WorldWideScience

Sample records for term applications final

  1. 78 FR 20317 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES... or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087223XX and AP087223XA AGENCY: Export-Import...''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...

  2. 78 FR 67144 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0050] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086418XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has...

  3. 78 FR 69850 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ..., rail and port facilities in Australia. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice: 2013-0054] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086750XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the...

  4. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...-haul passenger service from Australia to other countries. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0030] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087980XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  5. 77 FR 70161 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured aircraft under operating lease from the... China. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s) being exported are not expected to... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2012-0543] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan...

  6. 78 FR 20913 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured commercial aircraft to China. Brief non... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0024] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 million: AP087801XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  7. 78 FR 13666 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Telecommunications Company Limited. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: To finance the... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0015] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan... States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  8. 77 FR 47382 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0345] Application for Final Commitment...: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  9. 78 FR 21948 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0027] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  10. 78 FR 16852 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0024] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  11. 78 FR 39285 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0033] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  12. 78 FR 78955 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0060] Application for Final... AP088412XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United...

  13. 78 FR 59688 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0049] Application for Final... AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

  14. 78 FR 56227 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0045] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  15. 77 FR 74010 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2012-0546] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  16. 78 FR 1211 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0558] Application for Final Commitment...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  17. 78 FR 23763 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0028] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  18. 78 FR 76614 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0059] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  19. 78 FR 16675 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0023] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  20. 78 FR 2673 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0102] Application for Final... AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

  1. 78 FR 42072 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0034] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  2. 78 FR 2672 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0101] Application for Final..., AP078595XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United...

  3. 77 FR 61750 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... export of a U.S.-manufactured satellite and associated services to China (Hong Kong). Brief non-proprietary description of the anticipated use of the items being exported: The U.S. exports will be used to... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0528] Application for Final Commitment...

  4. Long-term integrity of waste package final closure for HLW geological disposal, (2). Applicability of TIG welding method to overpack final closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sawa, Shuusuke; Aritomi, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    Overpack, a high-level radioactive waste package for geological disposal, seals vitrified waste and in line with Japan's waste management program is required to isolate it from contact with groundwater for 1,000 years. In this study, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method, a typical arc welding method and widely used in various industries, was examined for its applicability to seal a carbon steel overpack lid with a thickness of 190 mm. Welding conditions and welding parameters were examined for multi-layer welding in a narrow gap for four different groove depths. Weld joint tests were conducted and weld flaws, macro- and microstructure, and mechanical properties were assessed within tentatively applied criteria for weld joints. Measurement and numerical calculation for residual stress were also conducted and the tendency of residual stress distribution was discussed. These test results were compared with the basic requirements of the welding method for overpack which were pointed out in our first report. It is assessed that the TIG welding method has the potential to provide the necessary requirements to complete the final closure of overpack with a maximum thickness of 190 mm. (author)

  5. 77 FR 68775 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... monitoring equipment. Information on Decision: Information on the final decision for this transaction will be... information which would jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could...

  6. Space tug applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This article is the final report of the conceptual design efforts for a 'space tug'. It includes preliminary efforts, mission analysis, configuration analysis, impact analysis, and conclusions. Of the several concepts evaluated, the nuclear bimodal tug was one of the top candidates, with the two options being the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 systems. Several potential tug benefits were identified during the mission analysis. The tug enables delivery of large (>3,500 kg) payloads to the outer planets and it increases the GSO delivery capability by 20% relative to current systems. By providing end of life disposal, the tug can be used to extend the life of existing space assets. It can also be used to reboost satellites which were not delivered to their final orbit by the launch system. A specific mission model is the key to validating the tug concept. Once a mission model can be established, mission analysis can be used to determine more precise propellant quantities and burn times. In addition, the specific payloads can be evaluated for mass and volume capability with the launch systems. Results of the economic analysis will be dependent on the total years of operations and the number of missions in the mission model. The mission applications evaluated during this phase drove the need for large propellant quantities and thus did not allow the payloads to step down to smaller and less expensive launch systems

  7. 75 FR 30805 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final Terms and Conditions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final Terms and Conditions, Recommendations, and Prescriptions May 26, 2010. Take notice that the following hydroelectric application and applicant-prepared..., 2009. d. Applicant: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC. e. Name of Project: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric...

  8. Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given

  9. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  10. Call for applications_2013_VA_Final

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lindsay Beck

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... graduate level field-‐school, taught by UNBC and CoPEH-‐Canada team members1 . Final ... and most of the sessions in the course will be given in English. ... o demonstrated interest in Ecosystem approaches to health.

  11. Application opportunities in wireless communications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.E.; Blevins, R.P.; Olmstead, C.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of examinations of wireless technologies and applications that may offer potential to utilities. Five different wireless technology areas are reviewed. Three areas--Communication Networks, Monitored Security Services, and Home Automation--potentially represent new business ventures for utilities. Two areas--Automatic Vehicle Location and Automated Field-Force Management--represent wireless applications with potential for reduced operating costs and improved customer relations

  12. SKB's safety case for a final repository license application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan; Andersson, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The safety assessment SR-Site is a main component in SKB's license application, submitted in March 2011, to construct and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, Sweden. Its role in the application is to demonstrate long-term safety for a repository at Forsmark. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. The principal regulatory acceptance criterion, issued by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), requires that the annual risk of harmful effects after closure not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. SSM's regulations also imply that the assessment time for a repository of this type is one million years after closure. The licence applied for is one in a stepwise series of permits, each requiring a safety report. The next step concerns a permit to start excavation of the repository and requires a preliminary safety assessment report (PSAR) covering both operational and post-closure safety. Later steps include permission to commence trial operation, to commence regular operation and to close the final repository. (authors)

  13. Application and Network-Cognizant Proxies - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Ortega; Daniel C. Lee

    2003-03-24

    OAK B264 Application and Network-Cognizant Proxies - Final Report. Current networks show increasing heterogeneity both in terms of their bandwidths/delays and the applications they are required to support. This is a trend that is likely to intensify in the future, as real-time services, such as video, become more widely available and networking access over wireless links becomes more widespread. For this reason they propose that application-specific proxies, intermediate network nodes that broker the interactions between server and client, will become an increasingly important network element. These proxies will allow adaptation to changes in network characteristics without requiring a direct intervention of either server or client. Moreover, it will be possible to locate these proxies strategically at those points where a mismatch occurs between subdomains (for example, a proxy could be placed so as to act as a bridge between a reliable network domain and an unreliable one). This design philosophy favors scalability in the sense that the basic network infrastructure can remain unchanged while new functionality can be added to proxies, as required by the applications. While proxies can perform numerous generic functions, such as caching or security, they concentrate here on media-specific, and in particular video-specific, tasks. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that application- and network-specific knowledge at a proxy can improve overall performance especially under changing network conditions. They summarize below the work performed to address these issues. Particular effort was spent in studying caching techniques and on video classification to enable DiffServ delivery. other work included analysis of traffic characteristics, optimized media scheduling, coding techniques based on multiple description coding, and use of proxies to reduce computation costs. This work covered much of what was originally proposed but with a necessarily reduced scope.

  14. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  15. 15 CFR 301.7 - Final disposition of an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final disposition of an application. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS INSTRUMENTS...

  16. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  17. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, H A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  18. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, H.A.

    1969-01-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  19. Isotopic assessment of long term groundwater exploitation. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The stress imposed on the available water resources due to man's impact (exploitation, release of pollutants and agricultural practices) has resulted in depletion of the available reserves as well as deterioration of water quality in many parts of the world. Over wide areas, abstractions are exceeding current natural recharge and it is apparent from scientific studies that these water resources are being mined, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Sustainable development and management of those water resources needs long term monitoring records to understand the changes and dynamic responses due to the exploitation. These proceedings provide a synthesis of a series of hydrochemical, isotope and geohydrological data sets which will be used for quantitative assessment of the long term dynamic response of the groundwater system. The results show that both stable and radioactive isotopes are excellent tools for characterizing and understanding aquifer systems that are undergoing long term exploitation. Specific outcomes include establishment of methodologies for monitoring and predicting changes in water quality and quantity that will lead to improved water resources management. This publication is a summary of the results achieved during the coordinated research project (CRP) and the various studies performed by the participating institutions are presented as individual presentations. The overall achievements are presented as an executive summary, and the detailed findings are presented in each contribution. These results were presented in the final coordination meeting held in Vienna, 12-16 May 2003. The results obtained from this CRP will be used to improve the predictions of future behaviour of groundwater resources in response to exploitation. The scientific component of this CRP will be a valuable source of information for isotope hydrologists involved in isotope field applications and a useful guide for groundwater managers involved in groundwater resources

  20. Supplements and other changes to an approved application. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on supplements and other changes to an approved application to implement the manufacturing changes provision of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The final rule requires manufacturers to assess the effects of manufacturing changes on the identity, strength, quality, purity, and potency of a drug or biological product as those factors relate to the safety or effectiveness of the product. The final rule sets forth requirements for changes requiring supplement submission and approval before the distribution of the product made using the change, changes requiring supplement submission at least 30 days prior to the distribution of the product, changes requiring supplement submission at the time of distribution, and changes to be described in an annual report.

  1. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.; Chassay, R.

    1976-12-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment

  2. Space Processing Applications rocket project SPAR III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presents the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarizes the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies

  3. Impact of short-term severe accident management actions in a long-term perspective. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The present systems for severe accident management are focused on mitigating the consequences of special severe accident phenomena and to reach a safe plant state. However, in the development of strategies and procedures for severe accident management, it is also important to consider the long-term perspective of accident management and especially to secure the safe state of the plant. The main reason for this is that certain short-term actions have an impact on the long-term scenario. Both positive and negative effects from short-term actions on the accident management in the long-term perspective have been included in this paper. Short-term actions are accident management measures taken within about 24 hours after the initiating event. The purpose of short-term actions is to reach a stable status of the plant. The main goal in the long-term perspective is to maintain the reactor in a stable state and prevent uncontrolled releases of activity. The purpose of this short Technical Note, deliberately limited in scope, is to draw attention to potential long-term problems, important to utilities and regulatory authorities, arising from the way a severe accident would be managed during the first hours. Its objective is to encourage discussions on the safest - and maybe also most economical - way to manage a severe accident in the long term by not making the situation worse through inappropriate short-term actions, and on the identification of short-term actions likely to make long-term management easier and safer. The Note is intended as a contribution to the knowledge base put at the disposal of Member countries through international collaboration. The scope of the work has been limited to a literature search. Useful further activities have been identified. However, there is no proposal, at this stage, for more detailed work to be undertaken under the auspices of the CSNI. Plant-specific applications would need to be developed by utilities

  4. Lithium-polymer batteries for EV applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The project initially held a strong 'battery materials' profile, but has moved in its final year into more 'battery engineering' aspects; the performances of a range of potential materials have been screened, and candidates have emerged. It is noteworthy that these same materials have also now become 'best-choice' materials in commercial Japanese Li-ion batteries for mobile-phone, lap-top and, more recently, even electric-vehicle (EV) applications. It is now clear that the Li-ion (polymer) battery offers a genuinely viable option in electric and electric-hybrid vehicle concepts. Specifically, our work has involved synthetic, structural, morphological and electrochemical studies of lithium insertion mechanisms in TMO-based cathodes (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiFePO{sub 4}, etc) and graphitic carbon anodes. Performance has been optimised from cell capacity, power, shelf-life and safety viewpoints. Cost has also emerged as a critical variable. Novel methods have been developed within the project for elevated-temperature battery studies (up to 80 deg C); they have become widely applied internationally. The electrode materials which have been developed have subsequently been incorporated into laboratory-scale lithium-ion battery prototypes, whose performance has then been evaluated. The final phase of the project has focussed on a new cathode material (LiFePO{sub 4}) not in current commercial use and yet ideally suited to EV application by virtue of its cheapness, high capacity (ca 170 mAh/g), high voltage vs. Li (3.5V), and extremely flat discharge curve. This could well prove to be the 'best compromise' Li-ion battery cathode for EV applications in the future.

  5. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-10-26

    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  6. Final adult height in long-term growth hormone-treated achondroplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Namba, Noriyuki; Hanioka, Yuki; Ueyama, Kaoru; Sakamoto, Natsuko; Nakano, Yukako; Izui, Masafumi; Nagamatsu, Yuiko; Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Yamamuro, Miho; Ishiura, Yoshihito; Ogitani, Ayako; Seino, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gain in final height of achondroplasia (ACH) patients with long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment. We analyzed medical data of 22 adult patients (8 males and 14 females) treated with GH at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. Optionally, tibial lengthening (TL) was performed with the Ilizalov method in 15 patients and TL as well as femoral lengthening (FL) in 6 patients. Concomitant gonadal suppression therapy with buserelin acetate was applied in 13 patients. The mean treatment periods with GH were 10.7 ± 4.0 and 9.3 ± 2.5 years for males and females, respectively. GH treatment augmented the final height +0.60 ± 0.52 SD (+3.5 cm) and +0.51 ± 1.29 SD (+2.8 cm) in males and females compared to non-treated ACH patients, respectively. Final height of ACH patients that underwent GH and TL increased +1.72 ± 0.72 SD (+10.0 cm) and +1.95 ± 1.34 SD (+9.8 cm) in males and females, respectively. GH, TL, and FL increased their final height +2.97 SD (+17.2 cm) and +3.41 ± 1.63 SD (+17.3 cm) in males and females, respectively. Gonadal suppression therapy had no impact on final height. Long-term GH treatment contributes to 2.6 and 2.1% of final adult height in male and female ACH patients, respectively.

  7. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2017 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Graduate Medical Education; Hospital Notification Procedures Applicable to Beneficiaries Receiving Observation Services; Technical Changes Relating to Costs to Organizations and Medicare Cost Reports; Finalization of Interim Final Rules With Comment Period on LTCH PPS Payments for Severe Wounds, Modifications of Limitations on Redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board, and Extensions of Payments to MDHs and Low-Volume Hospitals. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    making technical corrections and changes to regulations relating to costs to related organizations and Medicare cost reports; we are providing notice of the closure of three teaching hospitals and the opportunity to apply for available GME resident slots under section 5506 of the Affordable Care Act. We are finalizing the provisions of interim final rules with comment period that relate to a temporary exception for certain wound care discharges from the application of the site neutral payment rate under the LTCH PPS for certain LTCHs; application of two judicial decisions relating to modifications of limitations on redesignation by the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board; and legislative extensions of the Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals.

  8. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.157 Section 52.157 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  9. 10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. (a) The application must contain a final safety... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.79 Section 52.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  10. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The spent fuel management activities described in volume 1 are compared in three areas. The first section summarizes the spent fuel management options being followed in each country and compares those options with regard to cost, environmental impact and public acceptability. Next section reviews and compares national policies on nuclear power, spent fuel management and high-level waste disposal and assesses their impact on the development and licensing of nuclear power plants. The third section compares the regulatory requirements affecting spent fuel managementin terms of their overall spirit and characteristics and in terms of the responsibilities of the utilities and the regulatory authorities. Finally, the last section addresses the applicability to Sweden of the findings from these comparisons, focusing on cost efficiency, health and safety, environmental impact, public acceptance and licensing procedures

  11. Final report of the inter institutional project ININ-CNSNS 'Source Terms specific for the CNLV'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya M, R.A.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of the project inter institutional ININ-CNSNS 'Source Terms Specifies for the CNLV' it is the one of implanting in the computer CYBER (CDC 180-830) of the ININ, the 'Source Term Code Package' (STCP) and to make the operation tests and corresponding operation using the data of the sample problem, for finally to liberate the package, all time that by means of the analysis of the results it is consider appropriate. In this report the results of the are presented simulation of the sequence 'Energy Losses external' (Station blackout) and 'Lost total of CA with failure of the RCIC and success of the HPCS' both with data of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  12. Artificial intelligence applications in logistics information systems : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    This report is the principal deliverable from the LIMSS-AI project. It summarizes the results of a survey of existing applications and discusses the feasibility and benefits of specific candidate logistics applications.

  13. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  14. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  15. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  16. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  17. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ''Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors'' which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ''substantial meltdown of the core''. This ''source term'', tile basis for tile NRC's Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC's reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ''source term'' release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ''source term'' is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it

  18. Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications Study was conducted as part of the U.S. DOT's overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportunities and challenges of planning and...

  19. Rural public transportation technologies : user needs and applications : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications study was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (DOT) overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportuniti...

  20. Impact of Monoenergetic Photon Sources on Nonproliferation Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valentine, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quiter, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Descalle, Marie-Anne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warren, Glen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinlaw, Matt [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chichester, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Cameron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pozzi, Sara [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources (MPSs) have the potential to improve sensitivity at greatly reduced dose in existing applications and enable new capabilities in other applications, particularly where passive signatures do not penetrate or are insufficiently accurate. MPS advantages include the ability to select energy, energy spread, flux, and pulse structures to deliver only the photons needed for the application, while suppressing extraneous dose and background. Some MPSs also offer narrow angular divergence photon beams which can target dose and/or mitigate scattering contributions to image contrast degradation. Current bremsstrahlung photon sources (e.g., linacs and betatrons) produce photons over a broad range of energies, thus delivering unnecessary dose that in some cases also interferes with the signature to be detected and/or restricts operations. Current sources must be collimated (reducing flux) to generate narrow divergence beams. While MPSs can in principle resolve these issues, they remain at relatively low TRL status. Candidate MPS technologies for nonproliferation applications are now being developed, each of which has different properties (e.g. broad vs. narrow angular divergence). Within each technology, source parameters trade off against one another (e.g. flux vs. energy spread), representing a large operation space. This report describes a broad survey of potential applications, identification of high priority applications, and detailed simulations addressing those priority applications. Requirements were derived for each application, and analysis and simulations were conducted to define MPS parameters that deliver benefit. The results can inform targeting of MPS development to deliver strong impact relative to current systems.

  1. Stationary battery guide: Design, application, and maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist a variety of users with stationary battery design, application, and maintenance. The following battery-related topics are discussed in detail: (1) fundamentals--how batteries are designed and how they work; (2) aging, degradation, and failures with an emphasis on how various maintenance tasks can prevent, detect, or repair certain degradation mechanisms; (3) applications--how batteries are designed for a specific purpose and how the battery industry has evolved; (4) sizing for different applications; (5) protection and charging; (6) periodic inspections and checks; (7) capacity discharge testing; (8) installation and replacement considerations; and (9) problems that can occur with battery systems. Since the original guide was published, new IEEE Recommended Practices related to stationary battery applications have been issued. This revision addresses those industry changes as well as some of the emerging issues related to the development of other industry documents. This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive reference source for stationary batteries and is intended to address the design, application, and maintenance needs of users. The technical discussions are at the application level. Fundamentals of battery design are covered in greater detail in this revision. More details related to internal cell materials, their operational relationship, and performance over the expected life of the battery cell are provided. This information has been included because many changes in battery cell materials, manufacturing and design processes are not always communicated to the user

  2. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  3. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications

  4. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  5. Solair heater program: solair applications study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    General Electric has designed and tested a low-cost solar system using a vacuum tube solar air heater under ERDA Contract E(11-1)-2705. This contract extension has been provided to evaluate various applications of this solar collector. The evaluation identified attractive applications, evaluated corresponding control procedures, estimated system performance, compared economically insolation and insulation, and evaluated the repackaging of off-the-shelf equipment for improved cost effectiveness. The results of this study prompted General Electric's marketing group to do a detailed commercialization study of a residential domestic water heating system using the Solair concept which has been selected as the most attractive application. Other attractive applications are space/domestic water heating and a heat pump assisted solar system/domestic water heating where the heat pump and the solar system function in parallel. A prime advantage of heated air solar systems over liquid systems is cost and longer life which results in higher BTU's/dollar. Other air system advantages are no liquid leakage problems, no toxicity of freezing problems, and less complicated equipment. A hybrid solar system has been identified that can improve the market penetration of solar energy. This system would use the existing mass of the house for energy storage thereby reducing solar cost and complexity. Adequate performance can be obtained with house temperature swings comparable to those used in nighttime setback of the thermostat. Details of this system are provided.

  6. Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Handley, Herbert M.

    A report is given of the development and progress of the Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) project, developed at Mississippi State University. Based upon research findings relative to effective teaching and effective schooling, five curriculum modules were prepared and implemented in instruction. In the second year of the project the…

  7. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Nieh

    2009-10-30

    Process migration is the ability to transfer a process from one machine to another. It is a useful facility in distributed computing environments, especially as computing devices become more pervasive and Internet access becomes more ubiquitous. The potential benefits of process migration, among others, are fault resilience by migrating processes off of faulty hosts, data access locality by migrating processes closer to the data, better system response time by migrating processes closer to users, dynamic load balancing by migrating processes to less loaded hosts, and improved service availability and administration by migrating processes before host maintenance so that applications can continue to run with minimal downtime. Although process migration provides substantial potential benefits and many approaches have been considered, achieving transparent process migration functionality has been difficult in practice. To address this problem, our work has designed, implemented, and evaluated new and powerful transparent process checkpoint-restart and migration mechanisms for desktop, server, and parallel applications that operate across heterogeneous cluster and mobile computing environments. A key aspect of this work has been to introduce lightweight operating system virtualization to provide processes with private, virtual namespaces that decouple and isolate processes from dependencies on the host operating system instance. This decoupling enables processes to be transparently checkpointed and migrated without modifying, recompiling, or relinking applications or the operating system. Building on this lightweight operating system virtualization approach, we have developed novel technologies that enable (1) coordinated, consistent checkpoint-restart and migration of multiple processes, (2) fast checkpointing of process and file system state to enable restart of multiple parallel execution environments and time travel, (3) process migration across heterogeneous

  8. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC. The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC, as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics.

  9. Time-Series Prediction: Application to the Short-Term Electric Energy Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso Lora, Alicia; Riquelme Santos, Jesús Manuel; Riquelme Santos, José Cristóbal; Gómez Expósito, Antonio; Martínez Ramos, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a time-series prediction method based on the kNN technique. The proposed methodology is applied to the 24-hour load forecasting problem. Also, based on recorded data, an alternative model is developed by means of a conventional dynamic regression technique, where the parameters are estimated by solving a least squares problem. Finally, results obtained from the application of both techniques to the Spanish transmission system are compared in terms of maximum, average and ...

  10. Heliostat Manufacturing for near-term markets. Phase II final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a project by Science Applications International Corporation and its subcontractors Boeing/Rocketdyne and Bechtel Corp. to develop manufacturing technology for production of SAIC stretched membrane heliostats. The project consists of three phases, of which two are complete. This first phase had as its goals to identify and complete a detailed evaluation of manufacturing technology, process changes, and design enhancements to be pursued for near-term heliostat markets. In the second phase, the design of the SAIC stretched membrane heliostat was refined, manufacturing tooling for mirror facet and structural component fabrication was implemented, and four proof-of-concept/test heliostats were produced and installed in three locations. The proposed plan for Phase III calls for improvements in production tooling to enhance product quality and prepare increased production capacity. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Manufacturing Technology Program (SolMaT)

  11. Long term nitrogen and phosphorus application to veld. | Donaldson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long term effects of a 5N x 3P factorial fertiliser application trial on hay yield, botanical composition and soil properties of veld are presented. Significant increases in hay yields were recorded during most years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0,757) between mean (over all 15 treatment combinations) annual hay ...

  12. Development of Advanced Polymeric Reflector for CSP Applications - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglio, Richard, T; Boyle, Keith, A; Henderson, Hildie

    2013-03-28

    This project attempted to deposit extremely thick and dense protective barrier onto a mirror film stack with a PET substrate. The target thickness was very high for thin film products; particularly since large areas and long production lengths of film are needed to make the final product economic. The technical investigations in this project centered on maintaining a quality barrier (i.e. dense film) while evaporating alumina with a high deposition rate onto a low cost PET substrate. The project found that the proposed configuration, particularly direct ion bombardment, provides too narrow a solution space to effectively and economically produce the ASRM attempted. The initial project goals were met when depositing on a limited width and at a modest rate. However, expanding to wide deposition at aggressive deposition rates did not produce consistent film quality. Economic viability drives the process to maximize deposition rate. The current system configuration has a limiting upper rate threshold that does not appear economically viable. For future work, alternate approaches seem needed to address the challenges encountered in the scale-up phase of this project.

  13. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  14. SIAM conference on inverse problems: Geophysical applications. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This conference was the second in a series devoted to a particular area of inverse problems. The theme of this series is to discuss problems of major scientific importance in a specific area from a mathematical perspective. The theme of this symposium was geophysical applications. In putting together the program we tried to include a wide range of mathematical scientists and to interpret geophysics in as broad a sense as possible. Our speaker came from industry, government laboratories, and diverse departments in academia. We managed to attract a geographically diverse audience with participation from five continents. There were talks devoted to seismology, hydrology, determination of the earth`s interior on a global scale as well as oceanographic and atmospheric inverse problems.

  15. Heat pumps for geothermal applications: availability and performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.; Means, P.

    1980-05-01

    A study of the performance and availability of water-source heat pumps was carried out. The primary purposes were to obtain the necessary basic information required for proper evaluation of the role of water-source heat pumps in geothermal energy utilization and/or to identify the research needed to provide this information. The Search of Relevant Literature considers the historical background, applications, achieved and projected performance evaluations and performance improvement techniques. The commercial water-source heat pump industry is considered in regard to both the present and projected availability and performance of units. Performance evaluations are made for units that use standard components but are redesigned for use in geothermal heating.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  17. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. 6 refs

  18. Dish/Stirling for Department of Defense applications final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, R.B.; Menicucci, D.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project to field a dish/Stirling system at a southwestern US military facility. This project entitled ``Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications`` was started in August 1993 and was completed in September 1996. The project`s objective was to assist military facilities to field and evaluate emerging environmentally sound and potentially economical dish/Stirling technology. Dish/Stirling technology has the potential to produce electricity at competitive costs while at the same time providing a secure and environmentally benign source of power. In accordance with the SERDP charter, this project leveraged a US Department of Energy (DOE) cost-shared project between Sandia National Laboratories and Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG). CPG is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cummins Engine Company, a leading manufacturer of diesel engines. To accomplish this objective, the project called for the installation of a dish/Stirling system at a military facility to establish first-hand experience in the operation of a dish/Stirling system. To scope the potential DoD market for dish/Stirling technology and to identify the site for the demonstration, a survey of southwestern US military facilities was also conducted. This report describes the project history, the Cummins dish/Stirling system, results from the military market survey, and the field test results.

  19. APPRAISAL OF FINAL TAILINGS APPLICABILITY FOR PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION OF MODIFIERS OF IRON-CARBON ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasugin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of rating of the galvanic final tailings applicability for further processing in the interests of needs of metallurgical production of the Republic Belarus is offered.

  20. Applications in soil-structure interactions. Final report, June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhaveri, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    Complex phenomenon of soil-structure interaction was assessed. Relationships between the characteristics of the earthquake ground motions, the local soil and geologic conditions, and the response of the structures to the ground motions were studied. (I) The use of the explicit finite-difference method to study linear elastic soil-structure interaction is described. A linear two-dimensional study of different conditions that influence the dynamic compliance and scattering properties of foundations is presented. (II) The FLUSH computer code was used to compute the soil-structure interaction during SIMQUAKE 1B, an experimental underground blast excitation of a 1/12-scale model of a nuclear containment structure. Evaluation was performed using transient excitation, applied to a finite-difference grid. Dynamic foundation properties were studied. Results indicate that the orientation and location of the source relative to the site and the wave environment at the site may be important parameters to be considered. Differences between the computed and experimental recorded responses are indicated, and reasons for the discrepancy are suggested. (III) A case study that examined structural and ground response data tabulated and catalogued from tests at the Nevada Test Site for its applicability to the soil-structure interaction questions of interest is presented. Description, methods, and evaluation of data on soil-structure interaction from forced vibration tests are presented. A two-dimensional finite-difference grid representing a relatively rigid structure resting on uniform ground was analyzed and monitored. Fourier spectra of monitored time histories were also evaluated and are presented. Results show clear evidence of soil-structure interaction and significant agreement with theory. 128 figures, 18 tables

  1. Case study applications of venture analysis: fluidized bed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosle, R.

    1978-05-01

    In order to appraise the case for government intervention in the case of atmospheric fluid-bed combustion, Energy Resources Company and Rotan Mosle have developed a methodology containing four key elements. The first is an economic and environmental characterization of the new technology; the second, a survey of its prospective users and vendors; the third, a cost-benefit analysis of its prospective social benefits; and the fourth, an analytical model of its market penetration and the effects thereon of a basket of government incentives. Three major technical obstacles exist to continued AFBC development: feeding coal and limestone reliably to the boiler, tube erosion and corrosion, and developing boiler turndown capability. The review of the economic, environmental and technical attributes of the new technology has suggested that the preliminary venture can be selected with confidence as a commercial prospect capable of detailed evaluation from both private and public perspectives. The venture choice can therefore be considered firm: it will be the equipment required for the combustion of coal in atmospheric fluid beds as applied to industrial process steam in boilers of at least 83 Kpph capacity. The most effective demonstration of the potential of AFBC in the eyes of prospective industrial users is that provided by a project conducted by the private sector with minimal government direction. Unlike the ''experimental'' style of existing mixed public-private demonstration projects, the pressure to achieve reliability in more commercial applications would serve rapidly to reveal more clearly the potential of AFBC. The marketplace can be allowed to decide its fate thereafter. Once AFBC has been successfully demonstrated, the relative merits of AFBC and coal-FGD are best left to prospective users to evaluate.

  2. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO 2 , 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as cogeneration

  3. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. Volume 3 is a compilation of appendices giving detailed results of the study

  5. ITER Safety Task NID-5A, Subtask 1-1: Source terms and energies - initial tritium source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Tanaka, M.R.; Sood, S.; Natalizio, A.; Delisle, M.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS) is to assess the environmental impact of tritium using appropriate assumptions on a hypothetical site for ITER, having the r eference s ite characteristics as proposed by the JCT. The objective of this work under the above subtask 1-1, NID-5a, is to determine environmental source terms (i.e., process source term x containment release fraction) for the fuel cycle and cooling systems. The work is based on inventories and process source terms (i.e., inventory x mobilization fraction), provided by others (under Task NID 3b). The results of this work form the basis for the determination, by others, of the off-site dose (i.e., environmental source term x dose/release ratio). For the determination of the environmental source terms, the TMAP4 code has been utilized (ref 1). This code is approved by ITER for safety assessment. Volume 2 is a compilation of appendices giving detailed results of the study. 5 figs

  6. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...

  7. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  8. Final Technical Progress Report Long term risk from actinides in the environment: Modes of mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas B. Kirchner

    2002-03-22

    The key source of uncertainty in assessing actinide mobility is the relative importance of transport by: (1) wind erosion, (2) water erosion, and (3) vertical migration. Each of these three processes depends on several environmental factors and they compete with one another. A scientific assessment of the long-term risks associated with actinides in surface soils depends on better quantifying each of these three modes of mobility. The objective from our EMSP study was to quantify the mobility of soil actinides by wind erosion, water erosion, and vertical migration at three semiarid sites where actinide mobility is a key technical, social and legal issue. This EMSP project was the first to evaluate all three factors at a site. The approach has been to investigate both short- and long-term issues based on field and lab studies and model comparisons. Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating threshold responses into a modeling framework that accounts for environmental factors and natural disturbances that trigger large changes in actinide mobility. The study measured erosional losses of sediment and fallout cesium (an actinide analogue) from field plots located near WIPP in 1998. The results highlight the large effect of burning as a disturbance on contaminant transport and mobility via runoff and erosion. The results show that runoff, erosion, and actinide transport are (1) strongly site specific-differences in radionuclide transport between WIPP and Rocky Flats differed by a factor of twelve because of soil and vegetation differences, and (2) are strongly impacted by disturbances such as fire, which can increase runoff, erosion, and actinide transport by more than an order of magnitude. In addition, a laboratory experiment using soil columns was conducted to investigate the vertical transport of contaminants in sandy soils. Nine columns of soil collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site were prepared. The column consisted of a piece of PVC pipe 20 cm

  9. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  10. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  11. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) from June to October 1986. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. This final report includes revisions requested by SKN upon review of the draft report dated in September 26, 1986. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I (Section 2.0 of the report) consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries. The information contained in these country-specific reports was used as the basis for comparing the options in each country in terms of cost, environmental impact, and public acceptability, and for comparing the policies and regulatory requirements affecting these activities in each country. These comparisons are provided in Volume II (Section 3.0 of the report). Section 3.0 also includes a discussion of the applicability to Sweden of the strategies and policies in the eight countries studied. Finally, Volume III of the report (Section 4.0) presents the laws, regulations and other documents pertinent to spent fuel and high-level waste management in these countries. Descriptive summaries of the documents are provided in Section 4.0, a comparison guide to the documents themselves (the great majority of them in English) which are provided in 15 volumes of appendices

  12. Claims Procedure for Plans Providing Disability Benefits; 90-Day Delay of Applicability Date. Final rule; delay of applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This document delays for ninety (90) days--through April 1, 2018--the applicability of a final rule amending the claims procedure requirements applicable to ERISA-covered employee benefit plans that provide disability benefits (Final Rule). The Final Rule was published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2016, became effective on January 18, 2017, and was scheduled to become applicable on January 1, 2018. The delay announced in this document is necessary to enable the Department of Labor to carefully consider comments and data as part of its effort, pursuant to Executive Order 13777, to examine regulatory alternatives that meet its objectives of ensuring the full and fair review of disability benefit claims while not imposing unnecessary costs and adverse consequences.

  13. Realistic minimum accident source terms - Evaluation, application, and risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, P. L.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation, application, and risk acceptance for realistic minimum accident source terms can represent a complex and arduous undertaking. This effort poses a very high impact to design, construction cost, operations and maintenance, and integrated safety over the expected facility lifetime. At the 2005 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) Meeting in Knoxville Tenn., two papers were presented mat summarized the Y-12 effort that reduced the number of criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) detectors originally designed for the new Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility (HEUMF) from 258 to an eventual as-built number of 60. Part of that effort relied on determining a realistic minimum accident source term specific to the facility. Since that time, the rationale for an alternate minimum accident has been strengthened by an evaluation process that incorporates realism. A recent update to the HEUMF CAAS technical basis highlights the concepts presented here. (authors)

  14. Reassessment of the technical bases for estimating source terms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, M.; Mitchell, J.A.; Meyer, R.O.; Ryder, C.P.

    1986-07-01

    This document describes a major advance in the technology for calculating source terms from postulated accidents at US light-water reactors. The improved technology consists of (1) an extensive data base from severe accident research programs initiated following the TMI accident, (2) a set of coupled and integrated computer codes (the Source Term Code Package), which models key aspects of fission product behavior under severe accident conditions, and (3) a number of detailed mechanistic codes that bridge the gap between the data base and the Source Term Code Package. The improved understanding of severe accident phenonmena has also allowed an identification of significant sources of uncertainty, which should be considered in estimating source terms. These sources of uncertainty are also described in this document. The current technology provides a significant improvement in evaluating source terms over that available at the time of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and, because of this significance, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff is recommending its use

  15. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  16. Using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) modelling for rapid source term prediction. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knochenhauer, M.; Swaling, V.H.; Dedda, F.D.; Hansson, F.; Sjoekvist, S.; Sunnegaerd, K.

