastonetes, máxima resposta e resposta fotópica de cones, idade do paciente e estágio de maturação da catarata. Nos cães sem degeneração retiniana, a média da amplitude e do tempo de culminação nas três respostas obtidas foram, respectivamente: 71,55mV/65,15ms; 149,17mV/33,03ms; 31,06mV/27,90ms. Nos cães com degeneração retiniana, 38 animais apresentaram ERG extinto. Dentre os restantes que apresentavam baixas respostas, a média da amplitude e do tempo de culminação nas três respostas obtidas foram, respectivamente: 12,88mV/65,04ms; 24,16mV/36,25ms; 8,36mV/31,38ms. Foi observado que em 122 animais (89,7% os exames eram

  7. Ground-based instruments of the PWING project to investigate dynamics of the inner magnetosphere at subauroral latitudes as a part of the ERG-ground coordinated observation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Kazuo; Katoh, Yasuo; Hamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Yuka; Adachi, Takumi; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Oyama, Shin-Ichiro; Nosé, Masahito; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Otsuka, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Takagi, Yuki; Takeshita, Yuhei; Shinbori, Atsuki; Kurita, Satoshi; Hori, Tomoaki; Nishitani, Nozomu; Shinohara, Iku; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Obana, Yuki; Suzuki, Shin; Takahashi, Naoko; Seki, Kanako; Kadokura, Akira; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Connors, Martin; Michael Ruohoniemi, J.; Engebretson, Mark; Turunen, Esa; Ulich, Thomas; Manninen, Jyrki; Raita, Tero; Kero, Antti; Oksanen, Arto; Back, Marko; Kauristie, Kirsti; Mattanen, Jyrki; Baishev, Dmitry; Kurkin, Vladimir; Oinats, Alexey; Pashinin, Alexander; Vasilyev, Roman; Rakhmatulin, Ravil; Bristow, William; Karjala, Marty

    2017-11-01

    The plasmas (electrons and ions) in the inner magnetosphere have wide energy ranges from electron volts to mega-electron volts (MeV). These plasmas rotate around the Earth longitudinally due to the gradient and curvature of the geomagnetic field and by the co-rotation motion with timescales from several tens of hours to less than 10 min. They interact with plasma waves at frequencies of mHz to kHz mainly in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere, obtain energies up to MeV, and are lost into the ionosphere. In order to provide the global distribution and quantitative evaluation of the dynamical variation of these plasmas and waves in the inner magnetosphere, the PWING project (study of dynamical variation of particles and waves in the inner magnetosphere using ground-based network observations, http://www.isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp/dimr/PWING/) has been carried out since April 2016. This paper describes the stations and instrumentation of the PWING project. We operate all-sky airglow/aurora imagers, 64-Hz sampling induction magnetometers, 40-kHz sampling loop antennas, and 64-Hz sampling riometers at eight stations at subauroral latitudes ( 60° geomagnetic latitude) in the northern hemisphere, as well as 100-Hz sampling EMCCD cameras at three stations. These stations are distributed longitudinally in Canada, Iceland, Finland, Russia, and Alaska to obtain the longitudinal distribution of plasmas and waves in the inner magnetosphere. This PWING longitudinal network has been developed as a part of the ERG (Arase)-ground coordinated observation network. The ERG (Arase) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, and has been in full operation since March 2017. We will combine these ground network observations with the ERG (Arase) satellite and global modeling studies. These comprehensive datasets will contribute to the investigation of dynamical variation of particles and waves in the inner magnetosphere, which is one of the most important research topics in recent space

  8. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun, E-mail: suhyunjo@kangwon.ac.kr

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}.

  9. Patients With Long-QT Syndrome Caused by Impaired hERG-Encoded Kv11.1 Potassium Channel Have Exaggerated Endocrine Pancreatic and Incretin Function Associated With Reactive Hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyltén-Cavallius, Louise; Iepsen, Eva W; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Svendstrup, Mathilde; Lubberding, Anniek F; Hartmann, Bolette; Jespersen, Thomas; Linneberg, Allan; Christiansen, Michael; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Holst, Jens J; Kanters, Jørgen K; Hansen, Torben; Torekov, Signe S

    2017-05-02

    Loss-of-function mutations in hERG (encoding the Kv11.1 voltage-gated potassium channel) cause long-QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) because of prolonged cardiac repolarization. However, Kv11.1 is also present in pancreatic α and β cells and intestinal L and K cells, secreting glucagon, insulin, and the incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide), respectively. These hormones are crucial for glucose regulation, and long-QT syndrome may cause disturbed glucose regulation. We measured secretion of these hormones and cardiac repolarization in response to glucose ingestion in LQT2 patients with functional mutations in hERG and matched healthy participants, testing the hypothesis that LQT2 patients have increased incretin and β-cell function and decreased α-cell function, and thus lower glucose levels. Eleven patients with LQT2 and 22 sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched control participants underwent a 6-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with ECG recording and blood sampling for measurements of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP. In comparison with matched control participants, LQT2 patients had 56% to 78% increased serum insulin, serum C-peptide, plasma GLP-1, and plasma GIP responses (P=0.03-0.001) and decreased plasma glucose levels after glucose ingestion (P=0.02) with more symptoms of hypoglycemia (P=0.04). Sixty-three percent of LQT2 patients developed hypoglycemic plasma glucose levels (QT interval and aggravated the cardiac repolarization disturbances in LQT2 patients. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02775513. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Benchmarking the ERG valve tip and MRI Interventions Smart Flow neurocatheter convection-enhanced delivery system's performance in a gel model of the brain: employing infusion protocols proposed for gene therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillay, Karl; Schomberg, Dominic; Hinchman, Angelica; Kumbier, Lauren; Ross, Chris; Kubota, Ken; Brodsky, Ethan; Miranpuri, Gurwattan

    2012-04-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is an advanced infusion technique used to deliver therapeutic agents into the brain. CED has shown promise in recent clinical trials. Independent verification of published parameters is warranted with benchmark testing of published parameters in applicable models such as gel phantoms, ex vivo tissue and in vivo non-human animal models to effectively inform planned and future clinical therapies. In the current study, specific performance characteristics of two CED infusion catheter systems, such as backflow, infusion cloud morphology, volume of distribution (mm3) versus the infused volume (mm3) (Vd/Vi) ratios, rate of infusion (µl min-1) and pressure (mmHg), were examined to ensure published performance standards for the ERG valve-tip (VT) catheter. We tested the hypothesis that the ERG VT catheter with an infusion protocol of a steady 1 µl min-1 functionality is comparable to the newly FDA approved MRI Interventions Smart Flow (SF) catheter with the UCSF infusion protocol in an agarose gel model. In the gel phantom models, no significant difference was found in performance parameters between the VT and SF catheter. We report, for the first time, such benchmark characteristics in CED between these two otherwise similar single-end port VT with stylet and end-port non-stylet infusion systems. Results of the current study in agarose gel models suggest that the performance of the VT catheter is comparable to the SF catheter and warrants further investigation as a tool in the armamentarium of CED techniques for eventual clinical use and application.

  11. Term Graph Rewriting and Parallel Term Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corradini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Term Graph Rewriting and Term Rewriting is well understood: a single term graph reduction may correspond to several term reductions, due to sharing. It is also known that if term graphs are allowed to contain cycles, then one term graph reduction may correspond to infinitely many term reductions. We stress that this fact can be interpreted in two ways. According to the "sequential interpretation", a term graph reduction corresponds to an infinite sequence of term reductions, as formalized by Kennaway et.al. using strongly converging derivations over the complete metric space of infinite terms. Instead according to the "parallel interpretation" a term graph reduction corresponds to the parallel reduction of an infinite set of redexes in a rational term. We formalize the latter notion by exploiting the complete partial order of infinite and possibly partial terms, and we stress that this interpretation allows to explain the result of reducing circular redexes in several approaches to term graph rewriting.

