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Sample records for terephthalate pet substrate

  1. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10 6 was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  2. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zewen, E-mail: zuozewen@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10{sup 6} was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  3. A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET and Polylactic Acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Steinkellner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethylterephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively.

  4. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  5. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to continuation or... was given by posting copies of the notice in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  6. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinaga, Hironobu; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability

  7. Medical effects of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, bamboo activated charcoal was mixed with acrylic resin in various proportions and deposited on poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabrics. A series of characterizations were carried out to estimate the performances of PET non-woven fabrics such as far infrared ray emission, heat retention, negative ...

  8. Improved damp heat stability of Ga-Doped ZnO thin film by pretreatment of the polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. B.; Seo, S. G.; Lim, Y. S.; Choi, H.-S.; Seo, W.-S.; Park, H.-H.

    2013-09-01

    A study on the damp heat stability of transparent conducting ZnO thin film grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate (PET) is reported. By thermal annealing of the PET substrate at 100°C with Ar flow in a vacuum chamber prior to the sputtering growth of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin film, significantly enhanced damp heat stability was achieved at 60°C with a 90% relative humidity. Electrical and structural characterizations of the GZO thin films were carried out and the effects of the pretreatment on the improved damp heat stability are discussed.

  9. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells fabricated at low substrate temperature 110°C on flexible PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, M.; Kumari, Juhi; Venkanna, K.; Agarwal, Pratima

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on flexible Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and corning glass. The a-Si:H thin films were prepared at low substrate temperature (110oC) on corning 1737 glass with different rf powers. The influence of rf power on structural and optoelectronic properties of i-a-Si:H were studied. The films deposited at rf power 50W show less broadening of peak. This indicates these films are more ordered. With this optimized parameter for i-layer, solar cells fabricated on flexible PET substrate show best efficiency of 3.3% whereas on corning glass 3.82%.

  10. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  11. Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Jung, Ho Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Polymer films are widely used as a substrate for displays and for solar cells since they are cheap, transparent and flexible, and their material properties are easy to design. Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) is especially useful for various applications requiring transparency, flexibility and good thermal and chemical resistance. In this study, nano-sized metal patterns were fabricated on flexible PET film by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) resin was used as a planarization and sacrificial layer for the lift-off process, as it does not damage the PET films and can easily be etched off by using oxygen plasma. NIL was used to fabricate the nano-sized patterns on the non-planar or flexible substrate. Finally, a nano-sized metal pattern was successfully formed by depositing the metal layer over the imprinted resist patterns and applying the lift-off process, which is economic and environmentally friendly, to the PET films.

  12. Screen-Printed Flexible Bandstop Filter on Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate Based on Ag Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a low-power, cost-effective, highly reproducible, and disposable bandstop filter by employing high-throughput screen-printing technology. We apply large-scale printing strategies using silver-nanoparticle-based ink for the metallization of conductive wires to fabricate a bandstop filter on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. The filter exhibits an attenuation pole at 4.35 GHz with excellent in-and-out band characteristics. These characteristics reflect a rejection depth that is better than −25 dB with a return loss of −0.75 dB at the normal orientation of the PET substrate. In addition, the filter characteristics are observed at various bending angles (0°, 10°, and 20° of the PET substrate with an excellent relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. These results confirm the accuracy, reproducibility, and independence of the resonance frequency. This screen-printing technology for well-defined nanostructures is more favorable than other complex photolithographic processes because it overcomes signal losses due to uneven surface distributions and thereby reveals a homogeneous distribution. Moreover, the proposed methodology enables incremental steps in the process of producing highly flexible and cost-effective printed-electronic radio devices.

  13. Structural insight into molecular mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seongjoon; Cho, In Jin; Seo, Hogyun; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Sagong, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-26

    Plastics, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), possess many desirable characteristics and thus are widely used in daily life. However, non-biodegradability, once thought to be an advantage offered by plastics, is causing major environmental problem. Recently, a PET-degrading bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis, was identified and suggested for possible use in degradation and/or recycling of PET. However, the molecular mechanism of PET degradation is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of I. sakaiensis PETase (IsPETase) at 1.5 Å resolution. IsPETase has a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad at its active site and contains an optimal substrate binding site to accommodate four monohydroxyethyl terephthalate (MHET) moieties of PET. Based on structural and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, the detailed process of PET degradation into MHET, terephthalic acid, and ethylene glycol is suggested. Moreover, other PETase candidates potentially having high PET-degrading activities are suggested based on phylogenetic tree analysis of 69 PETase-like proteins.

  14. Effects of plasma polymerized para-xylene intermediate layers on characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyuhyung; Kho, Samil; Jung, Donggeun; Boo, Jin-hyo

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with the plasma polymerized para-xylene (PPpX) intermediate layer were investigated. For the purpose of reducing moisture permeation through plastic substrates, a PPpX intermediate layer was inserted between FOLEDs and the plastic substrates. As the concentration of C-H bonding in the PPpX film deposited at 25 deg. C was increased, PPpX films showed increased transmittance. Surface morphologies of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) covered with the PPpX intermediate layer were improved compared to PET without PPpX on it. Due to the highly cross-linked network structure in the plasma polymer film, water vapor permeability of PET substrates with the PPpX intermediate layer of 75 nm was decreased compared to PET substrates without PPpX on it. FOLEDs with the PPpX intermediate layer showed improved optical and electrical characteristics as well as lifetimes than FOLEDs without the PPpX intermediate layer

  15. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jin-Seo, E-mail: jinseonoh@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  16. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  17. Conductive stability of graphene on PET and glass substrates under blue light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueying; Liu, Xianming; Li, Xiangdi; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Electrical properties of graphene transparent conductive film under visible light irradiation are investigated. The CVD-grown graphene on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates for flexible and rigid touch screen display application are chosen for research. The resistances of graphene with and without gold trichloride (AuCl3) doping are measured in vacuum and atmosphere environment under blue light irradiation. Results show that the conductivities of all samples change slowly under light irradiation. The change rate and degree are related to the substrate material, doping, environment and lighting power. Graphene on flexible PET substrate is more stable than that on rigid glass substrate. Doping can improve the electrical conductivity but induce instability under light irradiation. Finally, the main reason resulting in the graphene resistance slowly increasing under blue light irradiation is analyzed.

  18. Highly conductive and low cost Ni-PET flexible substrate for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haijun; Zhang, Mingyang; Chang, Ya-Huei; Zhai, Peng; Hau, Nga Yu; Huang, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chang; Soh, Ai Kah; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2014-04-23

    The highly conductive and flexible nickel-polyethylene terephthalate (Ni-PET) substrate was prepared by a facile way including electrodeposition and hot-press transferring. The effectiveness was demonstrated in the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The Ni film electrodeposition mechanism, microstructure, and DSSC performance for the Ni-PET flexible substrate were investigated. The uniform and continuous Ni film was first fabricated by electroplating metallic Ni on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and then intactly transferred onto PET via hot-pressing using Surlyn as the joint adhesive. The obtained flexible Ni-PET substrate shows low sheet resistance of 0.18Ω/□ and good chemical stability for the I(-)/I(3-) electrolyte. A high light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 7.89% was demonstrated in DSSCs system based on this flexible electrode substrate due to its high conductivity, which presents an improvement of 10.4% as compared with the general ITO-PEN flexible substrate. This method paves a facile and cost-effective way to manufacture various metals on a plastic nonconducive substrate beneficial for the devices toward flexible and rollable.

  19. Improvement of the characteristics of chemical bath deposition-cadmium sulfide films deposited on an O{sub 2} plasma-treated polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Donggun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Sunwon, Kyeonggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Woochang, E-mail: wcsong@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do 245-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We prepared cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. To improve the adhesion between the CdS film and the PET substrate, the substrate was pre-treated with an O{sub 2} plasma by an inductively coupled plasma. The surface characterizations of the pre-treated PET substrate were analyzed by a contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that that O{sub 2} plasma-treated PET films had more hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic property of the substrate is one of the important factors when a film is prepared by CBD. The structural and the optical properties of the CdS films, deposited on PET substrates, were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The CdS films were formed on a compact and granular structure. The optical transmittance was also improved. Therefore, the O{sub 2} plasma treatment of a PET surface is an effective method of preparing CdS films deposited on substrates by CBD. - Highlights: • Chemical bath deposition of CdS film for flexible solar cells • O{sub 2} plasma treatment improved adhesion between the CdS and polymer substrate • Identification of best fabrication condition of CdS window layers for flexible solar cells.

  20. Effects of pre-strain applied at a polyethylene terephthalate substrate before the coating of TiO2 film on the coating film quality and optical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tse-Chang; Wu, Bo-Hsiung; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2011-01-01

    A mold was designed to create various strains in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates before the deposition of TiO 2 film to simulate deposition process on a cylindrical drum. The residual stress of the PET substrate with TiO 2 film significantly increased with increasing strain, decreasing the radius of curvature. Compared to the as-received PET substrate, there was a noticeable increase in the surface roughness in the PET/TiO 2 specimens when a large strain was applied. The formation of voids or cavities in the TiO 2 layer significantly increased the roughness of the specimen. The mean cavity size and depth increased with increasing strain. For strains ≤ 4%, the specimen's hardness and Young's modulus factored by the voids/cavities increased with increasing surface roughness. The optical absorption increased with increasing surface roughness before becoming asymptotic to a constant value. The strain applied to the PET substrate before TiO 2 deposition greatly affects the optical reflection, transmittance, and absorption.

  1. Interfacial characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate-based piezoelectric multi-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.H.; Pan, C.T.; Chen, Y.C.; Liang, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the deformation between interfaces and the adhesion mechanism of multi-layer flexible electronic composites. Indium tin oxide (ITO), aluminum (Al), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature to form flexible structures (e.g., ITO/PET, Al/PET, ZnO/ITO/PET, and ZnO/Al/PET) for piezoelectric transducers. ITO and Al films are used as the conductive layers. A ZnO thin film shows a high (002) c-axis preferred orientation at 2θ = 34.45° and excellent piezoelectric properties. Nanoscratching and nano-indention testing were conducted to analyze the adhesion following periodic mechanical stress. Additionally, two Berkovich and conical probes with a curvature radius of 40 nm and 10 μm are examined for the scratching test. A 4-point probe is used to measure the conductive properties. The plastic deformation between the ductile Al film and PET substrate is observed using scanning electron microscopy to examine the chip formation on the ITO/PET. Delamination between the ZnO and Al/PET substrate was not observed. The result suggests that ZnO film has excellent adhesion with Al/PET compared to ITO/PET. - Highlights: ► Interfaces and adhesion mechanism of multi-layer flexible electronic composites ► Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) based flexible structures ► Nano-scratching and nano-indention tests were used to analyze adhesion. ► Using two various probes of Berkovich and conical ► Piezoelectric zinc oxide film has excellent adhesion with aluminum/PET

  2. Electrical properties of transparent CNT and ITO coatings on PET substrate including nano-structural aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; Gu, Ga-Young; Lawrence DeVries, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra and surface resistance measurement were used to investigate optical transmittance and conductive properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Conductive CNT and ITO coatings were successfully fabricated on PET by a spray-coating method. Thin coatings of both materials exhibited good conductivity and transparency. Changes in electrical and optical properties of the coatings were studied as a function of the coating suspension concentration. Interfacial durability of the coatings on PET substrates was also investigated under fatigue and bending loads. CNT coated substrates, with high aspect ratios, exhibited no detectable change in surface resistance up to 2000 cyclic loadings, whereas the ITO coated substrates exhibited a substantial increase in surface resistance at 1000 loading cycles. This change in resistance is attributed to a reduction in the number and effectiveness of the electrical contact points due to the inherent brittle nature of ITO.

  3. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  4. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  5. Molar-Mass of Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) (PET) During Ultimate Uniaxial Drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, A.G.P.U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  6. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  7. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the... terephthalate (PET) film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from India. The Department finds that revocation of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Carey or Dana Mermelstein, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  8. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  9. Textured surface boron-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxides on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinliang; Lin Quan; Ni Jian; Zhang Dekun; Sun Jian; Zhao Ying; Geng Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    Textured surface boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films were directly grown via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates at low temperatures and high-efficiency flexible polymer silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells were obtained. High purity diethylzinc and water vapors were used as source materials, and diborane was used as an n-type dopant gas. P-i-n silicon layers were fabricated at ∼ 398 K by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These textured surface ZnO:B thin films on PET substrates (PET/ZnO:B) exhibit rough pyramid-like morphology with high transparencies (T ∼ 80%) and excellent electrical properties (Rs ∼ 10 Ω at d ∼ 1500 nm). Finally, the PET/ZnO:B thin films were applied in flexible p-i-n type silicon thin film solar cells (device structure: PET/ZnO:B/p-i-n a-Si:H/Al) with a high conversion efficiency of 6.32% (short-circuit current density J SC = 10.62 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage V OC = 0.93 V and fill factor = 64%).

  10. Structural colors of the SiO2/polyethyleneimine thin films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yanrong; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qiubao; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The SiO 2 /polyethyleneimine (PEI) films with structural colors on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method. The morphology of the films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that there was no distinguishable multilayered structure found of SiO 2 /PEI films. The optical behaviors of the films were investigated through the color photos captured by a digital camera and the color measurement by a multi-angle spectrophotometer. Different hue and brightness were observed at various viewing angles. The structural colors were dependent on the SiO 2 particle size and the number of assembly cycles. The mechanism of the structural colors generated from the assembled films was elucidated. The morphological structures and the optical properties proved that the SiO 2 /PEI film fabricated on PET substrate formed a homogeneous inorganic/organic SiO 2 /PEI composite layer, and the structural colors were originated from single thin film interference. - Highlights: • SiO 2 /PEI thin films were electrostatic self-assembled on PET substrates. • The surface morphology and optical behavior of the film were investigated. • The structural colors varied with various SiO 2 particle sizes and assembly cycles. • Different hue and lightness of SiO 2 /PEI film were observed at various viewing angles. • Structural color of the SiO 2 /PEI film originated from single thin film interference

  11. Low-temperature deposition of ZnO thin films on PET and glass substrates by DC-sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.N.; Ghosh, C.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.; Minoura, Hideki; Sarkar, Ajay K.; Akiba, Atsuya; Kamiya, Atsushi; Endo, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    The structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films (260 - 490 nm thick) deposited by direct-current sputtering technique, at a relatively low-substrate temperature (363 K), onto polyethylene terephthalate and glass substrates have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the proper phase formation of the material. Optical transmittance data show high transparency (80% to more than 98%) of the films in the visible portion of solar radiation. Slight variation in the transparency of the films is observed with a variation in the deposition time. Electrical characterizations show the room-temperature conductivity of the films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates for 4 and 5 h around 0.05 and 0.25 S cm -1 , respectively. On the other hand, for the films deposited on glass substrates, these values are 8.5 and 9.6 S cm -1 for similar variation in the deposition time. Room-temperature conductivity of the ZnO films deposited on glass substrates is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of ZnO films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates under identical conditions. Hall-measurements show the maximum carrier concentration of the films on PET and glass substrate around 2.8 x 10 16 and 3.1 x 10 2 cm -3 , respectively. This report will provide newer applications of ZnO thin films in flexible display technology

  12. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) detector to search for rare events in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Sara, Swapan; Syam, D.

    2015-01-01

    A particular brand of commercially available plastic, identified as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) to detect heavy charged particles. It was found that PET has a much higher detection threshold compared to other commercially available NTDs, making PET particularly suitable for detecting rare events in cosmic rays. To characterize and calibrate PET, systemetic studies were carried out using ions from various accelerators in India and Europe. Results of those studies have shown that PET can be effectively used as a charge particle detector with good energy and charge resolution. (author)

  13. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S. de A.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  14. Impact of self-assembled monolayer assisted surface dipole modulation of PET substrate on the quality of RF-sputtered AZO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Thieu Thi Tien [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Ba Ria-Vung Tau University, Vung Tau (Viet Nam); Mahesh, K.P.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pao-Hung [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Tai, Yian, E-mail: ytai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • We use SAMs functionalizing the PET substrates to generate different surface dipoles. • We deposited AZO film on pristine and SAMs-modified PET substrate. • The positive dipole moment of PET surface promotes the crystallinity of AZO film. • The negative dipole moment of PET surface deteriorates the crystallinity of AZO film. • The electrical properties of AZO/PET changes upon the variation of the crystallinity. - Abstract: In this study, we fabricated the electron donating/withdrawing group functionalized organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate followed by the deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of different SAMs on transparent PET substrates and AZO films were studied by contact angle (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The results presented that the surface dipole (i.e. electron-donating/withdrawing) of different SAMs functionalized PET substrates affected the quality of the AZO films which deposited on top of them. The crystallinity, the charge mobility, and the carrier concentration of the AZO improved when the film was deposited on the PET functionalized with electron donating group, which was possibly due to favored interaction between electron donating group and Al ions.

  15. Impact of self-assembled monolayer assisted surface dipole modulation of PET substrate on the quality of RF-sputtered AZO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Thieu Thi Tien; Mahesh, K.P.O.; Lin, Pao-Hung; Tai, Yian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We use SAMs functionalizing the PET substrates to generate different surface dipoles. • We deposited AZO film on pristine and SAMs-modified PET substrate. • The positive dipole moment of PET surface promotes the crystallinity of AZO film. • The negative dipole moment of PET surface deteriorates the crystallinity of AZO film. • The electrical properties of AZO/PET changes upon the variation of the crystallinity. - Abstract: In this study, we fabricated the electron donating/withdrawing group functionalized organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate followed by the deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of different SAMs on transparent PET substrates and AZO films were studied by contact angle (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The results presented that the surface dipole (i.e. electron-donating/withdrawing) of different SAMs functionalized PET substrates affected the quality of the AZO films which deposited on top of them. The crystallinity, the charge mobility, and the carrier concentration of the AZO improved when the film was deposited on the PET functionalized with electron donating group, which was possibly due to favored interaction between electron donating group and Al ions.

  16. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-01-01

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  17. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-12-13

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on different nano-oxides on plastic PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Milan; Gemeiner, Pavol; Beková, Zuzana; Dvonka, Vladimír; Búc, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) foils and glass slides coated with thin conductive layers were used as substrates for TiO2 or ZnO based photoactive electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with organo-metallic Ru-dye, standard iodine electrolyte and Pt coated FTO/glass counterelectrode (CE). Different compositions of nanoparticle oxides in forms of alcohol pastes as well as the CE paste were applied onto the substrates by screen printing or by doctor blade techniques. Photocurrents and I-V loading characteristics were measured depending on the solar cell structure and preparation, including the oxide composition, electrode conductivity and the dye type. The influence of thin TiO2 blocking layer prepared by sol-gel technique is also discussed.

  19. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  1. High resolution laser patterning of ITO on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Di; Park, Hee K.; Yu, Dong X.; Hwang, David J.

    2013-03-01

    Cost-effective laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate for touch panel was studied. The target scribing width was set to the order of 10 μm in order to examine issues involved with higher feature resolution. Picosecond-pulsed laser and Q-switched nanosecond-pulsed laser at the wavelength of 532nm were applied for the comparison of laser patterning in picosecond and nanosecond regimes. While relatively superior scribing quality was achieved by picosecond laser, 532 nm wavelength showed a limitation due to weaker absorption in ITO film. In order to seek for cost-effective solution for high resolution ITO scribing, nanosecond laser pulses were applied and performance of 532nm and 1064nm wavelengths were compared. 1064nm wavelength shows relatively better scribing quality due to the higher absorption ratio in ITO film, yet at noticeable substrate damage. Through single pulse based scribing experiments, we inspected that reduced pulse overlapping is preferred in order to minimize the substrate damage during line patterning.

  2. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  3. Effects of UV Aging on the Cracking of Titanium Oxide Layer on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Gray, Matthew H.; Tirawat, Robert; Larsen, Ross E.; Chen, Fangliang

    2016-04-18

    Thin oxide and metal films deposited on polymer substrates is an emerging technology for advanced reflectors for concentrated solar power applications, due to their unique combination of light weight, flexibility and inexpensive manufacture. Thus far, there is little knowledge on the mechanical integrity or structural persistence of such multi-layer thin film systems under long-term environmental aging. In this paper, the cracking of a brittle titanium dioxide layer deposited onto elasto-plastic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate is studied through a combination of experiment and modeling. In-situ fragmentation tests have been conducted to monitor the onset and evolution of cracks both on pristine and on samples aged with ultraviolet (UV) light. An analytical model is presented to simulate the cracking behavior and to predict the effects of UV aging. Based on preliminary experimental observation, the effect of aging is divided into three aspects and analyzed independently: mechanical property degradation of the polymer substrate; degradation of the interlayer between substrate and oxide coating; and internal stress-induced cracks on the oxide coating.

  4. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  5. Experimental study on tensile bifurcation of nanoscale Cu film bonded to polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Yutao; Wang, Shibin; Jia, Haikun; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Linan; Zhang, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    Cu films are widely used in flexible electronic products. Tensile mechanical properties of the film determine product performance. In this paper, tensile experiments of sputtered Cu films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate were carried out under an optical microscope. In the experiments, three changes took place under tension: uniform deformation, microcrack initiation and propagation, and microcrack saturation. The elastic modulus of the Cu film is 120 GPa and is independent of film thickness since the film is formed to be continuous in the nanoscale range. Film thickness is an important parameter to decide the tensile properties. The critical fracture strain, the interfacial bonding strength, and the crack spacing after saturation are related to film thickness. The critical strain and the interfacial bonding strength of the nanoscale Cu film tend to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. The microcrack spacing is in direct proportion to film thickness after the microcrack saturates. The optimum thickness of the sputtered Cu films on the PET substrate is about 500 nm. - Highlights: • The elastic modulus of the Cu films is 120 GPa and does not change with thickness. • The optimal thickness of the Cu films is about 500 nm. • The critical strain tends to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. • The interfacial strength changes in accordance with the critical strain. • Microcrack spacing is proportional to film thickness after the microcrack saturates

  6. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  7. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Interface detection in poly-ethylene terephthalate-metal laminates using variable energy positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Galindo, R.; Schut, H.; Veen, A. van; Rastogi, R.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thin coatings of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) on metal ('laminates') have been studied with a variable energy positron annihilation technique. A correlation between PET crystallinity and the positron annihilation parameter S related to the free volume in the polymer is found. It is shown that buried interfaces in these systems may be detected provided the S parameter of the polymer coating is lower than that of the substrate and higher than that of the surface. Also it is found that large positron diffusion lengths in the substrate favour interface detection. Further, changes in S parameter of PET-metal laminates were measured during uniaxial deformation and shown to be in qualitative accordance with a very simple model description that accounts for changes in free volume in PET during plastic deformation as well as the area fraction of cracks occurring in the PET

  9. HPLC study of migration of terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid from PET bottles into edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Limbo, Sara; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mazinani, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers for food oil packaging were evaluated with a newly established determination method for terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA). The analysis of monomers, TPA and IPA that migrate from PET bottles into oils was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Three types of commercial oils (sunflower oil, canola oil and blended oil which included sunflower oil, soy bean oil and cottonseed oil) were bottled in PET containers. These samples were incubated for 10 days at 49 °C as accelerated test condition. The means of recovery for this method varied from 70% to 72% and from 101% to 111% for TPA and IPA, respectively. The results showed that the amounts of specific migration of TPA and IPA into the samples conform to European Union legislation that identifies specific migration limits. More important, the results highlighted a different behavior of migration as a function of the fatty acid profile. Previous investigations have been performed with food simulants such as HB307 or 20% ethanol but our study used real food samples and determined trace amounts of the migrated compounds. Further investigation will be needed to better explain the influence of fatty acid conformation on migration of PET monomers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of [gamma]-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, A.; Asano, M.; Yamaki, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2005-04-01

    The pre-treatment effect of γ-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films bombarded with swift heavy ions was investigated by electric conductometry and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The Xe-ion bombarded PET films were etched for 6 h in 0.2 M NaOH aqueous solution at 70 °C to prepare track-etched membranes. As γ-irradiation doses increased in the range of 0-160 kGy, the surface pore diameter obtained by SEM observation decreased while that obtained by conductometry became large. This inconsistent result between the two methods was due to an increase in the crosslinked region in the latent tracks caused by γ-irradiation.