    2013-10-01

    The project presented in this report deals with a number of complex issues related to the development of a tool for rapid source term prediction (RASTEP), based on a plant model represented as a Bayesian belief network (BBN) and a source term module which is used for assigning relevant source terms to BBN end states. Thus, RASTEP uses a BBN to model severe accident progression in a nuclear power plant in combination with pre-calculated source terms (i.e., amount, composition, timing, and release path of released radio-nuclides). The output is a set of possible source terms with associated probabilities. One major issue has been associated with the integration of probabilistic and deterministic analyses are addressed, dealing with the challenge of making the source term determination flexible enough to give reliable and valid output throughout the accident scenario. The potential for connecting RASTEP to a fast running source term prediction code has been explored, as well as alternative ways of improving the deterministic connections of the tool. As part of the investigation, a comparison of two deterministic severe accident analysis codes has been performed. A second important task has been to develop a general method where experts' beliefs can be included in a systematic way when defining the conditional probability tables (CPTs) in the BBN. The proposed method includes expert judgement in a systematic way when defining the CPTs of a BBN. Using this iterative method results in a reliable BBN even though expert judgements, with their associated uncertainties, have been used. It also simplifies verification and validation of the considerable amounts of quantitative data included in a BBN. (Author)

  17. Using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) modelling for rapid source term prediction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochenhauer, M.; Swaling, V.H.; Dedda, F.D.; Hansson, F.; Sjoekvist, S.; Sunnegaerd, K. [Lloyd' s Register Consulting AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    The project presented in this report deals with a number of complex issues related to the development of a tool for rapid source term prediction (RASTEP), based on a plant model represented as a Bayesian belief network (BBN) and a source term module which is used for assigning relevant source terms to BBN end states. Thus, RASTEP uses a BBN to model severe accident progression in a nuclear power plant in combination with pre-calculated source terms (i.e., amount, composition, timing, and release path of released radio-nuclides). The output is a set of possible source terms with associated probabilities. One major issue has been associated with the integration of probabilistic and deterministic analyses are addressed, dealing with the challenge of making the source term determination flexible enough to give reliable and valid output throughout the accident scenario. The potential for connecting RASTEP to a fast running source term prediction code has been explored, as well as alternative ways of improving the deterministic connections of the tool. As part of the investigation, a comparison of two deterministic severe accident analysis codes has been performed. A second important task has been to develop a general method where experts' beliefs can be included in a systematic way when defining the conditional probability tables (CPTs) in the BBN. The proposed method includes expert judgement in a systematic way when defining the CPTs of a BBN. Using this iterative method results in a reliable BBN even though expert judgements, with their associated uncertainties, have been used. It also simplifies verification and validation of the considerable amounts of quantitative data included in a BBN. (Author)

  18. Development of the methodology for application of revised source term to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.S.; Kang, P.; Kang, C.S.; Moon, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the current trend in applying the revised source term proposed by NUREG-1465 to the nuclear power plants in the U.S., it is expected that the revised source term will be applied to the Korean operating nuclear power plants in the near future, even though the exact time can not be estimated. To meet the future technical demands, it is necessary to prepare the technical system including the related regulatory requirements in advance. In this research, therefore, it is intended to develop the methodology to apply the revised source term to operating nuclear power plants in Korea. Several principles were established to develop the application methodologies. First, it is not necessary to modify the existing regulations about source term (i.e., any back-fitting to operating nuclear plants is not necessary). Second, if the pertinent margin of safety is guaranteed, the revised source term suggested by NUREG-1465 may be useful to full application. Finally, a part of revised source term could be selected to application based on the technical feasibility. As the results of this research, several methodologies to apply the revised source term to the Korean operating nuclear power plants have been developed, which include: 1) the selective (or limited) application to use only some of all the characteristics of the revised source term, such as release timing of fission products and chemical form of radio-iodine and 2) the full application to use all the characteristics of the revised source term. The developed methodologies are actually applied to Ulchin 9 and 4 units and their application feasibilities are reviewed. The results of this research are used as either a manual in establishing the plan and the procedure for applying the revised source term to the domestic nuclear plant from the utility's viewpoint; or a technical basis of revising the related regulations from the regulatory body's viewpoint. The application of revised source term to operating nuclear

  19. Applications for approval to market a new drug; complete response letter; amendments to unapproved applications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for approval to market new drugs and generic drugs (drugs for which approval is sought in an ANDA). The final rule discontinues FDA's use of approvable letters and not approvable letters when taking action on marketing applications. Instead, we will send applicants a complete response letter to indicate that the review cycle for an application is complete and that the application is not ready for approval. We are also revising the regulations on extending the review cycle due to the submission of an amendment to an unapproved application and starting a new review cycle after the resubmission of an application following receipt of a complete response letter. In addition, we are adding to the regulations on biologics license applications (BLAs) provisions on the issuance of complete response letters to BLA applicants. We are taking these actions to implement the user fee performance goals referenced in the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002 (PDUFA III) that address procedures and establish target timeframes for reviewing human drug applications.

  20. 77 FR 50153 - Special Purpose Permit Application; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set Longline Fishery; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...-FF01M01000] Special Purpose Permit Application; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set Longline Fishery; Final... of the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery, which targets swordfish. After evaluating several... take of seabirds in the shallow-set longline fishery based in Hawaii. The analysis of alternatives is...

  1. Study on consumers’ attitudes towards Terms and Conditions (T&Cs) : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, M.; Elsen, M.; Leenheer, J.; Loos, M.; Luzak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when buying products and services online, the vast majority of consumers accept Terms and Conditions (T&Cs) without even reading them. The current research examined effects of interventions aimed at making consumers aware of the quality of such T&Cs. This was done by

  2. Enhanced Polyhydroxybutyrate Production for Long-Term Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Ryan J.; Rahman, Asif; Miller, Charles D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to polypropylene and a Youngs modulus close to polystyrene. Due to limited resources and cost of transportation, large-scale extraction of biologically produced products in situ is extremely cumbersome during space flight. To that end, we are developing a secretion systems for exporting PHA from the cell in order to reduce unit operations. PHAs granules deposited inside bacteria are typically associated with proteins bound to the granule surface. Phasin, a granule bound protein, was targeted for type I secretion by fusion with HlyA signal peptide for indirect secretion of PHAs. In order to validate our secretion strategy, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tagged to the PHA polymerase enzyme (phaC), this three part gene cassette consists of phaA and phaB and are required for PHA production. Producing PHAs in situ during space flight or planet colonization will enable mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications thereby reducing resupply requirements. Biologically produced PHAs can be used in additive manufacturing such as three dimensional (3D) printing to create products that can be made on demand during space flight. After exceeding their lifetime, the PHAs could be melted and recycled back to 3D print other products. We will discuss some of our long term goals of this approach.

  3. Antimatter Production for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.; Schmidt, George R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use and potential of power generated from Proton-Antiproton Annihilation. The problem is that there is not enough production of anti-protons, and that the production methods are inefficient. The cost for 1 gram of antiprotons is estimated at 62.5 trillion dollars. Applications which require large quantities (i.e., about 1 kg) will require dramatic improvements in the efficiency of the production of the antiprotons. However, applications which involve small quantities (i.e., 1 to 10 micrograms may be practical with a relative expansion of capacities. There are four "conventional" antimatter propulsion concepts which are: (1) the solid core, (2) the gas core, (3) the plasma core, and the (4) beam core. These are compared in terms of specific impulse, propulsive energy utilization and vehicle structure/propellant mass ratio. Antimatter-catalyzed fusion propulsion is also evaluated. The improvements outlined in the presentation to the Fermilab production, and other sites. capability would result in worldwide capacity of several micrograms per year, by the middle of the next decade. The conclusions drawn are: (1) the Conventional antimatter propulsion IS not practical due to large p-bar requirement; (2) Antimatter-catalyzed systems can be reasonably considered this "solves" energy cost problem by employing substantially smaller quantities; (3) With current infrastructure, cost for 1 microgram of p-bars is $62.5 million, but with near-term improvements cost should drop; (4) Milligram-scale facility would require a $15 billion investment, but could produce 1 mg, at $0.1/kW-hr, for $6.25 million.

  4. 26 CFR 1.471-10 - Applicability of long-term contract methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. See § 1.460-2 for rules providing for the application of the long-term contract methods to...

  5. WTEC Panel on Power applications of superconductivity in Japan and Germany. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.D.; Larbalestier, David; Blaugher, Richard D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Sokolowski, Robert S.; Suenaga, Masaki; Willis, JefFR-ey O.

    1997-01-01

    In early 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation asked the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) to assemble a panel to assess, relative to the United States, how Japan and Germany are responding to the challenge of applying superconductivity to power and energy applications. Although the study was focused mostly on the impact of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) on the power applications field, the WTEC panel also looked at many applications for low-temperature superconductors (LTS). The market for low-temperature superconductor applications is well established, as is that for superconducting electronics, for which there is a separate WTEC panel. The panel on power applications of superconductivity was commissioned to identify the roles of public organizations, industry, and academia for advancing power applications of superconductivity, taking both a present and a long-term view

  6. WTEC Panel on Power applications of superconductivity in Japan and Germany. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, R D; Larbalestier, D; Schwall, R E; Sokolowski, R S; Suenaga, M; Willis, J E O

    1997-01-01

    In early 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation asked the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) to assemble a panel to assess, relative to the United States, how Japan and Germany are responding to the challenge of applying superconductivity to power and energy applications. Although the study was focused mostly on the impact of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) on the power applications field, the WTEC panel also looked at many applications for low-temperature superconductors (LTS). The market for low-temperature superconductor applications is well established, as is that for superconducting electronics, for which there is a separate WTEC panel. The panel on power applications of superconductivity was commissioned to identify the roles of public organizations, industry, and academia for advancing power applications of superconductivity, taking both a present and a long-term view.

  7. Comparison of source-term calculations using the AREST and SYVAC-Vault models: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Engel, D.W.; Garisto, N.C.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1988-07-01

    A comparison of the calculated radionuclide release from a waste package in a geologic repository has been performed using the verified SYVAC-Vault Model and AREST Model. the purpose of this comparison is to further establish the credibility of these codes for predictive performance assessment and to identify improvements that may be required. A reference case for a Canadian conceptual design with spent fuel as the waste form was chosen to make an initial comparison. The results from the two models were in good agreement, including peak release rates, time to reach peak release, and long term release rates. Differences in results from the two models are attributed to differences in computational approaches. Studies of the effects of sorption, convective flow, distributed containment failure, and precipitation are identified as key areas for further comparisons and are currently in progress. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Final results of a long-term, clinical follow-up in fatty liver patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Larsen, Sanne; Becker, Ulrik; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing focus on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to conduct a long-term clinical follow-up of patients with biopsy-confirmed fatty liver without inflammation or significant fibrosis (pure fatty liver), to analyse for potential risk....... All admissions, discharge diagnoses and causes of death during follow-up were collected. All surviving patients were invited to a clinical follow-up. RESULTS: The follow-up period was 20.4 and 21.0 years, respectively, for the NAFLD and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) groups. Two NAFLD patients...... of death. Patients with AFLD died primarily from cirrhosis and other alcohol-related disorders, whereas in patients with NAFLD the main causes of death were cardiovascular disease and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with pure non-alcoholic fatty liver, survival was good and independent...

  9. Burrell, Pennsylvania, vicinty property Long-Term Surveillance Plan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish elements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan (LTSP) for the Burrell, Pennsylvania, vicinity property. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will use this plan to support the issuance of a license for the long-term surveillance and maintenance of the Burrell vicinity property. The DOE and the NRC previously reached agreement regarding the issuance of a license for the Burrell vicinity property. This is a departure from the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, which requires the licensing only of disposal sites, not vicinity properties. However, given the unusually large volume of wastes and the distance from the Canonsburg disposal cell of the Burrell vicinity property, it was agreed that a license for a designed disposal cell with surveillance requirements constituted a reasonable and prudent approach in keeping with the spirit of UMTRCA. The Burrell vicinity property covers approximately 29 hectares (72 acres). Disposal of the 10,500 tonnes (I 1,600 tons) of residual radioactive material (RRM) removed from the Canonsburg Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site took place within an approximately 0.6-hectare (1.6-acre) section in the western portion and an approximately 0.6-hectare (1.6-acre) section in the eastern portion of the Burrell vicinity property. The RRM was brought in as fill for under the ConRail railroad tracks. The excess RRM was placed in a storage location adjacent to the Conemaugh River at Burrell, which was later added to the disposal area. The disposal area contains a total of 78,000 tonnes (86,000 tons) of RRM

  10. Characterization of long-term geological changes for final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.; Blomqvist, R.; Aikaes, T.

    1996-01-01

    The bedrock of Finland is very old and major crustal deformation processes ceased long ago. At present continuous slow processes prevail and geological changes taking place today are very difficult to observe. Anticipated future geological changes are dominated by the renewed development of the continental ice sheet in northern Europe. The present climate will deteriorate to a state amenable to glacier formation. Continuous processes such as groundwater flow and interrelated hydrogeochemical phenomena will be influenced by changes in the climate as well as by developing permafrost. The crust itself will be loaded by the weight of the ice sheet, and will will warp down. The final disposal programme has been devised with even more exceptional future changes in mind. The process of site identification in the site selection research programme has been developed to consider the eventuality of the future bedrock movements. Analysis of bedrock geometry and block patterns, together with related fracture zones assists in selecting a repository site where the risks of accumulation of large stresses, and their subsequent release as shear movements, can be minimized. By studying the prevailing conditions and tracing the record of earlier events an understanding of the relevant processes in general is developed. Paleo-hydrogeology is one of the areas which can provide information relating to 'why the conditions at the site today are as they are'. Although it is not possible to predict the future behavior of a site in a detailed manner, it is possible to constrain the scenarios needed in the safety assessment by establishing and documenting real events that have sometimes occurred, and that will most probably be repeated. (authors). 31 refs., 8 figs

  11. Long-term outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty in keratoconus:analysis of the factors associated with final visual acuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the long-term results of penetrating keratoplasty (PK in patients with keratoconus (KC and to evaluate factors that might influence the final visual outcome.METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients with clinical KC who had undergone PK by a single corneal surgeon in a single center from May 1980 to December 2005. The age of the patients, preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, corneal thickness, death to preservation time, and preservation to transplantation time were recorded. Additionally, postoperative complications such as graft rejection, development of glaucoma and specular microscopy were checked during the follow-up.RESULTS:Sixty-nine eyes from 69 patients were finally included. The follow-up period was 8.64±6.13y. Graft rejection occurred in 4 eyes of 69 cases (5.8%, and the time to graft rejection was 2.1±1.3y. A Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that the estimated cumulative probability of graft rejection at 6, 13, and 17y after PK were 95.6%, 90.0%, and 78.8%, respectively. When we evaluated factors that might influence final BCVA in eyes, no disparity donor-host trephine size (same graft size as well as higher spherical equivalent, and average K-value were associated with higher final BCVA. (P=0.006, 0.051, 0.092, and 0.021 in eyes with follow-up <8y; P=0.068, 0.065, and 0.030 in eyes with follow-up ≥8y, respectively.CONCLUSION: The long-term results of PK in patients with KC were favorable with a high percentage of good BCVA. Less myopic change and low average K-reading, as well as a surgical technique using the same size donor-recipient button may provide better visual outcomes particularly in patients with KC.

  12. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  13. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  14. Permeability and long-term durability of concrete in final repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihlajavaara, S.

    1990-02-01

    The interrelation of the permeability properties and longterm durability especially in wet repository conditions has been studied. The study is based on the author's long-term experience, literary survey and experiments on the durability, service life prediction, and on water and gas permeability. Degradation models and experimental results on water and gas permeability are presented. The experiments made indicated that high class concrete is practically water and gas tight, especially in the long run when stored under water. This meant that there will hardly be any mass transfer into concrete or out of it, if concrete is of good quality. Concrete structures can be designed to meet the required service life. It can be said that practically the precision increases and the scatter decreases in the service life estimation significantly when the thickness of the anticipated deteriorated surface layer is smaller due to the higher concrete quality. The service life of well-designed concrete silo walls made of high class concrete can be predicted to be at least 1000 years in the repository conditions. (orig.)

  15. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  16. Intermediate-term uranium supply curve estimation. Final report, February 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.J.; Goudarzi, L.A.; Douglas, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The study was undertaken to estimate US natural uranium supply capacities and associated economic costs over the intermediate term period, 1979 to 1990, and to develop the general supply outlook to 2000. Annual supply capacity schedules were estimated on an individual mill and mine family (production center) basis. Future production schedules were estimated by balancing estimated supply capacity with DOE future demand projections ranging from 150 GWe to 396 GWe of installed nuclear capacity in 2000; the impact of private sector inventory levels was accounted for. The long run economic cost of production was estimated by applying a specifically derived production cost model to individual mines and mills using available data, as for example, ore depths, grades, production type and capacity, mill recovery; economic assumptions, as for example, 16% return on equity, were also made. The study report presents details of the methodology and data used, and the results obtained; the production center assessment, the supply/cost curves developed, and the cost models used, are also presented. For the current trend outlook, the results indicate that existing and under-construction centers can meet the bulk of demand through 1990, and that new centers will be required to meet substantial shortfalls in the 1990s. The study indicated that the US average long run economic cost of $30 per pound in 1979, in constant dollars, will begin to increase after 1985 at between 4 and 5%

  17. Short-term ensemble radar rainfall forecasts for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo de Oliveira, M.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common natural disaster around the world, putting local population and economy at risk. Forecasting floods several hours ahead and issuing warnings are of main importance to permit proper response in emergency situations. However, it is important to know the uncertainties related to the rainfall forecasting in order to produce more reliable forecasts. Nowcasting models (short-term rainfall forecasts) are able to produce high spatial and temporal resolution predictions that are useful in hydrological applications. Nonetheless, they are subject to uncertainties mainly due to the nowcasting model used, errors in radar rainfall estimation, temporal development of the velocity field and to the fact that precipitation processes such as growth and decay are not taken into account. In this study an ensemble generation scheme using rain gauge data as a reference to estimate radars errors is used to produce forecasts with up to 3h lead-time. The ensembles try to assess in a realistic way the residual uncertainties that remain even after correction algorithms are applied in the radar data. The ensembles produced are compered to a stochastic ensemble generator. Furthermore, the rainfall forecast output was used as an input in a hydrodynamic sewer network model and also in hydrological model for catchments of different sizes in north England. A comparative analysis was carried of how was carried out to assess how the radar uncertainties propagate into these models. The first named author is grateful to CAPES - Ciencia sem Fronteiras for funding this PhD research.

  18. Long term test of buffer material. Final Report on the pilot parcels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, Ola; Sanden, Torbjoern; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Eriksen, Trygve E; Jansson, Mats; Wold, Susanna; Pedersen, Karsten; Motamedi, Mehrdad; Rosborg, Bo

    2000-12-01

    The 'Long Term Test of Buffer Material' (LOT) series at the Aespoe HRL aims at checking models and hypotheses for a bentonite buffer material under conditions similar to those in a KBS3 repository. The test series comprises seven test parcels, which are exposed to repository conditions for 1, 5 and 20 years. This report concerns the two completed pilot tests (1-year tests) with respect to construction, field data and laboratory results. Four research groups were engaged in this part of the project working on physical properties - mineralogy, cation diffusion, bacteria and copper corrosion, respectively. The experimental layout was to place parcels containing heater, central copper tube, pre-compacted bentonite blocks and instruments in vertical boreholes in crystalline rock. The heaters were used for simulating the decay power from spent nuclear fuel at standard KBS3 conditions (S1 parcel, 90 deg C) and to give adverse conditions (A1 parcel, 130 deg C). The latter was used in order to accelerate possible processes. Temperature, total pressure, water pressure and water content were measured during the heating period. The two pilot tests were terminated after approximately 12 months of heating, and the parcels were extracted by overlapping core drilling outside the original borehole. The entire 4.5 m long S1-parcel with approximately 20 cm rock cover was successfully lifted in one piece from the rock, whereas the central part of the A1 parcel was lost during drilling. The upper and lower parts were however retrieved. Reference and exposed bentonite material were analysed with respect to physical properties (triaxial, beam and oedometer tests), and to mineralogical properties (XRD, CEC, ICP-AES and SEM analyses) according to a defined test program. Some precipitation, mainly gypsum, was found in the warmest part of the parcels, and the only unpredicted change was minor uptake of Cu into the clay matrix. An overarching conclusion is that no degrading processes, with

  19. Long term test of buffer material. Final Report on the pilot parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Sanden, Torbjoern; Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Eriksen, Trygve E; Jansson, Mats; Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten; Motamedi, Mehrdad [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Rosborg, Bo [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The 'Long Term Test of Buffer Material' (LOT) series at the Aespoe HRL aims at checking models and hypotheses for a bentonite buffer material under conditions similar to those in a KBS3 repository. The test series comprises seven test parcels, which are exposed to repository conditions for 1, 5 and 20 years. This report concerns the two completed pilot tests (1-year tests) with respect to construction, field data and laboratory results. Four research groups were engaged in this part of the project working on physical properties - mineralogy, cation diffusion, bacteria and copper corrosion, respectively. The experimental layout was to place parcels containing heater, central copper tube, pre-compacted bentonite blocks and instruments in vertical boreholes in crystalline rock. The heaters were used for simulating the decay power from spent nuclear fuel at standard KBS3 conditions (S1 parcel, 90 deg C) and to give adverse conditions (A1 parcel, 130 deg C). The latter was used in order to accelerate possible processes. Temperature, total pressure, water pressure and water content were measured during the heating period. The two pilot tests were terminated after approximately 12 months of heating, and the parcels were extracted by overlapping core drilling outside the original borehole. The entire 4.5 m long S1-parcel with approximately 20 cm rock cover was successfully lifted in one piece from the rock, whereas the central part of the A1 parcel was lost during drilling. The upper and lower parts were however retrieved. Reference and exposed bentonite material were analysed with respect to physical properties (triaxial, beam and oedometer tests), and to mineralogical properties (XRD, CEC, ICP-AES and SEM analyses) according to a defined test program. Some precipitation, mainly gypsum, was found in the warmest part of the parcels, and the only unpredicted change was minor uptake of Cu into the clay matrix. An overarching conclusion is that no degrading

  20. Derivation of radioecological parameters from the long-term emission of iodine-129. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Klipsch, K.; Ernst, T.; Gorny, M.; Jakob, D.; Vahlbruch, J.; Synal, H.A.; Schnabel, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this project, the distribution and behaviour of 129 I and 127 I in the environment and its pathways through the environment to man were comprehensively investigated in order to provide a basis for estimating the radiation exposure to man due to releases of 129 I. To this end, the actual situation in Lower Saxony, Germany, was studied for exemplary regions near to and far from the coast of the North Sea. Accelerator mass spectrometry, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS were applied to measure the iodine isotopes, 129 I and P 127 I, in sea-water, air, precipitation, surface and ground waters, soils, plants, animals, foodstuffs, total diet, and human and animal thyroid glands. For air-borne iodine, the speciation as well as the particle size distribution of aerosols was determined. Soil depth profiles were investigated down to depths of 2.5 m in order to study the iodine migration as well as individual surface soil samples to allow for the determination of transfer factors of the iodine isotopes into plants. From the analytical results radioecological parameters for the long-term behaviour of 129 I in the pedo- and biosphere were derived. The iodine isotopes are in severe disequilibrium in the different environmental compartments. The pre-nuclear equilibrium 129 I/ 127 I ratio in the biosphere was determined to be 2.0 x 10 -13 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.39. Today, the environmental isotopic ratios in Northern Germany range from 10 -6 to 10 -10 . The highest ratios are found in North Sea water, the lowest in deep soil samples and ground water. The North Sea appears as the dominant source of air-borne iodine in Northern Germany due to the emissions of European reprocessing plants. The results are discussed with respect to their radiological relevance and in view of the general protection of the environment, i.e. air, water, soil and the biosphere. (orig.)

  1. Final Report: Scintillator Materials for Medical Applications, December 1, 1997 - November 30, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Wojtowicz, A.J.; Szupryczynski, P.

    2000-01-01

    From the very beginning of our program we regarded the understanding of the scintillation mechanism as our primary mission. If in addition this understanding could lead to the discovery of a new material, so much the better. When we began this work some nine years ago, the theoretical basis for the scintillation phenomenon was in disarray. The initial and final steps were reasonably well characterized, but there was no consensus on the crucial intermediate, the transfer of energy from the lattice to the emitting center. In the over 40 publications that resulted from this program, we demonstrated that despite the highly insulating nature of the hosts and the great magnitude of the band gap, the primary means of transport is through mobile charge carriers and their sequential capture by the emitting center. Although radical at the time, this picture is now generally accepted throughout the field. Subsequently, we also recognized the critical role that trapping centers localized at lattice defects can play in the process, not merely as passive sources of loss but as active participants in the kinetics. In this sense shallow traps can wreak more havoc than deep ones, impeding the rate by which carriers can reach the emitting centers and seriously slowing the resulting decay. And we established low-temperature thermoluminescence as a comprehensive tool for quantizing these effects. As for new and better materials, our work also had an impact. We were among the first to recognize the potential of LuAlO 3 (lutetium aluminum perovskite, or LuAP) as a detector for PET applications. Although this material has not supplanted LuSiO 5 (lutetium oxysilicate, or LSO) in terms of light output or absence of afterglow, LuAP still exhibits by far the highest figure of merit (light output divided by decay time) of any scintillator material currently known. Our work has also bought into stark view the dismaying realization of just how improbable it is that a material will ever be found

  2. Short and long-term career plans of final year dental students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Hazim H; Ghotane, Swapnil G; Abufanas, Salem H; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2013-08-13

    New dental schools have been established to train dentists in many parts of the world. This study examines the future dental workforce from the first dental school in the United Arab Emirates [UAE]; the aim of this study was to explore the short and long-term career aspirations of the final year dental students in the UAE in relation to their demography. Final year dental students of the Ajman University's College of Dentistry (n=87) were invited to participate in a self-completion questionnaire survey. Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were carried out on career aspirations using SPSS v20. Eighty-two percent of students (n=71) responded, the majority of whom were female (65%; n=46). Ethnicity was reported as: 'other Arab' (61%; n=43), 'Emirati' (17%, n=12), and 'Other' (21%, n=15). In the short-term, 41% (n=29) expressed a desire to work in government training centres, with Emirati students significantly more likely to do so (p=0.002). 'Financial stability' (80%; n=57) and 'gaining professional experience' (76%; n=54) emerged as the most important influences on their short-term career plans. The vast majority of students wished to specialise in dentistry (92%; n=65) in the longer term; logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of specialising in the most popular specialties of Orthodontics and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were less for the 'Other' ethnic group when compared with 'Emirati' students (0.26; 95% CI 0.068-0.989; p=0.04). Almost three-quarters of the students overall (72%; n=51) intended to work full-time. 'High income/financial security' (97%; n=69), 'standard of living' (97%; n=69), 'work/life balance' (94%; n=67), and 'professional fulfilment' (87%; n=62) were reported by the students as the most influential items affecting their long-term professional career choices. The findings suggest that students aspire to make a long-term contribution to the profession and there is a high level of

  3. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

    2005-12-01

    qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A fuel cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a fuel cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the fuel cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a fuel cell; this again translates into cost savings. Finally, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the fuel cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before fuel cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The final experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.

  4. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  5. 78 FR 17777 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Furnishing Long-Term Care Service to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... (Application for Furnishing Long- Term Care Service to Beneficiaries of Veterans Affairs, and Residential Care.... Application for Furnishing Long-Term Care Services to Beneficiaries of Veterans Affairs, VA Form 10-1170. b. Residential Care Home Program--Sponsor Application, VA Form 2407. OMB Control Number: 2900-0616. Type of...

  6. Lead plant application of leak-before-break to high energy piping. Final report, January 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the experience gained during a successful application of a leak-before-break program by Duquesne Light Company. This program was directed at the high energy nuclear piping at Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2. This experience can be applied to other nuclear plant leak-before-break efforts in order to minimize the number of pipe whip restraints, jet impingement shields, snubbers, and to discount the consideration of remaining pipe rupture dynamic effects. The chronology of events leading to Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval of the Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2 lead plant effort is described. The final report and pertinent sections of the final Safety Evaluation Report are also included. (author)

  7. Development of a standardised cup anemometer suited to wind energy applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Gustavsson, J.; Ronsten, G. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Friis Pedersen, T.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Westermann, D. [German Wind Energy Inst., Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Errors associated with the measurements and interpretation of the measured wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well calibrated anemometers of different types often show significant and not acceptable differences. The objective were to determine the optimum design for a cup anemometer which should be free from the design faults associated with all of the instruments currently commercially available. The objective were also to prepare a classification system for cup anemometers which will allow users of anemometry in the wind energy field to rank and select anemometers suited to specific required applications. The extensive experiments including tests in wind tunnels, of more than 500 anemometer configurations, fields tests and tests in laboratories together with the assessment and modelling work have helped to build up a thorough knowledge of the importance of different design parameters in terms of various behavioural effects. Influenced by trends from the international standardisation work, an early decision was made to focus on a vector, 3D, (angle-insensitive anemometer) cup-anemometer and to focus on conical cups since their sensitivity to vertical velocity components appeared to be less sensitive to the wind speed. The key measures taken to develop the new design consisted of an appropriate selection of the detailed design of the cup geometry's and mounting the cups at appropriate radius on a slender symmetric body. The development finally ended with an anemometer that gave a very good flat response within 1 % over the range from -45 deg to +35 deg and had a good linear calibration curve. Four prototypes of the anemometer optimised for flat response were produced. The flat response was also confirmed by field tests over the range {+-}20 deg. A patent application of the new anemometer was filed on the 6th of October 2000. By the time the project was initiated there was a

  8. Application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal. Final report; Anwendung und Weiterentwicklung von Modellen fuer Endlagersicherheitsanalysen auf die Freigabe radioaktiver Stoffe zur Deponierung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, Andreas; Larue, Juergen; Seher, Holger; Weiss, Dietmar

    2014-08-15

    The project of application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal is aimed to study the long-term safety using repository-specific simulation programs with respect to radiation exposure for different scenarios. It was supposed to investigate whether the 10 micro Sv criterion can be guaranteed under consideration of human intrusion scenarios. The report covers the following issues: selection and identification of models and codes and the definition of boundary conditions; applicability of conventional repository models for long-term safety analyses; modeling results for the pollutant release and transport and calculation of radiation exposure; determination of the radiation exposure.

  9. Batch-wise final disposal made feasible by long-term interim storage of waste: the choice of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans D.K.; Vrijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in the Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste. All kinds and categories of radwaste generated in the next 50-100 years will be stored in above ground engineered structures which allow retrieval at all times. After this long-term storage, the wastes will finally be disposed of in a deep geologic repository. At the political level no firm decisions have yet been taken with respect to the final disposal. Disposal in rock salt, which is available in the Netherlands, is explored as an option. Immediate disposal requires the availability of a large amount of money as well as a site. Neither of the two are available at present in the Netherlands, nor are they required at this time. Based on economic considerations, immediate disposal into a rock salt facility in not an acceptable option for the wastes presently produced in the Netherlands. Only after sufficient capital has been generated through an interest bearing fund can this option be considered for implementation

  10. Marked increase of final height by long-term aromatase inhibition in a boy with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Andreas; Moske-Eick, Olaf; Doerfer, Jürgen; Roemer-Pergher, Cordula; van der Werf-Grohmann, Natascha; Schwab, Karl Otfried

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most frequently used treatment in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is still in an experimental state, and both final height (FH) and long-term efficacy data in ISS have not been published. We present a 14.5-year-old boy with ISS and a height of 142.7 cm [standard deviation score (SDS) -2.79]. Based on the baseline bone age (BA) of 13.5-14 years, his predicted adult height (PAH) by Bayley/Pinneau was 154 cm (SDS -3.77)-158.2 (SDS -3.15). After a 5-year letrozole monotherapy, FH was 169 cm (SDS -1.57) showing a height difference between PAH and FH from 10.8 to 15 cm. No permanent side effects of the medication have been observed. Both a transient occurrence and a spontaneous recovery of decreased bone mineral apparent density were seen, verified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed no vertebral abnormalities. All therapy might be an effective and low-cost alternative to the use of GH. Further controlled trials should prove efficacy and safety of long-term AI therapy in boys with ISS.

  11. Application of a Barrier Filter at a High Purity Synthetic Graphite Plant, CRADA 99-F035, Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-01-01

    Superior Graphite Company and the US Department of Energy have entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the application of ceramic barrier filters at its Hopkinsville, Kentucky graphite plant. Superior Graphite Company is a worldwide leader in the application of advanced thermal processing technology to produce high purity graphite and carbons. The objective of the CRADA is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating the use of high-temperature filters to improve the performance of the offgas treatment system. A conceptual design was developed incorporating the ceramic filters into the offgas treatment system to be used for the development of a capital cost estimate and economic feasibility assessment of this technology for improving particulate removal. This CRADA is a joint effort of Superior Graphite Company, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE)

  12. 75 FR 2595 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Furnishing Long-Term Care Services to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... (Application for Furnishing Long- Term Care Services to Beneficiaries of Veterans Affairs, and Residential Care... comments for information needed to determine non-Federal nursing home or residential care home... information technology. Titles: a. Application for Furnishing Long-Term Care Services to Beneficiaries of...

  13. 75 FR 15495 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Furnishing Long-Term Care Services to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... (Application for Furnishing Long- Term Care Services to Beneficiaries of Veterans Affairs, and Residential Care... Furnishing Long-Term Care Services to Beneficiaries of Veterans Affairs, VA Form 10-1170. b. Residential Care... application used by a residential care facility or home that wishes to provide residential home care to...

  14. 37 CFR 1.730 - Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements. 1.730 Section 1.730 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... for extension of patent term; signature requirements. (a) Any application for extension of a patent...

  15. Introduction to nanotechnology: definition, terms, occurrence and applications in environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHS Ahmeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary technique that involves application based on the synthesis of molecules in nano-scale size range. Nanotechnology is also seen as new and fast emerging field that involves the manufacture, processing and application of structure, device and system by controlling shape and size in nanometer scale. The concept of nanotechnology is driven from the Greek word nano (meaning dwarf. The nano-particles are defined as a discrete entity that has dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. It is the small size in combination with the chemical composition and surface structure that gives the nano-particles their unique features. The alterations in physical properties serve to enhance versatility and efficacy in product development, resulting in more effective industrial and medical applications. As a result of the widespread use of nanotechnology and nano-materials, these particles find their way into the environment. Therefore, a focus on the source of nano-particles in the environment and their effects is included. This review concentrate on the recent information about analytical developments to assess the occurrence, fate and behavior of nano-materials in environment. It also focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in environment, especially in the area of air and water purifications.

  16. 37 CFR 1.770 - Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.770 Express... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term. 1.770 Section 1.770 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED...

  17. Design, construction and conditions of the application of unreinforced concrete final lining in conventionally driven tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnek, Jan; Hořejší, Jiří; Mařík, Libor; Růžička, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    The way to an economic design in the final lining in conventionally driven tunnels lies in structural analysing based on the actually encountered geotechnical conditions. Regarding reinforced concrete structures, many standards and regulations applicable to designing and building structures and taking them over by the client before their commissioning and before the end of the warranty period respectively exist in the Czech Republic. If the local conditions allow it, it is possible to design the final lining as an unreinforced concrete structure. In such a case it is necessary to take the differences into consideration in the structural design and in the possibilities of the lining behaviour and to set criteria for taking over the lining allowing for its use. Setting too stringent criteria for cracking can lead to an increase in the contract price, either because of the necessity for reinforcing the lining or because of the fact that the contractor reduces the risk by incorporating the assumed cost of repairs into the total cost. The paper describes basic differences in the approach to reinforced concrete and unreinforced concrete linings, the possibilities of limiting formation of cracks by means of the concrete mix design, by selection of the technological procedure of the work and the method of curing after stripping. The text contains a comparison of criteria for assessing the surface of an unreinforced concrete lining with criteria in foreign regulations.

  18. 78 FR 38810 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Furnishing Long-Term Care Service to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... (Application for Furnishing Long- Term Care Service to Beneficiaries of Veterans Affairs, and Residential Care.... 2900-0616.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Residential Care Home Program--Sponsor Application, VA... collection. Abstract: VA Form 10-2407 is an application used by a residential care facility or home that...

  19. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, B.J.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  1. Impact of long term pesticide usage on soil properties using radiotracer techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    An important activity of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is to assist Member States to ensure that, as far as possible, pesticides are used effectively and safely. To this end, FAO has published Guidelines for the Registration and Control of Pesticides, which forms the basis of most national pesticide registration schemes. Among the recommendations is that data should be provided to show that a candidate pesticide has no unacceptable effects on non-target organisms. Soil micro-flora and fauna, because of their central role in maintaining soil fertility, are highly ranked in this context. Concern has been expressed that the data normally presented may not be adequate to predict the effects on soil micro-organisms of repeated, heavy, multiple applications of pesticides that are common in monocultures of crops, such as cotton, maize and rice. Evaluation of the effects of such pesticide regimes requires studies of a range of soil microbial activities, some of which require the use of 14 C-labelled pesticides. Therefore, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organised a Co-ordinated Research project to assess whether or not there is a need to extend the data requirements for pesticide registration to cover such extreme agricultural practices. This TECDOC summarises the outcome of this programme and includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination meeting held in Hangzhou, China, 24-28 May 1999

  2. Qualification of final closure for disposal container I - applicability of TIG and EBW for overpack welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Kawahara, K.; Ishii, J.; Shige, T.

    2002-01-01

    Regarding the final sealing technique of the overpack using carbon steel, one of the candidate materials for the disposal container in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan, welding tests were conducted using TIG (GTAW), a typical arc welding process, and electron beam welding (EBW), a high-energy beam welding process. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the applicability, the scope of the applications and the conditions for the application of the existing techniques; while also examining the welding conditions and the weld quality. Regarding TIG, the optimum welding conditions (the conditions pertaining to the welding procedures and the groove geometry) were checked by using a specimen with a plate thickness of 50 mm, and then circumferential welding tests were conducted for cylindrical specimens with a groove depth of 100 mm and 150 mm. Radiographic testing showed that there was no significant weld defect in the weld and that the welding characteristics were satisfactory. The results of the test of the mechanical properties of the joint were also satisfactory. Measurement of the temperature distribution and the residual stress distribution at the time of the welding was conducted for an evaluation of the residual stress caused by the welding, and an appropriate residual stress analysis method was developed, which confirmed the generation of tensile stress along the circumferential direction of the weld. Then it was pointed out that a necessity of further consideration of how to reduce the stress and to examine the influence that residual stress has on corrosion property. The goal in the EBW test was to achieve a one-pass full penetration welding process for 190 mm while conducting a partial penetration welding test for a welding depth of 80 mm. Subsequent radiographic testing confirmed that there was no significant weld defect. (orig.)

  3. Application of SVM methods for mid-term load forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for the medium-term load forecasting using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The proposed SVM model was employed to predict the maximum daily load demand for the period of a month. Analyses of available data were performed and the most important features for the construction of SVM model are selected. It was shown that the size and the structure of the training set may significantly affect the accuracy of predictions. The presented model was tested by applying it on real-life load data obtained from distribution company 'ED Jugoistok' for the territory of city Niš and its surroundings. Experimental results show that the proposed approach gives acceptable results for the entire period of prediction, which are in range with other solutions in this area.