  12. Anomalous Low States and Long Term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.; Boyd, Patricia T.

    2012-01-01

    Rossi X-my Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary LMC X-3 reveal an extended very low X-ray state lasting from 2003 December 13 until 2004 March 18, unprecedented both in terms of its low luminosity (>15 times fainter than ever before seen in this source) and long duration (approx 3 times longer than a typical low/hard state excursion). During this event little to no source variability is observed on timescales of approx hours-weeks, and the X-ray spectrum implies an upper limit of 1.2 x 10(exp 35) erg/s, Five years later another extended low state occurs, lasting from 2008 December 11 until 2009 June 17. This event lasts nearly twice as long as the first, and while significant variability is observed, the source remains reliably in the low/hard spectral state for the approx 188 day duration. These episodes share some characteristics with the "anomalous low states" in the neutron star binary Her X-I. The average period and amplitude of the Variability of LMC X-3 have different values between these episodes. We characterize the long-term variability of LMC X-3 before and after the two events using conventional and nonlinear time series analysis methods, and show that, as is the case in Her X-I, the characteristic amplitude of the variability is related to its characteristic timescale. Furthermore, the relation is in the same direction in both systems. This suggests that a similar mechanism gives rise to the long-term variability, which in the case of Her X-I is reliably modeled with a tilted, warped precessing accretion disk.

  13. Primary Index Term Secondary Index Term Tertiary Index term ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaubey

    Tertiary Index term. Geosciences. Solid earth. Tectonics. Structural Geology. Geodynamics. Seismology. Exploration geophysics. Seismic hazards. Geomagnetism. Mineralogy. Petrology. Metamorphic. Igneous. Sedimentary. Fossil fuels. Petroleum and coal. Isotope geology. Geochronology. Isotope geology. Landform and.

  14. Short-term variability in QT interval and ventricular arrhythmias induced by dofetilide are dependent on high-frequency autonomic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeroux, P; Thireau, J; Judé, S; Laigot-Barbé, C; Maurin, A; Sola, M L; Fowler, J S L; Richard, S; Le Guennec, J Y

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate an effect of dofetilide, a potent arrhythmic blocker of the voltage-gated K(+) channel, hERG, on cardiac autonomic control. Combined with effects on ardiomyocytes, these properties could influence its arrhythmic potency. The short-term variability of beat-to-beat QT interval (STVQT ), induced by dofetilide is a strong surrogate of Torsades de pointes liability. Involvement of autonomic modulation in STVQT was investigated in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs by power spectral analysis under conditions of autonomic blockade with hexamethonium. Increase in STVQT induced by dofetilide in monkeys and dogs was closely associated with an enhancement of endogenous heart rate and QT interval high-frequency (HF) oscillations. These effects were fully suppressed under conditions of autonomic blockade with hexamethonium. Ventricular arrhythmias, including Torsades de pointes in monkeys, were prevented in both species when HF oscillations were suppressed by autonomic blockade. Similar enhancements of heart rate HF oscillations were found in dogs with other hERG blockers described as causing Torsades de pointes in humans. These results demonstrate for the first time that beat-to-beat ventricular repolarization variability and ventricular arrhythmias induced by dofetilide are dependent on endogenous HF autonomic oscillations in heart rate. When combined with evidence of hERG-blocking properties, enhancement of endogenous HF oscillations in heart rate could constitute an earlier and more sensitive biomarker than STVQT for Torsades de pointes liability, applicable to preclinical regulatory studies conducted in healthy animals. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Short-term variability in QT interval and ventricular arrhythmias induced by dofetilide are dependent on high-frequency autonomic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeroux, P; Thireau, J; Judé, S; Laigot-Barbé, C; Maurin, A; Sola, M L; Fowler, J S L; Richard, S; Le Guennec, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The present study was undertaken to investigate an effect of dofetilide, a potent arrhythmic blocker of the voltage-gated K+ channel, hERG, on cardiac autonomic control. Combined with effects on ardiomyocytes, these properties could influence its arrhythmic potency. Experimental Approach The short-term variability of beat-to-beat QT interval (STVQT), induced by dofetilide is a strong surrogate of Torsades de pointes liability. Involvement of autonomic modulation in STVQT was investigated in healthy cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs by power spectral analysis under conditions of autonomic blockade with hexamethonium. Key Results Increase in STVQT induced by dofetilide in monkeys and dogs was closely associated with an enhancement of endogenous heart rate and QT interval high-frequency (HF) oscillations. These effects were fully suppressed under conditions of autonomic blockade with hexamethonium. Ventricular arrhythmias, including Torsades de pointes in monkeys, were prevented in both species when HF oscillations were suppressed by autonomic blockade. Similar enhancements of heart rate HF oscillations were found in dogs with other hERG blockers described as causing Torsades de pointes in humans. Conclusions and Implications These results demonstrate for the first time that beat-to-beat ventricular repolarization variability and ventricular arrhythmias induced by dofetilide are dependent on endogenous HF autonomic oscillations in heart rate. When combined with evidence of hERG-blocking properties, enhancement of endogenous HF oscillations in heart rate could constitute an earlier and more sensitive biomarker than STVQT for Torsades de pointes liability, applicable to preclinical regulatory studies conducted in healthy animals. PMID:25625756

  16. Comparação entre a utilização de saliva e sangue para determinação do lactato mínimo em cicloergômetro e ergômetro de braço em mesa-tenistas Comparacion entre la utilizacion de saliva y sangre para la determinacion del lactato mínimo en cicloergómetro y ergómetro de brazo en tenistas de mesa Comparison between the use of saliva and blood for the minimum lactate determination in arm ergometer and cycle ergometer in table tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moura Zagatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de determinar o teste de lactato mínimo (TLM com concentrações de sódio (Na+, potássio (K+ e lactato (LAC na saliva em ergômetro de braço e cicloergômetro. Foram participantes deste estudo oito mesa-tenistas de nível internacional. Como estímulo anaeróbio no TLM em ambos os ergômetros foram utilizados testes máximos de 30 segundos. No ergômetro de braço isocinético (Cybex Ube 2432 foi aplicada a força máxima com rotação fixa em 102rpm e no cicloergômetro, aplicada a carga de 7,5% do peso corporal (Kp. Após o estímulo anaeróbio no ergômetro de braço, foi iniciado um teste incremental com rotações na manivela constante a 60rpm, iniciado a 49 watts com aumento de 16 watts a cada estágio de três minutos de exercício. A intensidade correspondente ao TLM foi determinado com amostras de sangue e saliva (LACmin braço; Na+min braço-saliva e K+min braço-saliva, respectivamente. Para o cicloergômetro, a carga inicial foi de 85 watts e aumento de 17 watts com rotação do pedal constante a 70rpm. Cada estágio de exercício também teve a duração de três minutos. O LACmin foi determinado utilizando amostras de sangue e saliva (LACmin ciclo; Na+min ciclo-saliva, K+min ciclo-saliva e LACmin ciclo-saliva, respectivamente. Em ambos os ergômetros, as intensidades obtidas no TLM foram correspondentes à derivada zero do ajuste polinomial entre metabólito versus intensidade. Foram utilizados, como procedimentos estatísticos, o teste ANOVA One Way, teste t de Student pareado e teste de correlação de Pearson com níveis de significância de 5%. Os LACmin determinados com amostras de sangue e de saliva, tanto para o ergômetro de braço (LACmin braço 91,71 ± 12,43; Na+min braço-saliva 71,99 ± 23,42; K+min braço-saliva 79,67 ± 17,72, quanto para cicloergômetro (LACmin ciclo 157,68 ± 13,48; LACmin ciclo-saliva 135,49 ± 33,2; Na+min ciclo-saliva 121,81 ± 51,31; K