  11. Processing and characterization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with chain extenders, thermoplastic elastomer, and/or poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Alireza Javadi; Srikanth Pilla; Lih-Sheng Turng; Shaoqin Gong; Craig Clemons; Jun Peng

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resin is one of the most widely used thermoplastics, especially in packaging. Because thermal and hydrolytic degradations, recycled PET (RPET) exhibits poor mechanical properties and lacks moldability. The effects of adding elastomeric modifiers, chain extenders (CE), and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate), PBAT, as a toughener...

  12. Scanning electron microscopic study of hazardous waste flakes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by aminolysis and ammonolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok, E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (A Deemed University), Bhopal 462051 (India); Soni, R.K.; Dutt, Krishna; Singh, Swati [Department of Chemistry, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut 250004 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste flakes were degraded with aqueous methylamine and aqueous ammonia, respectively at room temperature in the presence and absence of quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst for different periods of time. The aminolysed and ammonolysed PET samples were investigated for the surface morphology with the help of scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It shows that the semi-crystalline PET waste samples reduce to monodisperse rods before fully degradation to the end products. The presence of the catalyst provides site for degradation of PET waste and enhances the rate of degradation. The SEM shows early developments of fissures in comparison to the one in absence of quaternary ammonium salt used as catalyst.

  13. Scanning electron microscopic study of hazardous waste flakes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by aminolysis and ammonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Alok; Soni, R.K.; Dutt, Krishna; Singh, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste flakes were degraded with aqueous methylamine and aqueous ammonia, respectively at room temperature in the presence and absence of quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst for different periods of time. The aminolysed and ammonolysed PET samples were investigated for the surface morphology with the help of scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It shows that the semi-crystalline PET waste samples reduce to monodisperse rods before fully degradation to the end products. The presence of the catalyst provides site for degradation of PET waste and enhances the rate of degradation. The SEM shows early developments of fissures in comparison to the one in absence of quaternary ammonium salt used as catalyst.

  14. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  15. Ultrasonic Characterisation of Epoxy Resin/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran ORAL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out in order to determine the elastic properties of the Epoxy Resin (ER / Polyethylene terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites by ultrasonic wave velocity measurement method. Plastic waste was recycled as raw material for the preparation of epoxy composite materials. The supplied chars were mixed with epoxy resin matrix at weight percentages of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % for preparing ER/PET Char Powder (PCP composites. The effect of PET char powder on the elastic properties of ER/PCP composites were investigated by ultrasonic pulse-echo method. According to the obtained results, the composition ratio of 80:20 is the most appropriate composition ratio, which gave the highest elastic constants values for ER/PCP composites. On the other hand, the best electrical conductivity value was obtained for 70:30 composition ratio. It was observed that ultrasonic shear wave velocity correlated more perfectly than any other parameters with hardness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12190

  16. Ultra smooth NiO thin films on flexible plastic (PET) substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering and effect of oxygen partial pressure on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, S.; Goswami, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent p-type nickel oxide thin films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique in argon + oxygen atmosphere with different oxygen partial pressures at room temperature. The morphology of the NiO thin films grown on PET and glass substrates was studied by atomic force microscope. The rms surface roughnesses of the films were in the range 0.63-0.65 nm. These ultra smooth nanocrystalline NiO thin films are useful for many applications. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that the grains of NiO films on the highly flexible PET substrate were purely crystalline and spherical in shape with diameters 8-10 nm. XRD analysis also supported these results. NiO films grown on the PET substrates were found to have better crystalline quality with fewer defects than those on the glass substrates. The sheet resistances of the NiO films deposited on PET and glass substrates were not much different; having values 5.1 and 5.3 kΩ/□ and decreased to 3.05, 3.1 kΩ/□ respectively with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The thicknesses of the films on both substrates were ∼700 nm. It was also noted that further increase in oxygen partial pressure caused increase in resistivity due to formation of defects in NiO.

  17. Utilization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in bituminous mixture for improved performance of roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A. F.; Razali, A. R.; Razelan, I. S. M.; Jalil, S. S. A.; Noh, M. S. M.; Idris, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Plastic bottle for recycling can be found from the household waste stream, and most of them are made from Polyethylene Terephthalate. In this research, PET is utilized to explore the potential prospects to upgrade asphalt mixture properties. The objectives include deciding the best measure of PET to be used. For experimental, Marshall mix design was utilized to determine the ideal bitumen binder content and to test the modified mixture properties. The samples were created per the requirement for aggregate course wearing (ACW14) using the Standard Specification of Road Work (SSRW) in Malaysia. 20 samples were utilized to determine the binder content, and 30 samples were used to research the impact of modifying asphalt mixtures. 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of PET by weight of the optimum binder content (4.8%) were tested. Optimum PET content is 10%, and the result shows a good stability with 16.824kN, 2.32g/cm3 bulk density, void filled with bitumen (VFB) with 71.35%, flow with 3.2248mm, air void (AV) with 4.53%, and void of mineral aggregate (VMA) with 15.15%. The outcomes showed that PET modifier gives better engineering properties. Therefore, 10% of PET by the weight of binder content was suggested as the best amount of the modifier.

  18. Protein crystallography and site-direct mutagenesis analysis of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase PETase from Ideonella sakaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; He, Lihui; Wang, Liping; Li, Tao; Li, Changcheng; Liu, Huayi; Luo, Yunzi; Bao, Rui

    2018-03-30

    Compared with traditional recycle strategies, biodegradation provides a sustainable solution for poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) wastes disposal. PETase, a newly identified enzyme from Ideonella sakaiensis, has high efficiency and specificity towards PET, which provides a prominent prospect on PET degradation. Based on the biochemical analysis, we propose that the wide substrate-binding pocket is critical for its excellent property on crystallized PET hydrolysis. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis exhibited improvement in PETase catalytic efficiency, providing valuable insight on how the molecular engineering of PETase can optimize its application in biocatalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, T.; Bauch, M.; Wibowo, R.A.; Bansal, N.; Hamid, R.; Auer, M.; Jäger, M.; List-Kratochvil, E.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent, low resistive AZO/Au/AZO layers were sputtered on PET substrates. • AZO/Au/AZO has higher figure of merit than ITO for specific Au thicknesses. • The resistance of AZO/Au/AZO is stable against repetitive substrate bending. • AZO/Au/AZO electrode performance is comparable to ITO in light emitting diodes. - Abstract: We investigate the structural, electrical and optical properties of transparent electrodes, consisting of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and ultrathin Au layers, sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These electrodes are relevant for optoelectronic devices and thin film photovoltaics. When deposited on AZO, Au films as thin as 3 nm form electrically conductive, meandering structures, whereas uniform Au films are obtained from a thickness of 5 nm. The sheet resistance decreases with Au thickness, reaching 7 Ω for 11 nm-thick Au. AZO/Au/AZO trilayers combine lowest resistance with highest transparency, while their resistance stability against bending fatigue is superior to the Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) electrode. The figure of merit of AZO/Au/AZO is larger than of ITO for Au thickness equal to or larger than 9 nm. To demonstrate the applicability of the AZO/Au/AZO transparent electrode, simple organic light emitting diodes were fabricated and tested in comparison to PET/ITO standard substrates

  20. Properties of transparent and conductive Al:ZnO/Au/Al:ZnO multilayers on flexible PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, T., E-mail: theodoros.dimopoulos@ait.ac.at [AIT-Austrian Institute of Technology, Energy Department, Photovoltaic Systems, Giefinggasse 2, 1210, Vienna (Austria); Bauch, M.; Wibowo, R.A.; Bansal, N. [AIT-Austrian Institute of Technology, Energy Department, Photovoltaic Systems, Giefinggasse 2, 1210, Vienna (Austria); Hamid, R. [AIT-Austrian Institute of Technology, Mobility Department, Electric Drive Technologies, Giefinggasse 2, 1210, Vienna (Austria); Auer, M.; Jäger, M. [NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 32, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); List-Kratochvil, E.J.W. [NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 32, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Transparent, low resistive AZO/Au/AZO layers were sputtered on PET substrates. • AZO/Au/AZO has higher figure of merit than ITO for specific Au thicknesses. • The resistance of AZO/Au/AZO is stable against repetitive substrate bending. • AZO/Au/AZO electrode performance is comparable to ITO in light emitting diodes. - Abstract: We investigate the structural, electrical and optical properties of transparent electrodes, consisting of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and ultrathin Au layers, sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These electrodes are relevant for optoelectronic devices and thin film photovoltaics. When deposited on AZO, Au films as thin as 3 nm form electrically conductive, meandering structures, whereas uniform Au films are obtained from a thickness of 5 nm. The sheet resistance decreases with Au thickness, reaching 7 Ω for 11 nm-thick Au. AZO/Au/AZO trilayers combine lowest resistance with highest transparency, while their resistance stability against bending fatigue is superior to the Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) electrode. The figure of merit of AZO/Au/AZO is larger than of ITO for Au thickness equal to or larger than 9 nm. To demonstrate the applicability of the AZO/Au/AZO transparent electrode, simple organic light emitting diodes were fabricated and tested in comparison to PET/ITO standard substrates.

  1. Effects of growth duration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.I.; Shin, C.M.; Heo, J.H. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    Well-aligned single crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were successfully grown, by hydrothermal synthesis at a low temperature, on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a seed layer. Photoluminescence (PL), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements were used to analyze the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods grown for various durations from 0.5 h to 10 h. Regular and well-aligned ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 62 nm to 127 nm and lengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.65 {mu}m were formed after almost 5 h of growth. The growth rate of ZnO grown on PET substrates is lower than that grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates. Enlarged TEM images show that the tips of the ZnO nanorods grown for 6 h have a round shape, whereas the tips grown for 10 h are sharpened. The crystal properties of ZnO nanorods can be tuned by using the growth duration as a growth condition. The XRD and PL results indicate that the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods are most improved after 5 h and 6 h of growth, respectively.

  2. Development of high shrinkage polyethylene terephthalate (PET) shape memory polymer tendons for concrete crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teall, Oliver; Pilegis, Martins; Sweeney, John; Gough, Tim; Thompson, Glen; Jefferson, Anthony; Lark, Robert; Gardner, Diane

    2017-04-01

    The shrinkage force exerted by restrained shape memory polymers (SMPs) can potentially be used to close cracks in structural concrete. This paper describes the physical processing and experimental work undertaken to develop high shrinkage die-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET) SMP tendons for use within a crack closure system. The extrusion and die-drawing procedure used to manufacture a series of PET tendon samples is described. The results from a set of restrained shrinkage tests, undertaken at differing activation temperatures, are also presented along with the mechanical properties of the most promising samples. The stress developed within the tendons is found to be related to the activation temperature, the cross-sectional area and to the draw rate used during manufacture. Comparisons with commercially-available PET strip samples used in previous research are made, demonstrating an increase in restrained shrinkage stress by a factor of two for manufactured PET filament samples.

  3. Up-cycling of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) to the biodegradable plastic PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Shane T; Runic, Jasmina Nikodinovic; Kaminsky, Walter; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; Keely, Chris M; Blau, Werner; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-10-15

    The conversion of the petrochemical polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to a biodegradable plastic polyhydroxyal-kanoate (PHA) is described here. PET was pyrolised at 450 degrees C resulting in the production of a solid, liquid, and gaseous fraction. The liquid and gaseous fractions were burnt for energy recovery, whereas the solid fraction terephthalic acid (TA) was used as the feedstock for bacterial production of PHA. Strains previously reported to grow on TA were unable to accumulate PHA. We therefore isolated bacteria from soil exposed to PET granules at a PET bottle processing plant From the 32 strains isolated, three strains capable of accumulation of medium chain length PHA (mclPHA) from TA as a sole source of carbon and energy were selected for further study. These isolates were identified using 16S rDNA techniques as P. putida (GO16), P. putida (GO19), and P. frederiksbergensis (GO23). P. putida GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA composed predominantly of a 3-hydroxydecanoic acid monomer while P. frederiksbergensis GO23 accumulates 3-hydroxydecanoic acid as the predominant monomer with increased amounts of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid compared to the other two strains. PHA was detected in all three strains when nitrogen depleted below detectable levels in the growth medium. Strains GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA at a maximal rate of approximately 8.4 mg PHA/l/h for 12 h before the rate of PHA accumulation decreased dramatically. Strain GO23 accumulates PHA at a lower maximal rate of 4.4 mg PHA/l/h but there was no slow down in the rate of PHA accumulation over time. Each of the PHA polymers is a thermoplastic with the onset of thermal degradation occurring around 308 degrees C with the complete degradation occurring by 370 degrees C. The molecular weight ranged from 74 to 123 kDa. X-ray diffraction indicated crystallinity of the order of 18-31%. Thermal analysis shows a low glass transition (-53 degrees C) with a broad melting

  4. Robust Identification of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastics through Bayesian Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed. PMID

  5. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics through Bayesian decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed.

  6. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastics through Bayesian decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    Full Text Available Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster

  7. On the Diels-Alder approach to solely biomass-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET): conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrolein into p-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Mika; Toste, F Dean

    2011-10-24

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a polymeric material with high global demand. Conventionally, PET is produced from fossil-fuel-based materials. Herein, we explored the feasibility of a sustainable method for PET production by using solely bio-renewable resources. Specifically, 2,5-dimethylfuran (derived from lignocellulosic biomass through 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) and acrolein (produced from glycerol, a side product of biodiesel production) were converted into the key intermediate p-xylene (a precursor of terephthalic acid). This synthesis consists of a sequential Diels-Alder reaction, oxidation, dehydration, and decarboxylation. In particular, the pivotal first step, the Diels-Alder reaction, was studied in detail to provide useful kinetic and thermodynamic data. Although it was found that this reaction requires low temperature to proceed efficiently, which presents a limitation on economic feasibility on an industrial scale, the concept was realized and bio-derived p-xylene was obtained in 34% overall yield over four steps. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled; Preparacao de blendas polimericas a partir do glicerol, acido fumarico e do politereftalato de etileno (PET) pos consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Prado, Luis A.S. de A. [Institut fuer Kunststoffe und Verbundwerkstoffe - Technische Universitaet Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  9. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-08-30

    This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  11. Nonisothermal melt-crystallization kinetics for in situ prepared poly(ethylene terephthalate)/monmorilonite (PET/OMMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, G.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Vassiliou, A.A.; Papageorgiou, G.Z.; Bikiaris, D.; Chrissafis, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The melting temperature of the nanocomposites was shifted slightly to higher temperatures. → OMMT can act as nucleating agent. → The samples present lower activation energy compared to that of neat PET. → They crystallized by mechanisms with different activation energies. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization containing 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). In order to prepare exfoliated nanocomposites a new thermally stable modifier for montmorillonite nanoparticles like chlorohexadecane triphenylphosphine (CHDTPP) was synthesized. The preparation of nanocomposites was carried out using the two-stage melt polycondensation method. As verified by TEM micrographs, the dispersion of OMMT nanoparticles into the PET matrix was homogeneous while these were dispersed in the exfoliated form, proving the effectiveness of the modifier. The influence of OMMT nanomaterials on the thermal behaviour of PET and its non-isothermal crystallization was studied. Furthermore, the crystallization kinetics of PET and its nanocomposites were investigated by DSC. The activation energy was calculated using the Friedman's method. The Avrami exponent was calculated and analyzed. The effect of OMMT nanoparticles on spherulite growth rate of PET in all nanocomposites was also evaluated using the modified Lauritzen-Hoffman equation. From all these results it was found that OMMT nanoparticles can act as nucleating agents enhancing the crystallization rate of PET. The dispersion of OMMT nanoparticles in exfoliate form plays also an important role.

  12. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürü, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Çubuk, M. Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S. Ali [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Civil Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Bilici, İbrahim [Hitit University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 19100 Çorum (Turkey)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We derived two novel additive materials from PET bottle waste: TLPP and VPP. • We used them to modify the base asphalt separately. • The additives improved both the asphalt and the asphalt mixture performance. • TLPP, VPP offer a beneficial way about disposal of ecologically hazardous PET waste. - Abstract: This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material.

  13. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M. Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S. Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We derived two novel additive materials from PET bottle waste: TLPP and VPP. • We used them to modify the base asphalt separately. • The additives improved both the asphalt and the asphalt mixture performance. • TLPP, VPP offer a beneficial way about disposal of ecologically hazardous PET waste. - Abstract: This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material

  14. Recovery of electrical resistance in copper films on polyethylene terephthalate subjected to a tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, O.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Zizak, I.; Cordill, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial recovery (decrease) of electrical resistance during and after unloading is demonstrated for copper films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates subjected to a tensile strain with different peak values. Particularly, the films strained to 5% exhibit full resistance recovery after unloading despite clearly visible plastic deformation of the film. The recovery of electrical resistance in connection with the mechanical behavior of film/substrate couple is discussed with the help of in situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Tensile tests on 200 nm Cu films on PET substrate are performed. • Electrical resistance is recorded in-situ during loading and unloading. • Significant recovery (decrease) of resistance is observed during and after unloading. • Films strained to 5% demonstrate full resistance recovery. • Viscoelastic relaxation of PET is responsible for recovery of Cu film resistance

  15. Optimization of copper electroplating process applied for microfabrication on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Nguyen Ngan; Hue Phan, Thi Cam; Le, Anh Duy; Dung Dang, Thi My; Dang, Mau Chien

    2015-01-01

    Electroplating is an important step in microfabrication in order to increase thickness of undersized parts up to a few micrometers with a low-cost, fast method that is easy to carry out, especially for metals such as copper, nickel, and silver. This important step promotes the development of the fabrication technology of electronic devices on a flexible substrate, also known as flexible electronic devices. Nevertheless, this technology has some disadvantages such as low surface uniformity and high resistivity. In this paper, parameters of copper electroplating were studied, such as the ratio of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO_4) concentration to sulfuric acid (H_2SO_4) concentration and electroplating current density, in order to obtain low resistivity and high surface uniformity of the copper layer. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four-point probe, and surface profiler. The results showed that the sample resistivity could be controlled from about 2.0 to about 3.5 μΩ · cm, and the lowest obtained resistivity was 1.899 μΩ · cm. In addition, surface uniformity of the electroplated copper layer was also acceptable. The thickness of the copper layer was about 10 μm with an error of about 0.5 μm. The most suitable conditions for the electroplating process were CuSO_4 concentration of 0.4 mol l"−"1, H_2SO_4 concentration of 1.0 mol l"−"1, and low electroplating current density of 10–20 mA cm"−"2. All experiments were performed on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. (paper)

  16. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  18. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil. This administrative..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Scott or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7... antidumping duty order on PET film from Brazil. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From...

  19. Adsorption of anionic surfactant on porous and nonporous polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yu.; Apel, P.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We study the adsorption of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate (SDDD) on three types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates from aqueous solutions of SDDD of different concentrations. Neutral electrolyte (KCl) was added to the solutions to vary the ionic strength. Three types of substrates were used: 1) original PET film; 2) etched nonporous film, obtained from pristine film by chemical etching and bearing negative charge on the surface; 3) etched porous membranes, fabricated from pristine film by ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching. The membranes have negative charge on the flat surface and on the inner pore walls. The comparison shows that the negative charge on the flat surface has weak effect on adsorption of the anionic surfactant, and the SDDD adsorption on the inner walls of pores is much weaker than on flat surface, even if the pore radius is significantly larger than the Debye length. This «exclusion» effect strongly depends on ionic strength of solution. [ru

  20. Toughening modification of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends by an epoxy-functionalized elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhou; Wang, Kai; Yan, Wei; Guo, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    New toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (40/60 wt%) blends were obtained by melting with Glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(ethylene octane) copolymer (POE-g-GMA), varying the POE-g-GMA content up to 20 wt%, in a twin-screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The influence of POE-g-GMA on the properties of the PBT/PET blends was investigated by mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, gel fractions analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The mechanical testing results indicated that the incorporation of POE-g-GMA led to increases in the notched impact strength and decreases in the tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. When POE-g-GMA content reached 20 wt%, the notched impact strength (8.0 kJ m-2) was achieved for the PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA blends. FT-IR results proved that some PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA copolymers were produced, which improved the compatibility between POE-g-GMA and the PBT/PET matrix. The extent of crosslinking was observed by gel fraction measurements. DMA results further testified chain-extending and micro-crosslink reactions occurred between POE-g-GMA and PBT/PET blends. In addition, the reactions induced by POE-g-GMA affected the crystallization behavior of PBT/PET blends obviously, as observed from DSC results. By means of SEM observation of the impact fracture surface morphology, and the discussion of the micro-crosslink reaction process between the epoxide-containing elastomers and PBT/PET matrix, the toughening mechanism was proposed to be taken into account the shear yielding of PBT/PET matrix and cavitation of elastomer particles.

  1. Flexible diode of polyaniline/ITO heterojunction on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A.; Deb, K.; Kathirvel, V.; Bera, T.; Thapa, R.; Saha, B.

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction between polyaniline and ITO film coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate has been prepared through vapor phase polymerization process. Polaron and bipolaron like defect states induced hole transport and exceptional mobility makes polyaniline a noble hole transport layer. Thus a p-n junction has been obtained between the hole transport layer of polyaniline and highly conductive n-type layer of ITO film. The synthesis process was carried out using FeCl3 as polymerizing agent in the oxidative chemical polymerization process. The prepared polyaniline has been found to be crystalline on characterization through X-ray diffraction measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements were done for compositional analysis of the prepared film. The UV-vis-NIR absorbance spectra obtained for polyaniline shows the characteristics absorbance as observed for highly conductive polyaniline and confirms the occurrence of partially oxidized emeraldine form of polyaniline. The energy band gap of the polyaniline has been obtained as 2.52 eV, by analyzing the optical transmittance spectra. A rectifying behavior has been observed in the electrical J-V plot, which is of great significance in designing polymer based flexible electronic devices.

  2. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR... Halle, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... Results in the Administrative Review on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan (PET...

  3. Exposure to antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays used in ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Blanc, A; Dudler, V

    2007-08-01

    Antimony residues, a result of the use of a polycondensation catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) oven-proof trays, were analysed in ready-to-eat meals. The toxicity of antimony has raised concerns about consumer safety; therefore, the migration of small fractions of these residues into ready meals and foods as a result of cooking directly in the PET trays was studied. A straightforward approach of measuring real samples was selected to obtain accurate exposure data. Background antimony concentration was determined separately from a series of lunch meals, which ranged from not detectable to 3.4 microg kg(-1). Microwave and conventional oven-cooking caused a distinct increase in the concentration of antimony in food and ready meals of 0-17 and 8-38 microg kg(-1), respectively, depending, to a certain extent, on the industrial preparations. The migrated quantities of antimony corresponded to 3-13 microg. For comparison, PET roasting bags and ready-made dough products in PET baking dishes were also evaluated. About half of the products prepared at a temperature of 180 degrees C exceeded the specific migration limit set for food contact material by the European Commission. However, the migrated amounts of antimony relative to the accepted tolerable daily intake (TDI) show that exposure from this type of food is currently not of toxicological concern.