  4. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  5. Necessity of long term nuclear data development for various applications needing nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio

    2001-01-01

    Necessity of long term nuclear data development for accelerator-driven system target design, high-energy radiation shielding, medical application, space and astrophysical applications, etc. is described in this paper. For each application field needing nuclear data, considered were importance of nuclear data in determining the success or failure of the application, important gaps remaining in the nuclear data and feasibility of filling the gaps with a modest research effort. It can be concluded much more international discussions are required. (author)

  6. The European source-term evaluation code ASTEC: status and applications, including CANDU plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Giordano, P.; Kissane, M.P.; Montanelli, T.; Schwinges, B.; Ganju, S.; Dickson, L.

    2004-01-01

    Research on light-water reactor severe accidents (SA) is still required in a limited number of areas in order to confirm accident-management plans. Thus, 49 European organizations have linked their SA research in a durable way through SARNET (Severe Accident Research and management NETwork), part of the European 6th Framework Programme. One goal of SARNET is to consolidate the integral code ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code, developed by IRSN and GRS) as the European reference tool for safety studies; SARNET efforts include extending the application scope to reactor types other than PWR (including VVER) such as BWR and CANDU. ASTEC is used in IRSN's Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 2 of 900 MWe French PWRs. An earlier version of ASTEC's SOPHAEROS module, including improvements by AECL, is being validated as the Canadian Industry Standard Toolset code for FP-transport analysis in the CANDU Heat Transport System. Work with ASTEC has also been performed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, on IPHWR containment thermal hydraulics. (author)

  7. Wavelet applications for modeling in the atmospheric sciences: Current status and potential extensions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Envair, J.H.; Ekstrom, P.

    1995-11-01

    Wavelets are elementary mathematical functions used to construct, transform, and analyze higher functions and observational data. This report describes the results of an exploratory research effort to evaluate wavelet applications for numerically integrating differential equations associated with air pollution transport and conversion models. It is intended to provide a primer on wavelets, and specifically outlines the use of wavelets in a model that addresses derivative-evaluation and boundary-condition problems. Several factors complicate the use of wavelets for integrating differential equations. First, an enormous range of different wavelet types exists, making the choice of wavelet family for a given application challenging. Moreover, in contrast to the Fourier series, the functional derivatives necessary for numerical approximation are difficult to evaluate and consolidate in terms of wavelet expansions, introducing appreciable complexity into any attempt at wavelet-based integration. On the positive side, wavelet techniques do hold promise for effectively interfacing plume and other subgrid-scale phenomena in grid models. Moreover, workable techniques for derivative evaluation and simulation of boundary features appear feasible. Wavelet use may provide a viable, advantageous option for numerically integrating model equations describing fields on all scales of time and distance, especially where inhomogeneous fields exist, and provide a computationally efficient method of focusing on high-variability regions. The potential for wavelets to conduct integrations totally in transform space contrasts with Fourier-based approaches, which essentially preclude such treatments whenever nonlinear chemical processes occur in the modeled system

  8. Safety case for license application for a final repository: The French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissier, Fabrice; Voinis, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The reversible repository in a deep geological formation is the French reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste (HLW and ILW). Twenty years of R and D work and conceptual and basic studies since the first French Act of 1991 led, in particular, to a feasibility demonstration in 2005. According to the French Act on Radioactive Waste of 28 of June 2006, Andra shall design a reversible repository in order to apply for license in 2015. In response to this demand, Andra developed the industrial project known as 'Cigeo', a reversible geological disposal facility for HLW and ILW located in Meuse/Haute-Marne. Two years before applying for authorisation, Andra's project is now focusing on three main targets: developing Cigeo's industrial design, preparing the authorisation process through increased exchanges with stakeholders and the preparation of a safety case to support authorisation application. The latter draws on the previous safety cases of 2005 and 2009, which give a sound basis to assess Cigeo's safety, both for the operational and post-closure periods. In this new stage of the project, the challenging issues for the preparation of the safety case are the following: - to identify the various regulatory frameworks (nuclear and non-nuclear) and guides applicable to the facility; - to ensure that the industrial design complies in particular with the safety requirements as presented in the safety case and its supporting safety assessment; - to identify crucial inputs (R and D, tests,...) needed to support the authorisation application, in particular, to bring convincing arguments to assess the technical feasibility of the design and when appropriate its ability to meet the safety requirements; - to ensure that all the requirements from previous regulatory and peer reviews (national and international?) are taken into account. (authors)

  9. Application of the final flotation waste for obtaining the glass-ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the investigation of the final flotation waste (FFW, originating from the RTB Bor Company (Serbia, as the main component for the production of glass-ceramic materials. The glass-ceramics was synthesized by the sintering of FFW, mixtures of FFW with basalt (10%, 20%, and 40%, and mixtures of FFW with tuff (20% and 40%. The sintering was conducted at the different temperatures and with the different time duration in order to find the optimal composition and conditions for crystallization. The increase of temperature, from 1100 to 1480°C, and sintering time, from 4 to 6h resulted in a higher content of hematite crystal in the obtained glass-ceramic (up to 44%. The glass-ceramics sintered from pure FFW (1080°C/36h has good mechanical properties, such as high propagation speed (4500 m/s and hardness (10800 MPa, as well as very good thermal stability. The glass-ceramics obtained from mixtures shows weaker mechanical properties compared to that obtained from pure FFW. The mixtures of FFW with tuff have a significantly lower bulk density compared to other obtained glass-ceramics. Our results indicate that FFW can be applied as a basis for obtaining the construction materials. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176010: Composition, genesis, application, and contribution to the environmental sustainability

  10. Application of Telemedicine Technologies to Long Term Spaceflight Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. I.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    projects on space biology and medicine at the modern high level. In spite of the ISS international cooperation transparency space research programs require to follow the biomedicine ethics and provide confidentiality of the special medical information exchange. That can be achieved in the telemedicine support system built on the network principle. Presently we have all technical facilities needed to create such a system. In Russia activities on space telemedicicine support improvement are carried out by the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mission Control Center of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Space Biomedical Center for Training and Research and Yu. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Communications development and next generation Internet systems creation almost eliminate differences in the types of information technologies implementation both in the earth-based and near-earth space conditions. In prospect of the information community creation the telecommunication system of the near-earth space objects and its telemedicine element will become a natural part of the Earth unified information field that will open unlimited perspectives for flight support system improvement and space biomedical research conducting. Russia has unique data of numerous investigations on simulation of long, up to a year, effects of space flight factors on the human body. The sphere of situations studied by space medicine specialists embraced orbit manned space flights of the escalating duration (438 days in 1995). However a number of biomedical problems related to space flights didn't face optimal solutions. It's evident that during a space flight to Mars biomedical problems will be much more difficult in comparison with those of the orbit flights of the same duration. The summed up factors of such flights specify a level of the total medical risk that require assessment and application of

  11. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

  12. Selective application of revised source terms to operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Song, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Young Wook; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kang, Chang Sun

    2001-01-01

    More than 30 years later since 1962 when TID-14844 was promulgated, there has been big change of the US NRC's regulatory position in using accident source terms for radiological assessment following a design basis accident (DBA). To replace the instantaneous source terms of TID-14844, the time-dependent source terms of NUREG-1465 was published in 1995. In the meantime, the radiological acceptance criteria for reactor site evaluation in 10 CFR Part 100 were also revised. In particular, the concept of total effective dose equivalent has been incorporated in accordance with the radiation protection standards set forth in revised 10 CFR Part 20. Subsequently, the publication of Regulatory Guide 1.183 and the revision of Standard Review Plan 15.0.1 followed in 2000, which provided the licensee of operating nuclear power reactor with the acceptable guidance of applying the revised source term. The guidance allowed the holder of an operating license issued prior to January 10, 1997 to voluntarily revise the accident source terms used in the radiological consequence analyses of DBA. Regarding to its type of application, there suggested full and selective applications, Whether it is full or selective, based upon the scope and nature of associated plant modifications being proposed, the actual application of the revised source terms to an operating plant is expected to give a large impact on its facility design basis. Considering scope and cost of the analyses required for licensing, selective application is seemed to be more appealing to an licensee of the operating plant rather than full application. In this paper, hence, the selective application methodology is reviewed and is actally applied to the assessment of offsite radiological consequence following a LOCA at Ulchin Unit 3 and 4, in order to identify and analyze the potential impacts due to application of revised source terms and to assess the considerations taken in each application prior to its actual

  13. Mid-Term Assessment of the EU Drugs Strategy 2013-2020 and Final Evaluation of the Action Plan on Drugs 2013-2016: Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilie, Balbirnie; Matthew, Davies; Emma, Disley; Cristina Gonzalez, Monsalve; Stephen, Hartka; Stijn, Hoorens; Kristy, Kruithof; Martin, Sacher; Jirka, Taylor

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the EU Drugs Strategy 2013-2020 is to contribute to a reduction in drug demand and drug supply within the EU. The Strategy has so far been implemented by an Action Plan covering the period 2013-2016. This article sets out the findings of an evaluation that assesses the degree of implementation of the Strategy and the Action Plan in terms of outputs and, where possible, impacts. It looks at the extent to which the objectives of the Strategy have been achieved. The evaluation aims to provide evidence to support the European Commission's decision about whether to propose a new Action Plan for the period 2017-2020 and, if so, what changes would be needed compared to the current plan. Through applying a mixed-methods approach, the evaluation examined the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and coherence of the actions undertaken on the basis of the EU Drugs Strategy and the Action Plan, as well as their EU added value. The evaluation makes 20 recommendations, addressed to the European Commission, Member States, the European Council and other stakeholders. The key recommendation for the Commission is that a new Action Plan should be implemented for the period 2017-2020. This should be an updated version of the current Action Plan, rather than taking a new approach or introducing more new actions.

  14. Safety aspects of long term operation of water moderated reactors. Recommendations on the scope and content of programmes for safe long term operation. Final report of the extrabudgetary programme on safety aspects long term operation of water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    During the last two decades, the number of IAEA Member States giving high priority to continuing the operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated is increasing. This is related to the age of nuclear power plants connected to the grid worldwide. The IAEA started to develop guidance on the safety aspects of ageing management in the 1990s. Recognizing the development in a number of its Member States, the IAEA initiated this Extrabudgetary Programme on Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation of Water Moderated Reactors in 2003. The objective of the Programme was to establish recommendations on the scope and content of activities to ensure safe long term operation of water moderated reactors. The term long term operation is used to accommodate various approaches in Member States and is defined as operation beyond an initial time frame set forth in design, standards, licence, and/or regulations, that is justified by safety assessment, considering life limiting processes and features for systems, structures and components. The scope of the Programme included general long term operation framework, mechanical components and materials, electrical components and instrumentation and control, and structural components and structures. The scope of the Programme was limited to physical structures of the NPPs. Four working groups addressed the above indicated technical areas. The Programme steering committee provided coordination and guidance and served as a forum for the exchange of information. The Programme implementation relied on voluntary in kind and financial contributions from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the USA as well as in kind contributions from Bulgaria, Finland, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, Spain, the Ukraine, and the European Commission. This report summarizes the main results, conclusions and recommendations of this Programme and provides in the Appendices I-IV detailed

  15. Analysis of long-term guarantee of supply in power markets: Application of the marginal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrilla, Ernesto; Vazquez, Carlos

    2005-06-01

    In this paper the marginal theory is applied to discuss the different long-term equilibria that could be reached in an electricity market depending on the market participants' (generators, consumers and the regulator) goals and constraints. The aim is to identify the key elements of a possible market failure in providing generation adequacy - immature demand, regulated tariffs, long-term contracting, different agents perception of the market risks, etc - and to study their influence in the long-term market equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze several of the different capacity mechanisms that could be used to ensure generation adequacy, such as: short-term capacity payments, long-term capacity payments and capacity markets. This final analysis includes an estimation of how useful each method is to compensate the market failures that we have previously identified

  16. Final Report for Project "Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2014-01-17

    This is the final report for the Colorado State University Component of the FACETS Project. FACETS was focused on the development of a multiphysics, parallel framework application that could provide the capability to enable whole-device fusion reactor modeling and, in the process, the development of the modeling infrastructure and computational understanding needed for ITER. It was intended that FACETS be highly flexible, through the use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, to facilitate switching from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics, and making it possible to use simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that will take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS was designed in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application can take advantage through parallelism based on task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. As with all fusion simulations, an integral part of the FACETS project was treatment of the coupling of different physical processes at different scales interacting closely. A primary example for the FACETS project is the coupling of existing core and edge simulations, with the transport and wall interactions described by reduced models. However, core and edge simulations themselves involve significant coupling of different processes with large scale differences. Numerical treatment of coupling is impacted by a number of factors including, scale differences, form of information transferred between processes, implementation of solvers for different codes, and high performance computing concerns. Operator decomposition involving the computation of the individual processes individually using appropriate simulation codes and then linking/synchronizing the component simulations at regular points in space and time, is the defacto approach to high performance simulation of multiphysics

  17. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  18. 'Key' sectors in final energy consumption: an input-output application to the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determination of 'key' sectors in the final energy consumption. We approach this issue from an input-output perspective and we design a methodology based on the elasticities of the demands of final energy consumption. As an exercise, we apply the proposed methodology to the Spanish economy. The analysis allows us to indicate the greater or lesser relevance of the different sectors in the consumption of final energy, pointing out which sectors deserve greater attention in the Spanish case and showing the implications for energy policy

  19. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, Barto; Odink, R; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, WJ; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. Patients-31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were

  20. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case simulating a pump trip

  1. Implementation of pesticide applicator certification schools and continuing education workshops : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportations (ODOT) herbicide applicator training program consists of initial pesticide applicator training schools followed by independent Certification testing and then on-going yearly continuing education workshops...

  2. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosse, K.P.M., E-mail: kim.mosse@monash.edu [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia); Centre for Green Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Patti, A.F. [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia); Centre for Green Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Smernik, R.J. [School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia); Christen, E.W. [CSIRO Land and Water PMB No. 3, Griffith, NSW, 2680 (Australia); Cavagnaro, T.R. [School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Australian Centre for Biodiversity, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of winery wastewater to soils increased soil respiration and nitrogen cycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Untreated and treated winery wastewaters affected microbial community composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term application to soils impacted only minimally on soil OM composition. - Abstract: Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. {sup 13}C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal.

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosse, K.P.M.; Patti, A.F.; Smernik, R.J.; Christen, E.W.; Cavagnaro, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Application of winery wastewater to soils increased soil respiration and nitrogen cycling. ► Untreated and treated winery wastewaters affected microbial community composition. ► Long-term application to soils impacted only minimally on soil OM composition. - Abstract: Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. 13 C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal.

  4. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: Application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.

    2017-04-26

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  5. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.

    2017-11-16

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  6. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.; Crucifix, Michel; Lunt, Dan J.; Thorne, Mike C.; Bounceur, Nabila; Dowsett, Harry; O& apos; Brien, Charlotte L.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  7. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: Application to the late Pliocene and future

    KAUST Repository

    Lord, Natalie S.; Crucifix, Michel; Lunt, Dan J.; Thorne, Mike C.; Bounceur, Nabila; Dowsett, Harry; O& apos; Brien, Charlotte L.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs), long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term

  8. Long-term durability testing of ceramic cross-flow filter. Final report, September 29, 1987--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, T.E.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Long term durability testing of the cross flow filter is described. Two high temperature, high pressure test facilities were built and operated. The facilities were designed to simulate dirty gas environments typical of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification. Details of the design and operation of the test facilities and filter testing results are described.

  9. A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Nola J.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

  10. Commercial-grade motors in safety-related applications: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzman, P.M.

    1988-04-01

    The objective of this project was to discuss the process necessary to utilize commercial grade equipment in safety related applications and to provide utilities with guidance for accepting commercial grade motors for safety-related applications. The generic commercial-grade concepts presented in this report can be successfully applied to motors. Commercial grade item utilization has the greatest applicability to motors in ''mild'' environments, because these motors are essentially similar to commercial grade motors in materials, construction methods, and capabilities. The acceptance process is less applicable to motors that are subject to ''harsh'' environments during postulated accidents, because of the unique design features and testing required to qualify these motors

  11. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  12. Coordinated research programme on the application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution final research coordination meeting and consultants' meeting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.; Chilton, J.; Travi, Y.; Gerardo-Abaya, J.

    1998-02-01

    This document summarizes the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution. Summaries of 16 completed investigations are given. The completed investigations resulted to the application of 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 34 S, 15 N and boron isotopes integrated to some extend with the classical hydrological tools. These studies have broadly confirmed the use of isotope techniques on two main ways: a) to assist in the interpretation of groundwater flow systems; b) to act as tracers of the origin and pathways of ta range of groundwater pollutants. Several important aspects have become clear in the CRP: it is advisable not to rely on single isotopes, but to combine where possible the use of more than one, particularly oxygen with nitrogen and sulfur; it is essential to integrate isotope techniques with conventional hydrochemistry; trace elements have an important role to play in an integrated approach to the interpretation of contamination sources and pathways. This CRP should be regarded as a stepping stone, considering that the magnitude of the problem of groundwater pollution is enormous in global terms. In order to have an impact on the understanding of groundwater pollution, the need is seen for follow-up by several CRPs targeted at specific areas or problems. Of priorities are: a) urban waste, both human and industrial; b) the origin of saline groundwater; and c) nitrate in groundwater in both agricultural and urban areas

  13. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I

    2000-12-01

    results of SSAC/SKI activities as well as activities of the Euratom inspectorate. IAEA would be required to carry out the necessary measures, including sufficient independent verification activities, to assure that the results obtained are correct, and that they correctly represent the actual inventory of nuclear material. One or two unannounced inspections are foreseen to provide, as applicable, material balance verification and quality assurance, as well as to contribute to deterrence. It is expected, however, that such inspections will be co-ordinated between IAEA and Euratom to ensure the cost-effectiveness. The use of advanced technology, C/S and NDA instruments, with or without remote monitoring capability, would be limited to situations where repetition of costly verification measurements could be avoided. As regards fresh MOX, such instruments could be used to avoid costly measurements and to increase the detection capability of diversion, thus providing additional deterrence. Such technology and measures may also be used in special safeguard situations. The implementation of integrated safeguards in a cost-effective manner in Sweden would depend, on one hand, on the ability of the IAEA to ensure the application of all measures so that 'there is credible assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear materials' in Sweden. On the other hand, the increased use of SSAC/SKI and RSAC/Euratom would facilitate the optimal use of all resources involved in implementation of integrated safeguards in Sweden. In order to add credibility to any decision that would reduce measures aimed at assuring the absence of diversion of declared nuclear materials, the value of the measures of the Additional Protocol should be better understood in that respect. The confidence in the ability of the IAEA to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in a State is expected to increase as experience is gained. The roles and functional

  14. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I.

    2000-12-01

    SSAC/SKI activities as well as activities of the Euratom inspectorate. IAEA would be required to carry out the necessary measures, including sufficient independent verification activities, to assure that the results obtained are correct, and that they correctly represent the actual inventory of nuclear material. One or two unannounced inspections are foreseen to provide, as applicable, material balance verification and quality assurance, as well as to contribute to deterrence. It is expected, however, that such inspections will be co-ordinated between IAEA and Euratom to ensure the cost-effectiveness. The use of advanced technology, C/S and NDA instruments, with or without remote monitoring capability, would be limited to situations where repetition of costly verification measurements could be avoided. As regards fresh MOX, such instruments could be used to avoid costly measurements and to increase the detection capability of diversion, thus providing additional deterrence. Such technology and measures may also be used in special safeguard situations. The implementation of integrated safeguards in a cost-effective manner in Sweden would depend, on one hand, on the ability of the IAEA to ensure the application of all measures so that 'there is credible assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear materials' in Sweden. On the other hand, the increased use of SSAC/SKI and RSAC/Euratom would facilitate the optimal use of all resources involved in implementation of integrated safeguards in Sweden. In order to add credibility to any decision that would reduce measures aimed at assuring the absence of diversion of declared nuclear materials, the value of the measures of the Additional Protocol should be better understood in that respect. The confidence in the ability of the IAEA to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in a State is expected to increase as experience is gained. The roles and functional responsibilities of the four

  15. 75 FR 62512 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... than two years) with third parties with terms up to 30 years executed by September 7, 2020. The LNG may... Application, as countries that hold membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO Countries) and those... through job creation, increased economic activity and tax revenues. Second, Sabine Pass maintains that the...

  16. 48 CFR 32.503-15 - Application of Government title terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Application of Government title terms. (a) Property to which the Government obtains title by operation of the... Property; and (2) The termination clauses at 52.249, for termination inventory. (c) The contractor may sell... the scrap disposition. (d) When the title to materials or other inventories is vested in the...

  17. Bentonite deposits as a natural analogue to long-term barriers in a final repository of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The geology of bentonite occurrences in Almeria (Spain) and Wyoming (USA) were studied in order to find suitable natural analogue to the longterm mechanical behaviour of the bentonite barrier in the final nuclear waste disposal. The study is based on literature review over both occurrence areas and on fieldwork observations from Almeria, Spain. The deposit areas differ from each other by age, deposition environment, exchangeable cation chemistry, alteration condition, occurrence and deformational features. One of the most important deformational feature in Almeria bentonites was the existence of Tertiary (Middle and Upper Miocene, 6-15.5 Ma old) bentonite intrusion inside/over younger Quaternary (Pleistocene Superior, 0.01-0.72 Ma old) sediments. This was a result of the confining pressure of overlying volcanic rocks and sediments and the high plasticity behaviour of bentonites. According to this observation, the pressure effect in final nuclear waste repositories requires further investigations. The bentonites in Wyoming have survived weathering and shearing without losing their expandability or other properties typical of smectite-rich materials. (orig.)

  18. Student Acceptance and Application of Peer Assessment in a Final Year Genetics Undergraduate Oral Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, Heather; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students benefit from observation of each other's oral presentations through both exposure to content and observation of presentation style. In order to increase the engagement and reflection of final year students in an oral presentation task, a peer assessment component was introduced using a rubric that emphasised scientific…

  19. Application of MARSSIM for Final Status Survey of the Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jin Ho; Chung, Un Soo

    2011-01-01

    The release of a site and building from regulatory control is the final stage of the decommissioning process. The MARSSIM (Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual) provides overall framework for conducting data collection for a final status survey to demonstrate compliance with site closure requirements. The KAERI carried out establishing a final status survey by using the guidance provided in the MARSSIM for of a site and building of the Korea Research Reactor. The release criteria for a site and building were set up based on these results of the site specific release levels which were calculated by using RESRAD and RESRAD-Build codes. The survey design for a site and building was classified by using the survey dataset and potential contamination. The number of samples in each survey unit was calculated by through a statistical test using the collected data from a scoping and characterization survey. The results of the final status survey were satisfied the release criteria based on an evaluation of the measured data.

  20. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  1. Final report of the inter institutional project ININ-CNSNS 'Source Terms specific for the CNLV'; Informe final del proyecto interinstitucional ININ-CNSNS 'Termino Fuente especifico para la CNLV'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya M, R.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-02-15

    The purpose of the project inter institutional ININ-CNSNS 'Source Terms Specifies for the CNLV' it is the one of implanting in the computer CYBER (CDC 180-830) of the ININ, the 'Source Term Code Package' (STCP) and to make the operation tests and corresponding operation using the data of the sample problem, for finally to liberate the package, all time that by means of the analysis of the results it is consider appropriate. In this report the results of the are presented simulation of the sequence 'Energy Losses external' (Station blackout) and 'Lost total of CA with failure of the RCIC and success of the HPCS' both with data of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  2. Final report of the inter institutional project ININ-CNSNS 'Source Terms specific for the CNLV'; Informe final del proyecto interinstitucional ININ-CNSNS 'Termino Fuente especifico para la CNLV'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya M, R A [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-02-15

    The purpose of the project inter institutional ININ-CNSNS 'Source Terms Specifies for the CNLV' it is the one of implanting in the computer CYBER (CDC 180-830) of the ININ, the 'Source Term Code Package' (STCP) and to make the operation tests and corresponding operation using the data of the sample problem, for finally to liberate the package, all time that by means of the analysis of the results it is consider appropriate. In this report the results of the are presented simulation of the sequence 'Energy Losses external' (Station blackout) and 'Lost total of CA with failure of the RCIC and success of the HPCS' both with data of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  3. Long-term program on research, development and application of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    As the Committee of Atomic Energy in Japan has established eight times of the 'long-term basic program on development and application of atomic energy at every five years since 1956, these have consistently done every important roles as a leader of programmable promotion of policies on research, development and application of atomic energy in Japan. And, they also have showed some basic concepts on its research, development and application such as safety security, keeping of peaceful application, and so on, and also done a role as a strength with universality for promotion of their sure practices. Then, the Committee requested some surveys and discussions on establishment decided as a new long-term program on May, 1999, to a meeting on establishment of the long-term program, so as to clearly show a basic plan and its promoting measures on research, development and application of atomic energy to be adopted by Japan through the 21st Century under understanding of changes of various affairs after establishment of the previous program, to Japanese peoples, international society and nuclear relatives. The finished program is composed of two parts which are the first part of describing some messages toward Japanese peoples and society and international society and the second part of expressing concrete indications and promoting measures for practicing research, development and application of atomic energy. Here was shown on all sentences of the establishment containing the two parts of present condition and future way on research, development and application of atomic energy' and 'future evolution of research, development and application of atomic energy'. (G.K.)

  4. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  5. Application of self-consolidating concrete in bridge structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the feasibility and performance of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) made with local aggregates for use in cast-in-place and precast concrete applications and to develop draft specifications, acceptanc...

  6. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  7. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  8. Demonstration of diesel fired coolant heaters in school bus applications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Engine block pre-heating can reduce fuel consumption, decrease pollution, extend engine life, and it is often necessary for reliably starting diesel engines in cold climates. This report describes the application and experience of applying 36 diesel ...

  9. Final disposal of the rad waste materials - question of the nuclear energy implementation and application perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.

    1995-01-01

    Two main problems that are denying and slowing down the development of nuclear energy are safe work of the nuclear power facilities (NEF) and disposal of the radioactive waste materials, produced from the NEF and infrastructure facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). Although nowadays worldwide knowledge, based on the 45 year of experiences in handling the radioactive waste materials, do not treat the problems of final disposal of the rad waste materials as a task of the primary importance in NFC, this subject still engage experts from this field of investigations, especially in the countries that developed all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Techniques for final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste materials, are well known and are in state of implementation. The importance of the fundamental safety principles, implemented in the IAEA documents, concerning handling, treatment and final disposal of the rad waste materials, is presented. Future usage of nuclear energy, taking into account all the facts that are dealing with problems of the rad waste materials produced in the NFC, can be a reality. (author.)

  10. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Phase I. Final report. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    Licensing and regulation of commercial low-level waste (CLLW) burial facilities require that anticipated risks associated with burial sites be evaluated for the life of the facility. This work reviewed the existing capability to evaluate dose to man resulting from the potential redistribution of buried radionuclides by plants and animals that we have termed biotic transport. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man. We found that predictive models currently in use did not address the long-term risks resulting from the cumulative transport of radionuclides. Although reports in the literature confirm that biotic transport phenomena are common, assessments routinely ignore the associated risks or dismiss them as insignificant without quantitative evaluation. To determine the potential impacts of biotic transport, we made order-of-magnitude estimates of the dose to man for biotic transport processes at reference arid and humid CLLW disposal sites. Estimated doses to site residents after assumed loss of institutional control were comparable to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario defined in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by order of magnitude estimates presented in this study. 17 references, 10 figures, 8 tables

  11. M2 priority screening system for near-term activities: Project documentation. Final report December 11, 1992--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-12

    From May through August, 1993, the M-2 Group within M Division at LANL conducted with the support of the LANL Integration and Coordination Office (ICO) and Applied Decision Analysis, Inc. (ADA), whose purpose was to develop a system for setting priorities among activities. This phase of the project concentrated on prioritizing near-tenn activities (i.e., activities that must be conducted in the next six months) necessary for setting up this new group. Potential future project phases will concentrate on developing a tool for setting priorities and developing annual budgets for the group`s operations. The priority screening system designed to address the near-term problem was developed, applied in a series of meeting with the group managers, and used as an aid in the assignment of tasks to group members. The model was intended and used as a practical tool for documenting and explaining decisions about near-term priorities, and not as a substitute for M-2 management judgment and decision-making processes.

  12. Long-Term Use of Everolimus in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Final Results from the EXIST-1 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Franz

    Full Text Available Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs and other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. However, long-term use of mTOR inhibitors might be necessary. This analysis explored long-term efficacy and safety of everolimus from the conclusion of the EXIST-1 study (NCT00789828.EXIST-1 was an international, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial examining everolimus in patients with new or growing TSC-related SEGA. After a double-blind core phase, all remaining patients could receive everolimus in a long-term, open-label extension. Everolimus was initiated at a dose (4.5 mg/m2/day titrated to a target blood trough of 5-15 ng/mL. SEGA response rate (primary end point was defined as the proportion of patients achieving confirmed ≥50% reduction in the sum volume of target SEGA lesions from baseline in the absence of worsening nontarget SEGA lesions, new target SEGA lesions, and new or worsening hydrocephalus. Of 111 patients (median age, 9.5 years who received ≥1 dose of everolimus (median duration, 47.1 months, 57.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.9-67.0 achieved SEGA response. Of 41 patients with target renal angiomyolipomas at baseline, 30 (73.2% achieved renal angiomyolipoma response. In 105 patients with ≥1 skin lesion at baseline, skin lesion response rate was 58.1%. Incidence of adverse events (AEs was comparable with that of previous reports, and occurrence of emergent AEs generally decreased over time. The most common AEs (≥30% incidence suspected to be treatment-related were stomatitis (43.2% and mouth ulceration (32.4%.Everolimus use led to sustained reduction in tumor volume, and new responses were observed for SEGA and renal angiomyolipoma from the blinded core phase of the study. These findings support the hypothesis that everolimus can safely reverse multisystem manifestations of TSC in a

  13. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe HRL, LOT project. Final report on the A0 test parcel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Faelth, Billy; Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.; Svaerdstroem, Kjell; Rosborg, Bo; Muurinen, Arto

    2011-02-01

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, could be expected to produce minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory are focused on identifying and quantifying any mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks to a total diameter of 30 cm as well as temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity sensors. In each test parcel, an electrical heater placed inside the copper tube is used to simulate the heat generation from the decaying spent fuel. Three test parcels (S1 to S3) have been exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and three parcels (A1 to A3) to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below ∼140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (> 5 years) and long term tests (> 10 years). The present report concerns an additional short term test, thereby the designation A0, which was exposed to adverse conditions for approximately 1.5 years. Cu-coupons, 134 Cs and 57 Co tracers and specific chemical agents were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at the test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses may

  14. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe HRL, LOT project. Final report on the A0 test parcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.; Svaerdstroem, Kjell (KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosborg, Bo (Studsvik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Muurinen, Arto (VTT, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-02-15

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, could be expected to produce minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory are focused on identifying and quantifying any mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks to a total diameter of 30 cm as well as temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity sensors. In each test parcel, an electrical heater placed inside the copper tube is used to simulate the heat generation from the decaying spent fuel. Three test parcels (S1 to S3) have been exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and three parcels (A1 to A3) to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below approx140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (> 5 years) and long term tests (> 10 years). The present report concerns an additional short term test, thereby the designation A0, which was exposed to adverse conditions for approximately 1.5 years. Cu-coupons, 134Cs and 57Co tracers and specific chemical agents were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at the test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses

  15. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, 99 Tc and 129 I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10 -12 /year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of 99 Tc and 129 I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration

  16. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year

  17. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-03-01

    A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year

  18. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

  19. Experience with the use of programmable logic controllers in nuclear safety applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.M.; Stofko, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the implementation and experience with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for nuclear safety applications. Two applications are described. The first is an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) mitigation system provided as a Diverse Auxiliary Feedwater Actuation System (DAFAS). It was implemented at Arizona Public Service's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station and has been in commercial operation since early 1992. The second system described is an Emergency Diesel Generator Bus Load Sequencer installed at Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant. This system was installed as part of an upgrade to the emergency power system in 1988. The experience gained in the design, development, implementation and qualification of these systems will be beneficial to utilities that are considering the utilization of PLCs for their plant applications

  20. Electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE/OFE applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekin, J.W.; Bray, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    In many superconductor applications, especially large magnets, the superconductor is required to perform while under the influence of strong mechanical forces. These forces are commonly due to residual fabrication stress, differential thermal contraction of dissimilar materials, and electromagnetic forces generated within an energized magnet coil. Thorough knowledge of a superconductor's electrical performance under the influence of these forces (electromechanical properties) is required for successful magnet engineering. This report presents results of research conducted during the period from august 1993 through March 1997 on the electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE/OFE fusion applications

  1. Phrase-Final Words in Greek Storytelling Speech: A Study on the Effect of a Culturally-Specific Prosodic Feature on Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutrari, Ariadne; Tselekidou, Freideriki; Proios, Hariklia

    2018-02-27

    Prosodic patterns of speech appear to make a critical contribution to memory-related processing. We considered the case of a previously unexplored prosodic feature of Greek storytelling and its effect on free recall in thirty typically developing children between the ages of 10 and 12 years, using short ecologically valid auditory stimuli. The combination of a falling pitch contour and, more notably, extensive final-syllable vowel lengthening, which gives rise to the prosodic feature in question, led to statistically significantly higher performance in comparison to neutral phrase-final prosody. Number of syllables in target words did not reveal substantial difference in performance. The current study presents a previously undocumented culturally-specific prosodic pattern and its effect on short-term memory.

  2. Application of solar energy in houses in Tilburg, Netherlands. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    The options to use solar energy for housing corporations, private renters, active associations of owners and owner-occupants in Tilburg, Netherlands, are outlined. Special attention is paid to the application of solar water heaters, because of their possibility to contribute to a sustainable energy supply

  3. Acquisition of Information to be Used in Programming for Pesticides Applicator Certification Training. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    Five methods were evaluated for training Kansas agricultural producers for certification as Private Pesticide Applicators. The study involved 471 participants throughout the state. Comparison of pre- and post-test scores showed that teaching by video cassette caused the most improvement, followed by the traditional method using a team of…

  4. Analysis of long-term geological and hydrogeological changes in the Swedish programme for final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, L.O.; Boulton, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    In assessing the safety of deep disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks it is important establish whether recent or future changes in loading can lead to fracturing and block displacement which may change the hydrogeological setting of a repository. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to understand how future climate changes, especially future glaciations, will influence the groundwater flow around a deep repository. The Swedish programme comprises R and D activities which attempt to quantify probable impacts of earthquakes, glaciation and land uplift. The activities emphasize geodynamic processes in the Baltic Shield, post-glacial faulting and glacial impacts on hydrogeology and ground water chemistry. A time-dependent, thermo-mechanically coupled, three-dimensional model of the ice sheet behaviour in Scandinavia has been developed. The model is driven by changes in the elevation of the permanent snow line on its surface and by air temperature and predicts the behaviour of the ice sheet for an earth's surface of given form and mechanical properties. The ice sheet model reconstructs the ice sheet thickness, ice sheet temperature distribution, including basal temperature, basal meting pattern and velocity distribution. The model is coupled to a sub-glacial Dancian groundwater flow model which in turn provides boundary for evaluations of long-term hydrogeological evolution at specific sites. (authors). 22 refs., 3 figs

  5. No advantages in terms of safety. 'Energy in a Dialog' about the 'Final disposal site selection law'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The current legislative process for the site selection law (StandAG) was topic of the DAtF event 'Energy in a Dialog' on 6 June 2013 in Berlin: 'Is the path the goal: purpose and results of the site selection law'. The President of the German Atomic Forum (DAtF), Dr. Ralf Gldner, moderated the discussion with Prof. Dr. Ortwin Renn of the University of Stuttgart and the CEO of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS), Hannes Wimmer. The opportunities and risks of a new site search for high-level radioactive waste were the main topics. Professor Renn summarized some findings to conditions of acceptance perceived in connection with industrial projects. Dr. Wimmer said in his keynote that social acceptance for site selection for a repository must be maintained for a long time. During the ensuing discussion, a common understanding was evident on some aspects of the topic. This is especially true for a limitation of the new location search method in terms of its objective. As a realistic objective to determine a secure suitable site was considered instead of a 'best' location proposed by the new law. (orig.)

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of long- and short-term winery wastewater application to soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, K P M; Patti, A F; Smernik, R J; Christen, E W; Cavagnaro, T R

    2012-01-30

    Application of winery wastewaters to soils for irrigation of various crops or landscapes is a common practice in the wine industry. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of this practice, by comparing the physicochemical and microbiological soil properties in paired sites that differed in having had a history of winery waste application or not. We also compared the effects of a single application of untreated winery wastewater, to application of treated winery wastewater (sequencing batch reactor) and pure water to eliminate the effects of wetting alone. Long-term application of winery wastes was found to have significant impacts on soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, as well as on many physicochemical properties including pH, EC, and cation concentrations. (13)C NMR revealed only slight differences in the nature of the carbon present at each of the paired sites. A single application of untreated winery wastewater was shown to have significant impacts upon soil respiration, nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, but the treated wastewater application showed no significant differences to wetting alone. Results are discussed in the context of sustainable winery wastewater disposal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long term modelling in a second rank world: application to climate policies; Modeliser le long terme dans un monde de second rang: application aux politiques climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crassous, R

    2008-11-15

    This research aims at the identification of the dissatisfaction reasons with respect to the existing climate models, at the design of an innovating modelling architecture which would respond to these dissatisfactions, and at proposing climate policy assessment pathways. The authors gives a critique assessment of the modelling activity within the field of climate policies, outlines the fact that the large number and the scattering of existing long term scenarios hides a weak control of uncertainties and of the inner consistency of the produced paths, as well as the very low number of modelling paradigms. After a deepened analysis of modelling practices, the author presents the IMACLIM-R modelling architecture which is presented on a world scale and includes 12 areas and 12 sectors, and allows the simulation of evolutions by 2050, and even 2100, with a one-year time step. The author describes a scenario without any climate policy, highlights reassessment possibilities for economical trajectories which would allow greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation on a long term basis through the application of IMACLIM-R innovations. He outlines adjustment and refinement possibilities for climate policies which would robustly limit the transition cost risks.