  17. Long-term Spectral Variability of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg IX X–1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jithesh, V.; Misra, Ranjeev; Wang, Zhongxiang

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the long-term spectral variability in the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X–1. By analyzing the data from 8 Suzaku and 13 XMM-Newton observations conducted between 2001 and 2015, we perform a detailed spectral modeling for all spectra with simple models and complex physical models. We find that the spectra can be well explained by a disk-plus-thermal-Comptonization model. Applying this model, we unveil correlations between the X-ray luminosity ({L}{{X}}) and the spectral parameters. One particular correlation is the statistically significant positive correlation between {L}{{X}} and the photon index (Γ), while at the high luminosities of > 2× {10}40 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, the source becomes marginally hard, which results in a change in the slope of the {{Γ }}{--}{L}{{X}} correlation. Similar variability behavior is observed in the optical depth of the source around {L}{{X}}∼ 2× {10}40 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 as the source becomes more optically thick. We consider the scenario that a corona covers the inner part of the disk, and the correlations can be explained as being driven by the variability of seed photons from the disk input into the corona. On the basis of the disk-corona model, we discuss the physical processes that are possibly indicated by the variability of the spectral parameters. Our analysis reveals the complex variability behavior of Holmberg IX X–1 and the variability mechanism is likely related to the geometry of the X-ray-emitting regions.

  18. A Gauge Invariant Regulator for the ERG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, S.; Kubyshin, Yu. A.; Morris, T. R.; Tighe, J. F.

    A gauge invariant regularisation for dealing with pure Yang-Mills theories within the exact renormalization group approach is proposed. It is based on the regularisation via covariant higher derivatives and includes auxiliary Pauli-Villars fields which amounts to a spontaneously broken SU(N|N) super-gauge theory. We demonstrate perturbatively that the extended theory is ultra-violet finite in four dimensions and argue that it has a sensible limit when the regularization cutoff is removed.

  19. ERG signal analysis using wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, R; Persano Adorno, D; Brai, M

    2011-09-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool for analyzing and detecting features of signals characterized by time-dependent statistical properties, as biomedical signals. The identification and the analysis of the components of these signals in the time-frequency domain, give meaningful information about the physiological mechanisms that govern them. This article presents the results of the wavelet analysis applied to the a-wave component of the human electroretinogram. In order to deepen and improve our knowledge about the behavior of the early photoreceptoral response, including the possible activation of interactions and correlations among the photoreceptors, we have detected and identified the stable time-frequency components of the a-wave, using six representative values of luminance. The results indicate the occurrence of three frequencies lying in the range 20-200 Hz. The lowest one is attributed to the summed activities of the photoreceptors. The others are weaker and at low luminance one of them does not occur. We relate them to the response of the rods and the cones whose aggregate activities are non-linear and typically exhibit self-organization under selective stimuli. The identification of the stable frequency components and of their times of occurrence helps us to shine light about the complex mechanisms governing the a-wave. The present results are promising toward the assessment of more refined model concerning the photoreceptoral activities.

  20. Nõuandeid nõustamiseks / Ly Erg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erg, Ly

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis järgmised peatükid: Ettevalmistus kohtumiseks ning vestluse algus; Probleemide lahendamine ning lahenduste hindamine; Kokkuvõtete tegemine kohtumise lõpus ning nõustamisprotsessi analüüs pärast kohtumist; Lapsevanemad

  1. Equational term graph rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ariola (Zena); J.W. Klop (Jan Willem)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe present an equational framework for term graph rewriting with cycles. The usual notion of homomorphism is phrased in terms of the notion of bisimulation, which is well-known in process algebra and concurrency theory. Specifically, a homomorphism is a functional bisimulation. We prove

  2. Dynamic term structure models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew

    This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...

  3. Toyotarity. Term, model, range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Toyotarity and BOST term was presented in the chapter. The BOST method allows to define relations between material resources and human resources and between human resources and human resources (TOYOTARITY. This term was also invented by the Author (and is legally protected. The idea of methodology is an outcome of 12 years of work.

  4. RxTerms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxTerms is a drug interface terminology derived from RxNorm for prescription writing or medication history recording (e.g. in e-prescribing systems, PHRs). RxTerms...

  5. Eliminating the xy Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Joseph V.

    1979-01-01

    A process for eliminating the xy term in a quadratic equation in two variables is presented. The author feels this process will be within the reach of more high school students than more commonly used methods. (MK)

  6. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  7. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  8. Long-term rescue of cone photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2)-knockout mice by gene replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Suddhasil; Hiriyanna, Suja; Kaneshiro, Kayleigh; Li, Linjing; Li, Yichao; Li, Wei; Qian, Haohua; Li, Tiansen; Khanna, Hemant; Colosi, Peter; Swaroop, Anand; Wu, Zhijian

    2015-11-15

    Retinal neurodegenerative diseases are especially attractive targets for gene replacement therapy, which appears to be clinically effective for several monogenic diseases. X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) are relatively severe blinding disorders, resulting from progressive photoreceptor dysfunction primarily caused by mutations in RPGR or RP2 gene. With a goal to develop gene therapy for the XLRP-RP2 disease, we first performed detailed characterization of the Rp2-knockout (Rp2-KO) mice and observed early-onset cone dysfunction, which was followed by progressive cone degeneration, mimicking cone vision impairment in XLRP patients. The mice also exhibited distinct and significantly delayed falling phase of photopic b-wave of electroretinogram (ERG). Concurrently, we generated a self-complementary adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector carrying human RP2-coding sequence and demonstrated its ability to mediate stable RP2 protein expression in mouse photoreceptors. A long-term efficacy study was then conducted in Rp2-KO mice following AAV-RP2 vector administration. Preservation of cone function was achieved with a wide dose range over 18-month duration, as evidenced by photopic ERG and optomotor tests. The slower b-wave kinetics was also completely restored. Morphologically, the treatment preserved cone viability, corrected mis-trafficking of M-cone opsin and restored cone PDE6 expression. The therapeutic effect was achieved even in mice that received treatment at an advanced disease stage. The highest AAV-RP2 dose group demonstrated retinal toxicity, highlighting the importance of careful vector dosing in designing future human trials. The wide range of effective dose, a broad treatment window and long-lasting therapeutic effects should make the RP2 gene therapy attractive for clinical development. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. L’évaluation, un outil de l’ergonome pour transformer le contexte d’intervention Evaluation, a tool of ergonomists for changing the intervention context La evaluación, una herramienta del ergónomo para transformar el contexto de la intervención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Landry

    2010-05-01

    ón-evaluativa permite identificar los factores favorables a una intervención e instruir las hipótesis de los ergónomos que intervienen sobre las relaciones entre el proceso de intervención y los resultados obtenidos. Los casos utilizados ilustran como la investigación evaluativa puede permitir al ergónomo mejorar las condiciones en las cuales él interviene, compartiendo los indicadores sobre el desarrollo del proyecto. Comunicando, en el curso de la acción, a otros actores del proyecto los indicadores de gestión de la intervención, el ergónomo modifica el contexto en el cual interviene. Utilizando los indicadores de resultados, el ergónomo puede mostrar los aportes de la acción. Igualmente el ergónomo busca adaptar mejor sus métodos teniendo en cuenta los aspectos favorables así como los obstáculos presentes en el contexto de la acción.