  4. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: → LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. → Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. → Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. → Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  5. ITO films with enhanced electrical properties deposited on unheated ZnO-coated polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Lavareda, G.; Fortunato, E.; Alves, H.; Goncalves, A.; Varela, J.; Nascimento, R.; Amaral, A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by radio frequency (rf)-plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) at room temperature on intrinsic ZnO/polymer substrates to enhance their electrical and structural properties. The polymer substrate used is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The thickness of the ZnO films varied in the range 50-150 nm. The average thickness of the ITO films is of about 170 nm. Results show that ITO deposited on bare PET substrates exhibit: an average visible transmittance of about 85% and an electrical resistivity of 5.6 x 10 -2 Ω cm. ITO on ZnO/PET substrates show the optical quality practically preserved and the resistivity decreased to a minimum value of 1.9x10 -3 Ω cm for ZnO layers 125 nm thick. The electrical properties of ITO on ZnO/PET are largely improved by the increase in carrier mobility

  6. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  7. Preparation of poly(ethylene terephthalate/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization and their thermal property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terephthalate (TA intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs were synthesized using hydroxides as raw materials, and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET/LDH nanocomposites with different contents of TA intercalated LDHs were prepared by in-situ polymerization. The structure, morphology and thermal property of PET/LDH nanocomposites were investigated. The TA intercalated LDHs were partially exfoliated and well dispersed in PET matrix. The PET/LDH nanocomposites exhibit enhanced thermal stability relative to pure PET, confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis results. The results of differential scanning calorimetry suggest that LDH nanoparticles could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of PET.

  8. Substrate effects on the characteristics of (In2O3)1-x (ZnO)x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. M.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, J. H.; Ryu, S. W.; Park, S. H.; Ahn, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical and the optical properties of (In 2 O 3 ) 1-x (ZnO) x (IZO) films deposited by the rf magnetron sputtering on plastic substrates, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly carbonate (PC), were investigated. The results are compared with those of IZO films deposited on a conventional coring glass (CG) substrate. The average transmittance of the IZO films deposited on plastic substrates is over 80 %, irrespective of the substrate, which is comparable to that of IZO films deposited on CG substrates. IZO films deposited on PC or PET substrates show larger resistivities than those deposited on CG substrates. This may be attributed to the fact that compositions, such as H 2 O or the organic solvent contained in the plastic substrates, are adsorbed into the IZO layer during sputtering. The surface resistance of the IZO films is nearly independent of the substrate and decreases with increasing deposition time. Compared to the IZO films deposited on PET substrates without hard coatings, those deposited on PET substrates with hard coatings show superior electrical stability for thermal environments.

  9. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  10. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-11-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target-substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target-substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target-substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target-substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target-substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  11. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Kun-San [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lo, Yu-Lung, E-mail: loyl@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  12. The Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene-Polyethylene Terephthalate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Avazverdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, one of the thermoplastic polymers, is encountered with arduous problems in its recycling. After recycling, its mechanical properties drop dramatically and therefore it cannot be used to produce the products as virgin PET does. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer which can be easily recycled using the conventional recycling processes. The decreased mechanical properties of virgin polyethylene due to the environmental factors can be improved by reinforcing fillers. In this paper, we studied the effects of adding recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET as a filler, in various amounts with different sizes, on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene. Composite samples were prepared using an internal mixer at temperature 185°C, well below rPET melting point (250°C, and characterized by their mechanical properties. To improve the compatibility between different components, PE grafted with maleic anhydride was added as a coupling agent in all the compositions under study. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were performed using the tensile strength, impact strength, surface hardness and melt flow index (MFI tests. To check the dispersity of the polyethylene terephthalate powder in the polyethylene matrix, light microscopy was used. The results showed that the addition of rPET improved the tensile energy, tensile modulus and surface hardness of the composites while reduced the melt flow index, elongation-at-yield, tensile strength and fracture energy of impact test. We could conclude that with increasing rPET percentage in the recycled polyethylene matrix, the composite became brittle, in other words it decreased the plastic behavior of recycled polyethylene. Decreasing particle size led to higher surface contacts, increased the mechanical properties and made the composite more brittle. The light microscopy micrographs of the samples showed a good distribution of small rPET

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C.N.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A.C.; Luculescu, C.R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCO thin films were grown by PLD on PET substrate at low temperature. ► We found that the quality of TCO on PET substrate depends on the target–substrate distance. ► TCO with high transparency (>95%) and reduced electrical resistivity (∼5 × 10 −4 Ω cm) were obtained. ► Optimized TCO films deposited on PET were free of any cracks. - Abstract: The influence of target–substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  14. Structural insight into molecular mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate) degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Seongjoon; Cho, In Jin; Seo, Hogyun; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Sagong, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Plastics, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), possess many desirable characteristics and thus are widely used in daily life. However, non-biodegradability, once thought to be an advantage offered by plastics, is causing major environmental problem. Recently, a PET-degrading bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis, was identified and suggested for possible use in degradation and/or recycling of PET. However, the molecular mechanism of PET degradation is not known. Here we report the crystal ...

  15. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and thermal properties of the obtained graft copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Xiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Mozhen, E-mail: pstwmz@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ge Xuewu, E-mail: xwge@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-05-15

    n-Butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully grafted onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using simultaneous radiation induced graft copolymerization with gamma rays. When BA concentration ranges from 20% to 30%, the Degree of Grafting (DG), measured by gravimetry and {sup 1}H NMR, increases with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose, but decreases with dose rate from 0.83 to 2.53 kGy/h. The maximum DG can reach up to 22.1%. The thermal transition temperatures such as glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) and cold-crystallization temperature (T{sub cc}) of PET in grafted films were little different from those in original PET film, indicating that microphase separation occurred between PBA side chains and PET backbone. This work implied that if PET/elastomers (e.g., acrylate rubber) blends are radiated by high energy gamma rays under a certain condition, PET-g-polyacrylate copolymer may be produced in-situ, which will improve the compatibility between PET and the elastomers so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  16. Determination of oligomers in virgin and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples by UPLC-MS-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Sara; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    An oligomer is a molecule that consists of a few monomer units. It can be formed during polymer manufacturing and also due to polymer degradation processes or even during use conditions. Since oligomers are not included in chemical databases, their identification is a complex process. In this work, the oligomers present in 20 different PET pellet samples have been determined. Two different sample treatment procedures, solvent extraction and total dissolution, were applied in order to select the most efficient one. The analyses were carried out by UPLC-MS-QTOF. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the structural elucidation of these compounds and their correct identification. The main oligomers identified were cyclic as well as lineal from the first, second, and third series. All of them were composed of terephthalic acid (TPA), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). Quantitative values were very different in both procedures. In total dissolution of PET samples, the concentration of oligomers was always, at least, 10 times higher than in solvent extraction; some of the compounds were only detected when total dissolution was used. Results showed that the oligomers with the highest concentration values were dimers and trimers, cyclic, as well as lineal, from the first and second series. The oligomer with the maximum concentration value was TPA 2 -EG-DEG that was found in all the samples in a concentration range from 2493 to 19,290 ng/g PET. No differences between virgin and recycled PET were found. Migration experiments were performed in two PET bottles, and results showed the transference of most of these oligomers to a fat food simulant (ethanol 95%). Graphical abstract Graphical abstract of the two procedures developd and optimized for identifying oligomers in PET pellets and in migration form PET bottles.

  17. Hidrólise parcial da superfície do polyethylene terephthalate (PET: transformando um rejeito em um material de troca catiônica para aplicação ambiental Partial hydrolysis of pet surface: transforming a plastic waste into a material with cationic exchange properties for environmental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Rosmaninho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed a simple and versatile undergraduate chemical experiment in polymer and environmental technology based on the process of polyethylene terephthalate (PET hydrolysis. Polyethylene terephthalate from post-consume bottles is submitted to a controlled partial hydrolysis which allows the students to follow the reaction by a simple procedure. The students can explore the reaction kinetics, the effect of catalysts and the exposed polyethylene terephthalate surface area on the hydrolysis reaction. The second and innovative part of this experiment is the technological and environmental application of the hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate as a material with cation exchange properties. The surface hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate can be used as adsorbent for cationic contaminants.

  18. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  19. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: structural characterization of terephthalic acid and the effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Talitha Granja; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros Bastos de; Vinhas, Gloria Maria

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental impact caused by PET packaging disposal, this material recycling has been thoroughly discussed and evaluated. In particular, chemical recycling enables achievement of the monomers that are used in PET resin manufacture: ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (PTA). Therefore, studies for this process optimization are important from environmental and economic points of view. The present study investigated certain parameters that influence the depolymerization reaction of PET post-consumer via alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain PTA. Assays were performed at 70 °C by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the reaction time. The best results were obtained at 10.82 mol L -1 NaOH and 9 h reaction time. Consequently, it was possible to prove this process viability, once analyses by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that PTA was obtained in all reactions performed. (author)

  20. A study of commercially-available polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate as nuclear track detector materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Vazquez-Lopez, C.; Trejo, R.; Lopez, K.; Rickards, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the study of the sensitivity of materials to be used as nuclear track detectors, it was found that commercial polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from Ciel® water bottles, commercial roof cover polycarbonate, and recycled packaging strips (recycled PET), can be used as nuclear track detectors. These three commercial materials present nuclear tracks when bombarded by 2.27 MeV nitrogen ions produced in a Pelletron particle accelerator, and by fission fragments from a 252Cf source (79.4 and 103.8 MeV), after a chemical etching with a 6.25M KOH solution, or with a 6.25M KOH solution with 20% methanol, both solutions at 60±1°C. As an example, the nitrogen ions deposit approximately 1 keV/nm in the form of ionization and excitation at the surface of PET, as calculated using the SRIM code. The fission fragments deposit up to 9 keV/nm at the surface, in both cases generating sufficient free radicals to initiate the track formation process. However, 5 MeV alpha particles, typical of radon (222Rn) emissions, deposit only 0.12 keV/nm, do not present tracks after the chemical etching process. This valuable information could be very useful for further studies of new materials in nuclear track methodology.

  1. Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki; Jeong, Soon-Wook; Cho, Woon-Jo

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO) electrode grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a specially designed roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering system for use in flexible optoelectronics. It was found that both electrical and optical properties of the flexible IZO electrode were critically dependent on the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio during the roll-to-roll sputtering process. At optimized conditions (constant working pressure of 3 mTorr, Ar/O 2 flow ratio of Ar at only 30 sccm, DC power 800 W and rolling speed at 0.1 cm/s) the flexible IZO electrode exhibits a sheet resistance of 17.25 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of 89.45% at 550 nm wavelength. Due to the low PET substrate temperature, which is effectively maintained by cooling drum system, all IZO electrodes showed an amorphous structure regardless of the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio. Furthermore, the IZO electrodes grown at optimized condition exhibited superior flexibility than the conventional amorphous ITO electrodes due to its stable amorphous structure. This indicates that the RTR sputter grown IZO electrode is a promising flexible electrode that can substitute for the conventional ITO electrode, due to its low resistance, high transparency, superior flexibility and fast preparation by the RTR process.

  2. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors based on laser reduced graphene oxide supported on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoniem, Engy; Mori, Shinsuke; Abdel-Moniem, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    A controlled high powered CO2 laser system is used to reduce and pattern graphene oxide (GO) film supported onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The laser reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film is characterized and evaluated electrochemically in the absence and presence of an overlying anodicaly deposited thin film of pseuodcapactive MnO2 as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using aqueous electrolyte. The laser treatment of the GO film leads to an overlapped structure of defective multi-layer rGO sheets with an electrical conductivity of 273 S m-1. The rGO and MnO2/rGO electrodes exhibit specific capacitance in the range of 82-107 and 172-368 Fg-1 at applied current range of 0.1-1.0 mA cm-2 and retain 98 and 95% of their initial capacitances after 2000 cycles at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2, respectively. Also, the rGO is assigned as an electrode material for flexible conventionally stacked and interdigitated in-plane supercapacitor structures using gel electrolyte. Three electrode architectures of 2, 4, and 6 sub-electrodes are studied for the interdigital in-plane design. The device with interdigital 6 sub-electrodes architecture I-PS(6) delivers power density of 537.1 Wcm-3 and an energy density of 0.45 mWh cm-3.

  3. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs.

  4. Alpha particle response for a prototype radiation survey meter based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with un-doping fluorescent guest molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Philip; Nakamura, Hidehito; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Maki, Daisuke; Kanayama, Masaya; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no radiation survey meter that can discriminate among alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma-rays with one material. Previously, undoped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been shown to be an effective material for beta particle and gamma-ray detection. Here, we demonstrate a prototype survey meter for alpha particles based on undoped PET. A 140 × 72 × 1-mm PET substrate was fabricated with mirrored surfaces. It was incorporated in a unique detection section of the survey meter that directly detects alpha particles. The prototype exhibited an unambiguous response to alpha particles from a 241 Am radioactive source. These results demonstrate that undoped PET can perform well in survey meters for alpha particle detection. Overall, the PET-based survey meter has the potential to detect multiple types of radiation, and will spawn an unprecedented type of radiation survey meter based on undoped aromatic ring polymers. (author)

  5. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/fumed silica (PET/SiO2) prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, G.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Bikiaris, D.; Chrissafis, K.

    2010-01-01

    A number of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization using different amounts (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt%) of fumed silica (SiO 2 ). The polymerization of PET was carried out by the two-stage melt polycondensation method. From DSC studies it was found that the melting point of the nanocomposites was shifted slightly to higher temperatures by the addition of SiO 2 till 3 wt% while for PET-4 wt% SiO 2 nanocomposite the melting point was reduced. As the amount of SiO 2 was increased the crystallization became faster, and there was, also, a shifting of the temperature of the crystallization peak to higher values, this being evidence that SiO 2 can act as nucleating agent. At higher content (3 and 4 wt%) the temperature of the crystallization peak is lower than that of PET-2 wt% SiO 2 due to the formation of crosslinked macromolecules. The activation energy is calculated with the Friedman's method. PET/SiO 2 samples present lower activation energy compared to that of neat PET, except those of PET-4% SiO 2 , in which the activation energy have a maximum value for α = 0.8 probably due to the second crystallization peak. Extensive crystallization studies by using Avrami, Ozawa and Malek methods verified that PET and its nanocomposites must be crystallized by two mechanisms with different activation energies taking place in different degrees of crystallization.

  6. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  7. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  8. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-01-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability

  9. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-07-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability.

  10. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures from high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste by chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, M. N. M.; Hashim, M. S.; Hussin, R.; Aida, S.; Kamdi, Z.; Ainuddin, AR; Yunos, MZ

    2017-10-01

    In this study, carbon nanostructures were synthesized from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste by single-stage chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. In CVD, iron was used as catalyst and pyrolitic of carbon source was conducted at temperature 700, 800 and 900°C for 30 minutes. Argon gas was used as carrier gas with flow at 90 sccm. The synthesized carbon nanostructures were characterized by FESEM, EDS and calculation of carbon yield (%). FESEM micrograph shows that the carbon nanostructures were only grown as nanofilament when synthesized from PET waste. The synthesization of carbon nanostructure at 700°C was produced smooth and the smallest diameter nanofilament compared to others. The carbon yield of synthesized carbon nanostructures from PET was lower from HDPE. Furthermore, the carbon yield is recorded to increase with increasing of reaction temperature for all samples. Elemental study by EDS analysis were carried out and the formation of carbon nanostructures was confirmed after CVD process. Utilization of polymer waste to produce carbon nanostructures is beneficial to ensure that the carbon nanotechnology will be sustained in future.

  11. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Electrohydrodynamic Direct-Write Orderly Micro/Nanofibrous Structure on Flexible Insulating Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Yi Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AC pulse-modulated electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW was utilized to direct-write orderly micro/nanofibrous structure on the flexible insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. During the EDW process, AC electrical field induced charges to reciprocate along the jet and decreased the charge repulsive force that applied on charged jet. Thanks to the smaller charge repulsive force, stable straight jet can be built up to direct-write orderly micro/nanofibrous structures on the insulating substrate. The minimum motion velocity required to direct-write straight line fibrous structure on insulating PET substrate was 700 mm/s. Moreover, the influences of AC voltage amplitude, frequency, and duty cycle ratio on the line width of fibrous structures were investigated. This work proposes a novel solution to overcome the inherent charge repulsion emerging on the insulating substrate, and promotes the application of EDW technology on the flexible electronics.

  13. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jonathan Hill, AD/CVD Operations, Office IV, Enforcement & Compliance, International... Operations, Office IV ``Initiation of Antidumping New Shipper Review of Polyethylene Terephthalate Film...

  14. Recovery of Terephthalic Acid by employing magnetic nanoparticles as a solid support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ghamary

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research work is focused on the improvement of Terephthalic acid recovery from PET wastes by using organically modified nano-Fe3O4@Cyanuric Chloride as the solid support. The performance of organically modified nano magnetic was examined in detail and the obtained results were compared with the unsupported reaction data. Required reaction time for complete glycolysis of the wastes, consumption of the solvent as well as catalyst decreases up 99%, 37.5% and 40% respectively. Result showed that nano-Fe 3O4@Cyanuric Chloride delivered good performance as solid support in depolymerizing of PET to the terephthalic acid.

  15. Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezaul Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A self-powered ultraviolet (UV photodetector (PD based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered ultrathin Ti/Au top metal contacts and UV transparent PET/ITO substrates allowed the PDs to be illuminated through either frontside or backside. Morphology, structural, chemical, and optical properties of sputtered NiO and ZnO films were also investigated.

  16. Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Md Rezaul [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Xie, Ting; Liu, Guannan [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Barron, Sara C. [Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Motayed, Abhishek [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Rao, Mulpuri V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Debnath, Ratan, E-mail: ratan.debnath@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered ultrathin Ti/Au top metal contacts and UV transparent PET/ITO substrates allowed the PDs to be illuminated through either frontside or backside. Morphology, structural, chemical, and optical properties of sputtered NiO and ZnO films were also investigated.

  17. The application of orthogonal photolithography to micro-scale organic field effect transistors and complementary inverters on flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jingon; Song, Younggul; Yoo, Daekyoung; Kim, Dongku; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Takhee; Oh, Hyuntaek; Lee, Jin-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Micro-scale pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. By applying a highly fluorinated developing solvents and its compatible photoresist materials, it has become possible to make the micro-scale patterning for organic devices using standard photolithography without damaging the underlying polymer layers. The flexible pentacene OFETs with 3 μm-sized channel length exhibited stable electrical characteristics under bent configurations and under a large number of repetitive bending cycles. Furthermore, we demonstrated micro-scale organic complementary inverters on a flexible PET substrate using p-type pentacene and n-type copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine materials

  18. The application of orthogonal photolithography to micro-scale organic field effect transistors and complementary inverters on flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jingon; Song, Younggul; Yoo, Daekyoung; Kim, Dongku; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Takhee, E-mail: tlee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyuntaek; Lee, Jin-Kyun, E-mail: jkl36@inha.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    Micro-scale pentacene organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. By applying a highly fluorinated developing solvents and its compatible photoresist materials, it has become possible to make the micro-scale patterning for organic devices using standard photolithography without damaging the underlying polymer layers. The flexible pentacene OFETs with 3 μm-sized channel length exhibited stable electrical characteristics under bent configurations and under a large number of repetitive bending cycles. Furthermore, we demonstrated micro-scale organic complementary inverters on a flexible PET substrate using p-type pentacene and n-type copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine materials.

  19. The Barrier Properties of PET Coated DLC Film Deposited by Microwave Surface-Wave PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhua; Chen, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by microwave surface-wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) web for the purpose of the barrier property improvement. In order to characterize the properties of DLC coatings, we used several substrates, silicon wafer, glass, and PET web and KBr tablet. The deposition rate was obtained by surface profiler based on the DLC deposited on glass substrates; Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was carried out on KBr tablets to investigate chemical composition and bonding structure; the morphology of the DLC coating was analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on Si substrates. For the barrier properties of PET webs, we measured the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) after coated with DLC films. We addressed the film barrier property related to process parameters, such as microwave power and pulse parameter in this work. The results show that the DLC coatings can greatly improve the barrier properties of PET webs.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a fixed bed drop type pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was carried out at different temperatures (450,500,550, and 600°C) at ratio 1:1 by using fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product yield. As the temperature increased, the pyrolysis oil increased until it reaches certain high temperature (600°C), the pyrolysis oil decreased as of more NCG were produced. The temperature 550°C is considered as the optimum pyrolysis temperature since it produced the highest amount of pyrolysis oil with 36 wt.%. In pyrolysis oil, the calorific value (13.98kJ/g) was low because of the presence of high water content (52.46 wt.%). Main chemicals group from pyrolysis oil were an aldehyde, ketones, acids, aromatics, and phenol and all compound have abundant of hydrogen and carbon were identified. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and PET produced a higher amount of carbon oxides and recycling back the NCG could increase liquid and char yields.

  1. Copper thin film for RFID UHF antenna on flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Nhan Ai; Tran, Huy Nam; Dang, Mau Chien; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A process flow using photolithography and sputtering was studied for copper antenna fabrication on thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate. The lift-off route was chosen for its flexibility at laboratory scale. It was clarified that the cleaning of PET is an important step that necessitates mild oxygen plasma etching. Then copper is sputter deposited after photolithographic definition of the antenna. Care is necessary since PET, as a very flexible substrate, is temperature sensitive. The temperature increase generated by the impact of deposited copper should be maintained below the glass transition temperature of the polymer to avoid detrimental deformation. dc power of 40 to 50 W was found to be the maximum possible sputtering power for commercial PET. It was found that the resistivity of the thin film is below two times the bulk resistivity of copper for a deposition pressure below 4×10 −3  mbar and thickness above 450 nm. These results enable the reliable fabrication of copper RFID UHF antennae on a PET substrate for further testing of new tag designs. The present paper summarizes the effort to test new designs of antennae for RadioFrequency IDentification (RFID) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) tags, for use in various applications (e.g. object tracking and environment monitoring) in Vietnam

  2. Improvement of copper plating adhesion on silane modified PET film by ultrasonic-assisted electroless deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yinxiang

    2010-01-01

    Copper thin film on silane modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate was fabricated by ultrasonic-assisted electroless deposition. The composition and topography of copper plating PET films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Peel adhesion strength, as high as 16.7 N/cm, was achieved for the planting copper layer to the modified PET substrate with ultrasonic-assisted deposition; however, a relative low value as 11.9 N/cm was obtained for the sample without ultrasonic vibration by the same measurement. The electrical conductivity of Cu film was changed from 7.9 x 10 4 to 2.1 x 10 5 S/cm by using ultrasonic technique. Ultrasonic operation has the significant merits of fast deposition and formation of good membranes for electroless deposition of Cu on PET film.