  8. Evaluation of Long Term Behaviour of Polymers for Offshore Oil and Gas Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gac P.-Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers and composites are very attractive for underwater applications, but it is essential to evaluate their long term behaviour in sea water if structural integrity of offshore structures is to be guaranteed. Accelerated test procedures are frequently required, and this paper will present three examples showing how the durability of polymers, in the form of fibres, matrix resins in fibre reinforced composites for structural elements, and thermal insulation coatings of flow-lines, have been evaluated for offshore use. The influence of the ageing medium, temperature, and hydrostatic pressure will be discussed first, then an example of the application of ageing test results to predict long term behavior of the thermal insulation coating of a flowline will be presented.

  9. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein

  10. The Application of Long Term Asset Management (LTAM) Strategy of KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boo, Myung Hwan; Park, Young Sheop

    2007-01-01

    In KHNP, 20 units of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are operating and 6 units are under construction. As increase of the number of power plants and operating year, it is needed to develop the integrated cost-effective asset management. Long Term Asset Management (LTAM) strategy is the process by which the nuclear power plants integrate operations, maintenance, engineering, regulatory, and economic planning activities. This paper introduces the application of LTAM strategy of nuclear power plants

  11. LDRD final report : robust analysis of large-scale combinatorial applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Robert D.; Morrison, Todd (University of Colorado, Denver, CO); Hart, William Eugene; Benavides, Nicolas L. (Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA); Greenberg, Harvey J. (University of Colorado, Denver, CO); Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2007-09-01

    Discrete models of large, complex systems like national infrastructures and complex logistics frameworks naturally incorporate many modeling uncertainties. Consequently, there is a clear need for optimization techniques that can robustly account for risks associated with modeling uncertainties. This report summarizes the progress of the Late-Start LDRD 'Robust Analysis of Largescale Combinatorial Applications'. This project developed new heuristics for solving robust optimization models, and developed new robust optimization models for describing uncertainty scenarios.

  12. Development of high field superconductors for fusion energy applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conductor design and a manufacturing procedure for a composite multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor suitable for winding a magnet for use in a fusion energy power plant. Effort was concentrated on the design of a conductor with tubular niobium filaments in a copper matrix. Bronze in the bores of the filaments would react with the niobium to form Nb 3 Sn on the inside diameter of the niobium tubular filaments during a heat treatment at final size. Four filament geometries were evaluated. The addition of titanium to the bronze was found to increase the current density. The use of a hydrogen atmosphre did not appear to cause any increase in current density. Primary billets were assembled and extruded with five tubular filament designs and for comparison, five rod type filament designs. Billet designs are described

  13. The Application of Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program (ASAP) Techniques to NORM Sites; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert; Smith, Karen P.; Quinn, John

    1999-01-01

    The results from the Michigan demonstration establish that this type of approach can be very effective for NORM sites. The advantages include (1) greatly reduced per sample analytical costs; (2) a reduced reliance on soil sampling and ex situ gamma spectroscopy analyses; (3) the ability to combine characterization with remediation activities in one fieldwork cycle; (4) improved documentation; and (5) ultimately better remediation, as measured by greater precision in delineating soils that are not in compliance with requirements from soils that are in compliance. In addition, the demonstration showed that the use of real-time technologies, such as the RadInSoil, can facilitate the implementation of a Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM)-based final status survey program

  14. Accounting for Model Uncertainties Using Reliability Methods - Application to Carbon Dioxide Geologic Sequestration System. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Chin Man; Doughty, Christine; Zhang, Keni; Pruess, Karsten; Kiureghian, Armen; Zhang, Miao; Kaback, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    A new computer code, CALRELTOUGH, which uses reliability methods to incorporate parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis into subsurface flow and transport models, was developed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley. The CALREL reliability code was developed at the University of California at Berkely for geotechnical applications and the TOUGH family of codes was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for subsurface flow and tranport applications. The integration of the two codes provides provides a new approach to deal with uncertainties in flow and transport modeling of the subsurface, such as those uncertainties associated with hydrogeology parameters, boundary conditions, and initial conditions of subsurface flow and transport using data from site characterization and monitoring for conditioning. The new code enables computation of the reliability of a system and the components that make up the system, instead of calculating the complete probability distributions of model predictions at all locations at all times. The new CALRELTOUGH code has tremendous potential to advance subsurface understanding for a variety of applications including subsurface energy storage, nuclear waste disposal, carbon sequestration, extraction of natural resources, and environmental remediation. The new code was tested on a carbon sequestration problem as part of the Phase I project. Phase iI was not awarded.

  15. Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.

    2007-11-01

    Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.

  16. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  17. Medium-term forecast of the Germany-wide electricity supply to final consumers for the calendar years 2016 to 2020. Study on behalf of the German transmission system operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsland, Rainer; Bossmann, Tobias; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Friedrichsen, Nele; Klobasa, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The German transmission system operators are obliged to make and publish forecasts on the development of the nationwide EEG apportionment on a calendar year basis. An important part of this study is a forecast of the electricity consumption to final consumers. In addition the electricity consumption of the self-suppliers,the final consumption is to be investigated according to the privilege categories for which the EEG apportionment has to be paid in a reduced amount. The final consumption amounted to about 463 TWh in 2014 and falls steadily to about 446 TWh by 2020. In 2016 the final consumption is about 460 TWh. The decline in final consumption is slightly more pronounced than in the case of net electricity demand, which is attributable to the rising self-supply. The net electricity demand in 2014 was about 513 TWh, which is about 15 TWh lower than in 2013. The decline is due in part to an increase in energy efficiency in electricity-based applications and on the other hand to mild weather. In the reference scenario, net electricity demand will decline from about 512 TWh in 2016 to about 506 TWh in 2020. The net electricity demand in the sectors of households and industry is decreasing, but increasing in the area of the TCS sector and the transport sector. In the course of the renewal of the EEG in 2014, regulations for the self-supply of electricity have been introduced for the first time, according to which operators of new plants larger than 10 kW and an annual self-sufficiency of more than 10 MWh have to pay a proportionate EEG apportionment, which increases in the subsequent years. While this regulation in the TCS sector leads to a stagnation of self-supply, the industrial sector is expected to continue replacement construction. An increase in the PV self-supply volume is expected for private households. Self-supply will increase from around 52 TWh in 2016 to around 53 TWh in 2020. The development of the future non-privileged final consumption, which is

  18. Glass fibre sensors for medical applications - fibre-optical dosimeter system. Cooperation project 1991-1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results of a cooperation project on the applications of fibre-optical sensors in medical technology. The FADOS dosimeter system is presented which comprises an implantable glass fibre dosimeter. It can be applied in radiotherapy for online dose metering directly at the tumour or in the surrounding healthy tissue. The dosimeter is placed in a tissue-compatible flexible catheter tube and remains inside the body during the radiotherapy treatiment. The measuring principle is based on the effect of radiation-induced damping inside a glass fibre. (DG) [de

  19. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO

  20. Applicability of short-term accelerated biofouling studies to predict long-term biofouling accumulation in reverse osmosis membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2018-02-02

    Biofouling studies addressing biofouling control are mostly executed in short-term studies. It is unclear whether data collected from these experiments are representative for long-term biofouling as occurring in full-scale membrane systems. This study investigated whether short-term biofouling studies accelerated by biodegradable nutrient dosage to feed water were predictive for long-term biofouling development without nutrient dosage. Since the presence of a feed spacer has an strong effect on the degree of biofouling, this study employed six geometrically different feed spacers. Membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) were operated with the same (i) membrane, (ii) feed flow and (iii) feed water, but with feed spacers varying in geometry. For the short-term experiment, biofilm formation was enhanced by nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water, whereas no nutrient dosage was applied in the long-term experiment. Pressure drop development was monitored to characterize the extent of biofouling, while the accumulated viable biomass content at the end of the experimental run was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements. Impact of feed spacer geometry on biofouling was compared for the short-term and long-term biofouling study. The results of the study revealed that the feed spacers exhibited the same biofouling behavior for (i) the short-term (9-d) study with nutrient dosage and (ii) the long-term (96-d) study without nutrient dosage. For the six different feed spacers, the accumulated viable biomass content (pg ATP.cm) was roughly the same, but the biofouling impact in terms of pressure drop increase in time was significantly different. The biofouling impact ranking of the six feed spacers was the same for the short-term and long-term biofouling studies. Therefore, it can be concluded that short-term accelerated biofouling studies in MFSs are a representative and suitable approach for the prediction of biofouling in membrane filtration systems after long-term

  1. Cost-effective control systems for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejsa, J. H.; Bassett, W. W.; Wenzler, S. A.; Nguyen, K. H.; Olson, T. J.

    1978-09-01

    A methodology has been defined to arrive at control recommendations for a variety of climate control system designs, applications and regions, and the results are presented in two parts. Part I consists of a literature and market-place survey, involving control strategies, functions, sensors, actuators, and the controllers themselves. Part II represents the bulk of the study effort - an attempt to simulate and evaluate system performance for several representative residential and commercial heating and cooling designs and thus to derive improved performance techniques within cost-effective control systems. (MHR)

  2. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  3. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  4. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  5. Application of aerospace failure-reporting systems to power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukol, J.F.; Lapin, E.E.; Leverton, W.F.; Pickering, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Failure reporting and analysis is a principal element of the overall quality assurance scheme that helped achieve, and now sustains, a high level of reliability in our national aerospace effort. The aerospace endeavor has many points of congruence with other highly technological activities. These are marked by great economic investment, an extended interval between concept and final implementation, the involvement of many independent entities with the government exercising a dominating influence, a considerable exposure to public view and review by public bodies, a notoriety accompanying untoward events, and extreme consequences attending failure. This report is written in the expectation that the lessons learned in arriving at the present state in aerospace can be adopted by others. It is the object of the report to illuminate the essential features of the aerospace failure reporting system. Two schemes are described. One typifies that which is currently employed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) operated by the California Institute of Technology for the NASA/JPL Voyager project and is based on procedures developed over several decades of deep space exploration. The other is typical of that employed by the Space Divison of the Air Force for military space programs

  6. Estimating the Term Structure With a Semiparametric Bayesian Hierarchical Model: An Application to Corporate Bonds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Marcelo, Alejandro; Ensor, Katherine B.; Rosner, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The term structure of interest rates is used to price defaultable bonds and credit derivatives, as well as to infer the quality of bonds for risk management purposes. We introduce a model that jointly estimates term structures by means of a Bayesian hierarchical model with a prior probability model based on Dirichlet process mixtures. The modeling methodology borrows strength across term structures for purposes of estimation. The main advantage of our framework is its ability to produce reliable estimators at the company level even when there are only a few bonds per company. After describing the proposed model, we discuss an empirical application in which the term structure of 197 individual companies is estimated. The sample of 197 consists of 143 companies with only one or two bonds. In-sample and out-of-sample tests are used to quantify the improvement in accuracy that results from approximating the term structure of corporate bonds with estimators by company rather than by credit rating, the latter being a popular choice in the financial literature. A complete description of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme for the proposed model is available as Supplementary Material. PMID:21765566

  7. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Stephen G.

    2013-11-11

    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  8. [National Academies' Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Application] Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott T. Weidman

    2005-01-11

    The National Academies' Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications (BMSA) is a primary interface between the research enterprise and federal agencies that rely on the mathematical sciences. The Board provides objective and authoritative advice on how best to apply the tools of mathematics, statistics, operations research, financial engineering, computational modeling, computational science, information analysis, and decision analysis to practical problems of national importance. In so doing, the Board strengthens the policy-making process and increases the visibility of, and appreciation for, the mathematical sciences while also identifying growth areas for the discipline. The Board consists of 18 pro bono experts from a broad range of quantitative fields, with experience in academia, industry, and national laboratories.

  9. Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

    2005-11-01

    We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

  10. Application of an eddy current technique to steam generator U-bend characterization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, W.E.; de la Pintiere, L.; Narita, S.; Bergander, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Eddy current nondestructive testing techniques are used widely throughout the utility industry for the early detection of tube damage in critical power plant components such as steam generators. In this project, the application of an eddy current technique for the characterization of U-bend transitions in the first row tubing in Westinghouse 51 Series Steam Generators has been investigated. A method has been developed for detection of the opposite transition in the U-bend and for defining its severity. Investigation included two different types of U-bend transitions. Using the developed eddy current method for U-bend characterization, on-site inspection was performed on all tubes in the first row in four 51 Series steam generators in Power Plant Unit No. 2 and in one 51 Series steam generator in Power Plant Unit No. 1. The advantages and limitations of the developed method as well as the recommendations for further investigations are included

  11. Improved superconductor for transmission line applications, phase I. Final report, January 1, 1975--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginski, A.I.; Mauser, S.F.; Roland, G.W.; Burghardt, R.R.; Daniel, M.R.; Janocko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of an existing superconducting power transmission cable design indicated that economic benefits in the area of refrigeration can be derived from the substitution of Nb 3 Ge superconductor for the presently planned Nb 3 Sn. However, the cost of Nb 3 Ge must be comparable to that of Nb 3 Sn, which is achievable when preparing Nb 3 Ge by the chemical vapor deposition. Alternatively, technical benefits can be obtained. The most essential and prerequisite requirement is that the Nb 3 Ge critical current density be improved significantly over the present state-of-the art. Other properties of Nb 3 Ge are generally suitable for the transmission line application and/or require only moderate improvements. (auth)

  12. Use of geothermal heat for crop drying and related agricultural applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, T.J.; Wright, T.C.; Fein, E.; Munson, T.R.; Richmond, R.C.

    1978-03-01

    Observations led to the selection of the alfalfa dehydration industry for in-depth analysis of the application of moderate-temperature geothermal heat. Six geothermal heat exchanger/dryer configurations were examined. A low-temperature conveyor dryer using geothermal water to supply all required heat was chosen for site-specific analysis, the retrofitting of a large alfalfa dehydration plant within the Heber KGRA in the Imperial Valley, California. Even in the most favorable scenario--sharing a geothermal pipeline with the neighboring fertilizer plant--geothermal retrofitting would increase the price of the alfalfa ''dehy'' about 40 percent. The geothermal brine is estimated to cost $2.58/million Btu's compared with a 1977 natural gas cost of $1.15. Capital cost for heat exchangers and the new dryers is estimated at $3.3 million. The Heber plant appeared to offer the only good opportunity for geothermal retrofitting of an existing alfalfa dehydration plant. Construction of new plants at geothermal resource sites cannot be justified due to the uncertain state of the ''dehy'' industry. Use of geothermal heat for drying other crops may be much more promising. The potato dehydration industry, which is concentrated in the geothermal-rich Snake River Valley of Idaho, appears to offer good potential for geothermal retrofitting; about 4.7 x 10{sup 12}Btu's are used annually by plants within 50 miles of resources. Drying together at the geothermal wellhead several crops that have interlocking processing seasons and drying-temperature requirements may be quite attractive. The best ''multicrop drying center'' site identified was at Power Ranch Wells, Arizona; 34 other sites were defined. Agricultural processing applications other than drying were investigated briefly.

  13. Applications of magnetic refrigeration and its assessment. A feasibility study - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovski, A.; Diebold, M.; Vuarnoz, D.; Gonin, C.; Egolf, P. W.

    2008-04-15

    Magnetic refrigeration has the potential to replace conventional refrigeration systems - with often problematic refrigerants - in several niche markets or even some main markets of the refrigeration domain. Based on this insight the Swiss Federal Office of Energy has asked a division of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) in Yverdon-les-Bains to list all possible refrigeration technologies and to evaluate the potential of magnetic refrigeration for these specific applications. The HEIG-VD researchers have developed a calculation tool to determine the coefficient of performance (COP) value and the exergy efficiency as a function of the magnetic field strength and the rotation frequency of a rotary type of magnetic refrigerator. The considered machine design is based on a patent, which was deposited by these scientists. Based on this work, it is found that especially two applications are very interesting for a closer investigation: the household refrigerator without a freezing compartment and the central chilling unit, which may be of large size. In the domains of refrigeration, where magnetic refrigeration could be successfully applied, the costs for magnetic refrigeration machines would be a little higher than those of the conventional ones. On the other hand the study shows possibilities how the magnetic refrigeration machines could reach higher COP values than those of the corresponding gas compression/expansion machines. Therefore, for magnetic refrigeration one may assume lower costs of operation. For large systems - as e.g. chiller units - it should be studied, if superconducting magnets could be economically applied. (author)

  14. The emerging dental workforce: long-term career expectations and influences. A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their long-term career from one London Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Patel, Resmi; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2009-12-23

    Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce and their short-term expectations has already been reported with a view to informing professional and policy decisions. The objective of this component of the research programme was to examine the long-term goals and perceived influences on final year dental students' professional careers. Univariate analysis of a self completed questionnaire survey of all final year dental students from King's College London, comprising questions on demography, long-term career goals and influences, proposed commitment to dentistry, commitment to healthcare systems and the influences thereon. Statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association. Ninety per cent of students responded to this survey (n = 126), the majority of whom were aged 23 years (59%), female (58%) and Asian (70%). Long-term career goals were fairly evenly split between 'dentist with a special interest' (27%), 'primary dental care practitioner' (26%) and 'specialist' (25%), with 19% not certain. Only 60% of total respondents anticipated working full-time in the long-term (79% males cf 52% females; p = 0.00). The vast majority of respondents (> or =80%) identified 'work-life balance', 'financial stability' and 'professional development' as 'important' or 'very important' influences on the number of future sessions. Females were significantly more likely to rate childcare commitments as an important influence on their future working capacity compared with males (p = 0.00). A wide range of factors were considered important or very important in making the NHS attractive, led by support for professional development (88%) and feeling valued by patients (88%), as well as funding, time with patients, rewards for prevention and practical issues such as dental materials and premises. Females were significantly more likely than males to be attracted to work within the NHS by 'childcare support' (p = 0.02), 'retraining facilities after

  15. The emerging dental workforce: long-term career expectations and influences. A quantitative study of final year dental students' views on their long-term career from one London Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the motivation and expectations of the emerging workforce and their short-term expectations has already been reported with a view to informing professional and policy decisions. The objective of this component of the research programme was to examine the long-term goals and perceived influences on final year dental students' professional careers. Methods Univariate analysis of a self completed questionnaire survey of all final year dental students from King's College London, comprising questions on demography, long-term career goals and influences, proposed commitment to dentistry, commitment to healthcare systems and the influences thereon. Statistical analysis included Chi Squared tests for linear association. Results Ninety per cent of students responded to this survey (n = 126, the majority of whom were aged 23 years (59%, female (58% and Asian (70%. Long-term career goals were fairly evenly split between 'dentist with a special interest' (27%, 'primary dental care practitioner' (26% and 'specialist' (25%, with 19% not certain. Only 60% of total respondents anticipated working full-time in the long-term (79% males cf 52% females; p = 0.00. The vast majority of respondents (≥80% identified 'work-life balance', 'financial stability' and 'professional development' as 'important' or 'very important' influences on the number of future sessions. Females were significantly more likely to rate childcare commitments as an important influence on their future working capacity compared with males (p = 0.00. A wide range of factors were considered important or very important in making the NHS attractive, led by support for professional development (88% and feeling valued by patients (88%, as well as funding, time with patients, rewards for prevention and practical issues such as dental materials and premises. Females were significantly more likely than males to be attracted to work within the NHS by 'childcare support

  16. Impact of repeated long term application of atrazine on soil properties and bound residues formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behki, R.; Khan, S.U.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of repeated long term application of the herbicide atrazine on the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, as well as on the bound residues formation, was investigated. Bacteria, fungi and soil respiration were in general inhibited in the first year of application. However, in the second and third year no such trend was observed. Similarly, a decreasing trend in the Fe(III)-reduction, nitrification and arginine deamination was observed in the first year whereas in the subsequent two years no such trend was prominent. The dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities showed an increasing trend after the application of the herbicide. Column studies showed that extractable residues of atrazine and carbofuran gradually decreased after the application of the pesticides. Amendments of the soil containing 14 C-bound residues did not increase 14 CO 2 evolution. Unextractable 14 C was higher and mineralization of 14 C-2,4-D was lower in previously untreated soil than in soils with histories of atrazine and carbofuran application. (author)

  17. Intermediate Photovoltaic System Application Experiment. Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the key results of the Phase II efforts for the Intermediate PV System Applications Experiment at the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts (OCSA). This phase of the project involved fabrication, installation and integration of a nominal 140 kW flat panel PV system made up of large, square polycrystalline-silicon solar cell modules, each nominally 61 cm x 122 cm in size. The output of the PV modules, supplied by Solarex Corporation, was augmented, 1.35 to 1 at peak, by a row of glass reflectors, appropriately tilted northward. The PV system interfaces with the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Utility at the OCSA main switchgear. Any excess power generated by the system is fed into the utility under a one to one buyback arrangement. Except for a shortfall in the system output, presently suspected to be due to the poor performance of the modules, no serious problems were encountered. Certain value engineering changes implemented during construction and early operational failure events associated with the power conditioning system are also described. The system is currently undergoing extended testing and evaluation.

  18. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  19. A 200 MHz 35 MW Multiple Beam Klystron for Accelerator Applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Read, Michael; Ferguson, Patrick; Marsden, David

    2011-01-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) performed initial development of a compact and reliable 35 MW, multiple beam klystron (MBK) at 200 MHz with a pulse length of 0.125 ms and a 30 Hz repetition rate. The device was targeted for acceleration and ionization cooling of a muon collider, but there are several other potential applications in this frequency range. The klystron uses multiple beams propagating in individual beam tunnels to reduce space charge and allow reduction in the accelerating voltage. This allows a significant reduction in length over a single beam source. More importantly this allows more efficient and less expensive power supplies. At 200 MHz, the interaction circuit for a single beam klystron would be more than six meters long to obtain 50% efficiency and 50 dB gain. This would require a beam voltage of approximately 400 kV and current of 251 A for a microperveance of 1.0. For an eight beam MBK with the same beam perveance, a three meter long interaction circuit achieves the same power and gain. Each beam operates at 142 kV and 70A. The Phase I demonstrated that this device could be fabricated with funding available in a Phase II program and could achieve the program specifications.

  20. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O.; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A.; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha −1 , equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha −1 of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving

  1. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jianming, E-mail: jianming.xue@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 29237, Christchurch (New Zealand); Kimberley, Mark O., E-mail: mark.kimberley@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Ross, Craig, E-mail: rossc@landcareresearch.co.nz [Landcare, Private Bag 11052, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Gielen, Gerty, E-mail: gerty.gielen@scionresearch.com [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: louis.tremblay@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Champeau, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.champeau@cawthron.org.nz [Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson (New Zealand); Horswell, Jacqui, E-mail: jacqui.horswell@esr.cri.nz [ESR, P O Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Wang, Hailong, E-mail: hailong@zafu.edu.cn [Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua (New Zealand); Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin' an, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 311300 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup −1}, equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha{sup −1} of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0–50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0–20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25–50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the

  2. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  3. Final Report for 'Verification and Validation of Radiation Hydrodynamics for Astrophysical Applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, M.; Howell, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this work is to gain experience in the methodology of verification and validation (V and V) of astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes. In the first period of this work, we focused on building the infrastructure to test a single astrophysical application code, Castro, developed in collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). We delivered several hydrodynamic test problems, in the form of coded initial conditions and documentation for verification, routines to perform data analysis, and a generalized regression test suite to allow for continued automated testing. Astrophysical simulation codes aim to model phenomena that elude direct experimentation. Our only direct information about these systems comes from what we observe, and may be transient. Simulation can help further our understanding by allowing virtual experimentation of these systems. However, to have confidence in our simulations requires us to have confidence in the tools we use. Verification and Validation is a process by which we work to build confidence that a simulation code is accurately representing reality. V and V is a multistep process, and is never really complete. Once a single test problem is working as desired (i.e. that problem is verified), one wants to ensure that subsequent code changes do not break that test. At the same time, one must also search for new verification problems that test the code in a new way. It can be rather tedious to manually retest each of the problems, so before going too far with V and V, it is desirable to have an automated test suite. Our project aims to provide these basic tools for astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes.

  4. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  5. Evaluation of a seafloor nuclear power supply and its potential applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The seafloor nuclear power supply (SNPS) concept has been proposed by Atomics International (AI) and Lockheed Petroleum Services, Ltd. (LPS) as a source of electrical energy for subsea pumping of petroleum products. It consists of a small nuclear reactor, moderated by zirconium hydride (ZrH) and cooled by liquid metal (NaK), which drives a 3-MW turbine/generator system using toluene as the working fluid. Arthur D. Little, Inc., was selected to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a SNPS, and to determine if potential applications for a SNPS might exist in offshore-oil-field development schemes where conventional power supplies could not be used. It was determined that the concept is technically feasible, with regard to the nuclear, marine, electrical, and petroleum engineering aspects. However, its initial cost of $14 million and operating expenses of $900,000 per year are considerably more in each case than the costs of conventional alternative power supplies. For the type of field development proposed as an example by LPS, a combination of gas turbines and dc cables would cost about $8 million. Fuel in the form of gas from the wells would be available at near-zero cost in almost all cases of field development, so that operating expenses would be minimal. Other power supply and cable systems were investigated, up to lengths of 200 miles. Alternating-current systems are preferred at distances less than 20 miles; direct current is more economical at greater distances. No set of circumstances was found in which oil field development is likely to occur and for which the SNPS offers uniquely attractive capabilities

  6. LDRD final report on adaptive-responsive nanostructures for sensing applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2005-11-01

    Functional organic nanostructures such as well-formed tubes or fibers that can easily be fabricated into electronic and photonic devices are needed in many applications. Especially desirable from a national security standpoint are nanostructures that have enhanced sensitivity for the detection of chemicals and biological (CB) agents and other environmental stimuli. We recently discovered the first class of highly responsive and adaptive porphyrin-based nanostructures that may satisfy these requirements. These novel porphyrin nanostructures, which are formed by ionic self-assembly of two oppositely charged porphyrins, may function as conductors, semiconductors, or photoconductors, and they have additional properties that make them suitable for device fabrication (e.g., as ultrasensitive colorimetric CB microsensors). Preliminary studies with porphyrin nanotubes have shown that these nanostructures have novel optical and electronic properties, including strong resonant light scattering, quenched fluorescence, and electrical conductivity. In addition, they are photochemically active and capable of light-harvesting and photosynthesis; they may also have nonlinear optical properties. Remarkably, the nanotubes and potentially other porphyrin nanostructure are mechanically responsive and adaptive (e.g., the rigidity of the micrometers-long nanotubes is altered by light, ultrasound, or chemicals) and they self-heal upon removal the environmental stimulus. Given the tremendous degree of structural variation possible in the porphyrin subunits, additional types of nanostructures and greater control over their morphology can be anticipated. Molecular modification also provides a means of controlling their electronic, photonic, and other functional properties. In this work, we have greatly broadened the range of ionic porphyrin nanostructures that can be made, and determined the optical and responsivity properties of the nanotubes and other porphyrin nanostructures. We have

  7. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    Projectile fragmentation experiments have been conducted at the LBL Bevalac accelerator, utilizing both the B40 and the HISS facilities, to produce a dataset of 36 beam/energy combinations covering projectiles from 4 He to 58 Ni and various energies from 170--2100 MeV/nucleon. While some runs were subject to beam instabilities, magnet problems or low statistics, there remains a large dataset which is still being analyzed. The results will be used to investigate the physics of the intermediate energy fragmentation process and will find application in the astrophysics of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy. An overview of the science goals and rationale is followed by presentation of the experimental techniques and apparatus that has been employed. Data analysis, including both detector subsystem and accelerator calibration, is discussed with emphasis on the unique features of the dataset and the analysis problems being addressed. Results from the experiments are presented throughout to illustrate the status of the analysis, e.g., momentum distribution widths. Total, Elemental and Isotopic cross sections from various beam/energy combinations are presented, including the first data on 32 S fragmentation and the complete isotopic fragmentation cross sections for 28 Si interacting in both Carbon and Hydrogen targets. The new results are compared to any existing data and to formulae used to predict unmeasured cross sections. The size and complexity of the dataset and the required detail of the analysis precluded finishing the full analysis under the subject grant. Plans for additional analysis are presented, and these will be carried out in coming years as time and resources permit

  8. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0

  9. Short term scheduling of multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cells for microgrid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkh, M.Y.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M.S. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a short term scheduling scheme for multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) connected to supply electrical and thermal energy to a microgrid community. As in the case of regular power plants, short term scheduling of FCPP is also a cost-based optimization problem that includes the cost of operation, thermal power recovery, and the power trade with the local utility grid. Due to the ability of the microgrid community to trade power with the local grid, the power balance constraint is not applicable, other constraints like the real power operating limits of the FCPP, and minimum up and down time are therefore used. To solve the short term scheduling problem of the FCPPs, a hybrid technique based on evolutionary programming (EP) and hill climbing technique (HC) is used. The EP is used to estimate the optimal schedule and the output power from each FCPP. The HC technique is used to monitor the feasibility of the solution during the search process. The short term scheduling problem is used to estimate the schedule and the electrical and thermal power output of five FCPPs supplying a maximum power of 300 kW. (author)

  10. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  11. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R; Whitley, Jessica L; Sapsford, Kim E; Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E

    2008-01-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications

  12. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in the recent years. Therefore, a lot of concerns related to the reliable operation of the power system have been addressed. An attractive solution to minimize the limitations faced by the wind power grid integration, and thus...... to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power...

  13. A long-term stable power supply μDMFC stack for wireless sensor node applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z L; Wang, X H; Teng, F; Li, X Z; Wu, X M; Liu, L T

    2013-01-01

    A passive, air-breathing 4-cell micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) stack is presented featured by a fuel delivery structure for a long-term and stable power supply. The fuel is reserved in a T shape tank and diffuses through the porous diffusion layer to the catalyst at anode. The stack has a maximum power output of 110mW with 3M methanol at room temperature and output a stable power even thought 5% fuel is the remained in reservoir. Its performance decreases less than 3% for 100 hours continuous work. As such, it is believed to be more applicable for powering the wireless sensor nodes

  14. The application of isotope techniques to the assessment of aquifer systems in major urban areas. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Aquifer systems in most urban areas have been impacted to varying degrees by sustained exploitation and the future availability of water is being threatened by depleting aquifers or water quality degradation. Improved methods for the assessment and management of groundwater resources in major urban areas, therefore, are issues of high priority for most countries. The IAEA has, over last four decades, co-ordinated the development, adaptation, and testing of isotope techniques for hydrological applications. A number of techniques and methodologies that are now established for water resources management are potentially useful for characterizing the short and long term changes resulting from the extensive use of aquifers in and near urban areas. The application of isotope techniques in urban hydrology was the focus of this co-ordinated research project (CRP). This report provides the final results of the CRP, and is expected to be of interest to scientists, managers and planners involved in water resources assessment in urban areas. This publication contains seven individual reports, each of them was indexed separately

  15. Evolution of near term PBMR steam and cogeneration applications - HTR2008-58219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, R. W.; Hannink, R.; Paul, K.; Kriel, W.; Greyvenstein, R.; Young, R.

    2008-01-01

    US and international applications for large onsite cogeneration (steam and power) systems are emerging as a near term market for the PBMR. The South African PBMR demonstration project applies a high temperature (900 deg. C) Brayton cycle for high efficiency power generation. In addition, a number of new applications are being investigated using an intermediate temperature range (700-750 deg. C) with a simplified heat supply system design. This intermediate helium delivery temperature supports conventional steam Rankine cycle designs at higher efficiencies than obtained from water type reactor systems. These designs can be adapted for cogeneration of steam, similar to the design of gas turbine cogeneration plants that supply steam and power at many industrial sites. This temperature range allows use of conventional or readily qualifiable materials and equipment, avoiding some cost premiums associated with more difficult operating conditions. As gas prices and CO 2 values increase, the potential value of a small nuclear reactor with advanced safety characteristics increases dramatically. Because of its smaller scale, the 400-500 MWt PBMR offers the economic advantages of onsite thermal integration (steam, hot water and desalination co-production) and of providing onsite power at cost versus at retail industrial rates avoiding transmission and distribution costs. Advanced safety characteristics of the PBMR support the location of plants adjacent to steam users, district energy systems, desalination plants, and other large commercial and industrial facilities. Additional benefits include price stability, long term security of energy supply and substantial CO 2 reductions. Target markets include existing sites using gas fired boilers and cogeneration units, new projects such as refinery and petrochemical expansions, and coal-to-liquids projects where steam and power represent major burdens on fuel use and CO 2 emissions. Lead times associated with the nuclear licensing

  16. Does Shortened Application Time Affect Long-Term Bond Strength of Universal Adhesives to Dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, P; Matsumoto, M; Chowdhury, Afma; Carvalho, R M; Sano, H

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the effect of shortened application time on long-term bond strength with universal adhesives. Three universal adhesives were used: Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) or G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty molars were cut to expose midcoronal dentin and prepared with a regular diamond bur. Each adhesive was applied either according to the manufacturer's instruction or with shortened time. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then cut into resin-dentin sticks. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was tested after either 24 hours or 1 year of water storage. Data were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA and Duncan tests ( α=0.05). Fracture modes were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One dentin stick per group was selected after fracture mode analysis and further observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Six additional dentin discs were prepared and conditioned with each adhesive under the different application time to observe the adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM. Shortened application time affected the μTBS ( puniversal adhesives to bur-cut dentin. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised when applied using a shortened application time.

  17. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  18. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  19. Impact of long-term land application of broiler litter on environmentally related soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W.L. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States); Wood, C.W.; Mullins, G.L. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The largest portion of Alabama`s rapidly growing poultry industry is geographically concentrated in the Sand Mountain region of northern Alabama. The result is that large amounts of waste are applied to relatively small areas of agricultural soils. A study was conducted to determine the effects of long-term broiler waste (litter) application on environmentally related soil conditions in the region. The region has an average annual rainfall of 1325 mm, which is evenly distributed throughout the year, a thermic temperature regime, and soils in the region are of the Ultisol order. In each of four major broiler-producing counties, three pairs of sites consisting of long-term (15-28 yr) littered and nonlittered fields on matching soil series and maintained under perennial tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were sampled. Soil cores were taken to 3 m or lithic contact and depth-incremented samples (0-15, 15-30, and each subsequent 30-cm interval) were analyzed for organic C, total N, NO{sub 3}-N, pH, electrical conductivity, and acid-extractable P, K, Ca, Mg, Co, and Zn. Litter application increased organic C and total N to depths of 15 and 30 cm, respectively, as compared with nonlittered soils, whereas pH was 0.5 units higher to a depth of 60 cm under littered soils. Significant accumulation of NO{sub 3}N was found in littered soils to or near bedrock. Extractable P concentrations in littered soils were more than six times greater than in nonlittered soils to a depth of 60 cm. Elevated levels of extractable K, Ca, and Mg to depths greater than 60 cm also were found as a result of long-term litter use. Extractable Cu and Zn had accumulated in littered soils to a depth of 45 cm. These findings indicate that long-term land application of broiler litter, at present rates, has altered soil chemical conditions and has created a potential for adverse environmental impacts in the Sand Mountain region of Alabama. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 3: Responses to public comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible. This volume of the Final PEIS contains the comments and DOE's responses to comments received during the comment period. Chapter 2 contains photocopies of written submissions received by DOE on the Draft PEIS; DOE's responses to those comments are listed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides the oral comments received at the public hearings and DOE's responses. Chapter 5 provides indices to comments and responses arranged by commentor name and by comment number

  1. NPP long term operation in Spain - First application for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.; Gorrochategui, I.; Marcos, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In the operation of the Spanish nuclear power plants (NPP), safety is always the prime consideration. Plant Life Management Programmes have been set up with the strategic objective to operate the NPPs as long as they are considered safe and reliable. The safety of each NPP is reviewed by the Spanish nuclear regulatory authority (CSN) under a continuous process. In addition, experience is gained from operating the plants and from exchanges with operators of similar units. Current Spanish regulatory framework for renewing NPP operating licenses requires performing a Periodic Safety Review (PSR) to be performed every 10 years and submitted when applying for a new renewal of the NPP operating license. A few years ago, CSN issued a document regarding the licensing requirements that nuclear power plants should meet in order to be granted with an operating license for long term operation (i.e, operation beyond the original plant design life, typically 40 years). Besides the traditional PSR requirements, specific requirements regarding to long term operation (LTO) include: - An Aging Management and Evaluation Program, including the identification and evaluation of Time Limited Aging Analysis (TLAA). - An updated Radiological Impact Study. - A review and assessment of regulation/standard applicability. Garona NPP (GE, BWR/3 design) operated by Spanish utility Nuclenor from 1971 has a current operating license up to 2009. A decision was made to apply for a new operating license, being Garona plant the first one in Spain to face with the new long term operation requirements. The paper will provide an overview of the methodology used in Spain to address and perform the required analyses to support the LTO application for the operating license renewal. In particular, focus will be paid on the project developed in Garona (2002-2006) whose result has been the first Spanish application for License Renewal for LTO. Also it will be reported the ongoing work necessary to

  2. Impact of heavy repeated long term pesticide applications on soil properties in a cotton agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Altaf; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Iqbal, Zafar; Chaudhry, Jamil Anwar

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted under field conditions to investigate the effects of heavy repeated long term pesticide applications, at their recommended doses, on some biological properties in relation to the cotton agroecosystem at NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Control, test and treated soils before (BPA) and after pesticide applications (APA) were collected and analyzed at different stages of pesticide applications. The selective tests were measurements of microbial numbers, basal as well as substrate-induced respiration, nitrification, Fe-III reduction and the activities, of dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Endosulfan, profenophos + alphamethrin and methamidophos inhibited while monocrotophos and bifenthrin + acetamiprid enhanced the bacterial population numbers. The fungal population was depressed with endosulfan while monocrotophos, profenophos and methamidophos stimulated it. All other applied pesticides did not cause any appreciable change in total bacterial and fungal populations throughout the study period. Monocrotophos, propargite, endosulfan alone or with dimethoate and profenophos with cypermethrin or with ethion inhibited the respiration and hence affected the biomass. All other pesticides had no effect in test and treated soils compared to control soil. No pronounced inhibition or stimulation was seen in respiration after several weeks following the applications of pesticide. Endosulfan, endosulfan with dimethoate, methamidophos stimulated while profenophos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin + endosulfan inhibited the nitrification. All other pesticide applications showed similar nitrification rates in test and treated soils compared to control soil. Iron reduction capacity was stimulated by dimethoate + endosulfan and propenophos + cypermethrin and profenphos, methamidophos, propargite and diafenthiuron + profenophos reduced it. Soil dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by methamidophos, fenpropathrin, endosulfan + dimethoate and bifenthrin + ethion

  3. Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. A.