  10. Comparação entre ergômetros específico e convencionais na determinação da capacidade aeróbia de mesatenistas Comparison between specific and conventional ergometers in the aerobic capacity determination in table tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moura Zagatto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a necessidade de utilizar protocolo específico para avaliar a capacidade aeróbia de mesatenistas, comparando os testes aplicados em ergômetro específico com ergômetros convencionais. Para isso, nove mesatenistas foram os participantes do estudo (18,22 ± 2,33 anos; altura de 1,76 ± 0,09m; massa corporal de 67,36 ± 10,03kg; gordura corporal de 14,74 ± 6,69%; e índice de massa corporal (IMC de 21,69 ± 2,71kg/m². Foram aplicados os testes de lactato mínimo, realizados no ergômetro de braço (LACmin braço e no cicloergômetro (LACmin ciclo (ergômetros convencionais e o teste de limiar anaeróbio em procedimento específico para o tênis de mesa (LAn espec utilizando um lançador de bolas mecânico como ergômetro. Como procedimentos estatísticos foram utilizados o teste de análise de variância (ANOVA one way e o teste de correlação produto-momento, com nível de significância de 5%. O LAn espec (48,11 ± 6,82 bolas.min-1 não foi significativamente correlacionado com a intensidade de LACmin braço (91,94 ± 11,51W (r = 0,18; p = 0,72; e apresentou correlação negativa com a intensidade de LACmin ciclo (157,97 ± 12,51W (r = - 0,80; p = 0,02. Desse modo, os resultados encontrados no estudo levam a concluir que existe necessidade do uso de protocolo específico para mensurar a capacidade aeróbia no tênis de mesa.The aim of this study was to verify the necessity to use a specific protocol for evaluating the aerobic capacity in table tennis players, comparing the tests applied in conventional ergometers with test applied in specific ergometer. Nine table tennis players were participants in the study (18.22 ± 2.33 years; 1.76 ± 0.09 m of height; 67.36 ± 10.03 Kg of body mass; 14.74 ± 6.69 % of fat mass and 21.69 ± 2.71 Kg/m² of body mass index. The participants performed lactate minimum tests in the arm ergometer and cycle ergometer; in addition to incremental test in specific ergometer

  11. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    hypothesis. Finally, we use ex-ante spanned subjective beliefs to evaluate several reduced-form and structural models. We find support for heterogeneous beliefs models and also uncover a number of statistically significant relationships in favour of alternative rational expectations models once the effect......This paper studies the properties of bond risk premia in the cross-section of subjective expectations. We exploit an extensive dataset of yield curve forecasts from financial institutions and document a number of novel findings. First, contrary to evidence presented for stock markets but consistent......-primary dealers. Third, we reject the null hypothesis that subjective expected bond returns are constant. When predicting long term rates, however, primary dealers have no information advantage. This suggests that a key source of variation in long-term bonds are risk premia and not short- term rate variation...

  12. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  13. Functional implications of short-term retinal detachment in porcine eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the type and magnitude of detectable changes in pig multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) induced by the vitreoretinal surgical procedures necessary to gain access to the subretinal space....

  14. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  15. The weak Fe fluorescence line and long-term X-ray evolution of the Compton-thick active galactic nucleus in NGC 7674

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, P.; Annuar, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Elvis, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Lamperti, I.; Malaguti, G.; Masini, A.; Matt, G.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Rivers, E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-06-01

    We present NuSTAR X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 7674. The source shows a flat X-ray spectrum, suggesting that it is obscured by Compton-thick gas columns. Based upon long-term flux dimming, previous work suggested the alternate possibility that the source is a recently switched-off AGN with the observed X-rays being the lagged echo from the torus. Our high-quality data show the source to be reflection-dominated in hard X-rays, but with a relatively weak neutral Fe Kα emission line (equivalent width [EW] of ≈ 0.4 keV) and a strong Fe xxvi ionized line (EW ≈ 0.2 keV). We construct an updated long-term X-ray light curve of NGC 7674 and find that the observed 2-10 keV flux has remained constant for the past ≈ 20 yr, following a high-flux state probed by Ginga. Light travel time arguments constrain the minimum radius of the reflector to be ˜ 3.2 pc under the switched-off AGN scenario, ≈ 30 times larger than the expected dust sublimation radius, rendering this possibility unlikely. A patchy Compton-thick AGN (CTAGN) solution is plausible, requiring a minimum line-of-sight column density (NH) of 3 × 1024 cm-2 at present, and yields an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of (3-5) × 1043 erg s-1. Realistic uncertainties span the range of ≈ (1-13) × 1043 erg s-1. The source has one of the weakest fluorescence lines amongst bona fide CTAGN, and is potentially a local analogue of bolometrically luminous systems showing complex neutral and ionized Fe emission. It exemplifies the difficulty of identification and proper characterization of distant CTAGN based on the strength of the neutral Fe Kα line.

  16. Two Long-Term Intermittent Pulsars Discovered in the PALFA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R. D.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Parent, E.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J.; Wharton, R. S.; Zhu, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of two long-term intermittent radio pulsars in the ongoing Pulsar Arecibo L-Band Feed Array survey. Following discovery with the Arecibo Telescope, extended observations of these pulsars over several years at Jodrell Bank Observatory have revealed the details of their rotation and radiation properties. PSRs J1910+0517 and J1929+1357 show long-term extreme bimodal intermittency, switching between active (ON) and inactive (OFF) emission states and indicating the presence of a large, hitherto unrecognized underlying population of such objects. For PSR J1929+1357, the initial duty cycle was fON = 0.008, but two years later, this changed quite abruptly to fON = 0.16. This is the first time that a significant evolution in the activity of an intermittent pulsar has been seen, and we show that the spin-down rate of the pulsar is proportional to the activity. The spin-down rate of PSR J1929+1357 is increased by a factor of 1.8 when it is in active mode, similar to the increase seen in the other three known long-term intermittent pulsars. These discoveries increase the number of known pulsars displaying long-term intermittency to five. These five objects display a remarkably narrow range of spin-down power (\\dot{E} ˜ {10}32 {erg} {{{s}}}-1) and accelerating potential above their polar caps. If confirmed by further discoveries, this trend might be important for understanding the physical mechanisms that cause intermittency.

  17. Substâncias ergásticas foliares de espécies amazônicas de Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae: caracterização histoquímica e ultra-estrutural Leaf ergastic substances of Amazonian species of Oenocarpus Mart. (Arecaceae: histochemical and ultrastructural characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Junior Ferreira Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo diagnosticar e caracterizar as substâncias ergásticas foliares de Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. e O. minor Mart. através de microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura, análises histoquímicas e microanálises físicas. Secções transversais e longitudinais, assim como maceração foram realizadas em material botânico fixado. As análises histoquímicas foram empregadas em material botânico in natura, seguindo-se protocolos específicos para mucilagem, amido e sílica. Microanálises físicas foram feitas com Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS detector. Nas espécies estudadas de Oenocarpus Mart., as substâncias ergásticas foliares correspondem a mucilagem amorfa; grãos de amido poliédricos do tipo simples e sílica opalina sob a forma de corpos elípticos e esféricos-globosos de superfície espiculada, ambos com elevado teor de dióxido de silício. As observações microscópicas, os testes histoquímicos e as microanálises físicas permitiram diagnosticar, caracterizar e elucidar a estrutura e ultra-estrutura das substâncias ergásticas ocorrentes nas folhas dos táxons analisados de Oenocarpus Mart.The purpose of this study was to diagnose and characterize the leaf ergastic substance of Oenocarpus bacaba Mart., O. distichus Mart., O. mapora H. Karst. and O. minor Mart. by light and scanning electron microscopy, histochemical analyses and physical microanalyses. Transverse and longitudinal sections as well as maceration were made in fixed botanical material. The histochemical analyses were made in non-fixed botanical material, using specific tests for mucilage, starch and silica. An Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS detector was used for the physical microanalyses. In the Oenocarpus Mart. species studied, the leaf ergastic substances corresponded to amorphous mucilage, simple-type polyhedrical starch grain and opaline silica in the shape of elliptical

  18. Half term report

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This week marks the mid-point of my mandate as Director General, so what better time to take stock of the last two and a half years and look forward to the next?    On the surface, the report is good. The LHC is performing well, Council has just approved our medium term plan, and the there seem to be few clouds on CERN’s long-term horizon. It’s precisely at times like this, however, that complacency would be most dangerous. The world is still in the grip of an economic crisis, and recovery in our Member States is slow. CERN is still in debt, as are our social security systems. We are working on this, but these factors need constant and careful attention. While we need to remain vigilant, I’d like to focus on the positives for my mid term message. Let’s start with the LHC. The machine’s performance this year has been fantastic. We achieved our target luminosity for the year in June, which augurs well for the summer conferences. I don&r...