  3. Fabrication of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Gabriel; Merced-Sanabria, Milzaida; Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee

    2015-03-01

    The active layer for the organic solar cells fabricated is composed of P3HT:PCBM, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as electron donor and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester(PCBM) as electron acceptor. These polymers were used due to their promising characteristics for devices such as bulk heterojunction solar devices. We used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a highly flexible plastic, with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent conducting anode for the device, and UV lithography technique to pattern the ITO; this is to facilitate multiple devices on a single substrate. The fabrication process for pattern transfer incorporates developing and etching processes. We diluted the HCl and DI water to etch out the ITO. PEDOT:PSS and active layer of P3HT:PCBM were deposited on (3.0 sq-cm) patterned of ITO/PET by spin coating method. The cathode was thermally evaporated with Al. We characterized the device using a sourcemeter. We also simulated portions of the device using PET on graphene as the substrate.

  4. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  5. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin; Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  6. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Ding, Wanyu, E-mail: dwysd_2000@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116028 (China); Ju, Dongying [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan); Chai, Weiping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

    2013-10-31

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of transparent conductive oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, G.; Socol, M.; Stefan, N.; Axente, E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Craciun, D.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, C. N.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stanculescu, A.; Visan, D.; Sava, V.; Galca, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Craciun, V.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of target-substrate distance during pulsed laser deposition of indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates was investigated. It was found that the properties of such flexible transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/PET electrodes critically depend on this parameter. The TCO films that were deposited at distances of 6 and 8 cm exhibited an optical transmittance higher than 90% in the visible range and electrical resistivities around 5 × 10-4 Ω cm. In addition to these excellent electrical and optical characteristics the films grown at 8 cm distance were homogenous, smooth, adherent, and without cracks or any other extended defects, being suitable for opto-electronic device applications.

  8. Response to Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-08-19

    Yang et al suggest that the use of low-crystallinity poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) exaggerates our results. However, the primary focus of our study was identifying an organism capable of the biological degradation and assimilation of PET, regardless of its crystallinity. We provide additional PET depolymerization data that further support several other lines of data showing PET assimilation by growing cells of Ideonella sakaiensis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Study of the radiosterilization dose effect on properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoldi, Ana Beatriz Godoy; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e; Rosario, Salmo Cordeiro do

    2002-01-01

    The packing are in constant development, in function, especially, the process of globalization. The opening of the brazilian market after currency stabilization, caused technological innovations, change of habits and costumes of the population and environmental matters. Year after year, because of cost reductions, it became more extreme the hard study of the polymeric materials and their copolymers, their possible blends and their recycling, always seeking a better wrapping of the products, especially when it concerns to the food, increasing its shelf life. The process of sterilization of foods and modification of polymers through radiation are targets of growing interest by of the current industries linked to the nutrition and packing sectors. The objective of this paper is to discuss the application of the radiation (electron beam) in the sterilization of packings of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, evaluating the possible effects on their properties. (author)

  10. Hemocompatibility improvement of poly(ethylene terephthalate) via self-polymerization of dopamine and covalent graft of zwitterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xianmei; Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: bioalchem@yahoo.com; Chen, Shuangchun; Li, Pengfei; Li, Li, E-mail: lili3@njnu.edu.cn; Shen, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been widely adopted as a scaffold biomaterial, but further hemocompatibility improvement is still needed for wide biomedical applications. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we propose to use self-polymerized dopamine to form a surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET sheet, followed by Michael addition with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMDA) to build tertiary amine, and final zwitterions(sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine) construction through ring-opening reaction. Physicochemical properties of substrates were demonstrated by water contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hemocompatibility was evaluated by platelet adhesion, hemolytic, and protein adsorption. The results showed that the zwitterions immobilized PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion as well as nonhemolytic. The zwitterions with desirable hemocompatibility can be readily tailored to catheter for various biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We first used self-polymerized dopamine to form a thin and surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET film. • Then, DMDA was attached to the PET surface by Michael addition. • Sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine were finally constructed through ring-opening reaction. • The modify PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  11. 78 FR 48651 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of.... (SMTC) (collectively, Shinkong), producer and exporter of PET Film from Taiwan. The Department...: Milton Koch, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S...

  12. Flexible Transparent Electrode of Hybrid Ag-Nanowire/Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Thin Film on PET Substrate Prepared Using H2/Ar Low-Damage Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ H2/Ar low-damage plasma treatment (H2/Ar-LDPT to reduce graphene oxide (GO coating on a polymer substrate—polyethylene terephthalate (PET—with the assistance of atomic hydrogen (Hα at low temperature of 70 °C. Four-point probing and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrate that the conductivity and transmittance can be controlled by varying the H2/Ar flow rate, treatment time, and radio-frequency (RF power. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the Hα intensity depends on these processing parameters, which influence the removal of oxidative functional groups (confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to yield reduced GO (rGO. To further improve the conductivity while maintaining high transmittance, we introduce silver nanowires (AgNWs between rGO and a PET substrate to obtain a hybrid rGO/AgNWs/PET with a sheet resistance of ~100 Ω/sq and 81% transmittance. In addition, the hybrid rGO/AgNWs thin film also shows high flexibility and durability and is suitable for flexible and wearable electronics applications.

  13. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Xie, Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices

  14. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Xie, Shuhong; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices.

  15. Direct metal transfer printing on flexible substrate for fabricating optics functional devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingjie; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Feng; Shi, Zhenwu; Chen, Linsen; Peng, Changsi

    2015-11-01

    New functional materials and devices based on metal patterns can be widely used in many new and expanding industries,such as flat panel displays, alternative energy,sensors and so on. In this paper, we introduce a new transfer printing method for fabricating metal optics functional devices. This method can directly transfer a metal pattern from a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)supported UV or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pattern to another PET substrate. Purely taking advantage of the anaerobic UV curing adhesive (a-UV) on PET substrate, metal film can be easily peeled off from micro/nano-structured surface. As a result, metal film on the protrusion can be selectively transferred onto the target substrate, to make it the metal functional surface. But which on the bottom can not be transferred. This method provides low cost fabrication of metal thin film devices by avoiding high cost lithography process. Compared with conventional approach, this method can get more smooth rough edges and has wider tolerance range for the original master mold. Future developments and potential applications of this metal transfer method will be addressed.

  16. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljeva, I.V.; Mjakin, S.V.; Makarov, A.V.; Krasovsky, A.N.; Varlamov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  17. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljeva, I.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: radiant@skylink.spb.ru; Mjakin, S.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Makarov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasovsky, A.N. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Varlamov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  18. A study of thermal decomposition and combustion products of disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic using high resolution fourier transform infrared spectroscopy selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry...

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Kristýna; Ferus, Martin; Matulková, Irena; Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Dvořák, O.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, 9-10 (2009), s. 1205-1214 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : polyethylene terephthalate (PET) * coimbustion * high resolution FTIR spectroscopy * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2009

  19. Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy on UV/ozonolysis irradiated polyethylene terephthalate film and its corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei; Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Xu, Yumeng; Mu, Yuhang; Lu, Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy was firstly fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. • An etchant-free and amine-free UV/ozonolysis irradiation method UV/ozonolysis was effective for the transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic of PET sheet. • A time-saving and cost-effective orthogonal experiment (L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}) was utilized to optimize the plating conditions. • The optimized copper polyalloy possessed high corrosion resistance in three aggressive mediums including NaCl, NaOH and HCl, respectively. • The Cu-Co-P coated PET composite showed excellent electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE > 99.999% at frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz). - Abstract: High corrosion resistant Cu-Co-P coatings were firstly prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by electroless plating in combination with UV/ozonolysis irradiation under optimized cobalt sulfate heptahydrate concentration, pH value, plating temperature and time. The copper polyalloy/PET composite can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the generation of oxygen-containing functionalities (carboxylic groups) onto PET surface through UV irradiation combined with ozone, (ii) Cu seeding catalysts were obtained after being immersed into cupric citrate and NaBH{sub 4} solutions subsequently, and (iii) Cu-Co-P polyalloy metallization using electroless plating bath. Attenuated total reflection fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurement and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were utilized to track the surface changes during the whole process. The electroless plating conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experiment (L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}) for Cu-Co-P coating as follows: CoSO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O addition of 0.08 M, pH value, plating temperature and time were set on 10.0, 35 °C and 25 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, copper

  20. 78 FR 67113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... antidumping duty orders on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (``PET Film'') from India and... Operations, Office VII, Enforcement and Compliance, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of...) 482-2371, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on PET Film...

  1. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited on unheated polymer substrates by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhinong; Li Yuqiong; Xia Fan; Zhao Zhiwei; Xue Wei

    2009-01-01

    The optical, electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature were investigated. The properties of ITO films can be improved by introducing a buffer layer of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) between the ITO film and the PET substrate. ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET have better crystallinity, lower electrical resistivity, and improved resistance stability under bending than those deposited on bare PET. The average transmittance and the resistivity of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET are 85% and 0.90 x 10 -3 Ω cm, respectively, and when the films are bent, the resistance remains almost constant until a bending radius of 1 cm and it increases slowly under a given bending radius with an increase of the bending cycles. The improved resistance stability of ITO films deposited on SiO 2 -coated PET is mainly attributed to the perfect adhesion of ITO films induced by the SiO 2 buffer layer.

  2. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid; Preparacao e caracterizacao de blendas polimericas a base de PET reciclado e poliester derivado do acido tereftalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: leandro.ohara@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  3. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Siamak [Department of Polymer and Color Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohamad-Esmail [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based nanocomposites containing hydrophilic (i.e. Aerosil 200 or Aerosil TT 600) or hydrophobic (i.e. Aerosil R 972) nano-silica were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica type on surface properties of the resultant nanocomposites was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement (CAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). The possible interaction between nano-silica particles and PET functional groups at bulk and surface were elucidated by transmission FTIR and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. AFM studies of the resultant nanocomposites showed increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. Contact angle measurements of the resultant PET composites demonstrated that the wettability of such composites depends on surface treatment of the particular nano-silica particles used. SEM images illustrated that hydrophilic nano-silica particles tended to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix.

  4. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Haegeun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seop [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woong, E-mail: woongkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High integrity supercapacitors are achieved by improving adhesion of CNTs on PET. • Nanostructures on PET substrate significantly enhances the adhesion strength. • A simple RIE process generates the nanostructures on PET surface. • RIE induces hydrophilicity on the PET and further enhances the adhesive strength. • The supercapacitors show good cyclability with high specific capacitance retention. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  5. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High integrity supercapacitors are achieved by improving adhesion of CNTs on PET. • Nanostructures on PET substrate significantly enhances the adhesion strength. • A simple RIE process generates the nanostructures on PET surface. • RIE induces hydrophilicity on the PET and further enhances the adhesive strength. • The supercapacitors show good cyclability with high specific capacitance retention. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  6. 78 FR 50029 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from Brazil... any reviewable entries, shipments or sales of subject PET film by Terphane during the POR, we are.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  7. Development of a bioprocess to convert PET derived terephthalic acid and biodiesel derived glycerol to medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Shane T.; Nikodinovic Runic, Jasmina; O' Connor, Kevin E. [University College Dublin (Ireland). School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences; Kaminsky, Walter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P. [Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Materials Ireland Polymer Research Center

    2012-08-15

    Sodium terephthalate (TA) produced from a PET pyrolysis product and waste glycerol (WG) from biodiesel manufacture were supplied to Pseudomonas putida GO16 in a fed-batch bioreactor. Six feeding strategies were employed by altering the sequence of TA and WG feeding. P. putida GO16 reached 8.70 g/l cell dry weight (CDW) and 2.61 g/l PHA in 48 h when grown on TA alone. When TA and WG were supplied in combination, biomass productivity (g/l/h) was increased between 1.3- and 1.7-fold and PHA productivity (g/l/h) was increased 1.8- to 2.2-fold compared to TA supplied alone. The monomer composition of the PHA accumulated from TA or WG was predominantly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid. PHA monomers 3-hydroxytetradeeanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid were not present in PHA accumulated from TA alone but were present when WG was supplied to the fermentation. When WG was either the sole carbon source or the predominant carbon source supplied to the fermentation the molecular weight of PHA accumulated was lower compared to PHA accumulated when TA was supplied as the sole substrate. Despite similarities in data for the properties of the polymers, PHAs produced with WG present in the PHA accumulation phase were tacky while PHA produced where TA was the sole carbon substrate in the polymer accumulation phase exhibited little or no tackiness at room temperature. The co-feeding of WG to fermentations allows for increased utilisation of TA. The order of feeding of WG and TA has an effect on TA utilisation and polymer properties. (orig.)

  8. Hydrophilic-impermeable modified polyethylene terephthalate for selective endothelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouane, D.; Fafet, J. F.; Barbet, R.; Dieval, F.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to create a modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) responding to vascular implants’ requirements, mainly with a surface promoting selective endothelialization. The surface alteration was carried out by hydrophilic functionalization in an alkaline solution with the presence of specific surfactant (TA). The carboxylic groups resulting from this reaction were quantified by colorimetric titration using bleu toluidine O dye (TBO). A single-sided coating process was then optimized to cover the PET surface by micro spherical structures’ polymeric layer. This coating provided to the PET surface high impermeability to the water under a pressure of 120 mmHg and enhanced its hydrophilic property. This spherical topography reduced the adhesion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) by 37% and inhibited their proliferation after 3 days by 50%. The hydrophilic functionalized PET (PET-TA) surface decreased the MSC adhesion by 50% and promoted HUVEC attachment with a number twice more important than the number of HUVEC adhered onto non treated-PET.

  9. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  10. 78 FR 9670 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1.... (Polyplex), and SRF Limited (SRF), producers and exporters of PET Film from India. Based on the results of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum or Toni Page, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  11. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd... export of PET Film from India. Also, based on our analysis of Ester's comments, we made certain revisions..., Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th...

  12. Meniscus-force-mediated layer transfer technique using single-crystalline silicon films with midair cavity: Application to fabrication of CMOS transistors on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-04-01

    A novel low-temperature technique for transferring a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer with a midair cavity (supported by narrow SiO2 columns) by meniscus force has been proposed, and a single-crystalline Si (c-Si) film with a midair cavity formed in dog-bone shape was successfully transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate at its heatproof temperature or lower. By applying this proposed transfer technique, high-performance c-Si-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors were successfully fabricated on the PET substrate. The key processes are the thermal oxidation and subsequent hydrogen annealing of the SOI layer on the midair cavity. These processes ensure a good MOS interface, and the SiO2 layer works as a “blocking” layer that blocks contamination from PET. The fabricated n- and p-channel c-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) on the PET substrate showed field-effect mobilities of 568 and 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively.

  13. Electrochemical pulsed deposition of platinum nanoparticles on indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a pulsed-mode electrochemical deposition (Pulse-ECD) technique was employed to deposit platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on the indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) substrate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The characteristic properties of the Pulse-ECD PtNPs were prepared and compared to the traditional (electron beam) Pt film. The surface morphologies of the PtNPs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). The FE-SEM results showed that our PtNPs were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PET flexible substrates via the Pulse-ECD technique. The AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of the pulsed PtNPs influenced the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs, due to the high specific surface area of PtNPs which enhanced the catalytic activities for the reduction (I 3 − to I − ) of redox electrolyte. In combination with a N719 dye-sensitized TiO 2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSCs with the PtNPs flexible counter electrode showed a PCE of 4.3% under the illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm −2 ). The results demonstrated that the Pulse-ECD PtNPs are good candidate for flexible DSSCs. - Highlights: • We used indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible substrate. • We utilized pulse electrochemical deposition to deposit platinum nanoparticles. • We synthesized a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • The power conversion efficiency of DSSC was measured to be 4.3%

  14. High-performance flexible thin-film transistors fabricated using print-transferrable polycrystalline silicon membranes on a plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yang, Hongjun; Zhou, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with large grain size is highly desirable for flexible electronics applications. However, it is very challenging to directly deposit high-quality poly-Si on plastic substrates due to processing constrictions, such as temperature tolerance and residual stress. In this paper, we present our study on poly-Si membranes that are stress free and most importantly, are transferrable to any substrate including a low-temperature polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. We formed poly-Si-on-insulator by first depositing small-grain size poly-Si on an oxidized Si wafer. We then performed high-temperature annealing for recrystallization to obtain larger grain size. After selective doping on the poly-Si-on-insulator, buried oxide was etched away. By properly patterning the poly-Si layer, residual stress in the released poly-Si membranes was completely relaxed. The flat membrane topology allows the membranes to be print transferred to any substrates. High-performance TFTs were demonstrated on the transferred poly-Si membranes on a PET substrate

  15. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  16. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  17. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  18. 76 FR 9745 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan. See... Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration... products produced by Nan Ya, are not covered by the scope of the antidumping order on PET Film from Taiwan...

  19. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Korea, covering the June 1, 2009, to May 31, 2010, period... the preliminary results. In addition, the Department is revoking the antidumping order on PET film... CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International...

  20. 78 FR 42105 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET'' film) from India and the antidumping duty orders on PET film from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...-205-3169), Office of Investigations, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street SW., Washington...

  1. New Titanium-Based Catalysts for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Youngkeun; Yoon, Seungwoong; Hwang, Yongtaek; Song, Bogeun

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a polymer with relatively low cost and high performance, which is widely used in various applications such as bottles, textile fibers, films and engineering plastics for automobiles and electric industries. Commercial catalysts used for synthesis of PET are in general antimony (Sb) compounds. Antimony(III) oxide, antimony(III) acetate and antimony(III) glycolate are used as a catalyst in 95% of PET manufacturing industries worldwide. The few organoantimony compounds that have been identified in environmental and biological samples are all in the form of methylated Sb-species. The Sb trace element is extremely toxic to mammals, and interferes with embryonic and fetal development, also, carcinogenic to humans. In addition to being found in drinking water, food packaging and soft-drink bottles. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Sb species concentration lower than 20 ppb are acceptable for drinking water. According to a recent study, in 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. Therefore, a very important challenge for polyester catalysis is to come-up with a new Sb-free catalysts with low environmental impact. Intensive efforts have been made to find other stable and more environmental friendly non-antimony catalysts, such as those based on titanium. Titanium-based catalysts have been known for many years and actually are used for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polypropylene terephthalate (PPT) production, however, polycondensation (PC) of PET manufacture is not well studied in literature. To date, only few esterification processes have been applied for the synthesis of PET by titanium catalysts. Herein, we report an efficient synthesis characterization and polymerization of PET for a series of new nontoxic organotitanium

  2. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  3. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  4. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  5. Performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate with different mix design ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Mazenan, P. N.; Zahir, Z.; Shahidan, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is focuses to the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste and to determine the optimum mix ratio of bricks containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, it indicates that the replacement of RCA shows an increasing strength as the strength starts to increase from 25% to 50% for both mix design ratio. The strength for RCA 75% volume of replacement started to decrease as the volume of PET increase. However, the result of water absorption with 50% RCA and 1.0% PET show less permeable compared to control brick at both mix design ratio. Thus, one would expect the density of brick decrease and the water absorption to increase as the RCA and PET content is increased.

  6. Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy and domains in amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} thin films grown on PET flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenhua, E-mail: tangzhenhua1988@163.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ni, Hao [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); College of science, China university of petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266580 China (China); Lu, Biao [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zheng, Ming [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Huang, Yong-An [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Sheng-Guo, E-mail: sglu@gdut.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Minghua [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education (Xiangtan University), Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Gao, Ju [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-03-15

    The amorphous Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20} (CoFeB) films (5–200 nm in thickness) were grown on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using the DC magnetron-sputtering method. The thickness dependence of structural and magnetic properties of flexible CoFeB thin films was investigated in detail. The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. The results show potential for designing CoFeB-based flexible spintronic devices in which the physical parameters could be tailored by controlling the thickness of the thin film. - Graphical abstract: The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strain as a function of thickness was obtained in flexible CoFeB thin films, and a critical thickness of ~150 nm for in-plane magnetic anisotropy was observed. Moreover, the domains and the uniaxial anisotropy as a function of angular direction of applied magnetic field were characterized. - Highlights: • The thickness effect on the magnetic properties in amorphous CoFeB thin films grown on flexible substrates was investigated. • The in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by strains was observed. • A critical thickness of ~ 150 nm for the flexible CoFeB thin film on PET substrate was obtained.

  7. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery.

  8. Evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption of soil-cement bricks manufactured with addition of pet (polyethylene terephthalate wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of compressive strength of soil-cement bricks obtained by the inclusion in their mixture of PET flakes through mineral water bottles grinding. The Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET has been characterized by its difficulty of disaggregation in nature, requiring a long period for this. On the other hand, with the increase in civil construction activities the demand for raw material also increases, causing considerable environmental impacts. In this context, the objective of this research is to propose a simple methodology, preventing its dumping and accumulation in irregular areas, and reducing the demand of raw materials by the civil construction industry. The results showed that compressive strengths obtained were lower than recommended by NBR 8491 (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], 2012b at seven days of curing time. However, they may be used as an alternative solution in masonry works in order to not submit themselves to great loads or structural functions. The studied bricks also presented water absorption near to recommended values by NBR 8491 (ABNT, 2012b. Manufacturing costs were also determined for this brick, comparing it with the costs of other brick types. Each brick withdrew from circulation approximately 300 g of PET waste. Thus, for an area of 1 m2 the studied bricks can promote the withdrawal of approximately 180 beverage bottles of 2 L capacity.

  9. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  10. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×1016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  11. Effects of the Use of Ornamental Plants and Different Substrates in the Removal of Wastewater Pollutants through Microcosms of Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Sandoval-Herazo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The high costs involved in treating wastewater are problems that developing countries confront, mainly in rural areas. Therefore, Constructed Wetlands (CWs, which are composed of substrate, vegetation, and microorganisms, are an economically and ecologically viable option for wastewater treatment in these places. There is a wide variety of possibilities for substrates and ornamental plants that have not yet been evaluated to be implemented in future CW designs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the process of adaptation and removal of wastewater pollutants in CW microcosms using different terrestrial ornamental plants (Lavandula sp., Spathiphyllum wallisii, and Zantedeschia aethiopica. Those plants were sown in two types of substrate: red volcanic gravel (RVG and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. CWs with vegetation reduced 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 by 68% with RVG substrate and 63% with PET substrate, nitrates 50% in RVG substrate and 35% in PET substrate, phosphates 38% in RVG substrate and 35% in PET substrate, and fecal coliforms 64% in RVG and 59% in PET substrate. In control microcosms without vegetation, reductions were significantly lower than those in the presence of plants, with reduction of BOD5 by 61% in RVG substrate and 55% in PET substrate, nitrates 26% in RVG substrate and 22% in PET substrate, phosphates 27% in RVG substrate and 25% in PET substrate. Concerning fecal coliforms 62% were removed in RVG substrate and 59% in PET substrate. Regarding the production of flowers, Lavandula sp. did not manage to adapt and died 45 days after sowing and did not produce flowers. Spathiphyllum wallisii produced 12 flowers in RVG and nine flowers in PET, while Zantedeschia aethiopica produced 10 in RVG and 7 in PET. These results showed that the use of substrates made of RVG and PET is a viable alternative to be implemented in CWs. In addition, the reuse of PET is an option that decreases pollution by garbage. The plants

  12. Experimental and Simulated Investigations of Thin Polymer Substrates with an Indium Tin Oxide Coating under Fatigue Bending Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong-Shiun Hsu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films. The results indicated that compressive and tensile stresses generated distinct failure schemes within an ITO film and both led to increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance. In addition, tensile stress increased the sheet resistance of an ITO film more easily than compressive stress did. However, the influences of both compressive and tensile stress on increased optical transmittance were demonstrated to be highly similar. Increasing the thickness of a PET substrate resulted in increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance regardless of the presence of compressive or tensile stress. Moreover, J-Integral, a method based on strain energy, was used to estimate the interfacial adhesion strength of the ITO-PET film through the simulation approach enabled by a finite element analysis.