    1991-12-01

    Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100 C currently exist within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100 to 350 C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several features relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long term planning horizon with well defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies that are different from those of other sectors, and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds.

  4. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  5. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus soil chemistry and runoff water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Mark S; Daniel, Tommy C; DeLaune, Paul B; Sharpley, Andrew N; Lory, John A

    2013-11-01

    Continuous application of poultry litter (PL) significantly changes many soil properties, including soil test P (STP); Al, Fe, and Ca concentrations; and pH, which can affect the potential for P transport in surface runoff water. We conducted rainfall simulations on three historically acidic silt loam soils in Arkansas, Missouri, and Virginia to establish if long-term PL applications would affect soil inorganic P fractions and the resulting dissolved reactive P (DRP) in runoff water. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were taken to find sites ranging in Mehlich-3 STP from 20 to 1154 mg P kg. Simulated rainfall events were conducted on 3-m plots at 6.7 cm h, and runoff was collected for 30 min. Correlation between Mehlich-3 and runoff DRP indicated a linear relationship to 833 mg Mehlich-3 P kg. As Mehlich-3 STP increased, a concomitant increase in soil pH and Ca occurred on all soils. Soil P fractionation demonstrated that, as Mehlich-3 STP generally increased above 450 mg P kg (from high to very high), the easily soluble and loosely bound P fractions decreased by 3 to 10%. Water-insoluble complexes of P bound to Al and Ca were the main drivers in the reduction of DRP in runoff, accounting for up to 43 and 38% of total P, respectively. Basing runoff DRP concentration projections solely on Mehlich-3 STP may overestimate runoff P losses from soils receiving long-term PL applications due to dissolution of water-insoluble Ca-P compounds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Major nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs in soils after long-term sewage sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Ren, Jing; Shen, Libo; Wang, Songfeng; Luo, Yongming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Cheng, Miaomiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate School; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Two contrasting soils receiving long-term application of commercial sewage sludge fertilizers in China were investigated to determine the concentrations of selected nutrients, heavy metals (HMs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) present to evaluate the impact of sewage sludge fertilizer on soil fertility and environmental risk. Materials and methods: Soil samples were collected from Tangshan City, Hebei province and Ningbo City, Zhejiang province and divided into two portions, one of which was air-dried and sieved through 2-, 0.25- and 0.149-mm nylon mesh for determination of nutrients and heavy metals. The other portion was frozen at -20 C, freeze-dried and sieved through 2-mm nylon mesh for PBDE analysis. The concentrations of nutrients, heavy metals and PBDEs were determined in all samples. Results and discussion: Concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals in soils amended with low rates of sewage sludge fertilizer (SSF) and conventional fertilizer were compared. After long-term excessive amendment with SSF from Ningbo City (SSF-N), the concentrations of soil total N, P, aqua regia-extractable HMs and DTPA extractable HMs were higher than the control, especially in the arable layer. Moreover, the concentration of aqua regia-extractable Zn (457 mg kg{sup -1}) exceeded the recommended China Environmental Quality Standard for soils (GB15618-1995). All 8 target PBDE congeners were found in fertilizer SSF-N and soil with excessive amendment with SSF-N for 12 years, but the concentrations of 8 different PBDEs in SSF-N-amended soil were not significantly different from control soil. Conclusions: Both economic and environmental benefits can be obtained by careful application of sewage sludge fertilizer to recycle plant nutrients. Repeated and excessive application rates of sewage sludge fertilizer may pose environmental risk, especially in respect of soil heavy metal and PBDE contamination, and high concentrations of phosphorus may also be

  7. Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, F.J.

    1991-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNLV). The following programme has been carried out to meet this objective: (a) implementation of the STCP, (b) acquisition of specific data for CNLV to execute the STCP, and (c) calculations of specific source terms for accident sequences at CNLV. The STCP has been implemented and validated on CDC 170/815 and CDC 180/860 main frames as well as on a Micro VAX 3800 system. In order to get a plant-specific source term, data on the CNLV including initial core inventory, burn-up, primary containment structures, and materials used for the calculations have been obtained. Because STCP does not explicitly model containment failure, dry well failure in the form of a catastrophic rupture has been assumed. One of the most significant sequences from the point of view of possible off-site risk is the loss of off-site power with failure of the diesel generators and simultaneous loss of high pressure core spray and reactor core isolation cooling systems. The probability for that event is approximately 4.5 x 10 -6 . This sequence has been analysed in detail and the release fractions of radioisotope groups are given in the full report. 18 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  8. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  9. Long term investigations of carbon nanotube transistors encapsulated by atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 for sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbling, T; Hierold, C; Roman, C; Durrer, L; Mattmann, M; Bright, V M

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are promising functional structures in future micro- or nanoelectronic systems and sensor applications. Research on the fundamental device concepts includes the investigation of the conditions for stable long term CNFET operation. CNFET operation in ambient air leads to on-state current degradation and fluctuating signals due to the well-known sensitivity of the electronic properties of the CNT to many environmental condition changes. It is the goal of device and sensor research to understand various kinds of sensor-environment interactions and to overcome the environmental sensitivity. Here, we show that the encapsulation of CNFETs by a thermal atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer of approximately 100 nm leads to stable device operation for 260 days and reduces their sensitivity to the environment. The characteristics of CNFETs prior to and after Al 2 O 3 encapsulation are comparatively investigated. It is found that encapsulation improves the stability of the CNFET characteristics with respect to the gate threshold voltage, hysteresis width and the on-state current, while 1/f noise is lowered by up to a factor of 7. Finally, CNFETs embedded in a dielectric membrane are employed as pressure sensors to demonstrate sensor operation of CNFETs encapsulated by ALD as piezoresistive transducers.

  10. [THE APPLICATION OF SHORT-TERM EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONAL VOICE DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Just, Marcin; Tyc, Michał; Wiktorowicz, Justyna; Morawska, Joanna; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men) diagnosed with occupational dysphonia throuigh videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men) with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR), as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel "a." The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00). The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00). Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Effliciency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larnx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology.

  11. The application of short-term efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An objective determination of the range of vocal efficiency is rather difficult. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of application of short-term acoustic efficiency analysis in diagnosing occupational voice disorders. Material and Methods: The study covered 98 people (87 women and 11 men diagnosed with occupational dysphonia through videostroboscopic examination. The control group comprised 100 people (81 women and 19 men with normal voices. The short-term acoustic analysis was carried out by means of DiagnoScope software, including classical parameters (Jitter group, Shimmer group and the assessment of noise degree NHR, as well as new short-term efficiency parameters determined in a short time period during sustained phonation of the vowel “a.” The results were then compared. Results: The values of all the examined classical parameters were considerably higher in the study group of pathological voices than in the control group of normal voices (p = 0.00. The aerodynamic parameter, maximum phonation time, was significantly shorter by over 0.5 s in the study group than in the control group. The majority of the acoustic efficiency parameters were also considerably worse in the study group of subjects with occupational dysphonia than in the control group (p = 0.00. Moreover, the correlation between the efficiency parameters and most of the classical acoustic parameters in the study group implies that for the voices with occupational pathology the decreased efficiency of the vocal apparatus is reflected in the acoustic voice structure. Conclusions: Efficiency parameters determined during short-term acoustic analysis can be an objective indicator of the decreased phonatory function of the larynx, useful in diagnosing occupational vocal pathology. Med Pr 2015;66(2:225–234

  12. Long-Term Mechanical Behavior of Yucca Mountain Tuff and its Variability, Final Technical Report for Task ORD-FY04-021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, Jaak J.K.; Ma, Lumin; Zhao, Guohua

    2006-01-01

    strength is only a factor of 2, and that ''the observed behavior of rock is not significantly influenced by varying the strain rate within the range that is convenient to use in quasi-static laboratory compression tests''. While this is undoubtedly true, it does not really address the question as to whether or not strengths thus measured can be considered appropriate for estimating long term strengths. One objective of this investigation was to evaluate the applicability of the approaches by Cruden (e.g. Cruden, 1971, 1974, 1983, 1987) and by Lajtai (e.g. Lajtai and Schmidtke, 1986, 1987) to the prediction of the long term mechanical behavior of the investigated tuffs. This involves in particular static fatigue testing, by conducting uniaxial, triaxial, and indirect splitting (Brazilian) tests over a wide range of strain (or stress, or displacement) rates

  13. Fast SPT-Term Allocation and Efficient FPGA Implementation of FIR Filters for Software Defined Radio Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Choonghoon; Moteki, Takayuki; Kim, Minseok; Ichige, Koichi; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a fast SPT-term allocation scheme and an efficient FPGA implementation of FIR filters for Software Defined Radio (SDR) applications. Direct conversion method based on RF direct sampling is nowadays widely used in SDR applications. Fast and accurate digital filters are required for RF direct sampling and processing in direct conversion, however such filters often require large digital circuit area. Signed-Power-of-Two (SPT) terms will be suitable for fast processing and eff...

  14. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    variability. This new system could be a long term economical solution for solar energy applications.xample of SW Flux Analysis global hemispheric (light blue) and direct (yellow) clear-sky shortwave (SW) along with corresponding actual global hemispheric (blue) and direct (red) SW, and the corresponding fractional sky cover (black, right Y-axis). Note in afternoon about 40-50% of the global SW is available, yet most times there is no direct SW.

  15. 77 FR 50102 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... support the export of U.S. services and equipment to Saudi Arabia. Brief non-proprietary description of... Incorporated; Jacobs Engineering Group Incorporated; Foster Wheeler AG; Fluor Corporation. Obligor: The obligor... Being Exported The items being exported are design work, construction services, technology licenses...

  16. 77 FR 68120 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... export of goods and design, engineering and construction services utilized in the rehabilitation and... being exported: Goods and services will be utilized for the rehabilitation and expansion of a hospital.... Guarantor: N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: Design, engineering and construction services and...

  17. 77 FR 61749 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... export of U.S. services and equipment for setting up of new gasification plant and the expansion and... anticipated use of the items being exported: To be used for the expansion and improvement of petrochemical... notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed...

  18. 78 FR 38030 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... of U.S. goods and services to be used in Pemex's on- and off-shore oil and gas exploration and.... Guarantor(s): Pemex Exploracion y Produccion; Pemex Refinacion; Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica. Description...

  19. 77 FR 51023 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... export of a telecommunications satellite and associated equipment to Vietnam. Brief non-proprietary description of the anticipated use of the items being exported: To provide telecommunication services to... of Items Being Exported: One telecommunications satellite and associated equipment. Information on...

  20. 78 FR 16675 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...(s): Mubadala Development Company PJSC, Dubai Aluminium Company PJSC. Description of Items Being... note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information; information...

  1. 78 FR 8130 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S.-manufactured cargo aircraft to Dubai, the United Arab...: Dubai Aerospace Enterprise. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: Boeing 777 aircraft... . Confidential Information: Please note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business...

  2. 77 FR 61750 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Suppliers: Boeing Space and Intelligence Systems, Space Exploration Technologies Corp., Aon plc. Obligor... Information: Please note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information... jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies...

  3. 78 FR 53146 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S.-manufactured commercial aircraft to Hong Kong. Brief... used to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision... jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with...

  4. 78 FR 13875 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... countries acceptable to Ex-Im Bank. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s) being... the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the...

  5. 77 FR 65878 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s) being exported may be used to produce... information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES: Comments must be...

  6. 78 FR 69414 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... for executive air transportation. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s) being... jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with...

  7. 77 FR 52026 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES...

  8. 78 FR 44562 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed, would violate the Trade... competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  9. 77 FR 62236 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... not include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed, would... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES...

  10. 78 FR 50414 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed, would violate the Trade... competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  11. 77 FR 51023 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ...: Please note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information... jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies...

  12. 78 FR 42777 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    .../ . Confidential Information: Please note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business... jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with...

  13. 78 FR 5439 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...: Please note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information... jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies...

  14. 77 FR 66616 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed, would violate... information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES: Comments must be...

  15. 78 FR 68838 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed, would violate the Trade Secrets Act; or information which would jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could...

  16. 77 FR 52025 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES...

  17. 77 FR 59396 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed, would violate... information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES: Comments must be...

  18. 77 FR 67362 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... . Confidential Information: Please note that this notice does not include confidential or proprietary business... jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could use to compete with...

  19. 77 FR 74846 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... notice does not include confidential or proprietary business information; information which, if disclosed... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES...

  20. 78 FR 8129 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... expected to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: EL AL Israel Airlines, Ltd. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: Boeing 737 aircraft...

  1. 77 FR 69452 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... used to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: Emirates Airline. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: Boeing 777 aircraft. Information...

  2. 78 FR 20317 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...) being exported are not expected to be used to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: Ethiopian Airlines. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being...

  3. 77 FR 72860 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... provide short- and medium-haul airline service in Indonesia and Malaysia, and between Indonesia and... exported are not expected to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing...

  4. 77 FR 52026 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... items being exported: To be sub-leased to foreign airlines (acceptable to Ex-Im Bank), to be determined... produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: AWAS Aviation...

  5. 78 FR 15950 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... expected to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: Philippine Airlines, Inc. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: Boeing 777 aircraft...

  6. 78 FR 75563 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... expected to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company and the General Electric Company. Obligor: Linhas Aereas de Angola--TAAG Angola Airlines. Guarantor(s): The...

  7. 78 FR 75344 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... used to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: Emirates Airline. Guarantor(s): None. Description Of Items Being Exported: Boeing 777 aircraft. Information...

  8. 78 FR 69850 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ..., the item(s) being exported may be used to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: OJSC VEB-Leasing. Guarantor(s): N/A. End-User: Aeroflot Russian Airlines...

  9. 78 FR 12315 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... airline service in Mexico and between Mexico and other countries in North, Central and South America. To... exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. [[Page 12316

  10. 78 FR 42776 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...) being exported are not expected to be used to produce exports or provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. [[Page 42777

  11. 78 FR 54465 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company Obligor: Biman Bangladesh Airlines Guarantor(s): The People's...

  12. 78 FR 27236 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: Asiana Airlines, Inc. Description of Items Being...

  13. 77 FR 58139 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... exported: To provide airline service between the United Arab Emirates and other countries. To the extent... provide services in competition with the exportation of goods or provision of services by a United States industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: The Boeing Company. Obligor: International Lease Finance Corporation...

  14. 78 FR 16501 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured mining equipment and services to Mongolia... America. Obligor: Oyu Tolgoi LLC. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported Heavy mining trucks, shovels, drills, and other mining equipment, plus consulting and engineering services...

  15. 78 FR 38031 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Mexicanos to finance the purchase of U.S. goods and services from U.S. small businesses to be used in Pemex...: Principal Supplier(s): IPS International, LLC. Quantum Reservoir Impact, LLC. Micro Smart Systems, Inc...

  16. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  17. Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany in view of European and global developments. Summary of the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, Joachim; Pregger, Thomas; Scholz, Yvonne [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung] [and others

    2012-03-31

    The German Federal government's ''Energy Concept'' [Energiekonzept 2010] of 28 September 2010 and the subsequent energy laws of summer 2011 presented a long-term political timetable for climate protection and the transformation of the energy supply in Germany [the ''Energiewende'']. It calls for emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany to be reduced by 80% to 95% from the 1990 level by the year 2050. For energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions alone, this target requires a reduction of at least 85%, aiming in the final result at a power supply that is almost emission-free. A transformation of the power supply to renewable sources of energy, accompanied by a substantial increase in energy efficiency, is the appropriate strategy for this. The challenges presented by this transformation of the power system are considerable, and their full extent has not yet been grasped. This study presents results of systems-analysis examinations of the transformation of electricity, heat, and fuel generation that were developed as part of a three-year research project for the Federal Ministry of the Environment (final report [Nitsch et al. 2012]). The work is based on projects carried out in previous years by the DLR with varying project partners for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA). In essence, self-consistent energy scenarios for long-term expansion of renewables and for the remaining supply of energy, and the structural and economic effects to be derived from these, were developed. In addition, the project partners, the DLR in Stuttgart and the Fraunhofer Institut fur Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES) in Kassel, performed simulations of the future electricity supply as it develops over time, some of them with spatial resolution. This enabled the scenarios for electricity generation to be validated with respect to load coverage, and also

  18. Emulation of long-term changes in global climate: application to the late Pliocene and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Lord

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-millennial transient simulations of climate changes have a range of important applications, such as for investigating key geologic events and transitions for which high-resolution palaeoenvironmental proxy data are available, or for projecting the long-term impacts of future climate evolution on the performance of geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. However, due to the high computational requirements of current fully coupled general circulation models (GCMs, long-term simulations can generally only be performed with less complex models and/or at lower spatial resolution. In this study, we present novel long-term continuous projections of climate evolution based on the output from GCMs, via the use of a statistical emulator. The emulator is calibrated using ensembles of GCM simulations, which have varying orbital configurations and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and enables a variety of investigations of long-term climate change to be conducted, which would not be possible with other modelling techniques on the same temporal and spatial scales. To illustrate the potential applications, we apply the emulator to the late Pliocene (by modelling surface air temperature – SAT, comparing its results with palaeo-proxy data for a number of global sites, and to the next 200 kyr (thousand years (by modelling SAT and precipitation. A range of CO2 scenarios are prescribed for each period. During the late Pliocene, we find that emulated SAT varies on an approximately precessional timescale, with evidence of increased obliquity response at times. A comparison of atmospheric CO2 concentration for this period, estimated using the proxy sea surface temperature (SST data from different sites and emulator results, finds that relatively similar CO2 concentrations are estimated based on sites at lower latitudes, whereas higher-latitude sites show larger discrepancies. In our second illustrative application, spanning the next

  19. Qualification of final closure for disposal container II - applicability of TOFD and phased array technique for overpack welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Kawahara, K.; Arakawa, T.; Kurokawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    With a focus on carbon steel, which is one of the candidate materials for the disposal container used in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan, the defect detection capabilities were examined regarding engineering defects of the TOFD technique, an ultrasonic testing method, and the phased array TOFD technique as non-destructive test techniques for the inspection of the weld of a carbon steel overpack. Regarding the TOFD technique, a measurement was conducted concerning the influence of the crossing angle of the ultrasonic beams on the capability of detect flaws, for examining the detection characteristics of the technique in relation to the lid structure of an overpack, and it was pointed out that it is appropriate to consider the lower tip of slit as the reference flaw. Based on the measurements and calculations regarding sound pressure distribution, projections about the scope covered by one test session were made and the optimum testing conditions were examined. Regarding the phased array TOFP technique, the detectability and quantification characteristics were investigated, and comparisons with those of the TOFD technique and the phased array UT technique were made. From the viewpoint of securing long-term corrosion resistance for an overpack, the ways of thinking for ensuring the quality and long-term integrity of the final sealing area of a disposal container were examined. This study stresses that identifying and defining the defects that are harmful to corrosion allowance is important as well as achieving improvements in the welding and testing techniques, and that the question to solve in particular from now on is how to establish effective means to detect defects on the weld surface and the near surface and how to approach the level of tolerance concerning the defects on and near the surface. (orig.)

  20. Response of Soil Mesofauna to Long-Term Application of Feedlot Manure on Irrigated Cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Battigelli, Jeff P; Beasley, Bruce W; Drury, Craig F

    2017-01-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley (). Intact cores were taken from surface (0-5 cm) soil in the fall, and the densities of Acari (mites) suborders and Collembola (springtails) families were determined. Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on soil mesofauna density. In contrast, there was a significant two- to sixfold increase in density with WD- compared with ST-amended soils of total Acari in 2014 and 2015, as well as total Collembola, total Acari and Collembola, oribatid mites, and entomobryid springtails in 2014. The bedding effect was attributed to significantly greater soil water content and lower bulk density for WD than ST. Density of soil mesofauna was not significantly greater in amended soils than in unamended soils. A shift by feedlot producers from stockpiled to composted feedlot manure application should have no effect on soil mesofauna density, whereas a shift from ST to WD bedding may increase the density of certain soil mesofauna, which may have a beneficial effect on soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Study of a nuclear energy supplied steelmaking system for near-term application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Kasahara, Seiji; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Conventional steelmaking processes involve intensive fossil fuel consumption and CO 2 emission. The system resulting from this study ties a steelmaking plant to a nuclear plant. The latter supplies the former all energy and feedstock with the exception of iron ore. The actual design takes on a multi-disciplinary approach: The nuclear plant employs a proven next-generation technology of fission reactor with 950 °C outlet temperature to produce electricity and heat. The plant construction saving and high efficiency keep the cogeneration cost down. The steelmaking plant employs conventional furnaces but substitutes hydrogen and oxygen for hydrocarbons as reactant and fuel. Water decomposition through an experimentally-demonstrated thermochemical process manufactures the feedstock gases required. Through essential safety features, particular a fully-passive nuclear safety, the design achieves physical proximity and yet operational independence of the two plants to facilitate inter-plant energy transmission. Calculated energy and material balance of the integrated system yields slightly over 1000 t steel per 1 MWt yr nuclear thermal energy. The steel cost is estimated competitive. The CO 2 emission amounts to 1% of conventional processes. The sustainable performance, economical potential, robust safety, and use of verified technological bases attract near-term deployment of this nuclear steelmaking system. -- Highlights: ► A steelmaking concept is proposed based on multi-disciplinary approach. ► It ties advanced nuclear fission reactor and energy conversion to thermochemical manufacture and direct iron making. ► Technological strength of each area is exploited to integrate a final process. ► Heat and material balance of the process is made to predict performance and cost. ► The system rules out fossil fuel use and CO 2 emission, and is near-term deployable.

  2. [Effect of Long-Term Application of Agrotechnical Techniques and Crops on Soil Microbial Communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvigo, I O; Pershina, E V; Ivanova, E A; Matyuk, N S; Savos'kina, O A; Chirak, E L; Provorov, N A; Andronov, E E

    2016-01-01

    Effects of long-term application ofvarious fertilizers and crops on soil microbiomes an a long-term field experiment were investigated using the library of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing of the total DNA. The communities exhibited high diversity, with 655 microbial genera belonging to 34 phyla detected (31 bacterial and 3 archaeal ones). For analysis of the effect of the studied factors on community structure, a linear model was developed in order to simplify interpretation of the data of high-throughput sequencing and to obtain biologically important information. Liming was shown to modulate the effect of mineral fertilizers on the structure of microbial populations. The differences in the structure and alpha-diversity of microbial communities were shown to depend more on the crops and liming, rather than on the fertilizers applied. Interaction between the crop factor and liming expressed as an ambiguous effect of liming on the microbiome in the presence of different plants was reliably demonstrated. Thus, in the case of barley and clover, liming resulted in increased taxonomic diversity of the community, while in the case of potato and flax it had an opposite effect.

  3. Long term modelling in a second rank world: application to climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crassous, R.

    2008-11-01

    This research aims at the identification of the dissatisfaction reasons with respect to the existing climate models, at the design of an innovating modelling architecture which would respond to these dissatisfactions, and at proposing climate policy assessment pathways. The authors gives a critique assessment of the modelling activity within the field of climate policies, outlines the fact that the large number and the scattering of existing long term scenarios hides a weak control of uncertainties and of the inner consistency of the produced paths, as well as the very low number of modelling paradigms. After a deepened analysis of modelling practices, the author presents the IMACLIM-R modelling architecture which is presented on a world scale and includes 12 areas and 12 sectors, and allows the simulation of evolutions by 2050, and even 2100, with a one-year time step. The author describes a scenario without any climate policy, highlights reassessment possibilities for economical trajectories which would allow greenhouse gas concentration stabilisation on a long term basis through the application of IMACLIM-R innovations. He outlines adjustment and refinement possibilities for climate policies which would robustly limit the transition cost risks

  4. Graphitized Carbon: A Promising Stable Cathode Catalyst Support Material for Long Term PEMFC Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Paritosh Kumar; Regnet, Fabian; Jörissen, Ludwig

    2018-05-28

    Stability of cathode catalyst support material is one of the big challenges of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for long term applications. Traditional carbon black (CB) supports are not stable enough to prevent oxidation to CO₂ under fuel cell operating conditions. The feasibility of a graphitized carbon (GC) as a cathode catalyst support for low temperature PEMFC is investigated herein. GC and CB supported Pt electrocatalysts were prepared via an already developed polyol process. The physical characterization of the prepared catalysts was performed using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis, and their electrochemical characterizations were conducted via cyclic voltammetry(CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and potential cycling, and eventually, the catalysts were processed using membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for single cell performance tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SEM) have been used as MEA diagonostic tools. GC showed superior stability over CB in acid electrolyte under potential conditions. Single cell MEA performance of the GC-supported catalyst is comparable with the CB-supported catalyst. A correlation of MEA performance of the supported catalysts of different Brunauer⁻Emmett⁻Teller (BET) surface areas with the ionomer content was also established. GC was identified as a promising candidate for catalyst support in terms of both of the stability and the performance of fuel cell.

  5. Congestion management in power systems. Long-term modeling framework and large-scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim; Hagspiel, Simeon; Just, Lisa

    2015-06-15

    In liberalized power systems, generation and transmission services are unbundled, but remain tightly interlinked. Congestion management in the transmission network is of crucial importance for the efficiency of these inter-linkages. Different regulatory designs have been suggested, analyzed and followed, such as uniform zonal pricing with redispatch or nodal pricing. However, the literature has either focused on the short-term efficiency of congestion management or specific issues of timing investments. In contrast, this paper presents a generalized and flexible economic modeling framework based on a decomposed inter-temporal equilibrium model including generation, transmission, as well as their inter-linkages. Short and long-term effects of different congestion management designs can hence be analyzed. Specifically, we are able to identify and isolate implicit frictions and sources of inefficiencies in the different regulatory designs, and to provide a comparative analysis including a benchmark against a first-best welfare-optimal result. To demonstrate the applicability of our framework, we calibrate and numerically solve our model for a detailed representation of the Central Western European (CWE) region, consisting of 70 nodes and 174 power lines. Analyzing six different congestion management designs until 2030, we show that compared to the first-best benchmark, i.e., nodal pricing, inefficiencies of up to 4.6% arise. Inefficiencies are mainly driven by the approach of determining cross-border capacities as well as the coordination of transmission system operators' activities.

  6. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  7. Ceramic composites for near term reactor application - HTR2008-58050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L. L.; Katoh, Y.; Windes, W. E.; Shinavski, R. J.; Burchell, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two composites types are being developed for in-core application: carbon fiber carbon composite (CFC), and silicon carbide fiber composite (SiC/SiC.) Irradiation effects studies have been carried out over the past few decades yielding radiation-tolerant CFC's and a composite of SiC/SiC with no apparent degradation in mechanical properties to very high neutron exposure. While CFC's can be engineered with significantly higher thermal conductivity, and a slight advantage in manufacturability than SiC/SiC, they do have a neutron irradiation-limited lifetime. The SiC composite, while possessing lower thermal conductivity (especially following irradiation), appears to have mechanical properties insensitive to irradiation. Both materials are currently being produced to sizes much larger than that considered for nuclear application. In addition to materials aspects, results of programs focusing on practical aspects of deploying composites for near-term reactors will be discussed. In particular, significant progress has been made in the fabrication, testing, and qualification of composite gas-cooled reactor control rod sheaths and the ASTM standardization required for eventual qualification. (authors)

  8. Application of geostatistical methods to long-term safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term safety analyses are an important part of the design and optimisation process as well as of the licensing procedure for final repositories for radioactive waste in deep geological formations. For selected scenarios describing possible evolutions of the repository system in the post-closure phase, quantitative consequence analyses are performed. Due to the complexity of the phenomena of concern and the large timeframes under consideration, several types of uncertainties have to be taken into account. The modelling work for the far-field (geosphere) surrounding or overlaying the repository is based on model calculations concerning the groundwater movement and the resulting migration of radionuclides which possibly will be released from the repository. In contrast to engineered systems, the geosphere shows a strong spatial variability of facies, materials and material properties. The paper presented here describes the first steps towards a quantitative approach for an uncertainty assessment taking into account this variability. Due to the availability of a large amount of data and information of several types, the Gorleben site (Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the method. (orig.)

  9. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  10. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Simonsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia, a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community

  11. NREL Topic 1 Final Report: Cohesive Application of Standards-Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgins, Andrew P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2018-02-21

    This document is the final report of a two-year development, test, and demonstration project entitled 'Cohesive Application of Standards-Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies.' The project was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Integrated Network Test-bed for Energy Grid Research and Technology (INTEGRATE) initiative. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a team of partners were selected by NREL to carry out a project to develop and test how smart, connected consumer devices can act to enable the use of more clean energy technologies on the electric power grid. The project team includes a set of leading companies that produce key products in relation to achieving this vision: thermostats, water heaters, pool pumps, solar inverters, electric vehicle supply equipment, and battery storage systems. A key requirement of the project was open access at the device level - a feature seen as foundational to achieving a future of widespread distributed generation and storage. The internal intelligence, standard functionality and communication interfaces utilized in this project result in the ability to integrate devices at any level, to work collectively at the level of the home/business, microgrid, community, distribution circuit or other. Collectively, the set of products serve as a platform on which a wide range of control strategies may be developed and deployed.

  12. Applications of magnetic 'power production' and its assessment. A feasibility study - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovski, A.; Diebold, M.; Vuarnoz, D.; Gonin, C.; Egolf, P. W

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how magnetic power conversion systems could present an alternative to conventional power conversion technologies. Magnetic 'power generators' based on permanent or superconducting magnets are proposed and analysed for numerous heat-source temperatures, magnetic field strengths and frequencies of rotating porous heat exchanger machines. Such machines have been proposed in a patent deposited by the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD/IGT/SIT division). A special numerical analysis is looked at that takes advantage of a thermodynamic model which permits the determination of thermodynamic efficiency, exergy efficiency, total mass and total volume of such magnetic power conversion machines. Magneto-caloric materials are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of such systems are discussed. The report is concluded with an overview of various systems working under different operating conditions. The systems are listed and evaluated as far as their potential for application in the area of magnetic power conversion is concerned.

  13. Evolution of safety standards for the long-term management of nuclear waste, and their application in Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the need to develop current radiation protection methodologies further in order to take account of the special features of long-term waste management. The need to expand the scope and nature of regulatory submissions is also addressed. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging as to requirements for a safety case for long-term waste management, and on safety assessment approaches and criteria to be applied in the regulation of long-term waste management facilities. The application of some of this methodology in preliminary concept assessments carried out by OPG for long-term waste management facilities is described. (author)

  14. Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

    2012-01-31

    The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the

  15. ITER task title - source term data, modelling, and analysis. ITER subtask no. S81TT05/5 (SEP 1-1). Global tritium source term analysis basis document. Subtask 1: operational tritium effluents and releases. Final report (1995 TASK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanam, K.M.

    1996-06-01

    This document represents the final report for the global tritium source term analysis task initiated in 1995. The report presents a room-by-room map/table at the subsystem level for the ITER tritium systems, identifying the major equipment, secondary containments, tritium release sources, duration/frequency of tritium releases and the release pathways. The chronic tritium releases during normal operation, as well as tritium releases due to routine maintenance of the Water Distillation Unit, Isotope Separation System and Primary and Secondary Heat Transport Systems, have been estimated for most of the subsystems, based on the IDR design, the Design Description Documents (April - Jun 1995 issues) and the design updates up to December 1995. The report also outlines the methodology and the key assumptions that are adopted in preparing the tritium release estimates. The design parameters for the ITER Basic Performance Phase (BPP) have been used in estimating the tritium releases shown in the room-by-room map/table. The tritium release calculations and the room-by-room map/table have been prepared in EXCEL, so that the estimates can be refined easily as the design evolves and more detailed information becomes available. (author). 23 refs., tabs

  16. Feasibility of biochar application on a landfill final cover-a review on balancing ecology and shallow slope stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun-Wen; Wong, James Tsz-Fung; Ng, Charles Wang-Wai; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Due to the increasing concerns on global warming, scarce land for agriculture, and contamination impacts on human health, biochar application is being considered as one of the possible measures for carbon sequestration, promoting higher crop yield and contamination remediation. Significant amount of researches focusing on these three aspects have been conducted during recent years. Biochar as a soil amendment is effective in promoting plant performance and sustainability, by enhancing nutrient bioavailability, contaminants immobilization, and microbial activities. The features of biochar in changing soil physical and biochemical properties are essential in affecting the sustainability of an ecosystem. Most studies showed positive results and considered biochar application as an effective and promising measure for above-mentioned interests. Bio-engineered man-made filled slope and landfill slope increasingly draw the attention of geologists and geotechnical engineers. With increasing number of filled slopes, sustainability, low maintenance, and stability are the major concerns. Biochar as a soil amendment changes the key factors and parameters in ecology (plant development, soil microbial community, nutrient/contaminant cycling, etc.) and slope engineering (soil weight, internal friction angle and cohesion, etc.). This paper reviews the studies on the production, physical and biochemical properties of biochar and suggests the potential areas requiring study in balancing ecology and man-made filled slope and landfill cover engineering. Biochar-amended soil should be considered as a new type of soil in terms of soil mechanics. Biochar performance depends on soil and biochar type which imposes challenges to generalize the research outcomes. Aging process and ecotoxicity studies of biochar are strongly required.

  17. Soil composition and nutritional status of apple as affected by long-term application of gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Nava

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum does not affect the soil negative charges and maintains sulfate in the soil solution, making it one of the cheapest products to increase Ca activity in soil solution, especially in the deeper soil layers. Higher Ca levels in the soil solution can increase the uptake of this nutrient by apple trees, reducing the risk of physiological disorders caused by Ca deficiency. This study assessed the effect of long-term gypsum application on some soil properties and on the chemical composition of leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to fruit disorders associated with low Ca. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, in the South of Brazil, from 2001 to 2009. Gypsum rates of 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 t ha-1 were annually broadcast over the soil surface, without incorporation, in an apple orchard with cultivar ´Catarina´, planted in 1997. Gypsum application over eight consecutive years had no effect on soil exchangeable K and Al to a depth of 80 cm, but increased exchangeable Ca in the sampled layers (0-10, 10-20, 40-60 and 60-80 cm, while exchangeable Mg decreased only in the surface layer (0-20 cm. Gypsum did not affect the concentration of any nutrient in the fruits, including Ca. The same was verified in the leaves, except for Mg which decreased with increased gypsum rate. Despite increasing the availability of Ca in the soil profile to a depth of 80 cm, gypsum was not effective to increase the Ca content in leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to Ca deficiency grown in an appropriately limed soil.

  18. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in

  19. An Application of the Short-Term Forecasting with Limited Data in the Healthcare Traveling Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Sa Dang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In real practice, forecasting under the limited data has attracted more attention in business activities, especially in the healthcare traveling industry in its current stage. However, there are only a few research studies focusing on this issue. Thus, the purposes of this paper were to determine the forecasted performance of several current forecasting methods as well as to examine their applications. Taking advantage of the small data requirement for model construction, three models including the exponential smoothing model, the Grey model GM(1,1, and the modified Lotka-Volterra model (L.V., were used to conduct forecasting analyses based on the data of foreign patients from 2001 to 2013 in six destinations. The results indicated that the L.V. model had higher prediction power than the other two models, and it obtained the best forecasting performance with an 89.7% precision rate. In conclusion, the L.V. model is the best model for estimating the market size of the healthcare traveling industry, followed by the GM(1,1 model. The contribution of this study is to offer a useful statistical tool for short-term planning, which can be applied to the healthcare traveling industry in particular, and for other business forecasting under the conditions of limited data in general.