  19. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  20. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  1. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  2. Term rewriting with traversal functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); P. Klint (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    htmlabstractTerm rewriting is an appealing technique for performing program analysis and program transformation. Tree (term) traversal is frequently used but is not supported by standard term rewriting. We extend many-sorted, first-order term rewriting with traversal functions that automate tree

  3. Early Soft X-Ray to UV Emission from Double Neutron Star Mergers: Implications from the Long-term Observations of GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Qiu

    2018-01-01

    Recent long-term radio follow-up observations of GW170817 reveal a simple power-law rising light curve, with a slope of {t}0.78, up to 93 days after the merger. The latest X-ray detection at 109 days is also consistent with such a temporal slope. Such a shallow rise behavior requires a mildly relativistic outflow with a steep velocity gradient profile, so that slower material with larger energy catches up with the decelerating ejecta and re-energizes it. It has been suggested that this mildly relativistic outflow may represent a cocoon of material. We suggest that the velocity gradient profile may form during the stage that the cocoon is breaking out of the merger ejecta, resulting from shock propagation down a density gradient. The cooling of the hot relativistic cocoon material immediately after it breaks out should have produced soft X-ray to UV radiation at tens of seconds to hours after the merger. The soft X-ray emission has a luminosity of {L}{{X}}∼ {10}45 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 over a period of tens of seconds for a merger event like GW170817. The UV emission shows a rise initially and peaks at about a few hours with a luminosity of {L}{UV}∼ {10}42 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. The soft X-ray transients could be detected by future wide-angle X-ray detectors, such as the Chinese mission Einstein Probe. This soft X-ray/UV emission would serve as one of the earliest electromagnetic counterparts of gravitation waves from double neutron star mergers and could provide the earliest localization of the sources.

  4. Handbook of mechanical engineering terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, KK

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from different sources, edited and grouped under twenty six parts and given alphabetically under each part for easy reference. The book will be a source of guidance and help to the students, staff and practising engineers in understanding and updating the subject matter. Contents: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from differ

  5. Evaluation and analysis of term scoring methods for term extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate five term scoring methods for automatic term extraction on four different types of text collections: personal document collections, news articles, scientific articles and medical discharge summaries. Each collection has its own use case: author profiling, boolean query term suggestion,

  6. A profession termed Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández Areal, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can foster the impression that journalism, as a profession will become extinct probably in a short term. Anybody can have access to any information sources as well as to transmit – through Internet- all sorts of messages at an unusual speed, and this fact seems to support the idea that no technical training will be needed in the future not even an specific cultural background will be required, much less an university degree or qualification that ensures a responsible and appropriate practice of the modern social communication. The Federation of Journalists Associations in Spain (FAPE in its Draft of the Professional Statute is in favor of a graduated or qualified profession at an university level, and its Commission for Complaints has been developing a successful work regarding the professional self-regulation and self-control for the benefit of society. Therefore, there are good reasons for being optimist. Journalism, as a profession, is not going to disappear, and maybe it is time to consider it, really, as an academic qualified profession.

  7. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  8. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... you can do to stay fit. Understanding these fitness terms can help you make the most of ...

  9. Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Y Z Test Your Knowledge Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms Designed to help learners at any level ... in a reference paper. The Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms The Human Genome Defined by Professionals at ...

  10. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  11. Non-complicated cholelithiasis associated with GERD: Results of combined laparoscopic surgery in low risk patients Colelitiasis no complicada asociada con ERGE: Resultados de la cirugía laparoscópica combinada en pacientes con bajo riesgo quirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pozo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined laparoscopic surgery for non-complicated cholelithiasis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in patients with low surgical risk. Methods: a total of 680 cholecystectomies performed by means of laparoscopic surgery were retrospectively studied from February 1991 to February 2002. A total of 442 patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups: group A: non-complicated cholelithiasis (cholecystectomy alone, consisting of a total of 362 patients, and group B: non-complicated cholelithiasis and GERD (cholecystectomy and Toupet’s fundoplication in all cases in 80 patients. Demographic and clinical data, intraoperatory incidences, and post-surgical complications were prospectively collected and compared for all patients. The results of reflux surgery (group B were evaluated at 6 months by means of 24-hour pH-metry. Results: in spite of the fact that the group undergoing combined surgery consisted of patients with greater weight and older age (p Objetivos: el objetivo del presente estudio fue la valoración de la eficacia de la cirugía laparoscópica combinada de la colelitiasis no complicada y de la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE en pacientes con bajo riesgo quirúrgico. Métodos: desde febrero de 1991 a febrero de 2002 se realizaron 680 colecistectomías mediante cirugía laparoscópica, cumpliendo criterios de inclusión para el presente estudio un total de 442 pacientes que fueron divididos en dos grupos: grupo A: colelitiasis no complicada (colecistectomía sola con un total de 362 pacientes y grupo B: colelitiasis no complicada y ERGE (colecistectomía y reparación hiatal con funduplicatura tipo Toupet en 80 pacientes. En todos los pacientes se recogieron de forma prospectiva y se compararon datos demográficos y clínicos, incidencias peroperatorias y complicaciones post-intervención. Los resultados de la cirugía del

  12. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining.. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and evaluated nine term rewrite and eight term suppression rules. The rules rely on UMLS properties that have been identified in previous work by others, together with an additional set of new properties discovered by our group during our work with the UMLS. Our work complements the earlier work in that we measure the impact on the number of terms identified by the different rules on a MEDLINE corpus. The number of uniquely identified terms and their frequency in MEDLINE were computed before and after applying the rules. The 50 most frequently found terms together with a sample of 100 randomly selected terms were evaluated for every rule. Results Five of the nine rewrite rules were found to generate additional synonyms and spelling variants that correctly corresponded to the meaning of the original terms and seven out of the eight suppression rules were found to suppress only undesired terms. Using the five rewrite rules that passed our evaluation, we were able to identify 1,117,772 new occurrences of 14,784 rewritten terms in MEDLINE. Without the rewriting, we recognized 651,268 terms belonging to 397,414 concepts; with rewriting, we recognized 666,053 terms belonging to 410,823 concepts, which is an increase of 2.8% in the number of terms and an increase of 3.4% in the number of concepts recognized. Using the seven suppression rules, a total of 257,118 undesired terms were suppressed in the UMLS, notably decreasing its size. 7,397 terms were suppressed in the corpus. Conclusions We recommend applying the five rewrite rules and seven suppression rules that passed our evaluation when the UMLS is to be used for biomedical term identification in MEDLINE. A software

  13. Cranial sonography in term and near-term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yikilmaz, Ali [Gevher Nesibe Hospital and Erciyes Medical School, Department of Radiology, Talas, Kayseri (Turkey); Taylor, George A. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Sonographic patterns of brain injury in the term and near-term infant are quite different from those in the premature infant. Although periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix hemorrhage are rarely seen in term infants, selective neuronal injury, parasagittal infarction, focal stroke, diffuse hypoxic-ischemic injury, and deep parenchymal hemorrhages are more common lesions. In addition, congenital brain tumors, hamartomatous lesions, such as hemimegalencephaly, and tuberous sclerosis can mimic ischemic and hemorrhagic injury. Sonography remains an important tool in the initial evaluation of intracranial abnormalities in critically ill term and near-term infants. An understanding of the differences in etiology, sonographic patterns, and limitations of sonography in the term infant is essential for accurate and effective diagnoses in this age group. (orig.)