  13. Electrical conduction in 100 keV Kr+ ion implanted poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P. K.; Kumar, V.; Gupta, Renu; Mahendia, S.; Anita, Kumar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples have been implanted to 100 keV Kr+ ions at the fluences 1×1015-- 1×1016 cm-2. From I-V characteristics, the conduction mechanism was found to be shifted from ohmic to space charge limited conduction (SCLC) after implantation. The surface conductivity of these implanted samples was found to increase with increasing implantation dose. The structural alterations in the Raman spectra of implanted PET samples indicate that such an increase in the conductivity may be attributed to the formation of conjugated double bonded carbonaceous structure in the implanted layer of PET.

  14. Stress-corrosion cracking of indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate for flexible optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierros, Konstantinos A.; Morris, Nicholas J.; Ramji, Karpagavalli; Cairns, Darran R.

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of transparent conductive layers of indium tin oxide (ITO), sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, is an issue of paramount importance in flexible optoelectronic devices. These components, when used in flexible device stacks, can be in contact with acid containing pressure-sensitive adhesives or with conductive polymers doped in acids. Acids can corrode the brittle ITO layer, stress can cause cracking and delamination, and stress-corrosion cracking can cause more rapid failure than corrosion alone. The combined effect of an externally-applied mechanical stress to bend the device and the corrosive environment provided by the acid is investigated in this work. We show that acrylic acid which is contained in many pressure-sensitive adhesives can cause corrosion of ITO coatings on PET. We also investigate and report on the combined effect of external mechanical stress and corrosion on ITO-coated PET composite films. Also, it is shown that the combination of stress and corrosion by acrylic acid can cause ITO cracking to occur at stresses less than a quarter of those needed for failure with no corrosion. In addition, the time to failure, under ∼ 1% tensile strain can reduce the total time to failure by as much as a third

  15. Surface treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and its toughening effect on poly(ethylene terephthalate)/elastomer blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    To improve the compatibility between ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate random terpolymer (E-MA-GMA) elastomer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), thereby enhance the toughening effect of E-MA-GMA on PET, γ-radiation-induced graft copolymerization technique was used to graft methyl acrylate (MA) monomer onto PET. The produced PET-g-PMA copolymer can be used as a self-compatibilizer in PET/E-MA-GMA blend since the copolymer contains the same segments, respectively, with PET and E-MA-GMA. The impact strength of PET/E-MA-GMA blend increased nearly by 30% in the presence of less than 0.1 wt% PET-g-PMA compared with that of the neat PET/elastomer blend, without loss of the tensile strength of the blends. This work proposed a potential application of radiation-induced grafting copolymerization technique on the in-situ compatibilization of PET/elastomer blends so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic. - Highlights: • PMA was grafted onto PET resins by γ-ray radiation-induced copolymerization. • The obtained PET-g-PMA can improve the compatibility between PET and E-MA-GMA. • A small amount of PET-g-PMA can enhance the impact strength of PET/E-MA-GMA blend

  16. Separation and recycling of cotton from cotton/PET blends by depolymerization of PET catalyzed by bases and ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Groeneveld, R.A.J. (Richard); Oelerich, J. (Jens)

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of post consumer cotton textile waste is highly requested, due to the high environmental impact of cotton production. Often cotton is mixed in blends with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the generation of high value products from recycled cotton, it essential that PET is

  17. Characterization polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites mixing with nano-silica and titanium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Mircea A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET based nanocomposites containing nano-silica (Aerosil (Degusa and titanium oxide (TiO2 (Merk were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica and titanium oxide on properties of the resulting nanocomposites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The possible interaction between nano-silica and titanium oxide particles with PET functional groups at bulk and surface was elucidated by transmission of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. AFM studies of the resulting nanocomposites showed an increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. SEM images illustrated that nano-silica particles have tendency to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix much more than titanium oxide powder.

  18. Surface modification of PET film by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Mizutani, D.; Ohmura, Y.; Endo, H.; Yoneda, R.; Ikenaga, N.; Takikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that thin diamond like carbon (DLC) coating is very Amsterdam, Theenhancing the barrier characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) against CO 2 and O 2 gases. However, coating technique has a problem of DLC-deposit peeling. In this research, we develop a new technique to change the PET surface into DLC by ion implantation instead of coating the surface with the DLC deposit. The surface of PET film is modified by plasma-based ion implantation using pulse voltages of 10 kV in height and 5 μs in width. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy shows that the specific absorption peaks for PET decrease with dose, that is, the molecules of ethylene terephthalate are destroyed by ion bombardment. Then, laser Raman spectroscopy shows that thin DLC layer is formed in the PET surface area

  19. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Prabhash; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Harsh; Islam, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH 3 gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO 2 substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH 3 ) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc

  20. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Prabhash [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India); Tai, Nyan-Hwa [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Harsh [Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India); Islam, S.S., E-mail: safiul5996@gmail.com [Nano-Sensor Research Laboratory, F/O Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi (India)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  1. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  2. ITO films deposited by rf-PERTE on unheated polymer substrates--properties dependence on In-Sn alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Lavareda, G.; Fortunato, E.; Vilarinho, P.; Amaral, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the influence of different tin concentrations in the In-Sn alloy on the properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio frequency (rf) plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE) onto flexible polymer and window glass substrates at room temperature is presented. The polymer substrate used is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The tin concentration in the source alloy varied in the range 5-20 wt.%. The average thickness of the ITO films is of about 90 nm. Results show that ITO thin films deposited on PET from the evaporation of a 85%In:15%Sn alloy exhibit the following characteristics: an average visible transmittance of 80% and an electrical resistivity of 1.6x10 -3 Ω cm. On glass the value of the average visible transmittance increases (85%) and the resistivity decreases to 7.6x10 -4 Ω cm. The electrical properties of ITO films on PET are largely affected by the low carrier mobility

  3. Rheological Properties and Foaming Behavior of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalates) Modified with Pyromellitic Dianhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Ping; Xin, Chun-Ling; Guo, Ya-Feng; Luo, Yi-Wei; He, Ya-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Improving the melt viscoelasticity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a well-known method to obtain foamable PET. The aim of this study is to prepare high melt strength PET and evaluate the influence of rheological properties of PET on the foaming behavior. For this purpose, pyromelliticdianhydride was used as the chain extender to modify a linear PET through melt reactive processing. The rheological properties of the unmodified and modified PETs were measured by a dynamic rheometer. Results showed that the modified PET had higher complex viscosity than the unmodified one. Furthermore, the batch foaming by using supercritical CO2 as a blowing agent was carried to evaluate the foamability of modified PETs. It was found that an enlarged foaming temperature window was obtained for modified PETs compared to unmodified PET. Moreover, the modified PETs foams exhibited higher expansion ratio, smaller cell size and higher cell density at high temperatures than the neat PET.

  4. PET and Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Sevencan; Songul A. Vaizoglu

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water,...

  5. Development of biodegradable metaloxide/polymer nanocomposite films based on poly-ε-caprolactone and terephthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu, E-mail: varmaindian@gmail.com [Centro de Investigación de Polímeros Avanzados (CIPA), Avenida Collao 1202, Edificio de Laboratorios, Concepción (Chile); Pariguana, Manuel [Centro de Investigación de Polímeros Avanzados (CIPA), Avenida Collao 1202, Edificio de Laboratorios, Concepción (Chile); Centro de Innovación Tecnológica Agroindustrial CITE Agroindustrial, Panamericana Sur Km, 293.3, Ica (Peru); Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd [Department of Packaging, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220 710 (Korea, Republic of); Jayaramudu, Tippabattini [Center for Nano Cellulose Future Composites, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Ku, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi [Department of Polymer Technology, Tshwane University of Technology, CSIR-Campus, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa)

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation describes the development of metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films from biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone, disposed poly(ethylene terephthalate) oil bottles monomer and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles. The terephthalic acid and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using a temperature-dependent precipitation technique and double precipitation method, respectively. The terephthalic acid synthesized was confirmed by FTIR analysis and furthermore, it was characterized by thermal analysis. The as-prepared CuO-ZnO nanoparticles structure was confirmed by XRD analysis and its morphology was analyzed by SEM/EDS and TEM. Furthermore, the metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films have excellent mechanical properties, with tensile strength and modulus better than pure films. The metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films that were successfully developed show a relatively brighter colour when compared to CuO film. These new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films can replace many non-degradable plastics. The new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films developed are envisaged to be suitable for use in industrial and domestic packaging applications. - Graphical abstract: Biodegradable metal-oxide/polymer nanocomposites films prepared by using poly-ε-caprolactone with disposed PET oil bottles terephthalic acid monomer. The development of biodegradable film provides a new material with desirable mechanical, physical and chemical properties and can be utilized for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Terephthalic acid obtained from disposed PET oil bottles via precipitation technique. • New nano metal-oxides were developed by double precipitation technique. • Nano metal-oxide polymer films were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. • Nano metal-oxide polymer films exhibit superior mechanical characteristics.

  6. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  7. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate using excimer and CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Attempts have been made to evaluate microstructuring which affects cell behaviour, physical and chemical changes produced by laser irradiation onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using the CO 2 laser and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes in chemical and physical properties of the irradiated PET surface were investigated by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and contact angle measurements. ATR-IR Spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 laser and excimer laser irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the morphology of the laser irradiated PET surface changed due to laser irradiation. The results obtained from the cell behaviour studies revealed that changes of physico-chemical properties of the laser treated PET film have significantly changed in comparison with the unmodified PET

  8. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A nafion coated capacitive humidity sensor on a flexible PET substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating low-power capacitive humidity sensors without the use of a cleanroom environment. A maskless laser engraving system was utilized to fabricate two different gold electrode structures, interdigitated electrodes and Hilbert\\'s fifth-order fractal. The capacitive structures were implemented on a flexible PET substrate. The usage of Nafion, a well-known polymer for its hydrophilic properties as a sensing film, was attempted on the PET and outperformed the current efforts in flexible substrates. Its humidity sensing properties were evaluated in an automated gas setup with a relative humidity (RH %) ranging from 15% to 95 %.

  10. A nafion coated capacitive humidity sensor on a flexible PET substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos; Buttner, Ulrich; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating low-power capacitive humidity sensors without the use of a cleanroom environment. A maskless laser engraving system was utilized to fabricate two different gold electrode structures, interdigitated electrodes and Hilbert's fifth-order fractal. The capacitive structures were implemented on a flexible PET substrate. The usage of Nafion, a well-known polymer for its hydrophilic properties as a sensing film, was attempted on the PET and outperformed the current efforts in flexible substrates. Its humidity sensing properties were evaluated in an automated gas setup with a relative humidity (RH %) ranging from 15% to 95 %.

  11. In vitro Blood Compatibility of Polyethylene Terephthalate with Covalently Bounded Hirudin on Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang; WANG Jin; HUANG San

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET,Dacron) was modified by surface immobilization of hirudin with glutaraldehyde(GA) as coupling reagent to improve the blood compatibility.Hirudin-immobilizcd PETs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements.The blood compatibility of the PETs was evaluated by platelet adhesion evaluation and fibrinogen conformational change measurements in vitro.The results showed the decrease of platelet adhesion and activation on hirudinimmobilized PET with increasing of glutaraldehyde concentration.Fibrinogen experiment showed that fibrinogen adherence and conformational changes of PET-HRD were less than those of untreated PET,which made the materials difficult to form thrombus.The proper reason of blood compatibility improvement was low interface tension between hirudin-immobilized PETs and blood,as well as blood proteins,and low ratio of dispersive/polar component of the surface energy(γsd/γsp) and high hydrophilicity.

  12. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: structural characterization of terephthalic acid and the effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis at low temperature; Reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo: caracterizacao estrutural do acido tereftalico e efeito da hidrolise alcalina em baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Talitha Granja; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros Bastos de; Vinhas, Gloria Maria, E-mail: gmvinhas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2014-09-15

    Due to the environmental impact caused by PET packaging disposal, this material recycling has been thoroughly discussed and evaluated. In particular, chemical recycling enables achievement of the monomers that are used in PET resin manufacture: ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (PTA). Therefore, studies for this process optimization are important from environmental and economic points of view. The present study investigated certain parameters that influence the depolymerization reaction of PET post-consumer via alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain PTA. Assays were performed at 70 °C by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the reaction time. The best results were obtained at 10.82 mol L{sup -1} NaOH and 9 h reaction time. Consequently, it was possible to prove this process viability, once analyses by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that PTA was obtained in all reactions performed. (author)

  13. Fog Collection on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers: Influence of Cross Section and Surface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Krause, Tobias; Danter, Leon; Baars, Albert; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2017-06-06

    Fog-collecting meshes show a great potential in ensuring the availability of a supply of sustainable freshwater in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog collection using various polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross sections and surface structures with the aim of developing optimized biomimetic fog collectors. Water droplet movement and the onset of dripping from fiber samples were compared. Fibers with round, oval, and rectangular cross sections with round edges showed higher fog-collection performance than those with other cross sections. However, other parameters, for example, width, surface structure, wettability, and so forth, also influenced the performance. The directional delivery of the collected fog droplets by wavy/v-shaped microgrooves on the surface of the fibers enhances the formation of a water film and their fog collection. A numerical simulation of the water droplet spreading behavior strongly supports these findings. Therefore, our study suggests the use of fibers with a round cross section, a microgrooved surface, and an optimized width for an efficient fog collection.

  14. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengkun; Ma, Kui; Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired with PET were assigned to PET group; the other eight rabbits repaired with PET along with injection of HE were assigned to HA-PET group. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical and histological examination. The HA-PET group revealed higher biomechanical property compared with the PET group. Histologically, more collagen tissues grew into the HA-PET group compared with PET group. In conclusion, application of sodium hyaluronate can improve the healing of Achilles tendon reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

  15. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired with PET were assigned to PET group; the other eight rabbits repaired with PET along with injection of HE were assigned to HA-PET group. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical and histological examination. The HA-PET group revealed higher biomechanical property compared with the PET group. Histologically, more collagen tissues grew into the HA-PET group compared with PET group. In conclusion, application of sodium hyaluronate can improve the healing of Achilles tendon reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

  16. Low-voltage electroosmotic pumping using polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ceming; Wang Lin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue Jianming, E-mail: jmxue@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental investigations of electroosmotic (EO) pumping using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track-etched membrane at a low applied voltage. An EO pump based on PET track-etched membrane has been designed and fabricated. Pumping performance of the device is experimentally studied in terms of flow rate as a function of applied voltage and KCl aqueous concentration. The PET track-etched membrane EO pump can generate flow rates on the order of 10 {mu}l min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at several applied volts. The measured flow rate tends to decrease with increasing KCl aqueous concentration. In addition, we study the EO flow in cylindrical nanopore with use of a continuum model, composed of Nernst Planck equations, Poisson equation and Navier Stokes equations.

  17. Poly-crystallinity of indium-tin-oxide films improved by using simultaneous ion beam and heat treatment of the plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Tae Hyung; Choi, Suk Won; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-01-01

    The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indium tinoxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 .deg. C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.

  18. Poly-crystallinity of indium-tin-oxide films improved by using simultaneous ion beam and heat treatment of the plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Taehyung; Choi, Suk-Won; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-08-01

    The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indiumtin-oxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 °C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.

  19. Effects of ph ON Ni Coating on Poly(ethylene Terephthalate) Substrate by Printing Prime in Combination with Palladium Activating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junjun; Sun, Zhiping; Huang, Hongzhi; Liu, Qi; Gao, Min; Li, Mengyu; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Zhenming

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the primer-printed and then self-assembled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheets were plated when the bath pH increased from 7 to 11. The effects of bath pH on the structural and electrical properties of electroless nickel plating were investigated systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the crystallographic structures of Ni-plated PET (NPP) sheets were face centered cubic, the preferential orientation of the coatings changes from (200) plane to (111) plane, the growth rate of plated nickel coating increased from 3.71μm/min to 8.13μm/min, the average Ni crystal size was increased from 0.23μm to 0.92μm, the average EMI-SE of NPP sheets was increased from 37.2dB to 38.6dB and the surface electrical resistivity of NPP sheets was decreased from 6235ohm ṡ cm to 0.03ohm ṡ cm with the increase of bath pH. The changes in structural and electrical properties were most possibly due to the fact that the thickness of coating increased.

  20. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Pawelec, Iwona; Lisiecki, Slawomir; Jotko, Marek; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Mosnácek, Jaroslav; Roslaniec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt%) of graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for ...

  1. Improvement of organic solar cells by flexible substrate and ITO surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yuang-Tung; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Wang, Chien-Kun; Lee, William; Lu, Chih-Chiang; Yau, Bao-Shun; Nain, Jhen-Liang; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Chang, Chiu-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, surface treatments on polyethylene terephthalate with polymeric hard coating (PET-HC) substrates are described. The effect of the contact angle on the treatment is first investigated. It has been observed that detergent is quite effective in removing organic contamination on the flexible PET-HC substrates. Next, using a DC-reactive magnetron sputter, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films of 90 nm are grown on a substrate treated by detergent. Then, various ITO surface treatments are made for improving the performance of the finally developed organic solar cells with structure Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PET. It is found that the parameters of the ITO including resistivity, carrier concentration, transmittance, surface morphology, and work function depended on the surface treatments and significantly influence the solar cell performance. With the optimal conditions for detergent treatment on flexible PET substrates, the ITO film with a resistivity of 5.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and average optical transmittance of 84.1% in the visible region are obtained. The optimal ITO surface treated by detergent for 5 min and then by UV ozone for 20 min exhibits the best WF value of 5.22 eV. This improves about 8.30% in the WF compared with that of the untreated ITO film. In the case of optimal treatment with the organic photovoltaic device, meanwhile, 36.6% enhancement in short circuit current density (J sc ) and 92.7% enhancement in conversion efficiency (η) over the untreated solar cell are obtained.

  2. Flexible organic light-emitting device based on magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Tong, S.W.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    A radio-frequency sputtering deposition method was applied to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) on a plastic substrate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The correlation of deposition conditions and ITO film properties was systematically investigated and characterized. The optimal ITO films had a transmittance of over 90% in the visible range (400-700 nm) and a resistivity of 5.0x10 -4 Ω-cm. Sequentially α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium, and magnesium-silver were thermally deposited on the ITO-coated PET substrate to fabricate flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated devices had a maximum current efficiency of ∼4.1 cd/A and a luminance of nearly 4100 cd/m 2 at 100 mA/cm 2 . These values showed that the FOLEDs had comparable performance characteristics with the conventional organic light-emitting diodes made on ITO-coated glasses with the same device configuration

  3. Effect of reactant concentration on the structural properties of hydrothermally-grown ZnO rods on seed-layer ZnO / polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. I.; Shin, C. M.; Heo, J. H.; Ryu, H. [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J. [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, C. S. [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The morphology and the structural properties were studied for zinc-oxide (ZnO) rods hydrothermally grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at various reactant concentrations. Dissolved solutions with de-ionized water, zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, ZNH) and hexamethylenetetramine (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}, HMT) were employed as reactants for hydrothermal growth of ZnO. The transparency of the mixtures (ZNH+HMT) with increasing reactant concentration from 0.025 to 0.25 M changed from transparent to translucent to opaque (white colors) due to Zn(OH){sub 2} precipitates. When the concentration was increased, the density of the ZnO rods increased, and the morphology of the ZnO rods changed from a hexagonal flat-end shape to a sharp-end or flake-like structure. The sharp-end rods with increasing concentration from 0.1 to 0.15 M resulted from the etching process at a lower pH condition (less than pH 6) after the ZnO rod growth, and the flake-like structure was due to a high growth rate. The ZnO seed layer might have improved the alignment of ZnO rods and made a high density of ZnO rods. In addition, the structural properties were improved at lower concentrations by inserting a seed layer.

  4. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/polyaniline blends as potential antioxidant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nand, Ashveen V.; Ray, Sudip; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Kilmartin, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Successful incorporation of particulate polyaniline, consisting of nanorods, in PET was achieved. ► Interactions between PET and polyaniline in the blends were characterized using FTIR, XPS, DSC and DMTA. ► Polyaniline introduced free radical scavenging capacity in PET. - Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blends with a nanorod form of polyaniline (NR-PANI), formed by a falling pH synthesis, were prepared by dispersion in a melt of PET at 265 °C. Blends with 1, 2 and 3 wt% NR-PANI loading were prepared. Optical microscopy revealed an even distribution of NR-PANI particles within the PET matrix. The blends were characterized using FTIR, XPS, DSC and DMTA. Melt flow index values suggested hydrolysis of PET chains to lower molecular weight units when NR-PANI was blended. Some PET hydrolysis was also evident from the increasing oxygen to carbon ratios with an increased NR-PANI content in the blends. While the PET glass transition temperature remained relatively unaffected, the degree of PET crystallinity was increased with the addition of NR-PANI. The electrical conductivity as well as the free radical scavenging capacity of PET increased with greater NR-PANI loading in the matrix. The mechanical properties of PET, however, declined with NR-PANI loading suggesting a lack of adequate interfacial adhesion between the NR-PANI particles and the PET matrix.

  5. EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/GLASS BEAD COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; ZHU Jin; LI Ge; ZHU Shanguang

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and glass bead was investigated by scanning electron microscope and parallel-plate rheometer. Effect of interfacial adhesion on the crystallization and mechanical properties of PET/glass bead composites was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter and mechanical testers.The results obtained indicate that the glass bead has a heterogeneous nucleation effect on the PET crystallization. Although better interfacial adhesion is advantageous to the increase of the tensile strength of the composite, yet it is unfavorable to the crystallization of PET. It should be pointed out that the crystallization rate of filled PET is always higher than that of pure PET, regardless of the state of interfacial adhesion.

  6. The study on grafting comonomer of n-butyl acrylate and styrene onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Xiang; Wang Mozhen [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ge Xuewu, E-mail: xwge@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was successfully grafted with n-butyl acrylate and styrene comonomer through gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization. The degree of grafting (DG) and the composition of grafted side chain were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR. It was found that St can inhibit the homopolymerization of BA effectively and increase the DG when the concentration of comonomer mixture is kept constant. The proportion of St to BA in grafted side chain has a positive dependence on the feed ratio of St, which ultimately approaches the feed ratio. The thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-graft-poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-styrene) (PET-g-P(BA-co-St)) films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The T{sub g} of PET decreases with the DG, indicating that the grafted P(BA-co-St) copolymer has good compatibility with PET backbone.

  7. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Xiaolei; Wang Hong; Zou Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. ► A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. ► Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. ► Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. ► Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  8. Morphology and thermal properties of recycled polyacrylonitrile fiber blends with poly(ethylene terephthalate): Microstructural characterization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adegbola, TA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The compounding of rPAN/PET [polyacrylonitrile/poly(ethylene terephthalate]; 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 wt %) using a melt-blending technique was the main focus of this investigation. An X-ray diffraction study indicated the possibility of interphase...