  20. Application of Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System in Short Term Load Forecasting on Special Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Dharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Interval Type-2 fuzzy logic systems (Interval Type-2 FLS in short term load forecasting (STLF on special days, study case in Bali Indonesia. Type-2 FLS is characterized by a concept called footprint of uncertainty (FOU that provides the extra mathematical dimension that equips Type-2 FLS with the potential to outperform their Type-1 counterparts. While a Type-2 FLS has the capability to model more complex relationships, the output of a Type-2 fuzzy inference engine needs to be type-reduced. Type reduction is used by applying the Karnik-Mendel (KM iterative algorithm. This type reduction maps the output of Type-2 FSs into Type-1 FSs then the defuzzification with centroid method converts that Type-1 reduced FSs into a number. The proposed method was tested with the actual load data of special days using 4 days peak load before special days and at the time of special day for the year 2002-2006. There are 20 items of special days in Bali that are used to be forecasted in the year 2005 and 2006 respectively. The test results showed an accurate forecasting with the mean average percentage error of 1.0335% and 1.5683% in the year 2005 and 2006 respectively.

  1. Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.; Crosland, A.R.; Coleman, K.

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manure or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.

  2. The long-term forecast of Taiwan's energy supply and demand: LEAP model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yophy; Bor, Yunchang Jeffrey; Peng, Chieh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of energy supply and demand is an extremely important topic of fundamental research in Taiwan due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on energy imports, and the nation's pursuit of sustainable development. In this article, we provide an overview of energy supply and demand in Taiwan, and a summary of the historical evolution and current status of its energy policies, as background to a description of the preparation and application of a Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model of Taiwan's energy sector. The Taiwan LEAP model is used to compare future energy demand and supply patterns, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for several alternative scenarios of energy policy and energy sector evolution. Results of scenarios featuring 'business-as-usual' policies, aggressive energy-efficiency improvement policies, and on-schedule retirement of Taiwan's three existing nuclear plants are provided and compared, along with sensitivity cases exploring the impacts of lower economic growth assumptions. A concluding section provides an interpretation of the implications of model results for future energy and climate policies in Taiwan. - Research highlights: → The LEAP model is useful for international energy policy comparison. → Nuclear power plants have significant, positive impacts on CO 2 emission. → The most effective energy policy is to adopt demand-side management. → Reasonable energy pricing provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation. → Financial crisis has less impact on energy demand than aggressive energy policy.

  3. A long-term stable power supply µDMFC stack for wireless sensor node applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zonglin; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaozhao; Xu, Manqi; Liu, Litian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a passive, air-breathing four-cell micro direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) stack featuring a fuel delivery structure for long-term and stable power supply is designed, fabricated and tested. The fuel is reserved in a T-shaped tank and diffuses through the porous diffusion layer to the catalyst at the anode. A peak power density of 25.7 mW cm −2 and a maximum power output of 113 mW are achieved with 3 M methanol at room temperature, and the stack can produce 60 mW of power, even though only 5% fuel remains in the reservoir. Combined with a low-input dc–dc convertor, the stack can realize a stable and optional constant voltage output from 1 V–6 V. The stack successfully powered a heavy metal sensor node for water environment monitoring 12 d continuously, with consumption of 10 mL 5 M methanol solution. As such, it is believed to be applicable for powering wireless sensor nodes. (paper)

  4. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  5. Long-term application of winery wastewater - Effect on soil microbial populations and soil chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Kim; Patti, Antonio; Smernik, Ron; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater (WWW) has potential benefits both with respect to treatment of a waste stream, as well as providing a beneficial water resource in water limited regions such as south-eastern Australia, California and South Africa. Over an extended time period, this practice leads to changes in soil chemistry, and potentially, also to soil microbial populations. In this study, we compared the short term effects of WWW (both treated and untreated) application on soil biology and chemistry in two adjacent paired sites with the same soil type, one of which had received WWW for approximately 30 years, and the other which had not. The paired sites were treated with an industrially relevant quantity of WWW, and the soil microbial activity (measured as soil CO2 efflux) and common soil physicochemical properties were monitored over a 16-day period. In addition, Solid State 13C NMR was employed on whole soil samples from the two sites, to measure and compare the chemical nature of the soil organic matter at the paired sites. The acclimatised soil showed a high level of organic matter and a greater spike in microbial activity following WWW addition, in comparison with the non-acclimatised soil, suggesting differences in soil chemistry and soil microbial communities between the two sites. Soil nitrate and phosphorus levels showed significant differences between WWW treatments; these differences likely to be microbially mediated.

  6. A short-term ensemble wind speed forecasting system for wind power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, S.; Traiteur, J. J.; Callicutt, D.; Smith, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study develops an adaptive, blended forecasting system to provide accurate wind speed forecasts 1 hour ahead of time for wind power applications. The system consists of an ensemble of 21 forecasts with different configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Single Column Model (WRFSCM) and a persistence model. The ensemble is calibrated against observations for a 2 month period (June-July, 2008) at a potential wind farm site in Illinois using the Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) technique. The forecasting system is evaluated against observations for August 2008 at the same site. The calibrated ensemble forecasts significantly outperform the forecasts from the uncalibrated ensemble while significantly reducing forecast uncertainty under all environmental stability conditions. The system also generates significantly better forecasts than persistence, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models during the morning transition and the diurnal convective regimes. This forecasting system is computationally more efficient than traditional numerical weather prediction models and can generate a calibrated forecast, including model runs and calibration, in approximately 1 minute. Currently, hour-ahead wind speed forecasts are almost exclusively produced using statistical models. However, numerical models have several distinct advantages over statistical models including the potential to provide turbulence forecasts. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore the role of numerical models in short-term wind speed forecasting. This work is a step in that direction and is likely to trigger a debate within the wind speed forecasting community.

  7. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  8. Strong Maximum Principle for Multi-Term Time-Fractional Diffusion Equations and its Application to an Inverse Source Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yikan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a strong maximum principle for fractional diffusion equations with multiple Caputo derivatives in time, and investigate a related inverse problem of practical importance. Exploiting the solution properties and the involved multinomial Mittag-Leffler functions, we improve the weak maximum principle for the multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation to a stronger one, which is parallel to that for its single-term counterpart as expected. As a direct application, w...

  9. Effect of long-term application of biosolids for land reclamation on surface water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G; Granato, T C; Pietz, R I; Carlson, C R; Abedin, Z

    2006-01-01

    Biosolids are known to have a potential to restore degraded land, but the long-term impacts of this practice on the environment, including water quality, still need to be evaluated. The surface water chemistry (NO3-, NH4+, and total P, Cd, Cu, and Hg) was monitored for 31 yr from 1972 to 2002 in a 6000-ha watershed at Fulton County, Illinois, where the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago was restoring the productivity of strip-mined land using biosolids. The mean cumulative loading rates during the past 31 yr were 875 dry Mg ha(-1) for 1120-ha fields in the biosolids-amended watershed and 4.3 dry Mg ha(-1) for the 670-ha fields in the control watershed. Biosolids were injected into mine spoil fields as liquid fertilizer from 1972 to 1985, and incorporated as dewatered cake from 1980 to 1996 and air-dried solids from 1987 to 2002. The mean annual loadings of nutrients and trace elements from biosolids in 1 ha were 735 kg N, 530 kg P, 4.5 kg Cd, 30.7 kg Cu, and 0.11 kg Hg in the fields of the biosolids-amended watershed, and negligible in the fields of the control watershed. Sampling of surface water was conducted monthly in the 1970s, and three times per year in the 1980s and 1990s. The water samples were collected from 12 reservoirs and 2 creeks receiving drainage from the fields in the control watershed, and 8 reservoirs and 4 creeks associated with the fields in the biosolids-amended watershed for the analysis of NO3- -N (including NO2- N), NH4+-N, and total P, Cd, Cu, and Hg. Compared to the control (0.18 mg L(-1)), surface water NO3- -N in the biosolids-amended watershed (2.23 mg L(-1)) was consistently higher; however, it was still below the Illinois limit of 10 mg L(-1) for public and food-processing water supplies. Biosolids applications had a significant effect on mean concentrations of ammonium N (0.11 mg L(-1) for control and 0.24 mg L(-1) for biosolids) and total P (0.10 mg L(-1) for control and 0.16 mg L(-1) for biosolids) in

  10. Long-term dynamics of radionuclides in semi-natural environments. Derivation of parameters and modelling. Final Report 1996-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Stato Ambiente, Controlli e Sistemi Informativi, Unita' Interdipartimentale di Metrologia Ambientale

    2000-07-01

    During the Chernobyl accident large areas of semi-natural ecosystems were affected by radionuclide deposition. Meadows and forests are typical semi-natural ecosystems. Meadows are used extensively in many countries as pastures for cattle, sheep and goats, while forests are important to man since they provide wood, paper, wild berries, mushrooms, game and recreational areas. Post-Chernobyl investigations have shown that dose to man from semi-natural ecosystems is relatively greater than from agricultural systems and that this dose risk persists for the long-term. Predictive models are essential to take long-term decisions on the management of contaminated environment and to identify key processes controlling the dynamics of radionuclides inside the ecosystems. During the period following the atmospheric fallout due to the nuclear weapons testing, few models for some specific semi-natural environments were developed. The applicability of these models to a wide range of semi-natural ecosystem is questionable, because in these complex systems it is more difficult to identify general key processes and to apply to other sites models developed for one site. Studies carried out since the Chernobyl accident have increased the understanding of radionuclide behaviour in semi-natural ecosystems, especially for boreal forests and middle European meadow systems which have been extensively investigated. Data sets have been obtained which describe the distribution and the cycling of radionuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr) within these systems. However, predictive modelling has largely been restricted to aggregated transfer factors which provide good contamination estimates, but only for the sites from which data have been obtained directly. There was a need to develop models that can be applied to a broad variety of ecosystems. They are needed for dose estimation, countermeasure implementation and environmental management. They should give reliable estimates of the

  11. Long-term dynamics of radionuclides in semi-natural environments. Derivation of parameters and modelling. Final Report 1996-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.

    2000-04-01

    During the Chernobyl accident large areas of semi-natural ecosystems were affected by radionuclide deposition. Meadows and forests are typical semi-natural ecosystems. Meadows are used extensively in many countries as pastures for cattle, sheep and goats, while forests are important to man since they provide wood, paper, wild berries, mushrooms, game and recreational areas. Post-Chernobyl investigations have shown that dose to man from semi-natural ecosystems is relatively greater than from agricultural systems and that this dose risk persists for the long-term. Predictive models are essential to take long-term decisions on the management of contaminated environment and to identify key processes controlling the dynamics of radionuclides inside the ecosystems. During the period following the atmospheric fallout due to the nuclear weapons testing, few models for some specific semi-natural environments were developed. The applicability of these models to a wide range of semi-natural ecosystem is questionable, because in these complex systems it is more difficult to identify general key processes and to apply to other sites models developed for one site. Studies carried out since the Chernobyl accident have increased the understanding of radionuclide behaviour in semi-natural ecosystems, especially for boreal forests and middle European meadow systems which have been extensively investigated. Data sets have been obtained which describe the distribution and the cycling of radionuclides (especially 137 Cs and 90 Sr) within these systems. However, predictive modelling has largely been restricted to aggregated transfer factors which provide good contamination estimates, but only for the sites from which data have been obtained directly. There was a need to develop models that can be applied to a broad variety of ecosystems. They are needed for dose estimation, countermeasure implementation and environmental management. They should give reliable estimates of the behaviour

  12. Assessing low carbon and resilient growth in Indonesia: an application of the ThreeME model. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynes, Frederic; Malliet, Paul; Marizi, Nizhar

    2017-01-01

    This report offers an empirical application of the notion of energy transition to the Indonesian economy by simulating the medium- and long-term impacts of proposed investment plan in power generation capacities on the Indonesian economy. The starting point of the analysis comes from ThreeME framework, a Multi-sectoral Macroeconomic Model based on Keynesian theory. It is designed to address dynamics of global economic activity, energy system development and carbon emissions causing climate change. The ThreeME model is well suited for policy assessment purposes in the context of developing economies as it informs the transitional effects of policy intervention. In particular, disequilibrium can arise in the form of involuntary unemployment, inertia of technical systems and rigidity of labor and energy markets, as a result of delayed market-clearing in the goods markets and slow adjustment between prices and quantities over the simulation time path. Calibrated using sectorial and aggregated national accounts data, an Indonesian version of the ThreeME has been developed and accounts for 37 commodities -including 4 energy sources- and 44 sectors, with an explicit distinction between 11 energy sectors and 4 transport sectors. Electricity production is dis-aggregated into 8 technologies: hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, nuclear, coal-based, oil-based and gas-based. A disaggregation between 5 regions is also made. The ThreeME-Indonesia model is used to gauge the economic and environmental effects of energy and fiscal policy measures in Indonesia at the national and regional levels. Different policy scenarios are assessed, each reflecting the impact of investments in electricity production capacities. This document is the result of an 18 months' research collaboration involving the Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS), the French Agency for Development (AFD), the French Economic Observatory (OFCE), the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research

  13. 78 FR 13330 - Pangea LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Mexico, acreages in the Marcellus shale gas play, the Eagle Ford shale gas play, the Bakken shale oil... gas reserves and production. Pangea states that improved drilling techniques and extraction...; Application for Long- Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas...

  14. Development and evaluation of the process for final placement application: a review of the new student led allocation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Rachael; Brackenbury, Debra; Broady, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background A process to facilitate nursing students to have more ownership of their final placement was introduced for this academic year by inviting them to apply for a specific placement they felt most appropriate. Whilst there has been significant research into preparing students for practice (Woods et al, 2015) and to explore the transition from student to graduate nurse (Kumaran and Carney, 2014), there is little to explore the effect of gaining preference for their final placement or...

  15. Novel point estimation from a semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE): long-term health outcomes from short-term linear data, with application to weight loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah

    2013-11-02

    Point estimation is particularly important in predicting weight loss in individuals or small groups. In this analysis, a new health response function is based on a model of human response over time to estimate long-term health outcomes from a change point in short-term linear regression. This important estimation capability is addressed for small groups and single-subject designs in pilot studies for clinical trials, medical and therapeutic clinical practice. These estimations are based on a change point given by parameters derived from short-term participant data in ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The development of the change point in initial OLS data and the point estimations are given in a new semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE) model. The new response function is taken as a ratio of two-parameter Weibull distributions times a prior outcome value that steps estimated outcomes forward in time, where the shape and scale parameters are estimated at the change point. The Weibull distributions used in this ratio are derived from a Kelvin model in mechanics taken here to represent human beings. A distinct feature of the SPRE model in this article is that initial treatment response for a small group or a single subject is reflected in long-term response to treatment. This model is applied to weight loss in obesity in a secondary analysis of data from a classic weight loss study, which has been selected due to the dramatic increase in obesity in the United States over the past 20 years. A very small relative error of estimated to test data is shown for obesity treatment with the weight loss medication phentermine or placebo for the test dataset. An application of SPRE in clinical medicine or occupational therapy is to estimate long-term weight loss for a single subject or a small group near the beginning of treatment.

  16. 2+1 topological term, anyons and their possible application in high Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chuanjie.

    1990-01-01

    I review pedagogically some aspects about the SO(3) non-linear σ-model and the topological Hopf term (or the abelian Chern-Simons term). I argue that the presence of the topological Chern-Simons term is irrelevant (for regular gauge field configurations). I also give a brief introduction to the ideal anyon gas approach to high T c superconductivity. (author). 18 refs

  17. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  18. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    these sites. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are presented for the general river application of the method.Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this acoustical method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, for example, to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets. Several types of error analyses are presented to evaluate (1) the stability of acoustical calibrations over time, (2) the effect of neglecting backscatter from silt and clay, (3) the bias arising from changes in sand grain size, (4) the time-varying error in the method, and (5) the influence of nonrandom processes on error. Results indicate that (1) acoustical calibrations can be stable for long durations (multiple years), (2) neglecting backscatter from silt and clay can result in unacceptably high bias, (3) two frequencies are likely required to obtain sand-concentration measurements that are unbiased by changes in grain size, depending on site-specific conditions and acoustic frequency, (4) relative errors in silt-and-clay- and sand-concentration measurements decrease substantially as concentration increases, and (5) nonrandom errors may arise from slow changes in the spatial structure of suspended sediment that affect the relations between concentration in the acoustically ensonified part of the cross section and concentration in the entire river cross section. Taken together, the error analyses indicate that the two-frequency method produces unbiased measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and sand concentration, with errors that are similar to, or larger than, those associated with conventional sampling methods.

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Seasonal and Short-term Manure Application Decisions on Phosphorus Loss in Surface Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Good, Laura W; Jokela, William E; Karthikeyan, K G; Arriaga, Francisco J; Stock, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) management is a research and policy issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of P loss from dairy manure applied in winter or when runoff is imminent. We used the SurPhos computer model and 108 site-years of weather and runoff data to assess the impact of these two practices on dissolved P loss. Model results showed that winter manure application can increase P loss by 2.5 to 3.6 times compared with non-winter applications, with the amount increasing as the average runoff from a field increases. Increased P loss is true for manure applied any time from late November through early March, with a maximum P loss from application in late January and early February. Shifting manure application to fields with less runoff can reduce P loss by 3.4 to 7.5 times. Delaying manure application when runoff is imminent can reduce P loss any time of the year, and sometimes quite significantly, but the number of times that application delays will reduce P loss is limited to only 3 to 9% of possible spreading days, and average P loss may be reduced by only 15% for winter-applied manure and 6% for non-winter-applied manure. Overall, long-term strategies of shifting manure applications to low runoff seasons and fields can potentially reduce dissolved P loss in runoff much more compared with near-term, tactical application decisions of avoiding manure application when runoff is imminent. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  2. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report II : long term performance of hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the investigation of the long term structural performance of a : hybrid FRP-concrete (HFRPC) bridge deck on steel girders. The study aimed at : assessing three long term aspects pertaining to the HFRPC bridge deck: (1) creep : c...

  3. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI, the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, Z Index (ZIND, the Soil Moisture Index (SMI with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI, the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI, the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  5. Effects of long-term repeated topical fluoride applications and adhesion promoter on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiya; Ishida, Rieko; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Sanpei, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of long-term repeated topical application of fluoride before bonding and an adhesion promoter on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 bovine incisors were collected and divided equally into four groups. In group 1, the brackets were bonded without topical fluoride application or adhesion promoter. In group 2, before bonding, the adhesion promoter was applied to nonfluoridated enamel. In group 3, the brackets were bonded without the application of the adhesion promoter to enamel, which had undergone long-term repeated topical fluoride treatments. Teeth in group 4 received the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride, and the brackets were bonded using the adhesion promoter. All the brackets were bonded using BeautyOrtho Bond self-etching adhesive. The shear bond strength was measured and the bond failure modes were evaluated with the use of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) after debonding. Results: The mean shear bond strength was significantly lower in group 3 than in groups 1, 2, and 4, and there were no significant differences between the groups except for group 3. There were significant differences in the distribution of ARI scores between groups 2 and 3, and between groups 3 and 4. Conclusions: The adhesion promoter can recover the bond strength reduced by the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride to the prefluoridation level and had a significantly great amount of adhesives left on either fluoridated or nonfluoridated enamel. PMID:25512720

  6. Motor models and transient analysis for high-temperature, superconductor switch-based adjustable speed drive applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    New high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) technology may allow development of an energy-efficient power electronics switch for adjustable speed drive (ASD) applications involving variable-speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage systems, and other power conversion equipment. This project developed a motor simulation module for determining optimal applications of HTSC-based power switches in ASD systems

  7. The Application of Structured Job Analysis Information Based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Final Report No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Ernest J.

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a job analysis instrument consisting of 187 job elements organized into six divisions. The PAQ was used in the eight studies summarized in this final report. The studies were: (1) ratings of the attribute requirements of PAQ job elements, (2) a series of principal components analyses of these attribute…

  8. Influence of long-term land application of class B biosolids on soil bacterial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated the influence of annual land applications of Class B biosolids on soil bacterial diversity monitored over a 20 year period. Each annual land application was followed by a cotton crop. The study was initiated in 1986 at the University of Arizona Marana Agricultural Center, 21 m...

  9. Application of induced short-term hyperglycemia in comprehensive treatment of locally disseminated cancer of mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letyagin, V.P.; Poddubnyj, I.K.; Sokolova, I.G.; Ermilova, V.D.; Ajtakova, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with an analysis of the results of treatment of 12 patients with mammary gland cancer receiving preoperative radiation and chemotherapy and in whom short-term hyperglycemia was simultaneously induced. The peculiarities of the said modality and advantages offered by its application are discussed. The cases given the same treatment unaccompanied by hyperglycemia were in control. Since short-term hyperglycemia as a component of comprehensive treatment of mammary gland cancer resulted in a higher effectiveness of the latter, it merits attention and further studies

  10. Final infarct size measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction predicts long-term clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen; Vejlstrup, Niels Grove; Kelbæk, Henning Skov

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Tailored heart failure treatment and risk assessment in patients following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is mainly based on the assessment of the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). Assessment of the final infarct size in addition to the LVEF may improve...

  11. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults with ADHD: Final Report of a 4-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Williams, David W.; Moore, Rodney J.; Michelson, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previously, data from 97 weeks of open-label atomoxetine treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reported. This final report of that study presents results from over 4 years of treatment. Method: Results were derived from the study of 384 patients (125 patients remaining in the open-label trial…

  12. Piezo-electric automatic vehicle classification system : Oregon Department of Transportation with Castle Rock Consultants for a SHRP Long Term Pavement Performance Site : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Oregon has twelve pavement test sites that are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) studies. Part of the data gathering on these sites involves vehicle weight and classification. This pilot proj...

  13. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  14. Opioid-use disorder among patients on long-term opioid therapy: impact of final DSM-5 diagnostic criteria on prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Han, John J

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for prescription opioid-use disorder among outpatients on opioid therapy using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 and DSM-4 criteria. However, at the time, the DSM-5 criteria were not finalized. In the current study, we analyzed these data using the final DSM-5 criteria and compared these results. Using electronic records from a large US health care system, we identified outpatients receiving five or more prescription orders for opioid therapy in the past 12 months for noncancer pain (mean prescription orders =10.72; standard deviation =4.96). In 2008, we completed diagnostic interviews with 705 of these patients using the DSM-4 criteria. In the current study, we reassessed these results using the final DSM-5 criteria. The lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 opioid-use disorders using the final DSM-5 criteria was 58.7% for no or few symptoms (DSM-4 criteria indicated that the majority of patients with lifetime DSM-4 opioid dependence were now classified as having mild opioid-use disorder, based on the DSM-5 criteria (53.6%; 95% CI =44.1-62.8). In ordinal logistic regression predicting no/few, mild, moderate, and severe opioid-use disorder, the best predictors were age DSM-5 criteria, including the elimination of tolerance and withdrawal, inclusion of craving and abuse symptoms, and introduction of a new graded severity classification, the prevalence of opioid-use disorders has changed, while many of the DSM-4 risk factors for opioid dependence were similar. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to compare the final results for DSM-5 versus DSM-4 prescription opioid-use disorders among a high-risk patient population.

  15. Opioid-use disorder among patients on long-term opioid therapy: impact of final DSM-5 diagnostic criteria on prevalence and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Han, John J

    2015-01-01

    Aims Previously, we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for prescription opioid-use disorder among outpatients on opioid therapy using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 and DSM-4 criteria. However, at the time, the DSM-5 criteria were not finalized. In the current study, we analyzed these data using the final DSM-5 criteria and compared these results. Methods Using electronic records from a large US health care system, we identified outpatients receiving five or more prescription orders for opioid therapy in the past 12 months for noncancer pain (mean prescription orders =10.72; standard deviation =4.96). In 2008, we completed diagnostic interviews with 705 of these patients using the DSM-4 criteria. In the current study, we reassessed these results using the final DSM-5 criteria. Results The lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 opioid-use disorders using the final DSM-5 criteria was 58.7% for no or few symptoms (DSM-5 criteria (53.6%; 95% CI =44.1–62.8). In ordinal logistic regression predicting no/few, mild, moderate, and severe opioid-use disorder, the best predictors were age DSM-5 criteria, including the elimination of tolerance and withdrawal, inclusion of craving and abuse symptoms, and introduction of a new graded severity classification, the prevalence of opioid-use disorders has changed, while many of the DSM-4 risk factors for opioid dependence were similar. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to compare the final results for DSM-5 versus DSM-4 prescription opioid-use disorders among a high-risk patient population. PMID:26316838

  16. Synchronizing modified van der Pol-Duffing oscillators with offset terms using observer design: application to secure communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodjouong, G J; Fotsin, H B; Woafo, P

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive synchronization of the modified van der Pol-Duffing (MVDPD) oscillator with offset terms. From our investigations of the system dynamics, we obtain that the system presents a chaotic behaviour at weak values of the offset parameters. Routh-Hurwitz criteria are used to study the asymptotic stability of the steady states. An adaptive observer design method is applied to achieve synchronization of two identical MVDPD oscillators with offset. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed synchronization approach. Moreover, as an application, the proposed scheme is applied to secure communication. Also, simulation results verify the proposed scheme's success in the communication application

  17. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  18. Environmental impacts of oil and gas brine applications for dust and ice control in New York : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies are required to treat roads for dust and ice control to ensure adequate safety for travelers. This is commonly achieved through application of solid and liquid chemicals. These materials can be conventional rock salt, brine fr...

  19. Integrated Incident Management System (IIMS) web client application development, deployment and evaluation Staten Island (SI) demonstration project : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-27

    This evaluation report provides background on the development and findings. The aim of the UTRC project was to develop and : deploy Portable IIMS based on Smartphone web applications. Previously, traditional IIMS was deployed in the field vehicles : ...

  20. Opioid-use disorder among patients on long-term opioid therapy: impact of final DSM-5 diagnostic criteria on prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino,1 Stuart N Hoffman,1 John J Han2 1Center for Health Research, 2Department of Pain Medicine, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USAAims: Previously, we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for prescription opioid-use disorder among outpatients on opioid therapy using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 and DSM-4 criteria. However, at the time, the DSM-5 criteria were not finalized. In the current study, we analyzed these data using the final DSM-5 criteria and compared these results.Methods: Using electronic records from a large US health care system, we identified outpatients receiving five or more prescription orders for opioid therapy in the past 12 months for noncancer pain (mean prescription orders =10.72; standard deviation =4.96. In 2008, we completed diagnostic interviews with 705 of these patients using the DSM-4 criteria. In the current study, we reassessed these results using the final DSM-5 criteria.Results: The lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 opioid-use disorders using the final DSM-5 criteria was 58.7% for no or few symptoms (<2, 28.1% for mild symptoms (2–3, 9.7% for moderate symptoms (4–5, and 3.5% for severe symptoms (six or more. Thus, the lifetime prevalence of “any” prescription opioid-use disorder in this cohort was 41.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] =37.6–45.0. A comparison to the DSM-4 criteria indicated that the majority of patients with lifetime DSM-4 opioid dependence were now classified as having mild opioid-use disorder, based on the DSM-5 criteria (53.6%; 95% CI =44.1–62.8. In ordinal logistic regression predicting no/few, mild, moderate, and severe opioid-use disorder, the best predictors were age <65 years, current pain impairment, trouble sleeping, suicidal thoughts, anxiety disorders, illicit drug use, and history of substance abuse treatment.Conclusion: Given the final DSM-5 criteria, including the elimination of tolerance and withdrawal, inclusion of

  1. Exogenous short-term silicon application regulates macro-nutrients, endogenous phytohormones, and protein expression in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soo-Won; Kim, Yoonha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Na, Chae-In; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-04

    Silicon (Si) has been known to regulate plant growth; however, the underlying mechanisms of short-term exogenous Si application on the regulation of calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N), endogenous phytohormones, and expression of essential proteins have been little understood. Exogenous Si application significantly increased Si content as compared to the control. Among Si treatments, 1.0 mM Si application showed increased phosphorus content as compared to other Si treatments (0.5, 2.0, and 4.0 mM). However, Ca accumulation was significantly reduced (1.8- to 2.0-fold) at the third-leaf stage in the control, whereas all Si treatments exhibited a dose-dependent increase in Ca as determined by radioisotope 45 Ca analysis. Similarly, the radioisotope 15 N for nitrogen localization and uptake showed a varying but reduced response (ranging from 1.03-10.8%) to different Si concentrations as compared to 15 N application alone. Physiologically active endogenous gibberellin (GA 1 ) was also significantly higher with exogenous Si (1.0 mM) as compared to GA 20 and the control plants. A similar response was noted for endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acid synthesis in rice plants with Si application. Proteomic analysis revealed the activation of several essential proteins, such as Fe-S precursor protein, putative thioredoxin, Ser/Thr phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6P), and importin alpha-1b (Imp3), with Si application. Among the most-expressed proteins, confirmatory gene expression analysis for G6P and Imp3 showed a similar response to those of the Si treatments. In conclusion, the current results suggest that short-term exogenous Si can significantly regulate rice plant physiology by influencing Ca, N, endogenous phytohormones, and proteins, and that 1.0 mM Si application is more beneficial to plants than higher concentrations.

  2. Heat pipes. Dictionary of terms, design, technology and application. Fiz. -energ. in-t. Obminsk. (Prepr. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strozhkov, A I; Zayets, V V

    1980-01-01

    Types of capillary-porous structures, their advantages and shortcomings, and technology of fabrication are examined. Methods are described for regulating the heat pipes, their configuration and area of application.

  3. Review of the accident source terms for aluminide fuel: Application to the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joppen, F.

    2005-01-01

    A major safety review of the BR2, a material test reactor, is to be conducted for the year 2006. One of the subjects selected for the safety review is the definition of source terms for emergency planning and in particular the development of accident scenarios. For nuclear power plants the behaviour of fuel under accident conditions is a well studied object. In case of non-power reactors this basic knowledge is rather scarce. The usefulness of information from power plant fuels is limited due to the differences in fuel type, power level and thermohydraulical conditions. First investigation indicates that using data from power plant fuel leads to an overestimation of the source terms. Further research on this subject could be very useful for the research reactor community, in order to define more realistic source terms and to improve the emergency preparedness. (author)

  4. Application of a Long Term Asset Management Strategy for HP Feedwater Heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Se Youl; Yun, Eun Sub; Park, Young Sheop

    2008-01-01

    As the commercial operating year of nuclear power plants is increased, it becomes imperative to develop integrated cost-effective asset management and to improve plans for degraded Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) in terms of safety and economical consideration. A long-term asset management (LTAM) strategy can improve the condition of nuclear plants, maximize their value, and optimize their operational life by maintaining their safety. This paper presents an optimized LTAM plan for HP feedwater heaters at a specific nuclear power plant

  5. Long-term reclaimed water application effects on phosphorus leaching potential in rapid infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Daniel R; Silveira, Maria L; O'Connor, George A; Wise, William R

    2011-09-01

    Rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) are effective tools for wastewater treatment and groundwater recharge, but continuous application of wastewater can increase soil P concentrations and subsequently impact groundwater quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of reclaimed water infiltration rate and "age" of RIBs on soil P concentrations at various depths, and (2) estimate the degree (percentage) of sorption equilibrium reached between effluent P and soil attained during reclaimed water application to different RIBs. The study was conducted in four contrasting cells of a RIB system with up to a 25 year history of secondary wastewater application. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 300 cm depth at 30 cm intervals and analyzed for water extractable phosphorus (WEP) and oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe concentrations. Water extractable P and P saturation ratio (PSR) values were generally greater in the cells receiving reclaimed water compared to control soils, suggesting that reclaimed water P application can increase soil P concentrations and the risk of P movement to greater depths. Differences between treatment and control samples were more evident in cells with longer histories of reclaimed water application due to greater P loading. Data also indicated considerable spatial variability in WEP concentrations and PSR values, especially within cells from RIBs characterized by fast infiltration rates. This occurs because wastewater-P flows through surface soils much faster than the minimum time required for sorption equilibrium to occur. Studies should be conducted to investigate soil P saturation at deeper depths to assess possible groundwater contamination.

  6. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  7. Applicability of federal and state environmental requirements to selected DOE field installations and recommendations for development of generic compliance guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This final report identifies and describes federal and state environmental requirements applicable to selected Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear field installations, establishes priorities for the requirements, determines the need for development of additional compliance guidance, and recommends development of compliance guidance for specific priority requirements. Compliance guidance developed as part of the study is summarized. The applicability of environmental requirements to 12 DOE field installations was reviewed. Five installations were examined under Task 4. They are: Nevada Test Site; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Seven other installations were reviewed under Task 2 and included: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Hanford; Savannah River Plant; Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Pantex Plant; Rocky Flats Plant; and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This report combines results of the two tasks. The objective of the study was to identify the set of environmental requirements which are applicable to DOE field installations, track changes in the requirements, and prepare compliance guidance for important requirements and important regulatory developments as necessary. A cumulative calendar update for July 1982 represents the current status of applicable requirements. Environmental profiles of each facility, along with ambient monitoring results, are presented. Applicable federal requirements are identified. The specific applicability of federal and state requirements is detailed for each installation. Compliance guidance available from various agencies is described. Each requirement described is ranked by priority, and recommendations are made for development of additional guidance

  8. TermGenie - a web-application for pattern-based ontology class generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Heiko; Berardini, Tanya Z; Foulger, Rebecca E; Hill, David P; Lomax, Jane; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Roncaglia, Paola; Mungall, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Biological ontologies are continually growing and improving from requests for new classes (terms) by biocurators. These ontology requests can frequently create bottlenecks in the biocuration process, as ontology developers struggle to keep up, while manually processing these requests and create classes. TermGenie allows biocurators to generate new classes based on formally specified design patterns or templates. The system is web-based and can be accessed by any authorized curator through a web browser. Automated rules and reasoning engines are used to ensure validity, uniqueness and relationship to pre-existing classes. In the last 4 years the Gene Ontology TermGenie generated 4715 new classes, about 51.4% of all new classes created. The immediate generation of permanent identifiers proved not to be an issue with only 70 (1.4%) obsoleted classes. TermGenie is a web-based class-generation system that complements traditional ontology development tools. All classes added through pre-defined templates are guaranteed to have OWL equivalence axioms that are used for automatic classification and in some cases inter-ontology linkage. At the same time, the system is simple and intuitive and can be used by most biocurators without extensive training.

  9. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  10. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  11. The Concentration Dependence of the (Delta)s Term in the Gibbs Free Energy Function: Application to Reversible Reactions in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy function is described in relation to its application to reversible reactions in biochemistry. An intuitive and non-mathematical argument for the concentration dependence of the (delta)S term in the Gibbs free energy equation is derived and the applicability of the equation to…

  12. Some long term effects on land application of sewage sludge on soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, S.P.; Chaudri, A.M.; Giller, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Metals may affect the growth of plants, soil microbial activity, and soil fertility in the long term. Less is known of the adverse long-term effects of metals on soil microorganisms than on crop yields, since the effects of metals added to soils in sewage sludge are difficult to assess, and few long-term experiments exist. This paper reviews evidence from controlled long-term field experiments with sewage sludges in the UK, Sweden, Germany and the USA. Adverse effects on microbial activity and populations of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, mycorrhiza, and total microbial biomass have been detected, in some cases below the European Community's maximum allowable concentration limits for metals in sludge-treated soils. For example, N 2 -fixation by free- living heterotrophic bacteria was found to be inhibited at concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of 127 Zn, 37 Cu, 21 Ni, 3.4 Cd, 52 Cr and 71 Pb. Fixation by free-living cyanobacteria was reduced by 50% at concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of 114 Zn, 33 Cu, 17 Ni, 2.9 Cd, 80 Cr and 40 Pb. Numbers of Rhizobium Leguminosarum bv. trifolii were decreased by several orders of magnitude at metal concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of 130-200 Zn, 27-48 Cu, 11-15 Ni, and 0.8-1.0 Cd. Important factors influencing the severity of toxicity are soil texture and pH; higher pH and clay and organic C contents decrease metal toxicity considerably. The evidence presented in this review of long-term field experiments suggests that adverse effects on microbial parameters occur at modest concentrations of metals in soils. It is concluded that prevention of adverse effects on soil microbial processes, and ultimately on soil fertility, should be a factor that influences soil-protection legislation. (author)

  13. Enhancing the lifetime of SOFC stacks for combined heat and power applications SOF-CH - Final report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfeir, J.; Hocker, T.; Herle, J. Van; Nakajo, A.; Tanasini, P.; Galinski, H.; Kuebler, J.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in 2007 by the Swiss SOF Consortium SOF-CH on research concerned with various aspects of fuel cell technology. Members of the consortium include several Swiss Institutes of Technology and Materials Research, Universities of Applied Sciences as well is important commercial players in the fuel cell area. The work done on various aspects of fuel cell technology and the co-operation between the various institutions and companies are reviewed. The five work packages defined in the project are reported on. Follow-up projects are noted.

  14. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  15. The application of land-based computerized spectrometers for effluent monitoring aboard nuclear powered ships. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamykowski, E.A.

    1975-12-01

    This report assesses the applicability of computer-based, Ge(Li) detector spectroscopy systems as effluent monitors aboard nuclear powered ships. A survey of the principal commercial spectrometers, in light of the expected shipboard use, indicates these systems may be employed for automatic radioisotope analysis in a seagoing environment if adequate protective measures are adopted

  16. Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.

  17. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...) previously approved on domestic natural gas supply and demand fundamentals. DOE will also consider any other... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the portion of SPL's Application subject to this Notice, SPL requests... treatment for trade in natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or...

  18. 78 FR 44937 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...) previously approved on domestic natural gas supply and demand fundamentals. DOE will also consider any other..., and with which trade in not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the portion of SPL's Application...) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. SPL requests that this authorization commence...