  14. The problem of missing terms in term by term integration involving divergent integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galapon, Eric A.

    2017-01-01

    Term by term integration may lead to divergent integrals, and naive evaluation of them by means of, say, analytic continuation or by regularization or by the finite part integral may lead to missing terms. Here, under certain analyticity conditions, the problem of missing terms for the incomplete Stieltjes transform, ∫0af (x )(ω+x ) -1 dx , and the Stieltjes transform itself, ∫0∞f (x )(ω+x ) -1 dx , is resolved by lifting the integration in the complex plane. It is shown that the missing terms arise from the singularities of the complex-valued function f(z)(ω+z)-1, with the divergent integrals arising from term by term integration interpreted as finite part integrals.

  15. Gogny interactions with tensor terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A.M.; Bernard, R.N. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain); Co' , G. [INFN, Lecce (Italy); De Donno, V. [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' ' E. De Giorgi' ' , Lecce (Italy); Grasso, M. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2016-07-15

    We present a perturbative approach to include tensor terms in the Gogny interaction. We do not change the values of the usual parameterisations, with the only exception of the spin-orbit term, and we add tensor terms whose only free parameters are the strengths of the interactions. We identify observables sensitive to the presence of the tensor force in Hartree-Fock, Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and random phase approximation calculations. We show the need of including two tensor contributions, at least: a pure tensor term and a tensor-isospin term. We show results relevant for the inclusion of the tensor term for single-particle energies, charge-conserving magnetic excitations and Gamow-Teller excitations. (orig.)

  16. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Hettne (Kristina); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); R.J.A. Schijvenaars (Bob); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and

  17. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  18. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  19. The Term Processor Generator Kimwitu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, P.H.J.; van Eijk, Peter; Belinfante, Axel; Eertink, E.H.; Eertink, Henk; Alblas, H.; Brinksma, Hendrik

    The Kimwitu system is a meta-tool that supports the construction of programs (tools) that operate on trees or terms. The system supports open multi-paradigm programming, in that it allows to express each part of an implementation in the most appropriate language. Terms can be implemented in a tool

  20. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  1. Telecommunications glossary of telecommunications terms

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This glossary contains more than 5,000 technical terms and definitions that were standardized by the federal government for use by international and U.S. government telecommunications specialists. It includes international and national terms drawn from the International Telecommunication Union, the International Organization for Standardization, the TIA, ANSI, and others.

  2. Long-term evolution of the force-free twisted magnetosphere of a magnetar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, T.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Miralles, J. A.; Pons, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    We study the long-term quasi-steady evolution of the force-free magnetosphere of a magnetar coupled to its internal magnetic field. We find that magnetospheric currents can be maintained on long time-scales of the order of thousands of years. Meanwhile, the energy, helicity and twist stored in the magnetosphere all gradually increase over the course of this evolution, until a critical point is reached, beyond which a force-free magnetosphere cannot be constructed. At this point, some large-scale magnetospheric rearrangement, possibly resulting in an outburst or a flare, must occur, releasing a large fraction of the stored energy, helicity and twist. After that, the quasi-steady evolution should continue in a similar manner from the new initial conditions. The time-scale for reaching this critical point depends on the overall magnetic field strength and on the relative fraction of the toroidal field. The energy stored in the force-free magnetosphere is found to be up to ˜30 per cent larger than the corresponding vacuum energy. This implies that for a 1014 G field at the pole, the energy budget available for fast magnetospheric events is of the order of a few 1044 erg. The spin-down rate is estimated to increase by up to ˜60 per cent, since the dipole content in the magnetosphere is enhanced by the currents present there. A rough estimate of the braking index n reveals that it is systematically n < 3 for the most part of the evolution, consistent with actual measurements for pulsars and early estimates for several magnetars.

  3. Supernatural A-term Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-01-01

    Following \\cite{Lin:2009yt}, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is $V_0$ plus MSSM (MSSM stands for Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) (or A term (It is called A-term inflation when the inflaton field is any direction (gauge or singlet) that generates an A-term.)) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the poten...

  4. Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahetya, Sarina; Allgood, Sarah; Gay, Peter C; Lechtzin, Noah

    2016-12-01

    Although precise numbers are difficult to obtain, the population of patients receiving long-term ventilation has increased over the last 20 years, and includes patients with chronic lung diseases, neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, and children with complex disorders. This article reviews the equipment and logistics involved with ventilation outside of the hospital. Discussed are common locations for long-term ventilation, airway and secretion management, and many of the potential challenges faced by individuals on long-term ventilation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals, developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information summaries.

  6. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  7. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  8. Interaction Terms in Nonlinear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Norton, Edward C; Dowd, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explain the use of interaction terms in nonlinear models. Study Design We discuss the motivation for including interaction terms in multivariate analyses. We then explain how the straightforward interpretation of interaction terms in linear models changes in nonlinear models, using graphs and equations. We extend the basic results from logit and probit to difference-in-differences models, models with higher powers of explanatory variables, other nonlinear models (including log transformation and ordered models), and panel data models. Empirical Application We show how to calculate and interpret interaction effects using a publicly available Stata data set with a binary outcome. Stata 11 has added several features which make those calculations easier. LIMDEP code also is provided. Conclusions It is important to understand why interaction terms are included in nonlinear models in order to be clear about their substantive interpretation. PMID:22091735

  9. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/vitaminsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins To use the sharing features on this page, ... of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Fat-Soluble Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, ...

  10. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  11. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the name of the organization responsible for the "certification" process, e.g., "XYZ Company's Certified Beef." [ Top ... The label must include a statement explaining the meaning of the term natural (such as "no artificial ...

  12. Supernatural A-Term Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    Following Ref. 10, we explore the parameter space of the case when the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is lower, for example, in gauge mediated SUSY breaking model. During inflation, the form of the potential is V0 plus MSSM (or A-term) inflation. We show that the model works for a wide range of the potential V0 with the soft SUSY breaking mass m O(1) TeV. The implication to MSSM (or A-term) inflation is that the flat directions which is lifted by the non-renormalizable terms described by the superpotential W=λ p φ p-1/Mp-3 P with p = 4 and p = 5 are also suitable to be an inflaton field for λp = O(1) provided there is an additional false vacuum term V0 with appropriate magnitude. The flat directions correspond to p = 6 also works for 0 < ˜ V0/M_ P4 < ˜ 10-40.