  9. Flexural Capability of Patterned Transparent Conductive Substrate by Performing Electrical Measurements and Stress Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation conditions is a major concern regarding the mechanical reliability of indium–tin–oxide (ITO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates; mechanical reliability is commonly used to estimate the flexibility of displays. However, the pattern effect is rarely investigated to estimate the mechanical reliability of ITO/PET films. Thus, this study examined the flexible content of patterned ITO/PET films with two different line widths by conducting bending tests and sheet resistance measurements. Moreover, a stress–strain simulation enabled by finite element analysis was performed on the patterned ITO/PET to explore the stress impact of stacked film structures under various levels of flexural load. Results show that the design of the ITO/PET film can be applied in developing mechanically reliable flexible electronics.

  10. Silver-Nanoparticle-Based Screen-Printing and Film Characterization of a Disposable, Dual-Band, Bandstop Filter on a Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Kumar Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a silver-nanoparticle-based, screen-printed, high-performance, dual-band, bandstop filter (DBBSF on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Using screen-printing techniques to process a highly viscous silver printing ink, high-conductivity printed lines were implemented at a web transfer speed of 5 m/min. Characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the printed lines were shown to be characterized by smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness of 7.986 nm; a significantly higher thickness (12.2 μm than the skin depth; and a high conductivity of 2×107 S/m. These excellent printed line characteristics enabled the implementation of a high-selectivity DBBSF using shunt-connected uniform impedance resonators (UIRs. Additionally, the inductive loading effect of T-shaped stubs on the UIRs, which were analyzed using S-parameters based on lumped parameter calculations, was used to improve the return losses of the geometrically optimized DBBSF. The measured minimum return loss and maximum insertion loss of 28.26 and 1.58 dB, respectively, at the central frequencies of 2.56 and 5.29 GHz of a protocol screen-printed DBBSF demonstrated the excellent performance of the material and its significant potential for use in future cost-effective, flexible WiMax and WLAN applications.

  11. Effect of calcium-ozone treatment on chemical and biological properties of polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Ahmed Nafis; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Ozone (O3 ) treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in distilled water was performed in the presence and absence of calcium (Ca(2+) ). PET was oxidized and thus carboxylic and hydroxyl functional groups were introduced on its surface after O3 treatment, regardless of the presence or absence of Ca(2+) . In the case of O3 treatment with Ca(2+) , PET surface was modified with Ca(2+) . Ca(2+) immobilization was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometric analysis. Hydrophilicity was investigated by measuring contact angles (CA). CA of PET decreased significantly after ozonation. Surface topography of PET before and after ozone treatment was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and showed no morphological changes. In vitro studies showed enhanced rat bone marrow cell responses on the O3 -treated PET surface. Ca(2+) -O3 oxidation at 37°C for 6 h is expected to be an effective method to fabricate PET with good biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  13. Confinement-induced vitrification in polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta Calleja, F. J.; Flores, A.; Di Marco, G.; Pieruccini, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis performed on cold-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET), cold crystallized (annealed) in the temperature interval 100-140 deg. C, reveals the presence of marginally glassy domains above the annealing temperature T a . This suggests that the thermodynamic force driving crystallization causes the structural arrest of some noncrystalline domains. The latter thus need a temperature higher than T a to completely defreeze. Differential scanning calorimetry supports this point of view. Analogous investigations on unoriented PET, cold crystallized in the same conditions, do not show the same peculiarities; thus, chain orientation is relevant to vitrification. This phenomenology is first cast in the language of thermodynamics by introducing an excess chemical potential δμ describing the presence of structural constraints in the amorphous domains and the effect of chain orientation. For a first test of this picture, the orientation contribution to δμ is calculated by means of the Gaussian chain model (this implicitly assumes that δμ is related to the density fluctuations). The resulting expression is then used to discuss the structural differences between cold-drawn and unoriented PET samples reported in the literature

  14. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Xiaolei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: hongwang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zou Jing [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 Degree-Sign C to 135 Degree-Sign C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 {mu}{Omega} cm after cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 50 min, 3.1 {mu}{Omega} cm at 230 Degree-Sign C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  15. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited... Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce..., International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New Shipper Reviews of the Antidumping Duty...

  16. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from....'' EFFECTIVE DATE: February 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, from Barbara E. Tillman, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  17. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is... Administrative Review: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates...

  18. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  19. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property

  20. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  1. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  2. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  3. Plastic Degradation and Its Environmental Implications with Special Reference to Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global consumption and their natural resistance to degradation, plastic materials and their accumulation in the environment is of increasing concern. This review aims to present a general overview of the current state of knowledge in areas that relate to biodegradation of polymers, especially poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET. This includes an outline of the problems associated with plastic pollution in the marine environment, a description of the properties, commercial manufacturing and degradability of PET, an overview of the potential for biodegradation of conventional polymers and biodegradable polymers already in production.

  4. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Goh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottle is one of the common plastic wastes existed in the municipal solid waste in Malaysia. One alternative to solve the abundant of PET wastes is chemical recycling of the wastes to produce a value added product. This technology not only can decrease the PET wastes in landfill sites but also can produce many useful recycled PET products. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET obtained from glycolysis reaction of PET waste was purified using crystallization process. The hot distilled water was added to glycolysis product followed by cooling and filtration to extract BHET in white solid form from the product. The effect of three operating conditions namely crystallization time, crystallization temperatures and amount of distilled water used to the yield of crystallization process were investigated. The purity of crystallization products were analyzed using HPLC and DSC. The optimum conditions of 3 hours crystallization time, 2 °C crystallization temperature and 5:1 mass ratio of distilled water used to glycolize solid gave the highest yield and purity of the crystallization process. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd August 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Goh, H.W., Salmiaton, A., Abdullah, N., Idris, A. (2015. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 143-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154  

  5. Silk fibroin immobilization on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: Comparison of two surface modification methods and their effect on mesenchymal stem cells culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Meini; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Huang, Lei; Shao, Zhengzhong, E-mail: zzshao@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has played a curial role for the surface modification of conventional materials to improve the biocompatibility, and SF modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials have potential applications on tissue engineering such as artificial ligament, artificial vessel, artificial heart valve sewing cuffs dacron and surgical mesh engineering. In this work, SF was immobilized onto PET film via two different methods: 1) plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating (PET-SF) and 2) plasma-induce acrylic acid graft polymerization and subsequent covalent immobilization of SF on PET film (PET-PAA-SF). It could be found that plasma treatment provided higher surface roughness which was suitable for further SF dip coating, while grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) promised the covalent bonding between SF and PAA. ATR-FTIR adsorption band at 3284 cm{sup −1}, 1623 cm{sup −1} and 1520 cm{sup −1} suggested the successful introduction of SF onto PET surface, while the amount of immobilized SF of PET-SF was higher than PET-PAA-SF according to XPS investigation (0.29 vs 0.23 for N/C ratio). Surface modified PET film was used as substrate for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture, the cells on PET-SF surface exhibited optimum density compared to PET-PAA-SF according to CCK-8 assays, which indicated that plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating was a simple and effective way to prepare biocompatible PET surface. Highlights: ► Silk fibroins were immobilized onto PET films with or without the linker of PAA. ► Various techniques were performed to characterize the modified surfaces ► Plasma treatment followed by SF dip coating introduced more SF onto PET films. ► Compare to PET-PAA-SF, PET-SF has better biocompatibility base on MSCs culture.

  6. The use of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline) composite for trypsin immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramori, S.S. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: samanthabio@hotmail.com; Fernandes, K.F. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents trypsin immobilisation on strips of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline), activated with glutaraldehyde (PET-PANIG) composite. The photomicrography of the material showed changes corresponding to the chemical modifications produced in the steps of synthesis. The immobilisation process was very efficient under optimal conditions (18.6%). The immobilised and free enzyme presented the same pH and temperature optimum. PET-PANIG-trypsin was able to hydrolyse casein, albumin, gelatine, and skimmed milk. Km{sub app} value for PET-PANIG-trypsin was very close to Km of the free enzyme for casein. Immobilised trypsin showed higher stability than the free enzyme, with 100% activity after 14 days of storage at 4 deg. C and 100% operational stability after 4 cycles of use.

  7. Ultrasmooth, Polydopamine Modified Surfaces for Block Copolymer Nanopatterning on Inert and Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Reika; Cho, Joon Hee; Zhou, Sunshine; Kim, Chae Bin; Dulaney, Austin; Janes, Dustin; Ellison, Christopher

    Nature has engineered universal, catechol-containing adhesives that can be synthetically mimicked in the form of polydopamine (PDA). We exploited PDA to enable block copolymer (BCP) nanopatterning on a variety of soft material surfaces in a way that can potentially be applied to flexible electrical devices. Applying BCP nanopatterning to soft substrates is challenging because soft substrates are often chemically inert and possess incompatible low surface energies. In this study, we exploited PDA to enable the formation of BCP nanopatterns on a variety of surfaces such as Teflon, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and Kapton. While previous studies produced a PDA coating layer too rough for BCP nanopatterning, we succeeded in fabricating conformal and ultra-smooth surfaces of PDA by engineering the PDA coating process and post-sonication procedure. This chemically functionalized, biomimetic thin film (3 nm thick) served as a reactive platform for subsequently grafting a surface treatment to perpendicularly orient a lamellae-forming BCP layer. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a perfectly nanopatterned PDA-PET substrate can be bent without distorting or damaging the nanopattern in conditions that far exceeds typical bending curvatures in roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  8. Speciation of inorganic antimony in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwo, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a regulated drinking water contaminant that has been found to leach from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic containers into the waters stored in them. The common inorganic species of antimony in water are Sb(III) and Sb(V), with the former being more toxic and the latter being more soluble. In order to assess the extent to which waters stored in PET bottles are contaminated with inorganic Sb and to further examine the effect of typical storage conditions on migration rates, speciation analysis of inorganic Sb using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) was undertaken on selected PET plastic bottled waters marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Six brands of PET plastic bottled waters were obtained at source on the day of packaging, and analyses undertaken on samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers at intervals of four weeks for twelve weeks, under three carefully chosen storage conditions distinctive of bottled water usage. Selected physicochemical properties of samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers and total Sb of samples of the plastic containers were also determined to discover the effect of some physical properties and certain major ions, and the influence of the different quality PET plastic types on Sb migration respectively. The study revealed amounts of total Sb in the PET plastic containers of the 6 brands ranging from 123.46 mg/kg to 146.45 mg/kg. The selected physicochemical properties of the waters stored in the PET plastic containers considered were pH (6.78 – 7.43), Ca2+ (1.61 – 12.39 mg/L), Mg2+ (1.00 – 4.96 mg/L), HCO3− (6.18 – 55.41 mg/L) and TDS (8.70 – 70.40 mg/L)). PET bottled waters of 5 out of the 6 brands contained Sb (initial total Sb ranging from 1.11 – 14.65 μg/L) before storage. Total Sb concentrations of the waters stored in the plastic containers were observed to increase with storage time under all the three storage conditions for

  9. Metamorphosis in the Porosity of Recycled Concretes Through the Use of a Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Additive. Correlations between the Porous Network and Concrete Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil-Escalante, José Miguel; Gómez-Soberón, José Manuel; Almaral-Sánchez, Jorge Luis; Cabrera-Covarrubias, Francisca Guadalupe

    2017-02-14

    In the field of construction, sustainable building materials are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to understanding the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based additive in their matrix (produced by synthesis and glycolysis of recycled PET bottles) in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes. Porosity reductions of up to 30.60% are achieved with the addition of 1%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 7% and 9% of the additive, defining a new state in the behavioral model of the additive (the overdosage point) in the concrete matrix; in addition, the porous network of these concretes and their correlation with other physical and mechanical properties are also explained.

  10. Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate – A review focusing on chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Geyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET is of crucial importance, since worldwide amounts of PETwaste increase rapidly due to its widespread applications. Hence, several methods have been developed, like energetic, material, thermo-mechanical and chemical recycling of PET. Most frequently, PET-waste is incinerated for energy recovery, used as additive in concrete composites or glycolysed to yield mixtures of monomers and undefined oligomers. While energetic and thermo-mechanical recycling entail downcycling of the material, chemical recycling requires considerable amounts of chemicals and demanding processing steps entailing toxic and ecological issues. This review provides a thorough survey of PET-recycling including energetic, material, thermo-mechanical and chemical methods. It focuses on chemical methods describing important reaction parameters and yields of obtained reaction products. While most methods yield monomers, only a few yield undefined low molecular weight oligomers for impaired applications (dispersants or plasticizers. Further, the present work presents an alternative chemical recycling method of PET in comparison to existing chemical methods.

  11. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the... Page or Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... Interested Parties From Elfi Blum, International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New...

  12. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt% of graphene oxide (GO have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for PET nanocomposite films over the neat PET is approximately factors of 2–3.3. DSC study on the nonisothermal crystallization behaviors proves that GO acts as a nucleating agent to accelerate the crystallization of PET matrix. The evolution of the lamellar nanostructure of nanocomposite and neat PET was monitored by SAXS during nonisothermal crystallization from the melt. It was found that unfilled PET and nanocomposite with the highest concentration of GO (0.5 wt% showed almost similar values of the long period (L=11.4 nm for neat PET and L=11.5 nm for PET/0.5GO.

  13. Ultrafiltration membranes from waste polyethylene terephthalate and additives: synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP is reported. PET is currently used in many applications, including the manufacture of bottles and tableware. Monomer extraction from waste PET is expensive, and this process has not yet been successfully demonstrated on a viable scale. Hence, any method to recycle or regenerate PET once it has been used is of significant importance from scientific and environmental research viewpoints. Such a process would be a green alternative due to reduced raw monomer consumption and the additional benefit of reduced manufacturing costs. The membranes described here were prepared by a phase-inversion process, which involved casting a solution containing PET, m-cresol as solvent, and polyethylene glycol (PEG of different molecular weights as additives. The membranes were characterized in terms of pure water permeability (PWP, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, and flux and membrane morphology. The results show that the addition of PEG with high molecular weights leads to membranes with higher PWP. The presence of additives affects surface roughness and membrane morphology.

  14. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  15. Electrically robust silver nanowire patterns transferrable onto various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Shi; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Cao, Wu; Qiu, Jing-Shen; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Yang, Bo-Ru

    2016-03-01

    We report a facile technique for patterning and transferring silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto various substrates. By employing only UV/O3 and vapor treatment of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), we are able to accurately manipulate the surface energy via alternating the terminal groups of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, so as to assist selective formation and exfoliation of AgNW films. A simple UV/O3 treatment on PDMS enables uniform, well-defined, and highly conductive patterns of AgNWs after spin-coating. A vapor treatment of HMDS lowers the surface energy of the oxidized PDMS so that the patterned AgNWs embedded in an epoxy resin (EPR) are cleanly transferred from the PDMS to the target substrate. It is found that the AgNW-EPR composite on polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) exhibits remarkable durability under the bending test, tape test, ultrasonic treatment in water, and immersion of chemical solvents. In addition, we demonstrate that the AgNW-EPR composite work well as conductive patterns on the oxidized PDMS, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), paper, and curved glass. The facile technique extends the applicability of AgNWs in the field of electronics, and it is potentially applicable to other nanomaterials.We report a facile technique for patterning and transferring silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto various substrates. By employing only UV/O3 and vapor treatment of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), we are able to accurately manipulate the surface energy via alternating the terminal groups of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, so as to assist selective formation and exfoliation of AgNW films. A simple UV/O3 treatment on PDMS enables uniform, well-defined, and highly conductive patterns of AgNWs after spin-coating. A vapor treatment of HMDS lowers the surface energy of the oxidized PDMS so that the patterned AgNWs embedded in an epoxy resin (EPR) are cleanly transferred from the PDMS to the target substrate. It is found that the AgNW-EPR composite on polyethylene

  16. Flexible Al-doped ZnO films grown on PET substrates using linear facing target sputtering for flexible OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-A; Shin, Hyun-Su; Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-01

    We report the characteristics of flexible Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a plasma damage-free linear facing target sputtering (LFTS) system on PET substrates for use as a flexible transparent conducting electrode in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrical, optical and structural properties of LFTS-grown flexible AZO electrodes were investigated as a function of dc power. We obtained a flexible AZO film with a sheet resistance of 39 Ω/□ and an average transmittance of 84.86% in the visible range although it was sputtered at room temperature without activation of the Al dopant. Due to the effective confinement of the high-density plasma between the facing AZO targets, the AZO film was deposited on the PET substrate without plasma damage and substrate heating caused by bombardment of energy particles. Moreover, the flexible OLED fabricated on the AZO/PET substrate showed performance similar to the OLED fabricated on a ITO/PET substrate in spite of a lower work function. This indicates that LFTS is a promising plasma damage-free and low-temperature sputtering technique for deposition of flexible and indium-free AZO electrodes for use in cost-efficient flexible OLEDs.

  17. Properties of tribology for Si implanted PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Xu; Liu Andong; Xie Mengxia; Zhang Aimin; Chen Jianmin

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified with Si ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). After implantation, the surface structure has been greatly changed. The experimental results of infrared absorption indicated that the particles are referred to rich carbon and SiC particles. The PET has been strengthened by these dispersed particles. The measurement results using nanometer hardness tester reveal that both surface hardness and modulus increase obviously. Therefore the surface wear resistance improved extremely. Finally the modification mechanism of Si implanted PET was discussed

  18. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme onto woven and knitted crimped polyethylene terephthalate grafts to minimize the adhesion of broad spectrum pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M.; Mahmoud, Gihan F.; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Strehlow, Boris; Sommer, Frank O.; Lohoff, Michael D.; Bakowsky, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Graft-associated infections entirely determine the short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate PET cardiovascular graft. We attempted to enzymatically inhibit the initial bacterial adhesion to PET grafts using lysozyme. Lysozyme was covalently immobilized onto woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts by the end-point method. Our figures of merit revealed lysozyme immobilization yield of 15.7 μg/cm"2, as determined by the Bradford assay. The activity of immobilized lysozyme on woven and knitted PET manifested 58.4% and 55.87% using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, respectively. Noteworthy, the adhesion of vein catheter-isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased by 6- to 8-folds and of Staphylococcus aureus by 11- to 12-folds, while the Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed only a decrease by 3- to 4-folds. The anti-adhesion efficiency was specific for bacterial cells and no significant effect was observed on adhesion and growth of L929 cells. In conclusion, immobilization of lysozyme onto PET grafts can inhibit the graft-associated infection. - Highlights: • Lysozyme was covalently immobilized on crimped polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • The activity of immobilized lysozyme was meaningfully reduced. • The maintained activity significantly declined the adhesion of Gram-positive stains. • The enzymatic anti-adhesion efficiency reported lesser extent against Gram-negative. • The anti-bacterial activity displayed no significant effect on cells compatibility.

  19. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme onto woven and knitted crimped polyethylene terephthalate grafts to minimize the adhesion of broad spectrum pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M., E-mail: almeslmanib@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Mahmoud, Gihan F., E-mail: mahmoudg@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, 11795 Cairo (Egypt); Leichtweiß, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Leichtweiss@phys.Chemie.uni-giessen.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Strehlow, Boris, E-mail: strehlo4@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Sommer, Frank O., E-mail: sommerf@med.uni-marburg.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Marburg University, Hans Meerwein Str 2, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Lohoff, Michael D., E-mail: lohoff@med.uni-marburg.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Marburg University, Hans Meerwein Str 2, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Bakowsky, Udo, E-mail: ubakowsky@aol.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Graft-associated infections entirely determine the short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate PET cardiovascular graft. We attempted to enzymatically inhibit the initial bacterial adhesion to PET grafts using lysozyme. Lysozyme was covalently immobilized onto woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts by the end-point method. Our figures of merit revealed lysozyme immobilization yield of 15.7 μg/cm{sup 2}, as determined by the Bradford assay. The activity of immobilized lysozyme on woven and knitted PET manifested 58.4% and 55.87% using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, respectively. Noteworthy, the adhesion of vein catheter-isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased by 6- to 8-folds and of Staphylococcus aureus by 11- to 12-folds, while the Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed only a decrease by 3- to 4-folds. The anti-adhesion efficiency was specific for bacterial cells and no significant effect was observed on adhesion and growth of L929 cells. In conclusion, immobilization of lysozyme onto PET grafts can inhibit the graft-associated infection. - Highlights: • Lysozyme was covalently immobilized on crimped polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • The activity of immobilized lysozyme was meaningfully reduced. • The maintained activity significantly declined the adhesion of Gram-positive stains. • The enzymatic anti-adhesion efficiency reported lesser extent against Gram-negative. • The anti-bacterial activity displayed no significant effect on cells compatibility.

  20. Effects of high energy (MeV) ion beam irradiation on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nandlal; Sharma, Anita; Avasthi, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion beams in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were studied with respect to their structural and electrical properties by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ac electrical measurement in the frequency range: 50-100 kHz at different temperatures of 30-150 deg. C. It is found that ac resistivity of PET decreases as frequency increases. The temperature dependencies of dielectric loss tangent exhibit a peak (T g ) at 60 deg. C. The capacitance value of irradiated PET is almost temperature independent and ones increases with an increasing of lithium fluence. FTIR spectra show various bands related to C-H, C-O, C-O-C molecular bonds and groups which get modified or break down due to ion beam irradiation

  1. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Electrical and mechanical stability of aluminum-doped ZnO films grown on flexible substrates by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, G.; Witkowski, B.S.; Wachnicki, L.; Jakiela, R.; Virt, I.S.; Andrzejczuk, M.; Lewandowska, M.; Godlewski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent and conductive ZnO:Al films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The films were grown on flexible substrates at low growth temperatures (110–140 °C). • So-obtained films have low resistivities, of the order of 10 −3 Ω cm. • Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm. • Possible sources of the film resistivity changes upon bending are proposed. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low deposition temperatures (110–140 °C). The films have low resistivities, ∼10 −3 Ω cm, and high transparency (∼90%) in the visible range. Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm, below which the resistivity changes became irreversible. The films deposited on PET with additional buffer layer are more stable upon bending and temperature changes

  3. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J. [CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Quebec, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  4. Direct Silver Micro Circuit Patterning on Transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate Film Using Laser-Induced Photothermochemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jui Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new and improved approach to the rapid and green fabrication of highly conductive microscale silver structures on low-cost transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate. In this new laser direct synthesis and pattering (LDSP process, silver microstructures are simultaneously synthesized and laid down in a predetermined pattern using a low power continuous wave (CW laser. The silver ion processing solution, which is transparent and reactive, contains a red azo dye as the absorbing material. The silver pattern is formed by photothermochemical reduction of the silver ions induced by the focused CW laser beam. In this improved LDSP process, the non-toxic additive in the transparent ionic solution absorbs energy from a low cost CW visible laser without the need for the introduction of any hazardous chemical process. Tests were carried out to determine the durability of the conductive patterns, and numerical analyses of the thermal and fluid transport were performed to investigate the morphology of the deposited patterns. This technology is an advanced method for preparing micro-scale circuitry on an inexpensive, flexible, and transparent polymer substrate that is fast, environmentally benign, and shows potential for Roll-to-Roll manufacture.