  19. Methane oxidation in an intensively cropped tropical rice field soil under long-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, D R; Babu, Y Jagadeesh; Datta, A; Adhya, T K

    2007-01-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation is the only known biological sink process for mitigating atmospheric and terrestrial emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas. Methane oxidation in an alluvial soil planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under long-term application of organic (compost with a C/N ratio of 21.71), and mineral fertilizers was measured in a field-cum-laboratory incubation study. Oxidation rates were quantified in terms of decrease in the concentration of CH4 in the headspace of incubation vessels and expressed as half-life (t(1)2) values. Methane oxidation rates significantly differed among the treatments and growth stages of the rice crop. Methane oxidation rates were high at the maximum tillering and maturity stages, whereas they were low at grain-filling stage. Methane oxidation was low (t(1)2) = 15.76 d) when provided with low concentration of CH4. On the contrary, high concentration of CH4 resulted in faster oxidation (t(1)2) = 6.67 d), suggesting the predominance of "low affinity oxidation" in rice fields. Methane oxidation was stimulated following the application of mineral fertilizers or compost implicating nutrient limitation as one of the factors affecting the process. Combined application of compost and mineral fertilizer, however, inhibited CH4 oxidation probably due to N immobilization by the added compost. The positive effect of mineral fertilizer on CH4 oxidation rate was evident only at high CH4 concentration (t(1)2 = 4.80 d), while at low CH4 concentration their was considerable suppression (t(1) = 17.60 d). Further research may reveal that long-term application of fertilizers, organic or inorganic, may not inhibit CH4 oxidation.

  20. Estimating mean long-term hydrologic budget components for watersheds and counties: An application to the commonwealth of Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Nelms, David L.; Pope, Jason P.; Selnick, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Mean long-term hydrologic budget components, such as recharge and base flow, are often difficult to estimate because they can vary substantially in space and time. Mean long-term fluxes were calculated in this study for precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration, total evapotranspiration (ET), riparian ET, recharge, base flow (or groundwater discharge) and net total outflow using long-term estimates of mean ET and precipitation and the assumption that the relative change in storage over that 30-year period is small compared to the total ET or precipitation. Fluxes of these components were first estimated on a number of real-time-gaged watersheds across Virginia. Specific conductance was used to distinguish and separate surface runoff from base flow. Specific-conductance (SC) data were collected every 15 minutes at 75 real-time gages for approximately 18 months between March 2007 and August 2008. Precipitation was estimated for 1971-2000 using PRISM climate data. Precipitation and temperature from the PRISM data were used to develop a regression-based relation to estimate total ET. The proportion of watershed precipitation that becomes surface runoff was related to physiographic province and rock type in a runoff regression equation. A new approach to estimate riparian ET using seasonal SC data gave results consistent with those from other methods. Component flux estimates from the watersheds were transferred to flux estimates for counties and independent cities using the ET and runoff regression equations. Only 48 of the 75 watersheds yielded sufficient data, and data from these 48 were used in the final runoff regression equation. Final results for the study are presented as component flux estimates for all counties and independent cities in Virginia. The method has the potential to be applied in many other states in the U.S. or in other regions or countries of the world where climate and stream flow data are plentiful.

  1. 9975 Shipping Package Performance Of Alternate Materials For Long-Term Storage Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton(reg s ign) GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton(reg s ign) GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  2. On the application of subcell resolution to conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.

    1989-11-01

    LeVeque and Yee recently investigated a one-dimensional scalar conservation law with stiff source terms modeling the reacting flow problems and discovered that for the very stiff case most of the current finite difference methods developed for non-reacting flows would produce wrong solutions when there is a propagating discontinuity. A numerical scheme, essentially nonoscillatory/subcell resolution - characteristic direction (ENO/SRCD), is proposed for solving conservation laws with stiff source terms. This scheme is a modification of Harten's ENO scheme with subcell resolution, ENO/SR. The locations of the discontinuities and the characteristic directions are essential in the design. Strang's time-splitting method is used and time evolutions are done by advancing along the characteristics. Numerical experiment using this scheme shows excellent results on the model problem of LeVeque and Yee. Comparisons of the results of ENO, ENO/SR, and ENO/SRCD are also presented

  3. Short-Term Wind Speed Hybrid Forecasting Model Based on Bias Correcting Study and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mingfei Niu; Shaolong Sun; Jie Wu; Yuanlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of wind speed forecasting is becoming increasingly important to improve and optimize renewable wind power generation. In particular, reliable short-term wind speed forecasting can enable model predictive control of wind turbines and real-time optimization of wind farm operation. However, due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty of wind speed, the forecasting of wind speed data using different patterns is difficult. This paper proposes a novel combination bias c...

  4. Application of Quantitative Models, MNLR and ANN in Short Term Forecasting of Ship Data

    OpenAIRE

    P.Oliver Jayaprakash; K. Gunasekaran

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting has been the trouble-free way for the port authorities to derive the future expected values of service time of Bulk cargo ships handled at ports of South India. The short term forecasting could be an effective tool for estimating the resource requirements of recurring ships of similar tonnage and Cargo. Forecasting the arrival data related to port based ship operations customarily done using the standard algorithms and assumptions. The regular forecasting methods were decompositio...

  5. Dementia Rating Scale psychometric study and its applicability in long term care institutions in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrari Jacinto; Ana Cristina Procópio de Oliveira Aguiar; Fabio Gazelato de Melo Franco; Miriam Ikeda Ribeiro; Vanessa de Albuquerque Citero

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, andagreement of the Dementia Rating Scale with clinical diagnosis ofcognitive impairment and to compare its psychometric measureswith those from Mini Mental State Examination. Methods: Eighty-sixelders from a long-term care institution were invited to participatein a study, and fifty-eight agreed to participate. The global healthassessment protocol applied to these elders contained Mini MentalState Examination and Dementia Rating...

  6. Effets d'application sur le long terme de fertilisants organiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les teneurs en C, N et P, les agrégats formés, le potentiel de respiration du sol, les activités de la chitinase et la longueur des hyphes fongiques ont été déterminés. ... English Title: Long-term effect of organic residues and mineral fertilizers on soil aggregation and microbial activities in a tropical sandy soil in Burkina Faso.

  7. Evaluation of applicability of alternative source terms to operating nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S. N.; Park, Y. S.; Nam, K. M.; Song, D. B.; Bae, Y. J.; Lee, Y. J.; Jung, C. Y.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, NRC issued NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183 with respect to Alternative Source Terms(AST) replacing the existing source terms of TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4, 1.25, and 1.77 for radiological Design Basis Accidents(DBA) analysis. In 1990, ICRP published ICRP Pub. 60 which represents new recommendations on dose criteria and concepts. In Korea, alternative source terms were used for evaluation of effective doses for design basis accidents of Advanced Power Reactor(APR1400) using the computer program developed by an overseas company. Recently, DBADOSE, new computer program for DBA analysis incorporating AST and effective dose concept was developed by KHNP and KOPEC, and reanalysis applying AST to operating nuclear power plants, Kori units 3 and 4 in Korea using DBADOSE has been performed. As the results of this analysis, it was concluded that some conservative variables or operation procedures of operating plants could be mitigated or simplified by virtue of increased safety margin and consequently, economical and operational benefits ensue. In this paper, methodologies and results of Kori 3 and 4 DBA reanalysis and sensitivity analysis for mitigation of main design variables are introduced

  8. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  9. Inventory and source term evaluation of Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reistad, O.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2006-04-01

    This report discusses inventory and source term properties in regard to operation and possible releases due to accidents from Russian marine reactor systems. The first part of the report discusses relevant accidents on the basis of both Russian and western sources. The overview shows that certain vessels were much more accident prone compared to others, in addition, there have been a noteworthy reduction in accidents the last two decades. However, during the last years new types of incidents, such as collisions, has occurred more frequently. The second part of the study considers in detail the most important factors for the source term; reactor operational characteristics and the radionuclide inventory. While Russian icebreakers has been operated on a similar basis as commercial power plants, the submarines has different power cyclograms which results in considerable lower values for fission product inventory. Theoretical values for radionuclide inventory are compared with computed results using the modelling tool HELIOS. Regarding inventory of transuranic elements, the results of the calculations are discussed in detail for selected vessels. Criticality accidents, loss-of-cooling accidents and sinking accidents are considered, bases on actual experiences with these types of accident and on theoretical considerations, and source terms for these accidents are discussed in the last chapter. (au)

  10. Inventory and source term evaluation of Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    This report discusses inventory and source term properties in regard to operation and possible releases due to accidents from Russian marine reactor systems. The first part of the report discusses relevant accidents on the basis of both Russian and western sources. The overview shows that certain vessels were much more accident prone compared to others, in addition, there have been a noteworthy reduction in accidents the last two decades. However, during the last years new types of incidents, such as collisions, has occurred more frequently. The second part of the study considers in detail the most important factors for the source term; reactor operational characteristics and the radionuclide inventory. While Russian icebreakers has been operated on a similar basis as commercial power plants, the submarines has different power cyclograms which results in considerable lower values for fission product inventory. Theoretical values for radionuclide inventory are compared with computed results using the modelling tool HELIOS. Regarding inventory of transuranic elements, the results of the calculations are discussed in detail for selected vessels. Criticality accidents, loss-of-cooling accidents and sinking accidents are considered, bases on actual experiences with these types of accident and on theoretical considerations, and source terms for these accidents are discussed in the last chapter. (au)

  11. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  12. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  13. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible. This volume contains Appendices A--O

  14. Long term planning in the hydro-thermal system - A new generation of tools. Final report; Langtidsplanlegging i hydrotermiske system - En ny generasjon verktoey. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, Anders; Haugstad, Arne; Honve, Ingrid; Mo, Birger

    2010-01-15

    The project 'Long term planning in the hydro-thermal system - A new generation of tools' has during the project period 2006 - 2009 led to an upgrade of stochastic models for production planning in hydro-thermal power system. The development has primarily been concentrated on ProdRisk, a model for seasonal and long-term planning in hydropower system based on the Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP). The project has lifted the model a long way towards operational use of seasonal planning of hydropower producers. In addition, the quality of the results from the model, makes it considered a good model also for the analysis of development projects in waterways. The report describes this and other activity within the project. Implementation of the project has contributed both to raise the level of tools used for production planning in the Nordic countries and to increase the competence of participants. (AG)

  15. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  16. Effects of long-term coal supply contracts on technology adoption and improvements in the mining of coal. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Webb, P.F.; Kauffman, P.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between long-term coal supply contracts and the adoption of new technology in the coal mining industry is a complex one. From this study certain conclusions can be drawn. New technologies and improvements in the mining of coal can be logically categorized into three areas: evolutionary technology, transitional technology, or innovative technology. Evolutionary improvements in technology can be categorized as improvements, or increased production capacities, in existing equipment. Transitional technology involves the adoption of existing or proven technologies into new conditions, or, proceeding from one technology type to a newer type for the same function. Innovative technology includes equipment, concepts, and systems not readily available, or untried, in the existing mining environment (seam conditions, etc.). Technology adoption is an economic decision. This point was repeatedly emphasized by industry representatives contacted during the study. The long-term coal supply contract influences the decision to adopt new technology and mining improvements in several ways depending on the technology type (i.e., evolutionary, transitional, or innovative), and also the coal supplier type (i.e., captive or independent producer). Several examples of the adoption of new technologies in mines under long-term coal supply contracts are discussed. (LTN)

  17. Final Activity Report: The Effects of Iron Complexing Ligands on the Long Term Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment of HNLC waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trick, Charles Gordon [Western University

    2013-07-30

    Substantial increases in the concentrations of the stronger of two Fe(III) complexing organic ligand classes measured during the mesoscale Fe enrichment studies IronEx II and SOIREE appeared to sharply curtailed Fe availability to diatoms and thus limited the efficiency of carbon sequestration to the deep. Detailed observations during IronEx II (equatorial Pacific Ocean) and SOIREE (Southern Ocean –Pacific sector) indicate that the diatoms began re-experiencing Fe stress even though dissolved Fe concentrations remained elevated in the patch. This surprising outcome likely is related to the observed increased concentrations of strong Fe(III)-complexing ligands in seawater. Preliminary findings from other studies indicate that diatoms may not readily obtain Fe from these chemical species whereas Fe bound by strong ligands appears to support growth of cyanobacteria and nanoflagellates. The difficulty in assessing the likelihood of these changes with in-situ mesoscale experiments is the extended monitoring period needed to capture the long-term trajectory of the carbon cycle. A more detailed understanding of Fe complexing ligand effects on long-term ecosystem structure and carbon cycling is essential to ascertain not only the effect of Fe enrichment on short-term carbon sequestration in the oceans, but also the potential effect of Fe enrichment in modifying ecosystem structure and trajectory.

  18. Application of a Barrier Filter at a High Purity Synthetic Graphite Plant, CRADA 99-F035, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2000-08-31

    Superior Graphite Company and the US Department of Energy have entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the application of ceramic barrier filters at its Hopkinsville, Kentucky graphite plant. Superior Graphite Company is a worldwide leader in the application of advanced thermal processing technology to produce high purity graphite and carbons. The objective of the CRADA is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating the use of high-temperature filters to improve the performance of the offgas treatment system. A conceptual design was developed incorporating the ceramic filters into the offgas treatment system to be used for the development of a capital cost estimate and economic feasibility assessment of this technology for improving particulate removal. This CRADA is a joint effort of Superior Graphite Company, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  19. Policy Options for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Application in Healthcare; a Prospective View: Final Report (D5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie; Botterman, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the state of play of European markets and applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in healthcare in Europe. Based on the current situation the study presents three scenarios for 2020, to describe futures in which the technology and health care sectors develop in different ways. The scenarios were discussed in expert workshops to derive issues that need to be addressed by future policies of the European Union and other stakeholders. The market assessment is based on a review of literature and an analysis of proprietary market data. The information on the state of RFID applications in Health in Europe summarises the results of a literature review, an online Delphi survey, expert interviews and seven cases studies in Europe and the US. The policy analysis is based on the outcomes of a scenario gaming workshop with experts from academia, industry, healthcare providers, policymakers and representatives of patient organisations.

  20. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  1. Novel Power Electronics Systems for Wind Energy Applications: Final Report; Period of Performance: August 24, 1999 -- November 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.; Angkititrakul, S.; Al-Naseem, O.; Lujan, G.

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this work was to develop new approaches to the power electronics of variable-speed wind power systems, with the goal of improving the associated cost of energy. Of particular importance is the converter efficiency at low-wind operating points. Developing converter approaches that maintain high efficiency at partial power, without sacrificing performance at maximum power, is desirable, as is demonstrating an approach that can use emerging power component technologies to attain these performance goals with low projected capital costs. In this report, we show that multilevel conversion is an approach that can meet these performance requirements. In the wind power application, multilevel conversion proves superior to conventional converter technologies because it is callable to high power and higher voltage levels, it extends the range of high converter efficiency to lower wind speeds, and it allows superior low-voltage fast-switching semiconductor devices to be used in high-voltage high-power applications.

  2. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  3. Investigation of applications for high-power, self-critical fissioning uranium plasma reactors. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.J.; Latham, T.S.; Krascella, N.L.

    1976-09-01

    Analytical studies were conducted to investigate potentially attractive applications for gaseous nuclear cavity reactors fueled by uranium hexafluoride and its decomposition products at temperatures of 2000 to 6000 K and total pressures of a few hundred atmospheres. Approximate operating conditions and performance levels for a class of nuclear reactors in which fission energy removal is accomplished principally by radiant heat transfer from the high temperature gaseous nuclear fuel to surrounding absorbing media were determined. The results show the radiant energy deposited in the absorbing media may be efficiently utilized in energy conversion system applications which include (1) a primary energy source for high thrust, high specific impulse space propulsion, (2) an energy source for highly efficient generation of electricity, and (3) a source of high intensity photon flux for heating working fluid gases for hydrogen production or MHD power extraction. (Author)

  4. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  5. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  6. A new method for recognizing quadric surfaces from range data and its application to telerobotics and automation, final phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Roland; Dcunha, Ivan; Alvertos, Nicolas

    1994-01-01

    In the final phase of the proposed research a complete top to down three dimensional object recognition scheme has been proposed. The various three dimensional objects included spheres, cones, cylinders, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and hyperboloids. Utilizing a newly developed blob determination technique, a given range scene with several non-cluttered quadric surfaces is segmented. Next, using the earlier (phase 1) developed alignment scheme, each of the segmented objects are then aligned in a desired coordinate system. For each of the quadric surfaces based upon their intersections with certain pre-determined planes, a set of distinct features (curves) are obtained. A database with entities such as the equations of the planes and angular bounds of these planes has been created for each of the quadric surfaces. Real range data of spheres, cones, cylinders, and parallelpipeds have been utilized for the recognition process. The developed algorithm gave excellent results for the real data as well as for several sets of simulated range data.

  7. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management options including long-term impacts after land application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2018-01-01

    -toxic impact categories other than freshwater eutrophication. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were sensitive to soil and precipitation conditions. The ranking of scenarios was affected by local conditions for marine eutrophication. Overall, the present study highlighted the importance...... of including all sludge treatment stages and conducting a detailed N flow analysis, since the emission of reactive N into the environment is the major driver for almost all non-toxic impact categories....... happened. In general, the INC scenario performed better than or comparably to the scenarios with land application of the sludge. Human toxicity (non-carcinogenic) and eco-toxicity showed the highest normalised impact potentials for all the scenarios with land application. In both categories, impacts were...

  8. The Use of Geothermal Waters in Podhale in Terms of Tourism and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michał Bugajski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been observed an increased interest of various industrial and economy branches in geothermal waters. In Poland, one of the more famous geothermal systems is the Podhale Basin, which forms an important reservoir of geothermal waters with relatively low mineralization and high temperatures. More and more often geothermal water is used not only for balneological or recreational purposes, but also as a heat source for heating. New areas of application of geothermal waters are also appearing, eg. use of cooled geothermal water as a raw material to produce fresh water. Another example of the application of geothermal waters is the cosmetic industry. For instance, a cream based on geothermal water from Podhale was introduced to the cosmetics market in 2013. This paper presents the possibilities of using the geothermal waters of Podhale, with particular emphasis on geothermal waters from Banska PGP-1, Banska IG-1 and Banska PGP-3 boreholes.

  9. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER; Adnan GERÇEK

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added tax...

  10. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Borivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Stork, Frantisek [Department of Botany, Institute of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, P. J. Safarik University, Manesova 23, 041 67 Kosice (Slovakia); Hedbavny, Josef [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 {mu}M) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  11. Application of a Shallow Neural Network to Short-Term Stock Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Madahar, Abhinav; Ma, Yuze; Patel, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is increasingly prevalent in stock market trading. Though neural networks have seen success in computer vision and natural language processing, they have not been as useful in stock market trading. To demonstrate the applicability of a neural network in stock trading, we made a single-layer neural network that recommends buying or selling shares of a stock by comparing the highest high of 10 consecutive days with that of the next 10 days, a process repeated for the stock's ye...

  12. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Štork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of foliar Cd, Ni and Cd + Ni application on Tillandsia albida was studied. ► Cd caused visible damage and enhanced stress parameters in combined treatment. ► Nitrogenous compounds were slightly affected but phenols were up- and down-regulated. ► Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by any of treatments. ► Total Cd or Ni reached ca. 0.04% and Ni was more absorbed than Cd. - Abstract: The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd + Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd + Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd + Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g −1 DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended.

  13. Physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) to long-term foliar metal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-11-15

    The impact of 2-month foliar application of cadmium, nickel and their combination (10 μM) on Tillandsia albida was studied. Cadmium caused damage of tissue but assimilation pigments were depressed in Cd+Ni variant only. Stress-related parameters (ROS and peroxidase activities) were elevated by Cd and Cd+Ni while MDA content remained unaffected. Free amino acids accumulated the most in Ni alone but soluble proteins were not influenced. Among phenolic acids, mainly vanillin contributed to increase of their sum in all variants while soluble phenols even decreased in Cd+Ni and flavonols slightly increased in Cd variants. Phenolic enzymes showed negligible responses to almost all treatments. Mineral nutrients (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, and Zn) were not affected by metal application but N content increased. Total Cd or Ni amounts reached over 400 μg g(-1) DW and were not affected if metal alone and combined treatment is compared while absorbed content differed (ca. 50% of total Cd was absorbed while almost all Ni was absorbed). These data indicate tolerance of T. albida to foliar metal application and together with strong xerophytic morphology, use for environmental studies is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Medicare and Social Security: fraud and abuse; civil money penalties for misuse of certain terms, symbols and emblems--HHS. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-28

    This final rule implements section 428(a) of Public Law 100-360 which authorizes the imposition of civil money penalties for the use--in advertising, solicitations or other communications--of certain words, letters, symbols or emblems associated with the Department of Health and Human Services' Social Security and Medicare programs in a manner that the user knows, or should know, would convey a false impression that (1) the communicated item was approved, endorsed or authorized by the Department or its programs, or (2) the responsible person or organization has some connection with, or authorization from, the Department or these programs. This rulemaking is designed to assist in protecting citizens from misrepresentations concerning the services offered and programs administered by the Social Security Administration and the Health Care Financing Administration.

  15. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrent, D.

    1989-03-01

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  16. Application of Pattern Recognition Techniques to the Classification of Full-Term and Preterm Infant Cry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Silvia; Reyes Garcia, Carlos Alberto; Bandini, Andrea; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Manfredi, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Scientific and clinical advances in perinatology and neonatology have enhanced the chances of survival of preterm and very low weight neonates. Infant cry analysis is a suitable noninvasive complementary tool to assess the neurologic state of infants particularly important in the case of preterm neonates. This article aims at exploiting differences between full-term and preterm infant cry with robust automatic acoustical analysis and data mining techniques. Twenty-two acoustical parameters are estimated in more than 3000 cry units from cry recordings of 28 full-term and 10 preterm newborns. Feature extraction is performed through the BioVoice dedicated software tool, developed at the Biomedical Engineering Lab, University of Firenze, Italy. Classification and pattern recognition is based on genetic algorithms for the selection of the best attributes. Training is performed comparing four classifiers: Logistic Curve, Multilayer Perceptron, Support Vector Machine, and Random Forest and three different testing options: full training set, 10-fold cross-validation, and 66% split. Results show that the best feature set is made up by 10 parameters capable to assess differences between preterm and full-term newborns with about 87% of accuracy. Best results are obtained with the Random Forest method (receiver operating characteristic area, 0.94). These 10 cry features might convey important additional information to assist the clinical specialist in the diagnosis and follow-up of possible delays or disorders in the neurologic development due to premature birth in this extremely vulnerable population of patients. The proposed approach is a first step toward an automatic infant cry recognition system for fast and proper identification of risk in preterm babies. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Episodic events in long-term geological processes: A new classification and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term geological processes are usually described with curves reflecting continuous changes in the characteristic parameters through the geological history, and such curves can be employed directly for recognition of episodic (relatively long-term events linked to these changes. The episodic events can be classified into several categories according to their scale (ordinary and anomalous events, “shape” (positive, negative, and neutral events, and relation to long-term trend change (successive, interruptive, facilitative, stabilizing, transformative, increasing, and decreasing. Many types of these events can be defined depending on the combination of the above-mentioned patterns. Of course, spatial rank, duration, and origin can be also considered in description of these events. The proposed classification can be applied to events in some real long-term geological processes, which include global sea-level changes, biodiversity dynamics, lithospheric plate number changes, and palaeoclimate changes. Several case examples prove the usefulness of the classification. It is established that the Early Valanginian (Early Cretaceous eustatic lowstand (the lowest position of the sea level in the entire Cretaceous was negative, but ordinary and only interruptive event. In the other case, it becomes clear that the only end-Ordovician and the Permian/Triassic mass extinctions transformed the trends of the biodiversity dynamics (from increase to decrease and from decrease to increase respectively, and the only Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction was really anomalous event on the Phanerozoic biodiversity curve. The new palaeontological data are employed to reconstruct the diversity dynamics of brachiopods in Germany (without the Alps and the Swiss Jura Mountains. The further interpretation of the both diversity curves implies that the Early Toarcian mass extinction affected the regional brachiopod faunas strongly, but this event was only decreasing

  18. Development of technical marginal conditions for the application of hydrogen as storage for renewable energies. Short version of the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Due to the present experiences gained in pilot projects and by the application of hydrogen in the industry it can be expected that an equivalent safety standard will be achieved for a manifold application of hydrogen as energy carrier as e.g. in the case of natural gas or liquid gas. A decentral generation and storage of hydrogen in detached houses is not recommended in conurbation because of necessary structural measurements and safety requirements. Small supply networks on the level of municipalities shall be erected instead. The use of hydrogen in the traffic seems to be useful in utility vehicles (e.g. buses) because the vehicle construction is more suitable for a safe integration of the tank system than in case of a car. The regulation shall be extended for a broader use of hydrogen and contain minimum requirements for the equipment and design of each application in terms of safety technology. (orig./MM) [de

  19. Application of titanates, niobates, and tantalates to neutralized defense waste decontamination: materials properties, physical forms, and regeneration techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the application of sodium titanate (ST) to the decontamination of neutralized defense waste has been completed. The work was directed at Sr removal from dissolved salt cake, simulated in this work with a 6.0 N NaNO 3 - 0.6 N NaOH solution. Three physical forms of the titanates were developed including powder, pellets, and titanate-loaded resin beads and all were found to be superior to conventional organic ion exchange in this application. When spent, the titanate materials can be calcined to an oxide from which is a stable waste form in itself or can be added directly to a glass melter to become part of a vitrified waste form. Radiation stability of titanate powder and resin forms was assessed in tests in which these materials were exposed to 60 Co radiation. The strontium exchange capacity of the powder remained constant through a dose of 3 x 10 7 rads and retained 50% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The primary mechanism involved in loss of capacity was believed to be heating associated with the irradiation. The resin forms were unchanged through a dose of 5 x 10 8 rads and retained 30% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The latter dose resulted in visible degradation of the resin matrix. Anion exchange resins loaded with sodium niobate and sodium tantalate were also prepared by similar methods and evaluated for this application. These materials had Sr sorption properties comparable to the titanate material; however, they would have to provide a significant improvement to justify their higher cost

  20. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-04

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  1. Development and Application of Improved Long-Term Datasets of Surface Hydrology for Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtae Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater availability and agricultural production are key factors for sustaining the fast growing population and economy in the state of Texas, which is the third largest state in terms of agricultural production in the United States. This paper describes a long-term (1918–2011 grid-based (1/8° surface hydrological dataset for Texas at a daily time step based on simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrological model. The model was calibrated and validated against observed streamflow over 10 Texas river basins. The simulated soil moisture was also evaluated using in situ observations. Results suggest that there is a decreasing trend in precipitation and an increasing trend in temperature in most of the basins. Droughts and floods were reconstructed and analyzed. In particular, the spatially distributed severity and duration of major Texas droughts were compared to identify new characteristics. The modeled flood recurrence interval and the return period were also compared with observations. Results suggest the performance of extreme flood simulations needs further improvement. This dataset is expected to serve as a benchmark which may contribute to water resources management and to mitigating agricultural drought, especially in the context of understanding the effects of climate change on crop yield in Texas.

  2. Time-series modeling: applications to long-term finfish monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bireley, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The growing concern and awareness that developed during the 1970's over the effects that industry had on the environment caused the electric utility industry in particular to develop monitoring programs. These programs generate long-term series of data that are not very amenable to classical normal-theory statistical analysis. The monitoring data collected from three finfish programs (impingement, trawl and seine) at the Millstone Nuclear Power Station were typical of such series and thus were used to develop methodology that used the full extent of the information in the series. The basis of the methodology was classic Box-Jenkins time-series modeling; however, the models also included deterministic components that involved flow, season and time as predictor variables. Time entered into the models as harmonic regression terms. Of the 32 models fitted to finfish catch data, 19 were found to account for more than 70% of the historical variation. The models were than used to forecast finfish catches a year in advance and comparisons were made to actual data. Usually the confidence intervals associated with the forecasts encompassed most of the observed data. The technique can provide the basis for intervention analysis in future impact assessments

  3. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jon B

    2006-04-30

    High performance computational science and engineering simulations have become an increasingly important part of the scientist's problem solving toolset. A key reason is the development of widely used codes and libraries that support these applications, for example, Netlib, a collection of numerical libraries [33]. The term community codes refers to those libraries or applications that have achieved some critical level of acceptance by a user community. Many of these applications are on the high-end in terms of required resources: computation, storage, and communication. Recently, there has been considerable interest in putting such applications on-line and packaging them as network services to make them available to a wider user base. Applications such as data mining [22], theorem proving and logic [14], parallel numerical computation [8][32] are example services that are all going on-line. Transforming applications into services has been made possible by advances in packaging and interface technologies including component systems [2][6][13][28][37], proposed communication standards [34], and newer Web technologies such as Web Services [38]. Network services allow the user to focus on their application and obtain remote service when needed by simply invoking the service across the network. The user can be assured that the most recent version of the code or service is always provided and they do not need to install, maintain, and manage significant infrastructure to access the service. For high performance applications in particular, the user is still often required to install a code base (e.g. MPI), and therefore become involved with the tedious details of infrastructure management. In the network service model, the service provider is responsible for all of these activities and not the user. The user need not become an expert in high performance computing. An additional advantage of high-end network services is that the user need not have specialized

  5. Geometric discretization of the multidimensional Dirac delta distribution - Application to the Poisson equation with singular source terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Raphael; Gibou, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    We present a discretization method for the multidimensional Dirac distribution. We show its applicability in the context of integration problems, and for discretizing Dirac-distributed source terms in Poisson equations with constant or variable diffusion coefficients. The discretization is cell-based and can thus be applied in a straightforward fashion to Quadtree/Octree grids. The method produces second-order accurate results for integration. Superlinear convergence is observed when it is used to model Dirac-distributed source terms in Poisson equations: the observed order of convergence is 2 or slightly smaller. The method is consistent with the discretization of Dirac delta distribution for codimension one surfaces presented in [1,2]. We present Quadtree/Octree construction procedures to preserve convergence and present various numerical examples, including multi-scale problems that are intractable with uniform grids.

  6. Near-Term Application of Water-Powered Laser-Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baasandash, Choijil; Yabe, Takashi; Oku, Takehiro; Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Ohzono, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kazumoto; Miyazaki, Sho; Akoh, Ryosuke; Ogata, Yoichi; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We found that water overlay on a metal layer is more effective than solid overlay. By using this target we demonstrated the successful flight of paper-airplane of 5 cm-size over a distance of 1-2m. In this paper, repetitive water supply system and levitation system are proposed for practical application, and examined by experiments. We succeeded in driving an object continuously using repetitive water supply and air slider. We also succeeded in driving 300g object by 0.5J laser using these equipments. In this paper, we try to find out a new possibility of water-powered laser propulsion

  7. [Effect of long-term application of NPK fertilizer on maize yield and yellow soil nutrients sustainability in Guizhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan Ling; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ya Rong; Huang, Xing Cheng; Zhang, Wen An; Jiang, Tai Ming

    2017-11-01

    A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured. The results revealed that the balanced fertilization (NPK) significantly increased maize yield, and the average yield under each treatment ranked as: NPK>NP>NK>PK>CK. The contribution efficiency and agronomic efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application was N>P>K. The fertilization dependence was ranked as: combined application of N, P and K>N>P>K. But in the lack of P treatment (NK), the maize relative yield significantly decreased at a speed of 1.4% per year, with the contribution efficiency and fertilization dependence of applied P significantly increasing at a speed of 2.3% per year and 1.4% per year, respectively. Over time, the effect of P fertilizer on maize yield gradually became equal to that of N fertilizer. The pH and soil organic matter content were the lowest in the P-lack treatment (NK), while they were higher in the N-lack treatment (PK). The application of chemical P significantly improved the sustainability index of soil P, but the application of chemical N and K did not significantly change the sustainability index of soil N and K nutrients compared to the N- and K-lack treatments, respectively. In summary, the use of balanced fertilizer application is critical for achieving high maize yield in typical yellow soil regions in Guizhou Province. P and N fertilizers are equally important for improving maize yield, and long-term application of unbalanced chemical fertilizer, especially the lack

  8. Tetracycline resistance in semi-arid agricultural soils under long-term swine effluent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Josue, Rosemarie D R; Deng, Shiping; Hattey, Jeffory A

    2017-05-04

    Annually, millions pounds of antibiotics are released unmetabolized into environment along with animal wastes. Accumulation of antibiotics in soils could potentially induce the persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics such as tetracyclines and tetracycline-resistant bacteria have been previously detected in fields fertilized with animal manure. However, little is known about the accumulation of tetracyclines and the development of tetracycline resistance in semi-arid soils. Here we demonstrate that continuous land application with swine effluent, containing trace amounts of chlortetracycline, does not necessarily induce tetracycline resistance in soil bacteria. Based on the testing of more than 3,000 bacteria isolated from the amended soils, we found no significant increase in the occurrence and level of chlortetracycline resistant bacteria in soils after 15 years of continuous swine effluent fertilization. To account for a possible transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria originated from the swine effluent to soils, we analyzed two commonly found tetracycline resistant genes, tet(O) and tet(M), in the swine effluent and fertilized soils. Both genes were present in the swine effluent, however, they were not detectable in soils applied with swine effluent. Our data demonstrate that agronomic application of manure from antibiotic treated swine effluent does not necessarily result in the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance in soils. Apparently, concentrations of chlortetracycline present in manure are not significant enough to induce the development of antibiotic bacterial resistance.

  9. Applications of the time-naught term in the Cooper and Jacob (1946) equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David A

    2012-01-01

    The ability to manipulate analytical expressions for aquifer drawdown can provide insights into groundwater flow processes and assist with assessing strengths and weaknesses of aquifer parameter estimation methods. In the Cooper and Jacob (1946) parameter estimation method, the antilog of the horizontal-axis intercept in a plot of drawdown vs. log(time) is referred to as time naught (t(0)), which is used for estimating storativity. This article briefly reviews traditional uses of the time-naught concept and then spends time introducing new insights and applications involving (1) time-naught/distance relationships, including ways to compensate for certain missing data; (2) use of time naught in a simple method providing a quick visual check of which data in a Cooper-Jacob plot are suitable for use in linear regression; (3) application of time naught, as determined for one well, in estimating the later minimum time for which data from a distant well can be used in the Cooper-Jacob method; (4) development of relationships between drawdown and time naught; (5) use of time naught in a simple algebraic equation to estimate drawdown at smaller times than feasible using the Cooper-Jacob method; and (6) employment of time naught and a vertical-axis intercept on a plot of drawdown vs. log(time) for evaluating storativity. This information may be useful to new hydrogeologists or others interested in further developing their analytical well hydraulics skills. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  11. Very Short-term Nonparametric Probabilistic Forecasting of Renewable Energy Generation - with Application to Solar Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Gooi, Hoay Beng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in renewable energy forecasting, uncertainty quantification is a key input to maintain acceptable levels of reliability and profitability in power system operation. A proposal is formulated and evaluated here for the case of solar power generation, when only...... approach to generate very short-term predictive densities, i.e., for lead times between a few minutes to one hour ahead, with fast frequency updates. We rely on an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) as a fast regression model, trained in varied ways to obtain both point and quantile forecasts of solar power...... generation. Four probabilistic methods are implemented as benchmarks. Rival approaches are evaluated based on a number of test cases for two solar power generation sites in different climatic regions, allowing us to show that our approach results in generation of skilful and reliable probabilistic forecasts...

  12. Advanced Material Studies for Additive Manufacturing in terms of Future Gear Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bräunig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing by laser beam melting is predestined for complex component geometry like integrated cooling channels without enormous posttreatment processing. To investigate the influence of build-up direction in terms of later tooth excitation of gear-wheels, first fundamental material analyses were accomplished in this publication. Therefore, additively produced specimens were used to determine the build-up direction dependent elastic properties of the material in all three spatial directions based on tensile and torsion tests. The anisotropies of elastic limits and breaking points of previous studies were confirmed in this paper. Furthermore, torsion values were also determined depending on build-up direction. Laser beam melted X3NiCoMoTi18-9-5 (hot-work tool steel was shown to exhibit extremely high performance under shear loading in comparison to conventionally processed steel. The influence of build-up direction on torsional strength was also shown.

  13. Long-term application of bioorganic fertilizers improved soil biochemical properties and microbial communities of an apple orchard soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil biochemical properties and microbial communities are usually considered as important indicators of soil health because of their association with plant nutrition. In this study, we investigated the impact of long-term application of bioorganic fertilizer (BOF on soil biochemical properties and microbial communities in the apple orchard soil of the Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: (1 control without fertilization (CK; (2 chemical fertilizer application (CF; and (3 bioorganic fertilizer application (BOF. The high throughput sequencing was used to examine the bacterial and fungal communities in apple orchard soil. The results showed that the BOF treatment significantly increased the apple yield during the experimental time (2009-2015. The application of BOF significantly increased the activities of catalase and invertase compared to those in CK and CF treatments. The high throughput sequencing data showed that the application of BOF changed the microbial community composition of all soil depths considered (0-20cm, 20-40cm, and 40-60cm, e.g., the relative abundance of bio-control bacteria (Xanthomonadales, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas and Bacillus, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Ohtaekwangia, Ilyonectria and Lecanicillium was increased while that of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gp4, Gp6 and Sphaerobacter was decreased. The increase in apple yield after the application of BOF might be due to increase in organic matter, total nitrogen and catalase and invertase activities of soil and change in the bacterial community composition by enriching Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Lysobacter and Ohtaekwangia. These results further enhance the understanding on how BOFs alter soil microbial community composition to stimulate soil productivity.