  13. The Weak Fe Fluorescence Line and Long-Term X-Ray Evolution of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus in NGC7674

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, P.; Annuar, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present NuSTAR X-ray observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC7674.The source shows a flat X-ray spectrum, suggesting that it is obscured by Compton-thick gas columns. Based upon long-term flux dimming, previous work suggested the alternate possibility that the source is a recently switched-off AGN with the observed X-rays being the lagged echo from the torus. Our high-quality data show the source to be reflection-dominated in hard X-rays, but with a relatively weak neutral Fe K(alpha) emission line (equivalent width [EW] of approximately 0.4 keV) and a strong Fe XXVI ionized line (EW approximately 0.2 keV).We construct an updated long-term X-ray light curve of NGC7674 and find that the observed 2-10 keV flux has remained constant for the past approximately 20 yr, following a high-flux state probed by Ginga. Light travel time arguments constrain the minimum radius of the reflector to be approximately 3.2 pc under the switched-off AGN scenario, approximately 30 times larger than the expected dust sublimation radius, rendering this possibility unlikely. A patchy Compton-thick AGN (CTAGN) solution is plausible, requiring a minimum line-of-sight column density (N(sub H)) of 3 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2) at present, and yields an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of (3-5) x 10(exp 43) erg s(exp -1). Realistic uncertainties span the range of approximately (1-13) x 10(exp 43) erg s1. The source has one of the weakest fluorescence lines amongst bona fide CTAGN, and is potentially a local analogue of bolometrically luminous systems showing complex neutral and ionized Fe emission. It exemplifies the difficulty of identification and proper characterization of distant CTAGN based on the strength of the neutral Fe K line

  14. Confining Strings with Topological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo Andrea

    1997-01-01

    We consider several aspects of `confining strings', recently proposed to describe the confining phase of gauge field theories. We perform the exact duality transformation that leads to the confining string action and show that it reduces to the Polyakov action in the semiclassical approximation. In 4D we introduce a `$\\theta$-term' and compute the low-energy effective action for the confining string in a derivative expansion. We find that the coefficient of the extrinsic curvature (stiffness) is negative, confirming previous proposals. In the absence of a $\\theta$-term, the effective string action is only a cut-off theory for finite values of the coupling e, whereas for generic values of $\\theta$, the action can be renormalized and to leading order we obtain the Nambu-Goto action plus a topological `spin' term that could stabilize the system.

  15. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    with the partial order model restricted to total terms. Hence, partial order convergence constitutes a conservative extension of metric convergence, which additionally offers a fine-grained distinction between different levels of divergence. In the second part, we focus our investigation on strong convergence...... of orthogonal systems. The main result is that the gap between the metric model and the partial order model can be bridged by extending the term rewriting system by additional rules. These extensions are the well-known Böhm extensions. Based on this result, we are able to establish that -- contrary...

  16. Sportsman's hernia? An ambiguous term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Schilders, Ernest

    2016-04-01

    Groin pain is common in athletes. Yet, there is disagreement on aetiology, pathomechanics and terminology. A plethora of terms have been employed to explain inguinal-related groin pain in athletes. Recently, at the British Hernia Society in Manchester 2012, a consensus was reached to use the term inguinal disruption based on the pathophysiology while lately the Doha agreement in 2014 defined it as inguinal-related groin pain, a clinically based taxonomy. This review article emphasizes the anatomy, pathogenesis, standard clinical assessment and imaging, and highlights the treatment options for inguinal disruption.

  17. Terms and concepts in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Šrámek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Annoucement connects of its autors. These activities relates to »didactic analysis of curriculum« (called in agogic sciences like this. Analysed terms and concepts are by judged by synergic procedures in annoucement. These fall into concrete conclusions (concerning mainly dividing of concept range and definition of concept content.

  18. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  19. Definitions of histocompatibility typing terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eduardo; Heslop, Helen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Taves, Cynthia; Wagenknecht, Dawn R; Eisenbrey, A Bradley; Fischer, Gottfried; Poulton, Kay; Wacker, Kara; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Noreen, Harriet; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    Histocompatibility testing for stem cell and solid organ transplantation has become increasingly complex as newly discovered HLA alleles are described. HLA typing assignments reported by laboratories are used by physicians and donor registries for matching donors and recipients. To communicate effectively, a common language for histocompatibility terms should be established. In early 2010, representatives from Clinical, Registry, and Histocompatibility organizations joined together as the Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group to define a consensual language for laboratories, physicians, and registries to communicate histocompatibility typing information. The Working Group defined terms for HLA typing resolution, HLA matching, and a format for reporting HLA assignments. In addition, definitions of verification typing and extended typing were addressed. The original draft of the Definitions of Histocompatibility Typing Terms was disseminated to colleagues from each organization to gain feedback and create a collaborative document. Commentary gathered during this 90-day review period were discussed and implemented for preparation of this report. Histocompatibility testing continues to evolve; thus, the definitions agreed on today probably will require refinement and perhaps additional terminology in the future.

  20. Short-term energy outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Polchinski ERG equation and 2D scalar field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kubyshin, Yuri; Neves, Rui; Potting, Robertus

    1998-01-01

    We investigate a $Z_2$-symmetric scalar field theory in two dimensions using the Polchinski exact renormalization group equation expanded to second order in the derivative expansion. We find preliminary evidence that the Polchinski equation is able to describe the non-perturbative infinite set of fixed points in the theory space, corresponding to the minimal unitary series of 2D conformal field theories. We compute the anomalous scaling dimension $\\eta$ and the correlation l...

  2. Magistritööde kaitsmine : [Katrin Erg jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    16. juunil Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli geoökoloogia magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogu koosolekul Katrin Ergi magistritöö "Vasavere ürgoru hüdrogeoloogiline režiim ning sulfaatide (SO4) sisaldus pinna- ja maapinnalähedases põhjavees" ja Reimo Rivise magistritöö "Väikesaarte maastikulise mitmekesisuse kujunemine Vilsandi ja Abruka näitel" kaitsmine. TPÜ sotsiaaltöö magistritööde kaitsmisnõukogu koosolekul Erki Korpi "Lastekaitsetöö ametnikevõrgustik : võrgustikutöö kasutamisvõimalusi vabariigi erinevates regioonides" ja Rita Kaljuse "Eakate toimetulek eluga ja sotsiaalteenuste vajadus Saksi vallas aastatel 1996-2000" ning Aino Kiisi "Kahe valitsuskoalitsiooni (1996-1999 ja 1999-2000) sotsiaalpoliitika : võrdlev analüüs" kaitsmine

  3. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PATTERN ERG IN CENTRAL VEIN OCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Novak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern electroretinogram (PERG findings were analysed in 30 patients with central retinal vein occlusion. Latency and amplitude values of PERG waves were compared with the results obtained in 30 healthy individuals after sample randomisation. In 15 cases with „hemorrhagic type” occlusion of the central retinal vein significantly reduced N1-P1 wave amplitude was noted (0,369 mV, related to „exudative“ disease type (0,557 mV, as well as to the control group of examines (0,782 mV. PERG was described as the sensitive method and important indicator in damage assessment, ie. ischemia in the ganglional cell layer in central retinal vein occlusion. Ischemia increases anoxia, which influences not only the axons but also the enzymatic and transport processes within the cell bodies, dendrites, axons and axonal terminals. Slowing down of the fast phase of axoplasmatic transport in the axons in ischemic damage blocked transmission impulses which could be evident through different degrees of PERG wave amplitude reduction. With this method the patients can be selected in whom due to severe retinal ischemia there is the risk of neovascular glaucomma and maculopathy, which is the absolute indication for panlaser-photocoagulation.

  4. Genes encoding chimeras of Neurospora crassa erg-3 and human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0105-0112. Keywords. Lamin B receptor; sterol reductase. Abstract. The human gene TM7SF2 encodes a polypeptide (SR-1) with high sequence similarity to sterol C-14 reductase, a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme in fungi, plants and mammals. In Neurospora and yeast this ...

  5. Lewenskwaliteit te midde van 'n erge stressor: 'n studie van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die rol van hulle persepsie van lewensgebeure as verstaanbaar, beheerbaar en betekenisvol, die drie elemente van Antonovsky se Koherensiesin, is toegelig. Volgens die ondersoek het ๋n sosiale ondersteuningsnetwerk en ๋n spirituele geloofsisteem ook betekenisvol bygedra tot die handhawing van hulle lewenskwaliteit ...

  6. 1051 Ergs: The Evolution of Shell Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-15

    Gloria Dubner Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio , Buenos Aires, Argentina Dale A. Frail National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM...to meeting contributions. A key to contributors’ names and institutions is found in the Appendix. ingful to define the mass ratio as the swept-up mass...Supercom- puting Institute . The VLA is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associ- ated Universities, Inc

  7. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...... that represent a quantification of how a term contributes to its context. Evaluation on two TREC collections and 350 topics shows that the random walk-based term weights perform at least comparably to the traditional tf-idf term weighting, while they outperform it when the distance between co-occurring terms...