  5. Recycling polyethylene terephthalate wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyi; Yu, Jing; Li, Hedong; Lam, Jeffery Y K; Shih, Kaimin; Sham, Ivan M L; Leung, Christopher K Y

    2018-05-26

    As an important portion of the total plastic waste bulk but lack of reuse and recycling, the enormous amounts of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) solid wastes have led to serious environmental issues. This study explores the feasibility of recycling PET solid wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCCs), which exhibit strain-hardening and multiple cracking under tension, and therefore have clear advantages over conventional concrete for many construction applications. Based on micromechanical modeling, fiber dispersion and alkali resistance, the size of recycled PET fibers was first determined. Then the hydrophobic PET surface was treated with NaOH solution followed by a silane coupling agent to achieve the dual purpose of improving the fiber/matrix interfacial frictional bond (from 0.64 MPa to 0.80 MPa) and enhancing the alkali resistance for applications in alkaline cementitious environment. With surface treatment, recycling PET wastes as fibers in SHCCs is a promising approach to significantly reduce the material cost of SHCCs while disposing hazardous PET wastes in construction industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of laser surface modifying of polyethylene terephthalate on fibroblast cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts have been made to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical properties of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface due to laser irradiation. These changes have been investigated from viewpoints of microstructuring and its effect on fibroblast cell behavior. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using CO 2 and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The data from ATR-FTIR spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 and excimer laser irradiation. SEM observations showed that specific microstructures were created on the PET surface due to laser irradiation. In order to study biocompatibility and cell behavior, we utilized standard in vitro L929-fibroblast cell culture system. Fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading were significantly correlated to the morphology and wettability of the laser irradiated PET surface

  7. Mechanical properties of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, D.W., E-mail: DWM172@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Waddingham, R.; Flewitt, A.J. [University of Cambridge, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA,United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Sierros, K.A. [West Virginia University, Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bowen, J. [Open University, Department of Engineering and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Kukureka, S.N. [University of Birmingham, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-02

    Amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin films were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates and their mechanical flexibility investigated using uniaxial tensile and buckling tests coupled with in situ optical microscopy. The uniaxial fragmentation test demonstrated that the crack onset strain of the IGZO/PEN was ~ 2.9%, which is slightly higher than that of IGZO/PET. Also, uniaxial tensile crack density analysis suggests that the saturated crack spacing of the film is strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the underlying polymer substrate. Buckling test results suggest that the crack onset strain (equal to ~ 1.2%, of the IGZO/polymer samples flexed in compression to ~ 5.7 mm concave radius of curvature) is higher than that of the samples flexed with the film being in tension (convex bending) regardless whether the substrate is PEN or PET. The saturated crack density of a-IGZO film under the compression buckling mode is smaller than that of the film under the tensile buckling mode. This could be attributed to the fact that the tensile stress encouraged this crack formation originating from surface defects in the coating. It could also be due to the buckling delamination of the thin coating from the substrate at a lower strain than that at which a crack initiates during flexing in compression. These results provide useful information on the mechanical reliability of a-IGZO films for the development of flexible electronics. - Highlights: • Mechanical flexibility of IGZO thin films investigated by uniaxial tensile and buckling tests • Uniaxial fragmentation gives crack onset strain for IGZO/PEN of 2.9% (higher than for IGZO/PET.) • Saturated crack spacing strongly dependent on mechanical properties of polymer substrate • Crack onset strain in concave bending higher than in convex bending for both substrates.

  8. Mechanical properties of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, D.W.; Waddingham, R.; Flewitt, A.J.; Sierros, K.A.; Bowen, J.; Kukureka, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin films were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates and their mechanical flexibility investigated using uniaxial tensile and buckling tests coupled with in situ optical microscopy. The uniaxial fragmentation test demonstrated that the crack onset strain of the IGZO/PEN was ~ 2.9%, which is slightly higher than that of IGZO/PET. Also, uniaxial tensile crack density analysis suggests that the saturated crack spacing of the film is strongly dependent on the mechanical properties of the underlying polymer substrate. Buckling test results suggest that the crack onset strain (equal to ~ 1.2%, of the IGZO/polymer samples flexed in compression to ~ 5.7 mm concave radius of curvature) is higher than that of the samples flexed with the film being in tension (convex bending) regardless whether the substrate is PEN or PET. The saturated crack density of a-IGZO film under the compression buckling mode is smaller than that of the film under the tensile buckling mode. This could be attributed to the fact that the tensile stress encouraged this crack formation originating from surface defects in the coating. It could also be due to the buckling delamination of the thin coating from the substrate at a lower strain than that at which a crack initiates during flexing in compression. These results provide useful information on the mechanical reliability of a-IGZO films for the development of flexible electronics. - Highlights: • Mechanical flexibility of IGZO thin films investigated by uniaxial tensile and buckling tests • Uniaxial fragmentation gives crack onset strain for IGZO/PEN of 2.9% (higher than for IGZO/PET.) • Saturated crack spacing strongly dependent on mechanical properties of polymer substrate • Crack onset strain in concave bending higher than in convex bending for both substrates

  9. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review covers two producers/exporters of subject... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  10. Tensile properties of interwoven hemp/PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) epoxy hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Firdaus, A. Z. A.; Amin, N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composites. The effect of hybridization of hemp (warp) with PET fibres (weft) on tensile properties was of interest. Hemp and PET fibres were selected as the reinforcing material while epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. The interwoven Hemp/PET fabric was used to produce hybrid composite using a vacuum infusion process. The tensile test was conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance to the ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composite were then compared with the neat woven hemp/epoxy composite. The results show that the strength of hemp/PET with the warp direction was increased by 8% compared to the neat woven hemp composite. This enhancement of tensile strength was due to the improved interlocking structure of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid fabric.

  11. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

  12. 78 FR 45512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... or Jacky Arrowsmith at 202-482-1396 or 202-482-5255, respectively, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... terephthalate film (PET Film) from India and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as..., Office of Investigations, International Trade Commission, regarding ``Sunset Reviews Initiated on April 2...

  13. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminova, Anna; Vandrovcová, Marta; Shelemin, Artem; Kylián, Ondřej; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Bačáková, Lucie; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  14. Comparison between poly(ethylene naphthalate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) in terms of gamma-ray irradiation on their dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Maki; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2017-06-01

    The effects of gamma-rays on the complex permittivity (\\varepsilon '\\text{r} and \\varepsilon ''\\text{r}) and electrical conductivity were compared between poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Although both \\varepsilon '\\text{r} and \\varepsilon ''\\text{r} increase in PET with an increase in the total dose of gamma irradiation, such increases are hardly observed in PEN. The conductivity is always smaller in PEN than in PET. Therefore, it has been confirmed that charge transport is less activated by gamma irradiation in PEN than in PET. Together with experimental results obtained by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, it can be concluded that PEN has a superior anti-gamma-ray dielectric property to PET.

  15. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yun; Yang Yun; Wu Feng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  16. Flexible microstrip antenna based on carbon nanotubes/(ethylene-octene copolymer) thin composite layer deposited on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, J.; Olejnik, R.; Slobodian, P.

    2017-12-01

    A most of portable devices, such as mobile phones, tablets, uses antennas made of cupper. In this paper we demonstrate possible use of electrically conductive polymer composite material for such antenna application. Here we describe the method of preparation and properties of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/(ethylene-octene copolymer) as flexible microstrip antenna. Carbon nanotubes dispersion in (ethylene-octene copolymer) toluene solution was prepared by ultrasound finally coating PET substrate by method of dip-coating. Main advantages of PET substrate are low weight and also flexibility. The final size of flexible microstrip antenna was 5 x 50 mm with thickness of 0.48 mm (PET substrate 0.25 mm) with the weight of only 0.402 g. Antenna operates at three frequencies 1.66 GHz (-6.51 dB), 2.3 GHz (-13 dB) and 2.98 GHz (-33.59 dB).

  17. Diffusion of CO2 Molecules in Polyethylene Terephthalate/Polylactide Blends Estimated by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Liqiong; Fu, Yizheng; Liang, Ziaoyan; Mei, Linyu; Liu, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to study the diffusion behavior of small gas molecules (CO 2 ) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/polylactide (PLA) blends. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) determined from the cohesive energy densities are smaller than the critical value of Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ critical ), and that indicates the good compatibility of PET/PLA blends. The diffusion coefficients of CO 2 are determined via MD simulations at 298 K. That the order of diffusion coefficients is correlated with the availably fractional free volume (FFV) of CO 2 in the PET/PLA blends means that the FFV plays a vital role in the diffusion behavior of CO 2 molecules in PET/PLA blends. The slopes of the log (MSD) as a function of log (t) are close to unity over the entire composition range of PET/PLA blends, which confirms the feasibility of MD approach reaches the normal diffusion regime of CO 2 in PET/PLA blends

  18. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez, Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  19. Influence of UV-Irradiation on Latent Tracks in Polyethylene Terephthalate Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qi; Wang Peng-Fei; Ling Yun; Wang Mao; Yan Dong-Xiao; Wang Yu-Gang; Cao Xing-Zhong; Wang Bao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films in thickness of 12 μm are irradiated by Xe and Au ions at the energies of 9.5 and 11.4MeV/u and with the ion fluence from 5 × 10"9 cm"−"2 to 1 × 10"1"1 cm"−"2. After irradiation, ultra-violet lights are used to illuminate the samples with latent tracks at the wavelength of 365 nm with flux density of 4.2 mW/cm"−"2. UV-irradiation effects on tracked PET are investigated by the UV-vis spectrum and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is found that carbonaceous clusters in PET films are generated by ion irradiation and decomposed with UV illumination by calculating the optical energy band gap E_g in the UV-vis spectrum. The free volumes behave differently in track and bulk after UV illumination. In our experiment, the PALS results show an increase in radius and density of free volume in tracked PET films after UV treatment, which indicates an expansion in radius of latent tracks. (paper)

  20. Fabrication and mechanical properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites prepared by using a modified film-stacking technique were examined in this study. The starting materials included a high tenacity PET yarn (reinforcement and a low melting temperature biodegradable polyester resin (matrix, both of which differ in their melting temperatures with a value of 56°C. This experiment produced composite sheets at three consolidation temperatures (Tc: 215, 225, and 235°C at a constant holding time (th: 6.5 min, and three holding times (3, 6.5 and 10 min at a constant consolidation temperature of 225°C. This study observed a significant improvement in the mechanical properties obtained in self-reinforced PET composites compared to the pure polyester resin. The results of tensile, flexural, and Izod impact tests proved that optimal conditions are low consolidation temperature and short holding time. The absorbed impact energy of the best self-reinforced PET composite material was 854.0 J/m, which is 63 times that of pure polyester resin.

  1. Active Site Flexibility as a Hallmark for Efficient PET Degradation by I. sakaiensis PETase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecker, Tobias; Galaz-Davison, Pablo; Engelberger, Felipe; Narui, Yoshie; Sotomayor, Marcos; Parra, Loreto P; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A

    2018-03-27

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most-consumed synthetic polymers, with an annual production of 50 million tons. Unfortunately, PET accumulates as waste and is highly resistant to biodegradation. Recently, fungal and bacterial thermophilic hydrolases were found to catalyze PET hydrolysis with optimal activities at high temperatures. Strikingly, an enzyme from Ideonella sakaiensis, termed PETase, was described to efficiently degrade PET at room temperature, but the molecular basis of its activity is not currently understood. Here, a crystal structure of PETase was determined at 2.02 Å resolution and employed in molecular dynamics simulations showing that the active site of PETase has higher flexibility at room temperature than its thermophilic counterparts. This flexibility is controlled by a novel disulfide bond in its active site, with its removal leading to destabilization of the catalytic triad and reduction of the hydrolase activity. Molecular docking of a model substrate predicts that PET binds to PETase in a unique and energetically favorable conformation facilitated by several residue substitutions within its active site when compared to other enzymes. These computational predictions are in excellent agreement with recent mutagenesis and PET film degradation analyses. Finally, we rationalize the increased catalytic activity of PETase at room temperature through molecular dynamics simulations of enzyme-ligand complexes for PETase and other thermophilic PET-degrading enzymes at 298, 323, and 353 K. Our results reveal that both the binding pose and residue substitutions within PETase favor proximity between the catalytic residues and the labile carbonyl of the substrate at room temperature, suggesting a more favorable hydrolytic reaction. These results are valuable for enabling detailed evolutionary analysis of PET-degrading enzymes and for rational design endeavors aiming at increasing the efficiency of PETase and similar enzymes toward plastic

  2. Sensing element for detection of polar organic vapours on the base of polyaniline-composite - Effect of substrate surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, Robert; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Slobodian, Petr; Matyas, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride as a source of aniline and ammonium persulfate as an oxidation agent. The polymerization process is relatively easy and cheap. The reaction was carried out in presence of polymer substrate, in our case polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a representative of smooth surface substrate and polyvinylidenfluoride (PVDF) nanofibers membrane as a representative of porous substrate. Both these substrates were covered by polyaniline (PANI) and used as a sensing element for organic vapors detection. The detection was made by measuring and the record of the change of resistivity during adsorption and desorption of saturated vapors. The result shows that sensitivity decreases with increasing polarity of chosen solvent in order N,N- Dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The PANI base sensing element on PVDF substrate improves sensitivity, selectivity and it also has good reversibility and repeatability. (paper)

  3. Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate. Application to the synthesis of multiblock copolyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Malek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycling of the poly(ethylene terephthalate, (PET, has been successfully carried out by glycolysis in the presence of bis (2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET resulting in the formation of hydroxytelechelic oligomers. These oligomers were then treated with carboxytelechelic poly(ε-caprolactone oligomers of Mn = 2300 and Mn = 730 g•mol–1 molecular weight, in the absence or presence of the titanium tetrabutyloxide (Ti(OBu4 as a catalyst to get multiblock copolyesters. The chemical structure of the synthesized copolyesters was investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy. Moreover the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to explore their thermal properties. The ester-ester interchange reaction was observed between the two oligopolyesters, was studied and discussed in detail.

  4. Rigid Polyurethane Foam from Glyco lysed Polyethylene Terephthalate Dissolved in Palm-based Polyol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Lily Iliyana Mohd Dawi; Nur Ashikin Abdul Aziz

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the thermal and mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste (of plastic drinking bottles) was conducted. The PET waste was glyco lysed with ethylene glycol prior to blending with palm based-polyol (PKO-p). This blend was then reacted with 2, 4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) at a ratio of 1:1 to form the PU foam. The incorporation of the glyco lysed PET (g-PET) into the PKO-p was studied at 50, 70 and 100 % w/ w loading. PU foam prepared from 100 % w/ w g-PET (without PKO-p) resulted in PU with high glass transition temperature and mechanical strength. This water-blown foam has molded and core densities of 182 kg m -3 and 179 kg m -3 , respectively, with maximum compressive stress and modulus at 396 kPa and 1920 kPa, respectively. An initial enthalpy value of 3164.8 cal g -1 and a glass transition temperature of 65 degree Celsius were observed. (author)

  5. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  6. A solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on a novel ionic liquid gel and ZnO nanoparticles on a flexible polymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Ryhanen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre c/o Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FF, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Amaratunga, Gehan [Centre of Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Han Dongxue; Zhang Qixian; Niu Li [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, 130000 Changchun (China)], E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com

    2008-10-22

    This paper describes a new strategy to make a full solid-state, flexible, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on novel ionic liquid gel, organic dye, ZnO nanoparticles and carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film stamped onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The CNTs serve both as the charge collector and as scaffolds for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles, where the black dye molecules are anchored. It opens up the possibility of developing a continuous roll to roll processing for THE mass production of DSSCs.

  7. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET

  8. Soft-lithographic patterning of room termperature-sintering Ag Nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Bat, E.; Voorthuijzen, W. Pim; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by

  9. Soft-lithographic patterning of room temperaturesintering Ag nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen,P.F.; Bat,E.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Huskens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by

  10. Process of chemical recycling of post-consumer PET using a factorial design; Processo de reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo empregando o planejamento fatorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros B. de; Vinhas, Gloria M., E-mail: carlos.olacerda@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated important variables in the depolymerization reaction of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET via alkaline hydrolysis. Through this reaction is obtained terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer, which when purified, is used for the production of PET resin. The study was based on a 2{sup 2} factorial design in which the independent variables were the concentration of NaOH solution and the reaction time, and the dependent variable was the yield of PTA obtained. The experiments that generated the best results, 100 % of yield, were obtained with the higher values of the independent variables. Statistical analysis showed that the concentration of NaOH solution is the variable that most influences in the process. The PTA obtained was analyzed by NMR ¹H technique, confirming the strong resemblance to commercial PTA obtained by petrochemical way. (author)

  11. Magnetron sputtered transparent conductive zinc-oxide stabilized amorphous indium oxide thin films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Zhang, X.-F.; Ding, Y.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous transparent conducting zinc-oxide stabilized indium oxide thin films, named amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO), were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at ambient temperature on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. It has been demonstrated that the electrical resistivity could attain as low as ∼ 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm, which was noticeably lower than amorphous indium tin oxide films prepared at the same condition, while the visible transmittance exceeded 84% with the refractive index of 1.85–2.00. In our experiments, introduction of oxygen gas appeared to be beneficial to the improvement of the transparency and electrical conductivity. Both free carrier absorption and indirect transition were observed and Burstein–Moss effect proved a-IZO to be a degenerated amorphous semiconductor. However, the linear relation between the optical band gap and the band tail width which usually observed in covalent amorphous semiconductor such as a-Si:H was not conserved. Besides, porosity could greatly determine the resistivity and optical constants for the thickness variation at this deposition condition. Furthermore, a broad photoluminescence peak around 510 nm was identified when more than 1.5 sccm oxygen was introduced. - Highlights: ► Highly conducting amorphous zinc-oxide stabilized indium oxide thin films were prepared. ► The films were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate at ambient temperature. ► Introduction of oxygen can improve the transparency and electrical conductivity. ► The linear relation between optical band gap and band tail width was not conserved

  12. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of paper biomass and plastic mixtures (HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate)) and product analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayeeta; Pathak, T.S.; Srivastava, R.; Singh, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics (HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate)) has been performed in a fixed-bed reactor in presence of cobalt based alumina, ceria and ceria-alumina catalysts to analyze the product distribution and selectivity. Catalysts are synthesized using co-precipitation method and characterized by BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) surface area and XRD analysis. The effect of catalytic co-pyrolysis at different temperature with product distribution has been evaluated. The results have clearly shown the synergistic effect between biomass and plastics, the liquid products gradually increases forming with rise in the plastic content in the blend. Gaseous products have yielded most during pyrolysis of blend having biomass/plastics ratio of 5:1 with the presence of 40% Co/30% CeO_2/30% Al_2O_3 catalyst with hydrogen gas production touched its peak of 47 vol%. Catalytic performance enhanced with increase with the cobalt loading, with best performance attributing to 40% Co/30% CeO_2/30% Al_2O_3 catalyst. - Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics (HDPE, PP & PET) blends in fixed-bed reactor. • Strong synergistic effect evident between biomass and plastics. • Solid residue diminished with application of catalysts. • Aromatics and olefins production increases with higher plastic content. • More hydrogen production with application of catalysts with higher cobalt content.

  13. Molecular Weight and Crystallization Temperature Effects on Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET Homopolymers, an Isothermal Crystallization Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Baldenegro-Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET homopolymers with different molecular weight was studied in a wide temperature range (140–230 °C using different experimental techniques. Three different morphological regions, labeled r1, r2 and r3, were distinguished as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc. In r1 (low Tc crystallized samples were characterized by a low crystalline degree with a small spherulite texture containing thin crystals. In r2 (intermediate Tc samples showed medium size spherulites composed of two distinct crystalline families (thin and thick crystals. In this temperature range, the crystallization exhibited a maximum value and it was associated with a high content of secondary crystals. In r3 (high Tc, samples presented considerable amorphous zones and regions consisting of oversized spherulites containing only thick crystals. Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, using synchrotron radiation, indicated a rapid evolution of the crystalline degree within the second region, in contrast with the quite slow evolution observed in the third region. On the other hand, by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and time-resolved SAXS experiment, it was found that the long period (L as well as the lamellar thickness (lc increase as a function of Tc, corroborating the formation of the thickest crystals in the third region. From all these observations, a morphological model was proposed for each region.

  14. Surface characterization and free thyroid hormones response of chemically modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) blood collection tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali Dil, Ebrahim; Kim, Samuel C.; Saffar, Amir; Ajji, Abdellah; Zare, Richard N.; Sattayapiwat, Annie; Esguerra, Vanessa; Bowen, Raffick A. R.

    2018-06-01

    The surface chemistry and surface energy of chemically modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blood collection tubes (BCTs) were studied and the results showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity and polarity of modified PET surface. The surface modification created nanometer-sized, needle-like asperities through molecular segregation at the surface. The surface dynamics of the modified PET was examined by tracking its surface properties over a 280-day period. The results showed surface rearrangement toward a surface with lower surface energy and fewer nanometer-sized asperities. Thromboelastography (TEG) was used to evaluate and compare the thrombogenicity of the inner walls of various types of BCTs. The TEG tracings and data from various types of BCTs demonstrated differences in the reactionand coagulation times but not in clot strength. The performance of the modified tubes in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) hormone tests was examined, and it was found that the interference of modified PET tubes was negligible compared to that of commercially available PET BCTs.

  15. Electron-beam-induced conduction in polyethylene terephthalate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckley, L M; Lewis, T J; Taylor, D M [University Coll. of North Wales, Bangor (UK). School of Electronic Engineering Science

    1976-06-21

    Measurements are reported of electron-beam-induced conduction in thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for electron energies up to 10 keV. The ratio of induced dielectric current to incident beam current (the gain) is orders of magnitude less than unity over practically the whole range of beam penetration. This result is quite unlike that normally found for inorganic dielectrics where the gain will exceed unity and reach a maximum at or near full penetration. In spite of the very different gain characteristics it is shown that the model recently proposed by Nunes de Oliviera and Gross (J. App. Phys.; 46:3132 (1975)), and by Aris et al (IEE Conf. Publ. No.129.; 267 (1975) and J. Phys. C. Solid State Phys.; 9:797 (1976)) and applied to mica and tantalum oxide respectively is also applicable to PET. Use is made of the known carrier mobility and lifetime data for this polymer and it is shown that very large space-charge distortions of the field can be produced by the beam which may well account for the frequent sample failure experienced during the experiments. The work supports suggestions by earlier workers that the current in unirradiated PET is electrode limited and predicts the maximum (space-charge limited) current likely to occur in this polymer.

  16. Rod like attapulgite/poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with chemical bonding between the polymer chain and the filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET nanocomposites containing rod-like silicate attapulgite (AT were prepared via in situ polymerization. It is presented that PET chains identical to the matrix have been successfully grafted onto simple organically pre-modified AT nanorods (MAT surface during the in situ polymerization process. The covalent bonding at the interface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The content of grafted PET polymer on the surface of MAT was about 26 wt%. This high grafting density greatly improved the dispersion of fillers, interfacial adhesion as well as the significant confinement of the segmental motion of PET, as compared to the nanocomposites of PET/pristine AT (PET/AT. Owing to the unique interfacial structure in PET/MAT composites, their thermal and mechanical properties have been greatly improved. Compared with neat PET, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of PET/MAT were significantly improved by about 39.5 and 36.8%, respectively, by incorporating only 2 wt % MAT. Our work provides a novel route to fabricate advanced PET nanocomposites using rod-like attapulgite as fillers, which has great potential for industrial applications.