  14. Influence of Long-term Application of Feedlot Manure Amendments on Water Repellency of a Clay Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Beasley, Bruce W; Hazendonk, Paul; Drury, Craig F; Chanasyk, David S

    2017-05-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may increase the quantity of soil organic carbon (C) and change its quality, which may influence soil water repellency. The objective was to determine the influence of feedlot manure type (stockpiled vs. composted), bedding material (straw [ST] vs. woodchips [WD]), and application rate (13, 39, or 77 Mg ha) on repellency of a clay loam soil after 17 annual applications. The repellency was determined on all 14 treatments using the water repellency index ( index), the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method, and molarity of ethanol (MED) test. The C composition of particulate organic matter in soil of five selected treatments after 16 annual applications was also determined using C nuclear magnetic resonance-direct polarization with magic-angle spinning (NMR-DPMAS). Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on index and WDPT, and MED classification was similar. Mean index and WDPT values were significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic for WD than ST. Application rate had no effect on the index, but WDPT was significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic with increasing application rate. Strong ( > 0.7) but nonsignificant positive correlations were found between index and WDPT versus hydrophobic (alkyl + aromatic) C, lignin at 74 ppm (O-alkyl), and unspecified aromatic compounds at 144 ppm. Specific aromatic compounds also contributed more to repellency than alkyl, O-alkyl, and carbonyl compounds. Overall, all three methods consistently showed that repellency was greater for WD- than ST-amended clay loam soil, but manure type had no effect. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beims, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period. As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In each irradiation and subsequent storage, about 17% of the waste actinides are removed by fission or by conversion into nuclides which can be reused as fuel, so that during the life of 40 years of the fast recycling reacor, the waste actinides can be reduced in mass by one half. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. (orig./RB) [de

  16. Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal: Chemical reaction of fabricated and high burnup spent UO2 fuel with saline brines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Casas, I.; Pablo, J. de; Gimenez, J.; Torrero, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    This is the final report of a large EU-research project on spent fuel stability in saline repository environments. Static dissolution experiments with high burnup spent fuel samples and unirradiated UO 2 were performed for about two years in anaerobic NaCl solutions and deionized water with and without container material (iron) being present. Experiments performed at 25 and 150 C gave similar results. Dissolution rates were similar to those measured in the Swedish, or Canadian program for granite media. Rates are strongly influenced by the specific sample surface area, probably related to the mass balance of consumption and production of radiolytic oxidants. In the competition between the oxidizing effect of radiolysis and the reducing effect of iron, the metal corrosion process dominates. Processes controlling radionuclide release are matrix dissolution, solubility, coprecipitation sorption phenomena and colloid formation. In the absence of iron release rates of Sr90, Tc99, Np237, Sb125 and at low reaction progress Ru106 were controlled by matrix dissolution whereas concentrations of tetra-, hexa-, and trivalent actinides (U, Pu, Am, Cm) were controlled by solubility or coprecipitation. The presence of iron did effectively reduce the rates of fuel dissolution and the concentration of many, though not all radionuclides. Solubilities of U were similar for uniradiated UO 2 and for spent fuel both in the case of oxidizing and reducing conditions. In contrast, due to the effect of radiolysis, reaction rates of spent fuel were higher than UO 2 dissolution rates. (orig.) [de

  17. Preliminary seismic analysis of an innovative near term reactor: Methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Pugliese, G.; Forasassi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) design is strictly dependent on seismic hazard and safety aspects concerned with the external events of the site. Earthquake resistant structures design requires realistic and accurate physical and theoretical models to describe the response of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that depend on both the ground motion characteristics and the dynamic properties of the structures themselves. In order to improve the design of new NPPs and, at the same time, to retrofit existing ones the dynamic behaviour of structures subjected to critical seismic excitations that may occur during their expected service life must be evaluated. The aim of this work is to select new effective methods to assess NPPs vulnerability by properly capturing the effects of a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event on nuclear structures, like the near term deployment IRIS reactor, and to evaluate the seismic resistance capability of as-built structures systems and components. To attain the purpose a validated deterministic methodology based on an accurate finite element modelling coupled to substructure and time history approaches was employed for studying the overall dynamic behaviour of the NPP relevant components. Moreover the set up three-dimensional model was also validated to evaluate the performance and reliability of the adopted FEM code (mesh refinements and type element influence). This detailed numerical assessment, involving the most widely used finite element numerical codes (MSC.Marc and Ansys, allowed to solve, perform and simulate as accurately as possible the dynamic behaviour of structures which may withstand a lot of more or less complicate structural problems. To evaluate the accuracy and the reliability as well as to determine the related error of the set-up procedure, the obtained seismic analyses results in term of accelerations, propagated from the ground to the auxiliary building systems and components, and displacements were compared highlighting a

  18. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L'Hostis, V.; Levera, P.

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational predictions. (authors)

  19. Long term test of buffer material at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, LOT project. Final report on the A2 test parcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Birgersson, Martin; Nilsson, Ulf; Hernan-Haakansson, Tania (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden); Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Nilsson, Sara; Eriksen, Trygve E. (School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear chemistry, Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosborg, Bo (Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    In the Swedish repository concept for nuclear waste (KBS-3 concept), the spent nuclear fuel will be stored in copper canisters surrounded by compacted bentonite. The decaying power of the fuel will increase the temperature in the repository which, in combination with the uptake of ground-water, are expected to result in minor mineralogical changes in the bentonite. The ongoing LOT test series at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) are focused on identifying and quantifying such mineralogical alterations in the bentonite exposed to typical repository-like conditions. Further, buffer-related processes concerning copper corrosion, cation transport, and bacterial survival/activity are studied. In total, the LOT project includes seven test parcels, which contain a central Cu-tube surrounded by cylindrical bentonite blocks with a diameter of 30 cm, and gauges for temperature, total pressure, water pressure and humidity. Electrical heaters placed inside the copper tube are used to simulate the power from the decaying spent fuel. Three parcels are exposed to standard KBS-3 conditions (maximum temperature below 100 deg C) and four parcels to adverse conditions (maximum temperature below approx140 deg C). Both the standard and the adverse test series include short term tests (1 to 2 years), medium term tests (>5 years) and long term tests (>10 years). The present report concerns the A2 test parcel, which was a medium term test exposed to adverse conditions. Cu-coupons, 60Co tracers, bacteria and specific chemical substances were placed in the bentonite at defined positions. After field exposure, the entire test parcel was released from the rock by overlapping percussion drilling and wire sawing. The parcel was lifted and divided at test site and the bentonite material was sampled for specified analyses performed by nine different laboratories in five countries. The main aspects of the various tests and analyses may be summarized in the following items: - physical

  20. Term amniotic fluid: an unexploited reserve of mesenchymal stromal cells for reprogramming and potential cell therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraghebi, Roksana; Kirkeby, Agnete; Chaves, Patricia; Rönn, Roger E; Sitnicka, Ewa; Parmar, Malin; Larsson, Marcus; Herbst, Andreas; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

    2017-08-25

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently being evaluated in numerous pre-clinical and clinical cell-based therapy studies. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in exploring alternative uses of these cells in disease modelling, pharmaceutical screening, and regenerative medicine by applying reprogramming technologies. However, the limited availability of MSCs from various sources restricts their use. Term amniotic fluid has been proposed as an alternative source of MSCs. Previously, only low volumes of term fluid and its cellular constituents have been collected, and current knowledge of the MSCs derived from this fluid is limited. In this study, we collected amniotic fluid at term using a novel collection system and evaluated amniotic fluid MSC content and their characteristics, including their feasibility to undergo cellular reprogramming. Amniotic fluid was collected at term caesarean section deliveries using a closed catheter-based system. Following fluid processing, amniotic fluid was assessed for cellularity, MSC frequency, in-vitro proliferation, surface phenotype, differentiation, and gene expression characteristics. Cells were also reprogrammed to the pluripotent stem cell state and differentiated towards neural and haematopoietic lineages. The average volume of term amniotic fluid collected was approximately 0.4 litres per donor, containing an average of 7 million viable mononuclear cells per litre, and a CFU-F content of 15 per 100,000 MNCs. Expanded CFU-F cultures showed similar surface phenotype, differentiation potential, and gene expression characteristics to MSCs isolated from traditional sources, and showed extensive expansion potential and rapid doubling times. Given the high proliferation rates of these neonatal source cells, we assessed them in a reprogramming application, where the derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed multigerm layer lineage differentiation potential. The potentially large donor base from caesarean section

  1. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  2. Graetzel solar cell modules for outdoor applications, phase 2. Final report; Graetzel-solcellsmoduler foer utomhusapplikationer, fas 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Henrik [IVF Industriforskning och utveckling AB, Moelndal (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The project 'Monolithic Dye PV Modules for Outdoor Applications' has been performed at IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation in Moelndal over the period June 2003 to December 2004. The possibility of the dye-sensitised solar cell technology compared to other PV technologies is to realise PV products with low cost/W{sub peak} in combination with a low investment cost for setting up a production unit. The latter is important since it opens for production by smaller companies and reduces the risk related to commercialisation. The technical efforts of the project have resulted in monolithic dye PV cells with efficiencies up to 7 %. The module preparation has been scaled up to module sizes of 200 cm{sup 2} using industrial manufacturing methods. These devices will be further developed in 2005 in the project 'Flexible Solar Cells'.

  3. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordia, Rajendra [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Henager, Chuck [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-08

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  4. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordia, Rajendra; Tomar, Vikas; Henager, Chuck

    2015-01-01

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  5. Decentralized control of large transient in power systems: theory and application. Final report, January 1981-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCarlo, R.; Hawley, P.; Sebok, D.

    1983-08-01

    Chapter 1 describes a continuation algorithm to construct decentralized state feedback gains which place the natural frequencies (natural modes of vibration or eigenvalues) of a linearized power system at desired locations. Chapter 2 and 3 address the problem of designing a decentralized dither control for linearly interconnected synchronous machines, each of which is nonlinear. In Chapter 2, the theory finds application to the nonlinear third order model of a single machine infinite bus system where the primary control is via an ac-dc converter. Similarly Chapter 3 considers a two machine system with individual machine converters acting as the primary control. Computer simulations of the control action given various system perturbations are found in both Chapters 2 and 3.

  6. Application of space and aviation technology to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plant operations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    This report investigates various technologies that have been developed and utilized by the aerospace community, particularly the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the aviation industry, that would appear to have some potential for contributing to improved operational safety and reliability at commercial nuclear power plants of the type being built and operated in the United States today. The main initiator for this study, as well as many others, was the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant in March 1979. Transfer and application of technology developed by NASA, as well as other public and private institutions, may well help to decrease the likelihood of similar incidents in the future

  7. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  8. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  9. Boron-bearing species in ceramic matrix composites for long-term aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslain, R.; Guette, A.; Rebillat, F.; Pailler, R.; Langlais, F.; Bourrat, X.

    2004-01-01

    Boron-bearing refractory species are introduced in non-oxide ceramic matrix fibrous composites (such as SiC/SiC composites) to improve their oxidation resistance under load at high temperatures with a view to applications in the aerospace field. B-doped pyrocarbon and hex-BN have been successfully used as interphase (instead of pure pyrocarbon) either as homogeneous or multilayered fiber coatings, to arrest and deflect matrix cracks formed under load (mechanical fuse function) and to give toughness to the materials. A self-healing multilayered matrix is designed and used in a model composite, which combines B-doped pyrocarbon mechanical fuse layers and B- and Si-bearing compound (namely B 4 C and SiC) layers forming B 2 O 3 -based fluid healing phases when exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere. All the materials are deposited by chemical vapor infiltration. Lifetimes under tensile loading of several hundreds hours at high temperatures are reported

  10. A long-term ultrahigh temperature application of layered silicide coated Nb alloy in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Li, Tao; Wang, Chen; Huo, Cai-Xia; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Guan-Jun; Sun, Le

    2018-05-01

    Nb-based alloy possessed limited application service life at ultrahigh temperature (>1400 °C) in air even taking the effective protective coating strategy into consideration for last decades. In this work a long duration of above 128 h at 1500 °C in air was successfully achieved on Nb-based alloy thanked to multi-layered silicide coating. Through optimizing interfaces, the MoSi2/NbSi2 silicide coating with Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer exhibited three-times higher of oxidation resistance capacity than the one without it. In MoSi2-Al2O3-NbSi2 multilayer coating, the Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer playing as an element-diffusion barrier role, as well as the formed porous Nb5Si3 layer as a stress transition zone, contributed to the significant improvement.

  11. Final terms of reference for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for the proposed Suncor Energy Inc., Project Millennium, Fort McMurray, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-04

    This document identifies the information that Suncor will need to prepare and submit as an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report as part of its application to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for the construction, operation and reclamation of its proposed Millenium extension of the Steepbank Mine. The report must identify development activities, describe environmental effects, mitigation options and residual effects that are relevant to the assessment of the project. The report must also include a description of the processing facilities, mining activities, utilities and transportation. Similarly, the report must provide a full description of the environmental management systems in place, as well as details of the proposed management of air emissions, water, waste, hydrocarbons, and chemicals. The report will be made public to allow for participation from those who may be affected by the project. This includes residents and organizations in the Fort McMurray, Fort McKay, and Fort Chipewyan areas.

  12. Requirements for a long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a final storage facility for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, M.; Hippler, J.; Herzog, C.

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of a project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie, BMWi), a safety certification concept for a future permanent final storage for high radioactive and heat-generating radioactive waste (HAW disposal facility) in rock salt formations is being prepared. For a reference concept, compliance with safety requirements in regard to operational safety as well as radiological and non-radiological protection objectives related to long-term safety, including ground water protection, will be evaluated. This paper deals with the requirements for a long-term safety certification for the purpose of protecting ground water from chemotoxic substances. In particular, longterm safety certifications for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations and for the dumping of hazardous waste in underground storage facilities in rock salt formations are first discussed, followed by an evaluation as to whether these methods can be applied to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances. The authors find it advisable to apply the long-term safety certification for underground storage facilities to the long-term safety certification for chemotoxic substances stored in a HAW disposal facility in rock salt formations. In conclusion, a corresponding certification concept is introduced. (orig.)

  13. Final Report PetaScale Application Development Analysis Grant Number DE-FG02-04ER25629

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Numrich

    2008-06-20

    kinetic energy spectrum as a function of time. These spectra look very much like the spectra used by chemists to analyze properties of molecules. Large spikes in the spectra reveal events during execution, like cache misses, that limit performance. The area under the kinetic energy spectrum is the computational action generated by the program. This computational action defines a normed metric space that measures the size of a program in terms of its action norm and the distance between programs in terms of the norm of the difference of their action. This same idea can be applied to a set of programmers writing code and leads to a computational action metric that measures programmer productivity. In both cases, experimental evidence suggests that highly efficient programs and highly productive programmers generate the least computational action.

  14. Applicability of long-term electroencephalography in pre-mortem diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaripour Isfahani, Sanaz; Dougherty, Michelle; Gliebus, Gediminas Peter

    2017-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease accounts for more than 90% of all sporadic prion disease cases. The molecular MM2 genotype has been divided into cortical and thalamic subtypes based on structures involved and is characterized clinically by progressive dementia without ataxia or typical electroencephalography changes. Proposed diagnostic criteria for MM2 cortical type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease include progressive dementia, cortical hyper-intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, increased cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein level, and the exclusion of other types of dementia. The presence of periodic discharges on electroencephalography in MM2 cortical type were reported in 42% of the cases. We are reporting a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cortical MM2-type presenting with rapid cognitive decline, who survived 8 months since symptom onset. Brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and long-term electroencephalography monitoring were obtained and diagnosis was confirmed by autopsy. Short-term electroencephalography recording, performed 5 months after symptom onset, demonstrated diffuse background slowing without epileptiform activity. Long-term video electroencephalography monitoring demonstrated generalized slowing, maximum in bilateral frontal areas, which intermittently would become rhythmic (1-2 Hz) without hemispheric predominance. If the findings do not clearly meet the proposed clinical criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the use of long-term electroencephalography could increase the sensitivity. We question whether the lack of the characteristic findings on electroencephalography in some cases could be due to insufficient time of recording. Application of long-term electroencephalography monitoring increases the sensitivity of electroencephalography and the certainty of pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  15. The application of knemometry to measure childhood short-term growth among the indigenous Shuar of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Samuel S; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Knemometry, the precise measurement of lower leg (LL) length, suggests that childhood short-term (e.g., weekly) growth is a dynamic, nonlinear process. However, owing to the large size and complexity of the traditional knemometer device, previous study of short-term growth among children has been restricted predominantly to clinical settings in industrialized Western nations. The aim of the present study is to address this limitation and promote broader understandings of global variation in childhood development by: (1) describing a custom-built portable knemometer and assessing its performance in the field; and (2) demonstrating the potential application of such a device by characterizing childhood short-term LL growth among the indigenous Shuar of Amazonian Ecuador. Mixed-longitudinal LL length data were collected weekly from 336 Shuar children age 5-12 years old using the custom portable knemometer (n = 1,145 total observations). Device performance and Shuar short-term LL growth were explored using linear mixed effects models and descriptive statistics. The portable knemometer performed well across a range of participant characteristics and possesses a low technical error of measurement of 0.18 mm. Shuar childhood LL growth averages 0.47 mm/week (SD = 0.75 mm/week), but exhibits large between- and within-individual variation. Knemometry can be reliably performed in the field, providing a means for evaluating childhood short-term growth among genetically and ecologically diverse populations. Preliminary findings suggest that Shuar weekly LL growth is comparable in mean magnitude but likely more variable than reported for healthy Western children. Future work will further explore these patterns. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:353-357, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Coupled transport/reaction modelling with ion-exchange: Study of the long-term properties of bentonite buffer in a final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsong; Neretnieks, I.

    1997-05-01

    Possible transformation of Na-montmorillonite to Ca-montmorillonite, by ion exchange, in the bentonite buffer in a final repository for spent nuclear fuel can lead to a drastic decrease in the swelling capacity and a significant increase in the permeability of the bentonite. The ion exchange mechanism has been studied, by using the coupled transport/reaction model. In most typical sites of the granite bedrock where there are no large fractures, groundwater flow is limited. The results of this study show that the ion-exchange process will be very slow in this case. Only a few percent of the total Na-montmorillonite is exchanged within 1 to 10 thousand years. When the groundwater flow in the bedrock is assumed to be unlimited, an upper bound of the conditions of the water flow, a sharp ion-exchange front can be formed and propagate within the bentonite buffer. When the groundwater is assumed to be the Aespoe water, with a high Ca concentration, the break-through time of the ion-exchange front can be a few thousand years. When the water is assumed to be Allard water with low Ca concentration, the break-through time can be as long as 10 5 to 10 6 years. When a canister has manufacturing defects, both the pyrite oxidation and the ion-exchange processes can occur simultaneously. A redox front and an ion-exchange front develop from both sides of the bentonite buffer. before the two fronts meet, they travel relatively independently in the bentonite. After they have met, they interact only marginally. Even if a large scale ion-exchange happens, the release of the dissolved uranium species from the bentonite to the rock can still be extremely small. The release is mainly controlled by the redox potential of pyrite oxidation

  17. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  18. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water ((le) 0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m 2 s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  19. Application of washed MSWI fly ash in cement composites: long-term environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Tian, Sicong; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, long-term environmental impacts of compact and ground cement composites, in which 30 wt.% of cement was replaced by washed municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash, were investigated for use in building industry. Consecutive leaching tests over a time span of 180 days were performed in acid water, deionized water, and saline water, respectively, with the accumulative concentration of different elements determined in the leachate. Different leaching behaviors are observed among different potential toxic elements (PTEs). For instance, higher concentrations of V in the leachate were observed from the compact cement composites than those from the ground ones. The concentration of Ba in the leachate increased with the decrease of particle size of the cement composites, and an initial increase in the leaching efficiency of Sn was followed by a clear decline with the leaching time. In addition, kinetic study revealed that the leaching behaviors of potential toxic elements follow a second-order model. The results demonstrated that the addition of washed MSWI fly ash into cement can contribute to the attrition resistance, indicating that the washed MSWI fly ash could be a promising alternative for cement as supplementary building materials.

  20. Parameterizing unresolved obstacles with source terms in wave modeling: A real-world application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Kakoulaki, Georgia; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Feyen, Luc; Besio, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Parameterizing the dissipative effects of small, unresolved coastal features, is fundamental to improve the skills of wave models. The established technique to deal with this problem consists in reducing the amount of energy advected within the propagation scheme, and is currently available only for regular grids. To find a more general approach, Mentaschi et al., 2015b formulated a technique based on source terms, and validated it on synthetic case studies. This technique separates the parameterization of the unresolved features from the energy advection, and can therefore be applied to any numerical scheme and to any type of mesh. Here we developed an open-source library for the estimation of the transparency coefficients needed by this approach, from bathymetric data and for any type of mesh. The spectral wave model WAVEWATCH III was used to show that in a real-world domain, such as the Caribbean Sea, the proposed approach has skills comparable and sometimes better than the established propagation-based technique.

  1. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Application to Older Adults in Long Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ann Mercer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past thirty years animal-assisted therapy (AAT has moved beyond anecdotal status to a scientific evidence-based intervention. AAT comes in many shapes and sizes. There are a variety of animals which can be used such as dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, guinea pigs, goats, dolphins, and even fish aquariums. Loneliness is a common theme among older adults in long term care (LTC. Many older adults living in LTC facilities feel isolated. Some have little contact with family members or friends. Many describe feelings of loneliness and withdraw from social activities and interaction with others. Some feel as if they have nothing to look forward to and find no useful purpose in life.  The absence of having another to care for or nurture can also be distressing. The purpose of this project was to explore the use of AAT as an intervention to decrease loneliness in residents living in a LTC setting by introducing visits from a Sphynx cat registered by the Delta Society as a therapy animal. The project sample consisted of seven participants all over the age of 60 years who resided in a LTC facility in Texas. Pre-intervention and post-intervention checklists and open-ended questions were employed to collect data from participants. Analysis of the project findings revealed a notable decrease in loneliness.

  2. Evaluation of the Terminal Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Near-Term NAS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Swenson, Harry N.; Lin, Paul; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has developed a capability for terminal area precision scheduling and spacing (TAPSS) to provide higher capacity and more efficiently manage arrivals during peak demand periods. This advanced technology is NASA's vision for the NextGen terminal metering capability. A set of human-in-the-loop experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the TAPSS system for near-term implementation. The experiments evaluated the TAPSS system under the current terminal routing infrastructure to validate operational feasibility. A second goal of the study was to measure the benefit of the Center and TRACON advisory tools to help prioritize the requirements for controller radar display enhancements. Simulation results indicate that using the TAPSS system provides benefits under current operations, supporting a 10% increase in airport throughput. Enhancements to Center decision support tools had limited impact on improving the efficiency of terminal operations, but did provide more fuel-efficient advisories to achieve scheduling conformance within 20 seconds. The TRACON controller decision support tools were found to provide the most benefit, by improving the precision in schedule conformance to within 20 seconds, reducing the number of arrivals having lateral path deviations by 50% and lowering subjective controller workload. Overall, the TAPSS system was found to successfully develop an achievable terminal arrival metering plan that was sustainable under heavy traffic demand levels and reduce the complexity of terminal operations when coupled with the use of the terminal controller advisory tools.

  3. Ischaemic stroke at a young age is a serious event--final results of a population-based long-term follow-up in Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje-Andreassen, U; Thomassen, L; Jusufovic, M; Power, K N; Eide, G E; Vedeler, C A; Naess, H

    2013-05-01

    Our population-based long-term follow-up of young ischaemic stroke patients and controls showed 10-fold increased mortality and fivefold increased arterial event rate nearly 12 years after study inclusion. We now assess memory, anxiety, depression and sleep in relation to employment and functional outcome, treatment goals and results from a last alive-dead survey. Patients (n = 232) ≤ 49 years with an index-stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected and compared with age- and sex-matched controls (n = 453). At follow-up from 2004 to 2005, 144 (77%) of 187 patients were clinically examined. Self-assessment information about memory problems, anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, education and employment was compared with answers from standardized questionnaires from 167 controls. Functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Patients compared with controls had more memory problems (41.0% vs. 5.4%, P employment. Blood pressure was < 140/90 mmHg in 39% of patients, 49% stopped smoking and 38.2% used statins. After a mean observation time of 18.3 years, 63 (27.2%) of 232 patients were dead. Our data show a heterogeneous prognosis and high mortality even for long-time survivors of ischaemic stroke at a young age. Prospective studies of young stroke patients and controls are necessary for direct comparison. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  4. Long-term management of liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The statement assesses and compares environmental implications of possible alternatives for long-term management of the liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. Four basic alternatives, as well as options within these alternatives, have been considered in the EIS: (1) onsite processing to a terminal waste form for shipment and disposal in a federal repository (the preferred alternative); (2) onsite conversion to a solid interim form for shipment to a federal waste facility for later processing to a terminal form and shipment and subsequent disposal in a federal repository; (3) mixing the liquid wastes with cement and other additives, pouring it back into the existing tanks, and leaving onsite; and (4) no action (continued storage of the wastes in liquid form in the underground tanks at West Valley). Mitigative measures for environmental impacts have been considered for all alternatives. No significant stresses on supplies or irreversible and irretrievable resources are anticipated, and no scarce resource would be required

  5. Hybrid adsorption compression for industrial applications. HYACINT. Public final report; Hybride Adsorptie Compressie voor Industriele Toepassingen. HYACINT. Openbare eindrapportage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Heat driven heat transformers can upgrade heat from about 100-120 degrees Celsius to 180-200C. However, most of the waste heat is below 100C. The hybrid adsorption compression technology offers the possibility to upgrade by at least 50C. The hybrid concept combines a heat-driven heat transformer with a power-driven compression heat pump. As part of the HYACINT project it has been examined which components of the two heat pump technologies are the most suitable for application in a hybrid heat transformer. This is done through a literature survey, sociological research, model calculations and measurements of components [Dutch] Warmtegedreven warmtetransformatoren kunnen warmte vanaf ongeveer 100 a 120C opwaarderen tot warmte van 180 tot 200C. Het merendeel van de restwarmte bevindt zich echter onder 100C. De hybride adsorptie compressie technologie biedt de mogelijkheid om ook deze warmte met tenminste 50C te kunnen verhogen. Het hybride concept combineert een warmtegedreven warmtetransformator met een arbeid aangedreven compressie warmtepomp. Binnen het HYACINT project is onderzocht welke componenten van beide warmtepomp technologieen het meest geschikt zijn voor toepassing in een hybride warmtetransformator. Dit is gedaan door middel van literatuurstudie, sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek, toepassingspotentieelonderzoek, modelberekeningen en metingen aan componenten.

  6. Microwave to millimeter-wave electrodynamic response and applications of semiconductor nanostructures: LDRD project 67025 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaner, Eric Arthur; Lee, Mark; Averitt, R. D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Highstrete, Clark; Taylor, A. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Padilla, W. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, S. James (University of California Santa Barbara)

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  7. Evaluation of crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures for application to sealing of the final repository for reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaajasaari, M.; Saari, K.; Wang Zhen

    1986-09-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is planning to dispose the low- and intermediate level waste from the reactors of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Station into the bedrock of Olkiluoto at a depth of approximately 50-100 meters. In the TVO concept the reactor waste is disposed in silo shaped rock caverns. The bituminized waste is packed into steel drums, which are laid into a concrete silo inside the rock cavern. In this study the properties of sands, crushed aggregate and their mixtures with bentonite are reviewed. The applicability of these materials for use as a buffer on the top of the concrete silo is evaluated. This study is based on earlier experimental studies of the materials mentioned before and available literature. Gas production in the silo after disposal is estimated. General concepts of gas conductivity and gas migration in saturated soil are reviewed. The results of this study suggest that crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures are possible sealing materials for the silo in concern. But the need for further experimental study of their physical and mechanical properties and the gas migration processes through the saturated barrier is emphasized. A program for testing of these properties is presented

  8. Development of Advanced Materials for Electro-Ceramic Application Final Report CRADA No. TC-1331-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); McMillan, L. [Symetrix International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Tulupov, A. [Soliton-NTT, Moscow (Russia)

    2017-10-19

    The goal of this project was to further develop and characterize the electrochemical methods originating in Russia for producing ultra high purity organometallic compounds utilized as precursors in the production of high quality electro-ceramic materials. Symetrix planned to use electro-ceramic materials with high dielectric constant for microelectronic memory circuit applications. General Atomics planned to use the barium titanate type ceramics with low loss tangent for producing a high power ferroelectric tuner used to match radio frequency power into their Dill-D fusion machine. Phase I of the project was scheduled to have a large number of organometallic (alkoxides) chemical samples produced using various methods. These would be analyzed by LLNL, Soliton and Symetrix independently to determine the level of chemical impurities thus verifying each other's analysis. The goal was to demonstrate a cost-effective production method, which could be implemented in a large commercial facility to produce high purity organometallic compounds. In addition, various compositions of barium-strontium-titanate ceramics were to be produced and analyzed in order to develop an electroceramic capacitor material having the desired characteristics with respect to dielectric constant, loss tangent, temperature characteristics and non-linear behavior under applied voltage. Upon optimizing the barium titanate material, 50 capacitor preforms would be produced from this material demonstrating the ability to produce, in quantity, the pills ultimately required for the ferroelectric tuner (approx 2000-3000 ceramic pills).

  9. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O.; Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  10. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  11. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elsa; Zegarra, Graciela; Chirinos, Edgar; Castillo, Jorge L; Taves, Donald R; Watson, Gene E; Dills, Russell; Mancl, Lloyd L; Milgrom, Peter

    2012-12-31

    There is growing interest in the use of diammine silver fluoride (DSF) as a topical agent to treat dentin hypersensitivity and dental caries as gauged by increasing published research from many parts of the world. While DSF has been available in various formulations for many years, most of its pharmacokinetic aspects within the therapeutic concentration range have never been fully characterized. This preliminary study determined the applied doses (3 teeth treated), maximum serum concentrations, and time to maximum serum concentration for fluoride and silver in 6 adults over 4 h. Fluoride was determined using the indirect diffusion method with a fluoride selective electrode, and silver was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The mean amount of DSF solution applied to the 3 teeth was 7.57 mg (6.04 μL). Over the 4 hour observation period, the mean maximum serum concentrations were 1.86 μmol/L for fluoride and 206 nmol/L for silver. These maximums were reached 3.0 h and 2.5 h for fluoride and silver, respectively. Fluoride exposure was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) oral reference dose. Silver exposure exceeded the EPA oral reference dose for cumulative daily exposure over a lifetime, but for occasional use was well below concentrations associated with toxicity. This preliminary study suggests that serum concentrations of fluoride and silver after topical application of DSF should pose little toxicity risk when used in adults. NCT01664871.

  12. Topical application of polycyclic hydrocarbons to differentiated respiratory epithelium in long-term organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, B.T.; Craighead, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    We undertook studies to assess the carcinogenic properties of selected hydrocarbons using the differentiated respiratory mucosa of the hamster trachea maintained in organ culture. Borosilicate glass fibers (diameter 3 x 10 -2 mm) were flushed with solutions of radio-labeled hydrocarbons in acetone and applied (after evaporation of the acetone) to the epithelial surface of the organ culture. This permitted us to vary the concentration of the carcinogen and allowed a systematic evaluation of epithelial changes at a defined site over a range of time periods. Presumably, the connective tissue elements subjacent to the mucosa were not exposed to the carcinogen. Cultures are maintained in a viable, differentiated state for two or more months as confirmed by histologic study and radioautography. Epithelial cells exhibit cytologic alterations and changes in 3 H-thymidine uptake at sites of fiber application after brief periods of exposure. Proliferation of the affected mucosa and loss of orientation of epithelial cells is noted. Possible neoplastic transformation of affected cells is currently being tested by implantation of cultures subcutaneously into syngeneic animals

  13. Large scale and long term application of bioslurping: the case of a Greek petroleum refinery site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Aivalioti, M

    2007-11-19

    This paper presents the course and the remediation results of a 4-year application of bioslurping technology on the subsurface of a Greek petroleum refinery, which is still under full operation and has important and complicated subsurface contamination problems, mainly due to the presence of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL). About 55 wells are connected to the central bioslurping unit, while a mobile bioslurping unit is also used whenever and wherever is necessary. Moreover, there are about 120 additional wells for the monitoring of the subsurface of the facilities that cover a total area of 1,000,000 m(2). An integrated monitoring program has also been developed and applied on the site, including frequent LNAPL layer depth and thickness measurements, conduction of bail-down and recovery tests, sampling and chemical analysis of the free oil phase, etc., so as to evaluate the remediation technique's efficiency and ensure a prompt tracing of any new potential leak. Despite the occurrence of new leaks within the last 4 years and the observed entrapment of LNAPL in the vadoze zone, bioslurping has managed to greatly restrict the original plume within certain and relatively small parts of the refinery facilities.

  14. Application of 10CFR61 to long-term fusion waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to be accepted by the public, as well as by regulatory authorities, fusion reactors will have to meet both quantitative and qualitative criteria for the disposal and/or reuse of radioactive wastes. The most important quantitative criteria, which will be used primarily by the regulatory agencies, are presently codified in 10CFR61, which governs the near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes in the United States. Because of the variety of materials that may be present in a fusion, a large number of activation products could be produced. These isotopes as well as differences in physical form will require revision of 10CFR61 for application to fusion. The qualitative criteria, which will be used by the general public in assessing fusion, are much more difficult to foresee at this time, but will be equally important in determining the viability of fusion as an energy source. Comparisons readily perceived by the public, such as the volumes of waste generated or the robustness of the waste form, will in the end be more important to the acceptance of fusion than comparisons of Curies or man-rems. In the second part of the paper methods developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for reducing low level waste volumes and mobility could be applied to fusion waste to reduce public concerns. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Accumulation of cadmium and zinc in soil and vegetation from long-term application of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.C.; Olson, B.H.; Rigby, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The accumulation of Cd and Zn in soils and vegetation irrigated with treated sewage effluents was examined at 3 locations in southern California. The Whittier Narrows site, a groundwater recharge test plot, received secondary effluent through intermittent flooding for approximately 14 years. Fountain Valley, a forested site, was flood irrigated with both primary and secondary effluents for 16 years. The 3 Las Virgenes sites received various amounts of secondary effluent by spray irrigation for 8 years. Elevated levels of Cd and Zn were observed in the upper layers of soil at the Fountain Valley and Whittier Narrows sites. No metal accumulation from wastewater application was found at Las Virgenes. However, Cd was elevated throughout the soil profiles which reflected the Cd-enriched underlying host rock, Monterey Shale. A variety of weed species were examined at the Las Virgenes and Whittier Narrows sites and 4 tree species were studied at the Fountain Valley site. These results indicated that Cd and Zn concentrations in the tissue of most genera paralleled soil levels, but accumulation and exclusion patterns of Cd and Zn can be species dependent and therefore differ at the same site

  16. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  17. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Wingefors, S.

    1992-01-01

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  18. Application of the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method to the Grande Ronde Model Watershed project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobrand, L.; Lestelle, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 a technical planning support project was initiated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board of Directors (Board) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration. The project was motivated by a need for a science based method for prioritizing restoration actions in the basin that would promote effectiveness and accountability. In this section the authors recall the premises for the project. The authors also present a set of recommendations for implementing a watershed planning process that incorporates a science-based framework to help guide decision making. This process is intended to assist the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board in its effort to plan and implement watershed improvement measures. The process would also assist the Board in coordinating its efforts with other entities in the region. The planning process is based on an approach for developing an ecosystem management strategy referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method (Lichatowich et al. 1995, Lestelle et al. 1996). The process consists of an on-going planning cycle. Included in this cycle is an assessment of the ability of the watershed to support and sustain natural resources and other economic and societal values. This step in the process, which the authors refer to as the diagnosis, helps guide the development of actions (also referred to as treatments) aimed at improving the conditions of the watershed to achieve long-term objectives. The planning cycle calls for routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the basis for the diagnosis and other analyses used by the Board in adopting actions for implementation. The recommendations offered here address this critical need to habitually update the information used in setting priorities for action

  19. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  20. Application of the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method to the Grande Ronde Model Watershed project : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobrand, Lars Erik; Lestelle, Lawrence C.

    1997-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 a technical planning support project was initiated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board of Directors (Board) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration. The project was motivated by a need for a science based method for prioritizing restoration actions in the basin that would promote effectiveness and accountability. In this section the authors recall the premises for the project. The authors also present a set of recommendations for implementing a watershed planning process that incorporates a science-based framework to help guide decision making. This process is intended to assist the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board in its effort to plan and implement watershed improvement measures. The process would also assist the Board in coordinating its efforts with other entities in the region. The planning process is based on an approach for developing an ecosystem management strategy referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method (Lichatowich et al. 1995, Lestelle et al. 1996). The process consists of an on-going planning cycle. Included in this cycle is an assessment of the ability of the watershed to support and sustain natural resources and other economic and societal values. This step in the process, which the authors refer to as the diagnosis, helps guide the development of actions (also referred to as treatments) aimed at improving the conditions of the watershed to achieve long-term objectives. The planning cycle calls for routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the basis for the diagnosis and other analyses used by the Board in adopting actions for implementation. The recommendations offered here address this critical need to habitually update the information used in setting priorities for action.