  8. Long-term data archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  9. Short-term outcome for term and near-term singleton infants with intrapartum polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Leah; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Kuint, Jacob; Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate rates of early short-term neonatal complications among term and near-term newborn infants with polyhydramnios. Retrospective data were collected on 788 term infants with prenatal diagnosis of polyhydramnios and 1,576 matched controls, including information on maternal condition and on infant perinatal complications. The total rate of major congenital malformations among infants born to mothers with polyhydramnios was 2.3% compared to 0.13% for those with normal amniotic fluid index (p polyhydramnios, but no major congenital malformations, are at increased risk for minor congenital malformations (4.2%) as well as for postnatal complications, such as respiratory distress (5.7%), cardiovascular manifestations (mainly delayed closure of the ductus arteriosus; 3.1%) and hypoglycemia (7%) compared to controls. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that polyhydramnios was associated only with postnatal respiratory distress and hypoglycemia. The severity of polyhydramnios was not associated with an increased rate of neonatal complications. Although infants with polyhydramnios, but no major congenital malformations, were found to have increased rates of respiratory distress and hypoglycemia, these clinical manifestations were mild and had little effect on the babies' well-being and length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mercy as a Theological Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zyzak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyses different meanings of the term ‘mercy’. He begins with the ancient use of the word by pagan philosophers. This is the background for the analysis of the term ‘mercy’ in the Old and New Testament. The biblical sources lead to the definition of dogmatic foundations of God’s Mercy and allow the ethical and moral aspects of the human mercy to be shown. Closely connected with the last is the social dimension of the mercy. The author also deals with other dimensions of the mercy, such as: pastoral, liturgical, psychological and juridical. He also discusses the meaning of the mercy in the spirituality and Christian art.

  11. 45 CFR 1351.1 - Significant terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-term (maximum of 15 days) room and board and core crisis intervention services, on a 24-hour basis, by... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Definition of Terms § 1351.1 Significant terms. For the...

  12. Modes of convergence for term graph rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Term graph rewriting provides a simple mechanism to finitely represent restricted forms of infinitary term rewriting. The correspondence between infinitary term rewriting and term graph rewriting has been studied to some extent. However, this endeavour is impaired by the lack of an appropriate...... counterpart of infinitary rewriting on the side of term graphs. We aim to fill this gap by devising two modes of convergence based on a partial order respectively a metric on term graphs. The thus obtained structures generalise corresponding modes of convergence that are usually studied in infinitary term...... rewriting. We argue that this yields a common framework in which both term rewriting and term graph rewriting can be studied. In order to substantiate our claim, we compare convergence on term graphs and on terms. In particular, we show that the modes of convergence on term graphs are conservative...

  13. Modes of convergence for term graph rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Term graph rewriting provides a simple mechanism to finitely represent restricted forms of infinitary term rewriting. The correspondence between infinitary term rewriting and term graph rewriting has been studied to some extent. However, this endeavour is impaired by the lack of an appropriate...... counterpart of infinitary rewriting on the side of term graphs. We aim to fill this gap by devising two modes of convergence based on a partial order resp. a metric on term graphs. The thus obtained structures generalise corresponding modes of convergence that are usually studied in infinitary term rewriting....... We argue that this yields a common framework in which both term rewriting and term graph rewriting can be studied. In order to substantiate our claim, we compare convergence on term graphs and on terms. In particular, we show that the resulting infinitary calculi of term graph rewriting exhibit...

  14. Preeclampsia: Short-term and Long-term Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Jaimey M; Repke, John T

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that affects 4% of pregnancies and has a high risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as long-term cardiovascular risk. Recent updates in the definition, diagnosis, and management guidelines for preeclampsia warrant review by general obstetrician-gynecologists. Screening and prevention algorithms for preeclampsia are available, but ultimately the cure remains delivery of the fetus and placenta. Close monitoring for the development and worsening of preeclampsia during pregnancy is essential to optimize both maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  16. AAV-Mediated Gene Supplementation Therapy in Achromatopsia Type 2: Preclinical Data on Therapeutic Time Window and Long-Term Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Mühlfriedel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Achromatopsia type 2 (ACHM2 is a severe, inherited eye disease caused by mutations in the CNGA3 gene encoding the α subunit of the cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channel. Patients suffer from strongly impaired daylight vision, photophobia, nystagmus, and lack of color discrimination. We have previously shown in the Cnga3 knockout (KO mouse model of ACHM2 that gene supplementation therapy is effective in rescuing cone function and morphology and delaying cone degeneration. In our preclinical approach, we use recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer to express the murine Cnga3 gene under control of the mouse blue opsin promoter. Here, we provide novel data on the efficiency and permanence of such gene supplementation therapy in Cnga3 KO mice. Specifically, we compare the influence of two different AAV vector capsids, AAV2/5 (Y719F and AAV2/8 (Y733F, on restoration of cone function, and assess the effect of age at time of treatment on the long-term outcome. The evaluation included in vivo analysis of retinal function using electroretinography (ERG and immunohistochemical analysis of vector-driven Cnga3 transgene expression. We found that both vector capsid serotypes led to a comparable rescue of cone function over the observation period between 4 weeks and 3 months post treatment. In addition, a clear therapeutic effect was present in mice treated at 2 weeks of age as well as in mice treated at 3 months of age at the first assessment at 4 weeks after treatment. Importantly, the effect extended in both cases over the entire observation period of 12 months post treatment. However, the average ERG amplitude levels differed between the two groups, suggesting a role of the absolute age, or possibly, the associated state of the degeneration, on the achievable outcome. In summary, we found that the therapeutic time window of opportunity for AAV-mediated Cnga3 gene supplementation therapy in the Cnga3 KO mouse

  17. Long-term versus short-term hearing aid benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, R K; Cord, M T; Walden, B E

    1998-06-01

    This study compared hearing aid benefit obtained 6 weeks and a minimum of 1 year after fitting to determine if changes occurred over time. Fifteen individuals with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing losses, who were successful users of linear amplification, were fitted binaurally with the Resound BT2 Personal Hearing System. These hearing aids are programmable in two frequency bands that provide wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification. The manufacturer's recommended loudness growth in octave bands (LGOB) and audiogram programming algorithm and fitting procedures were used. Following an initial 6-week period and again following a minimum of 1 year of use, the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB) was administered. Similarly, speech recognition performance was tested using the Connected Speech Test (CST) in a six-talker speech babble at 50 dBA, +10 signal-to-noise (S/N); 60 dBA, +5 SNR; and 70 dBA, +2 SNR; and in quiet with a reverberation time of 0.78 seconds. Significant aided benefit was shown. These short-term benefit scores for the PHAB and CST were compared with those obtained after 1 year of full-time use. Results revealed no significant change in hearing aid benefit with long-term use, suggesting that a 6-week acclimatization period is sufficiently long for clinical trials of this type of WDRC amplification.

  18. Multicystic encephalomalacia in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigieri, G; Guidi, B; Costa Zaccarelli, S; Rossi, C; Muratori, G; Ferrari, F; Cavazzuti, G B

    1996-12-01

    The terms "multicystic encephalomalacia" and "subcortical leucomalacia" (SCL) are used to describe the presence of areas of necrosis that develop into cystic lesions inside the brain. These lesions are generally due to severe asphyxia and/or hypotension. The designation SCL can also be used to describe the extent and the seat of the lesion in the brain or to distinguish subcortical lesions from periventricular and/or combined ones. In this study we give an account of our experience with eight newborns admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit, who presented clinical