  17. Migration measurement and modelling from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) into soft drinks and fruit juices in comparison with food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2008-08-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are widely used for beverages. Knowledge about the migration of organic compounds from the PET bottle wall into contact media is of interest especially when post-consumer recyclates are introduced into new PET bottles. Using migration theory, the migration of a compound can be calculated if the concentration in the bottle wall is known. On the other hand, for any given specific migration limit or maximum target concentration for organic chemical compounds in the bottled foodstuffs, the maximum allowable concentrations in the polymer CP,0 can be calculated. Since a food simulant cannot exactly simulate the real migration into the foodstuff or beverages, a worse-case simulation behaviour is the intention. However, if the migration calculation should not be too overestimative, the polymer-specific kinetic parameter for migration modelling, the so-called AP value, should be established appropriately. One objective of the study was the kinetic determination of the specific migration behaviour of low molecular weight compounds such as solvents with relatively high diffusion rates and, therefore, with high migration potential from the PET bottle wall into food simulants in comparison with real beverages. For this purpose, model contaminants were introduced into the bottle wall during pre-form production. The volatile compounds toluene and chlorobenzene were established at concentrations from about 20-30 mg kg(-1) to 300-350 mg kg(-1). Phenyl cyclohexane was present at concentrations of 35, 262 and 782 mg kg(-1), respectively. The low volatile compounds benzophenone and methyl stearate have bottle wall concentrations of about 100 mg kg(-1) in the low spiking level up to about 1000 mg kg(-1) in the highly spiked test bottle. From these experimental data, the polymer specific parameters (AP values) from mathematical migration modelling were derived. The experimental determined diffusing coefficients were determined, calculated and

  18. Effect of carbon nanotube reinforcement on the properties of the recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends containing functional elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesil, Sertan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical properties of r-PET improved with addition of PEN, elastomers and CNT. • Elastomer size and dispersion played important role in the variation of properties. • Selective localization of CNT affected the mechanical and electrical properties. • E-EA-MAH based samples had higher mechanical properties than E-MA-GMA based ones. - Abstract: In this study, the mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal, electrical properties and the morphology of the composites, based on blends of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (r-PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) that were mixed with functional elastomers and multi walled carbon nanotube (CNT) were investigated. Two types of functional elastomers; terpolymer of ethylene–ethyl acrylate–maleic anhydride (E-EA-MAH) and terpolymer of ethylene–methyl acrylate–glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA), were used to ensure the miscibility between PET and PEN during the preparation of the blends and composites. All composite and blend samples were extruded by using a laboratory scale twin screw microcompounder. Test samples were prepared via laboratory scale injection molding machine. According to the results of the thermomechanical tests, usage of both elastomers enhanced the miscibility between r-PET and PEN. Morphological analyses showed that the blends and composites which contain E-EA-MAH exhibited better elastomer phase dispersion with smaller domain sizes when compared with the samples with E-MA-GMA. Samples prepared with E-EA-MAH had better mechanical properties than the ones containing E-MA-GMA due to the better elastomer phase dispersion. Moreover, addition of CNT also improved the mechanical properties of the samples for both elastomer types. In contrast to mechanical test results, samples prepared with E-MA-GMA had higher electrical conductivity values when compared with those of the ones containing E-EA-MAH due to the differences in the selective distribution of CNT particles between the

  19. The Effect of Knitting Parameter and Finishing on Elastic Property of PET/PBT Warp Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the elastic elongation and elastic recovery of the elastic warp knittedfabric made of PET( polyethylene terephthalate and PBT(polybutylene terephthalate filament. Using 50/24F PET and 50D/24F PBT in two threadingbars, the tricot, locknit and satin warp knitted fabrics were produced on the E28 tricot warpknitting machine. The knitting parameters influencing the elastic elongation under 100N wereanalyzed in terms of fabric structure, yarn run-in speed and drawing density set on machine.Besides, dyeing temperature and heat setting temperature/time were also examined in order toretain proper elastic elongation and elastic recovery. The relationship between elastic elongationand knitting parameter and finishing parameter were analyzed. Finally, the elastic recovery ofPET/PBT warp knitted fabric was examined to demonstrate the elastic property of final finishedfabric. This study could help us to further exploit the use of PET/PBT warp knitted fabric in thedevelopment of elastic garment in future.

  20. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  1. Thermal conductivity of plasma modified polyethylene terephthalate and polyamide-6 layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalacska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribological performance of the materials greatly depends on the temperature of the contacting zones and surfaces and hence on the heat conducting behaviour of the materials. Heat conduction of polymers is, however, greatly affected even by a very narrow (few tens of nm modified layer formed on the surface after subjecting the polymer to plasma treatment. In this article the heat flow inhibiting properties of plasma modified surface layers were investigated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyamide-6 (PA6 engineering polymers. Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation gave rise to compositional and structural changes of the polymers in a depth of 110 nm. It was found that even this thin layer exhibited significant heat flow inhibiting effect. The modified layer considerably decreased the thermal conductivity coefficient of the treated polymer and resulted in a reduced heat transmission for PET and PA6 by 33 and 28%, respectively. This new information supports and is in accordance with the former tribological results about extra friction heat generation experienced under NPIII surface layer of PA6 and PET during dry sliding.

  2. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-10-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  3. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10 −3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  4. Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals contaminated kaolin by a CNT-covered polyethylene terephthalate yarn cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lizhu; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xingjian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Nana; Yu, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, carbon nanotube (CNT) covered polyethylene terephthalate yarns (PET-CNT) electrode has been investigated as a novel cathode material for the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of multi-metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) contaminated kaolin. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that CNT was successfully covered on the surface of PET. The results obtained from EK process showed that PET-CNT as a cathode obviously elevated electric current and electro-osmotic flow (EOF), significantly decreased kaolin pH, and enhanced heavy metals removal efficiencies. The removal efficiencies of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in PET-CNT treatment were 89.7%, 63.6%, 90.7%, 19.2%, and 88.7%, respectively. In comparison with the Pt/Ti and graphite treatments, the removal efficiencies of Cd, Ni, and Zn were improved at least about 30%, Cu and Pb were improved at least 16.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the PET-CNT was a good alternative cathode material for enhancing efficiency of EK remediation.

  5. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminova, Anna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Shelemin, Artem [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Effect of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma on PET foils was investigated. • DBD treatment causes increase in surface density of O-containing functional groups. • DBD plasma causes increase of wettability, roughness and complex modulus of PET. • DBD treatment positively influences cells growth on PET. • Enhancement of cell growth on treated PET depends on the cell type. - Abstract: In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  6. Durable grafting of silkworm pupa protein onto the surface of polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianfeng, E-mail: 584884673@qq.com [College of Textiles & Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716 (China); Zheng, Dandan, E-mail: 183737543@qq.com [College of Textiles & Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu, E-mail: zhangfx656472@sina.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com [College of Textiles & Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, reactive –NH{sub 2} groups (8.36 × 10{sup −6} mol/g fabric) were introduced to the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics by a nitration and reduction method, and epoxy groups were introduced to silkworm pupa protein (SPP) by reaction with epoxy chloropropane. PET-SPP composite fabrics were then prepared by reaction of these two precursors. The results showed that the SPP was firmly grafted onto the PET fabric surface and that the hydrophilicity of the fabric was markedly improved by the grafting of SPP. SEM images revealed a layer of substance covering the surface of the PET fibers, and XPS investigation showed that the nitrogen content of the PET-SPP fabric was higher than that of the original PET fabric (2.32% vs 0%). ATR-FTIR adsorption bands at 1653 and 1543 cm{sup −1} suggested the successful grafting of SPP onto the PET fabric surface. The DSC and TG of the PET fibers demonstrated that the thermal stability of the original PET fibers was maintained well by the SPP-grafted PET fibers. The breaking strength, bending rigidity, air permeability, and crease recovery angle of the original PET fabric were also retained by the SPP-grafted PET fabric. - Highlights: • Reactive –NH{sub 2} groups were introduced to PET fibers by nitration and reduction method. • Reactive epoxy groups were introduced to silkworm pupa protein by reacting with epoxy chloropropane. • The silkworm pupa protein could be grafted firmly on the PET fabric surface through covalent bond. • The skin-friendly property and hydrophilicity of PET-SPP fabric were improved greatly. • The wearability of PET-SPP composite fabric kept well.

  7. In-situ Polymerization-modification Process and Foaming of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲华; 奚桢浩; 刘涛; 赵玲

    2013-01-01

    Most of traditional linear poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resins of relatively low molecular mass and narrow molecular mass distribution have low melt strength at foaming temperatures, which are not enough to support and keep cells. An in-situ polymerization-modification process with esterification and polycondensation stages was performed in a 2 L batch stirred reactor using pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) or pentaerythritol (PENTA) as modifying monomers to obtain PETs with high melt strength. The influence of amounts of modifying monomers on the properties of modified PET was investigated. It was found that the selected modifying monomers could effectively introduce branched structures into the modified PETs and improve their melt strength. With in-creasing the amount of the modifying monomer, the melt strength of the modified PET increased. But when the amount of PENTA reached 0.35%or PMDA reached 0.9%, crosslinking phenomenon was observed in the modified PET. Supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) was employed as physical foaming agent to evaluate the foaming ability of modified PETs. The modified PETs had good foaming properties at 14 MPa of CO2 pressure with foaming tem-perature ranging from 265 °C to 280 °C. SEM micrographs demonstrated that both modified PET foams had ho-mogeneous cellular structures, with cell diameter ranging from 35 μm to 49 μm for PENTA modified PETs and 38μm to 57μm for PMDA modified ones. Correspondingly, the cell density had a range of 3.5×107 cells·cm-3 to 7×106 cells·cm-3 for the former and 2.8×107 cells·cm-3 to 5.8×106 cells·cm-3 for the latter.

  8. High gamma dose response of the electrical properties of polyethylene terephthalate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), irradiated with gamma rays, have been investigated. The PET films were irradiated with high gamma dose levels in the range from 100 to 2000 kGy. The changes in the DC (σ DC ) and the ac (σ ac ) conductivities, with the dose, have been performed. The effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric constant (ε') and loss (ε'') has been determined. Also, the dose dependence of the frequency exponent index (S), the resonance frequency (Fc) and the hopping frequency (ω P ) have been obtained. The obtained results show that increasing gamma dose leads to slight increase in σ DC , σ ac and ε', while no change was observed in ε'' value. Meanwhile, S, Fc and ω P are inversely proportional to the dose. Accordingly, the study suggests the possibility of using PET films in electronic components (capacitors, resistors, etc.), especially that operate at high gamma dose environments for the frequency independent applications

  9. Comparison of Self-Expanding Polyethylene Terephthalate and Metallic Stents Implanted in Porcine Iliac Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Scheerder, Ivan de; Wang Kai; Verbeken, Eric; Piessens, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of the biocompatibility of self-expanding polyethylene terephthalate (PET) stents with self-expanding metallic stents (Wallstents). Methods: Diameter- and length-matched PET stents and Wallstents were symmetrically implanted in the paired iliac arteries of 13 crossbred domestic swine. Stent deployment was studied angiographically and with intravascular ultrasound immediately after stent implantation. The angiographic stented lumen diameter was measured using quantitative vessel analysis before, immediately after stenting, and at 6-week follow-up. Cross-section histopathology and area morphometry were performed. Results: Immediately poststenting, intravascular ultrasound revealed proximal dislocation of 5 of the 13 PET stents, whereas all metal stents were firmly embedded at the implantation site. At 6-week follow-up, three of the remaining PET stents were totally or subtotally occluded by organized thrombus, whereas all metal stents were patent. Compared with immediately poststenting, the angiographic lumen diameter within the five remaining PET stents was reduced by 30%, and that of the metallic stents was virtually unaltered (p < 0.02). This observation was confirmed by postmortem morphometry, wherein the PET-stented vessel segments a diameter stenosis of 40% was measured vs only 9% in the metallic stents (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: PET-stent deployment is difficult to control due to the lack of radiopacity of this stent. PET stents seem to be more thrombogenic and lead to significantly more neointimal proliferation than metallic stents

  10. Properties of PET/PLA Electrospun Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kevin; Cebe, Peggy

    2012-02-01

    Electrospun membranes were fabricated from poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, co-spun with poly(lactic acid), PLA. The PLA contained 2% of the D-isomer, which served to limit the overall degree of crystallinity. Membranes were deposited from blended solutions of PET/PLA in hexafluoroisopropanol. The PET/PLA composition ranged from 0/100, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 100/0. Electrospun membranes were made using either a static flat plate or a rotating wheel as the counter electrode, yielding unoriented mats or highly oriented tapes, respectively. We report on our investigation of the crystallinity, crystal perfection, and mechanical properties of these materials using differential scanning calorimetry, wide and small angle X-ray scattering, and dynamic mechanical analysis. In particular, we study the ability of one blend component (PET) to crystallize in the presence of existing crystals of the second blend component (PLA) which crystallizes first and at a lower temperature than PET.

  11. A direct method to measure the fracture toughness of indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Rwei-Ching; Tsai, Fa-Ta; Tu, Chin-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a straightforward method to measure the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates. A 200 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is deposited on a 188 μm thick terephthalate (PET) substrate by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering machine. Using nanoindentation to induce brittle fracture on the ITO thin films, the energy release is calculated from integrating the resulting load–depth curve. An approach that directly measures the fracture toughness of thin films deposited on flexible substrates is proposed. A comparison shows that the results of the proposed method agree well with those of other reports. Furthermore, in order to improve the toughness of the ITO thin films, a copper interlayer is added between the ITO thin film and PET substrate. It shows that the fracture toughness of the ITO thin film deposited on the copper interlayer is higher than that of the one without the interlayer, which agrees well with the critical load tested by micro scratch. Further observations on optical and electric performances are also discussed in this work. - Highlights: • A straightforward method to measure the film's toughness • Directly using the load-depth curve of nanoindentation • The toughness is consistent with the critical load tested by micro scratch. • Interlayers can improve the film's toughness. • Optical and electric performances are also discussed

  12. Effect of Ga2O3 buffer layer thickness on the properties of Cu/ITO thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huihui; Yan Jinliang; Xu Chengyang; Meng Delan

    2014-01-01

    Cu and Cu/ITO films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Cu film deposited on a PET substrate with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer was studied, and an appropriate Cu layer thickness of 4.2 nm was obtained. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer thickness. The optical and electrical properties of the Cu/ITO films were significantly influenced by the thickness of the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer. A maximum transmission of 86%, sheet resistance of 45 Ω/□ and figure of merit of 3.96 × 10 −3 Ω −1 were achieved for Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films with a Ga 2 O 3 layer thickness of 15 nm. (semiconductor materials)

  13. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-consolidating concretes containing waste PET bottles as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya; Shahidan, Shahiron; Othman, Nor hazurina; Guntor, Nickholas Anting Anak

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) containing waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) granules on the fresh, mechanical and water absorption properties. Fine aggregates were replaced from 0% to 8% by PET granules. The fresh properties of SCC containing PET granules were determined using slump flow and V-funnel flow time tests. The compressive and splitting tensile strength were evaluated. The results indicated that utilization of waste PET granules in production of SCC could be an effective way for recycling purpose. The maximum amount of PET replacement should be limited to 5%. Exceeding 5% of PET content may result in an increase of V-funnel flow time to overpass the limiting value, decrease in strength. The production of high performance SCC containing 5% PET granules satisfies all the requirements for SCC with satisfactory outputs.

  15. Grafting of copolymer styrene maleic anhydride on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by chemical reaction and by plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigan, Muriel; Bigot, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire (UMR 8009), Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mutel, Brigitte [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interactions Fluides reactifs-Materiaux (UPRES-EA 3751), Batiment C5, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: Brigitte.mutel@univ-lille1.fr; Coqueret, Xavier [Laboratoire Reactions Selectives et Applications (UMR-CNRS 6519) Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, B.P. 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-02-15

    This work deals with the chemical grafting of a styrene maleic anhydride copolymer on the surface of a previously hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film 12 {mu}m thick via covalent bond. Two different ways are studied. The first one involves an activation of the hydrolyzed PET by the triethylamine before the grafting step. In the second one, the copolymer reacts with the 4-dimethylaminopyridine in order to form maleinyl pyridinium salt which reacts with alcohol function of the hydrolyzed PET. Characterization and quantification of the grafting are performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Factorial experiment designs are used to optimize the process and to estimate experimental parameters effects. The opportunity to associate the chemical process to a cold remote nitrogen plasma one is also examined.

  16. Electrodeposited Ni nanowires-track etched P.E.T. composites as selective solar absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhwa, R.; Sone, B.; Kotsedi, L.; Madjoe, R.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    This contribution reports on the structural, optical and morphological properties of nanostructured flexible solar-thermal selective absorber composites for low temperature applications. The candidate material in the system is consisting of electrodeposited nickel nano-cylinders embedded in track-etched polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host membrane of pore sizes ranging between 0.3-0.8µm supported by conductive nickel thin film of about 0.5µm. PET were irradiated with 11MeV/u high charged xenon (Xe) ions at normal incidence. The tubular and metallic structure of the nickel nano-cylinders within the insulator polymeric host forms a typical ceramic-metal nano-composite "Cermet". The produced material was characterized by the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural characterization to determine preferred crystallographic structure, and grain size of the materials; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine surface morphology, particle size, and visual imaging of distribution of structures on the surface of the substrate; Atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize surface roughness, surface morphology, and film thickness, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance, then to determine solar absorption

  17. Multi-functional carbon microspheres with double shell layers for flame retardant poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baoxia; Niu, Mei; Yang, Yongzhen; Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun; Liu, Xuguang

    2018-03-01

    Carbon microspheres (CMSs) as a core material had been coated by two capsule walls: an inorganic material of magnesium hydroxide (MH) as inner shell layer and an organic material of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as outer shell layer. MH coating CMSs (MCMSs) were fabricated by liquid phase deposition method, then grafted 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to obtain the Si-MCMSs. Microencapsulated Si-MCMSs (PMCMSs) was prepared by in situ polymerization method. Morphology structure, dispersion, flame retardant and other properties of PMCMSs have been investigated. A series of PET blends were prepared by melt compounding. The results showed that MH and PET as two layers were coated on CMSs surface with the optimal thickness of about 70 nm. The PMCMSs owned better dispersion in PET matrix. Compared with MCMSs/PET composites, the mechanical property of PMCMSs/PET composites had significantly increased because of the strong interface binding force between PMCMSs and PET matrix. Moreover, PMCMSs was proved to be an effective flame retardant. For PMCMSs/PET with 2 wt% PMCMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value increased from 21.0% (pristine PET) to 27.2%, and the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR) decreased from 513.22 kW/m2 to 352.14 kW/m2. The decreased smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) values demonstrated PMCMSs suppressed the smoke production. The increased Fire performance index (FPI) value illustrated PMCMSs significantly reduced the fire risk of PET. Overall, the two capsular walls endowed the PMCMSs/PET composites with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties.

  18. Sustainable carbothermal reduction and nitridation of Malaysian ilmenite by polyethylene terephthalate and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Eltefat; Hamid, Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul; Hussin, Hashim; Baharun, Norlia; Ariffin, Kamar Shah; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Fauzi, M. N. Ahmad; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the carbothermal reduction and nitridation (CTRN) of Malaysian ilmenite has been studied as a part of crucial steps involved in reduction and subsequent chlorination processes for synthesizing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) from nitrided Malaysian ilmenite concentrates. In CTRN, waste plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) could be utilized as an alternative source of carbon reductant. In this study, titanium oxycarbonitride (TiOxCyNz) separated from iron (Fe) phase was synthesized by non-isothermal CTRN of Malaysian ilmenite under H2-N2 atmosphere by utilizing a mixture of Sarawak Mukah-Balingan coal and PET as reducing agents in a horizontal tube furnace. Experiments have been carried out in the temperature range of 1150-1250°C for 3 hours with various ratios of PET to coal (25 wt.% PET, 50 wt.% PET, and 75 wt.% PET). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods of analysis were conducted to assess the microstructures and chemical compositions of the unreduced and reduced samples. The results indicated that utilizing PET had a significant effect on iron separation from titanium oxycarbonitride (TiO0.02C0.13N0.85) at 1250°C with a mixture of 75 wt.% PET. Furthermore, XRD and SEM studies demonstrated that with increasing PET weight ratio in the mixtures, the rate of conversion increased and a low-carbon TiOxCyNz with minimal intermediate titanium sub-oxides was synthesized. The method of applying PET as potential reductant for CTRN of ilmenite has beneficial side effects in sustainable recycling of waste PET.

  19. Effect of clay structure and type of organomodifier on the thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, George Z.; Karandrea, Eva; Giliopoulos, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G.; Ladavos, Athanasios; Katerinopoulou, Aikaterini; Achilias, Dimitris S.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites were prepared using 4 different clay types. • Nanomer I30E clay was exfoliated into PET, as it was found from XRD. • The intercalation of Kunipia-CTAB resulted in less pronounced effect on PET crystallization. • The immobilized amorphous fraction, activation energy and nucleation activity were calculated. • Nanomer I30E clay facilitated the crystallization process. - Abstract: In the current investigation, nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with different types of organo-clays were produced using the melt mixing technique. Two types of commercial inorganic clays (Laponite-synthetic hectorite and Kunipia-montmorillonite) were studied after cation-exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) while two commercial organo-modified montmorillonite clays (Nanomer I.30E modified with primary octadecylammonium ions and Cloisite 10A modified with quaternary dimethyl benzyl hydrogenated-tallow ammonium ions) were also investigated. The structure of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction measurements. A detailed crystallization analysis was carried out by means of both isothermal and non-isothermal (melt and cold) measurements. All data were analyzed using the simple Avrami equation along with advanced isoconversional methods. The nucleation activity of the filler was investigated in every case. Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis was employed to isothermal data to estimate the nucleation parameters. From all these measurements it was found that the organo-clay I.30E induces the higher crystallization rates and lower activation energy and is more effective regarding the PET crystallization compared to the other types of organo-clays. The I.30E organo-clay nanocomposite exhibited also the higher immobilized amorphous fraction and the higher nucleation parameter K g in the Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis. This is due to its better dispersion and exfoliation

  20. Effect of clay structure and type of organomodifier on the thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, George Z.; Karandrea, Eva; Giliopoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G. [Solid State Physics Department, School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki AUTH, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ladavos, Athanasios; Katerinopoulou, Aikaterini [University of Patras, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Achilias, Dimitris S.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bikiaris, Dimitrios N., E-mail: dbic@chem.auth.gr [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites were prepared using 4 different clay types. • Nanomer I30E clay was exfoliated into PET, as it was found from XRD. • The intercalation of Kunipia-CTAB resulted in less pronounced effect on PET crystallization. • The immobilized amorphous fraction, activation energy and nucleation activity were calculated. • Nanomer I30E clay facilitated the crystallization process. - Abstract: In the current investigation, nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with different types of organo-clays were produced using the melt mixing technique. Two types of commercial inorganic clays (Laponite-synthetic hectorite and Kunipia-montmorillonite) were studied after cation-exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) while two commercial organo-modified montmorillonite clays (Nanomer I.30E modified with primary octadecylammonium ions and Cloisite 10A modified with quaternary dimethyl benzyl hydrogenated-tallow ammonium ions) were also investigated. The structure of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction measurements. A detailed crystallization analysis was carried out by means of both isothermal and non-isothermal (melt and cold) measurements. All data were analyzed using the simple Avrami equation along with advanced isoconversional methods. The nucleation activity of the filler was investigated in every case. Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis was employed to isothermal data to estimate the nucleation parameters. From all these measurements it was found that the organo-clay I.30E induces the higher crystallization rates and lower activation energy and is more effective regarding the PET crystallization compared to the other types of organo-clays. The I.30E organo-clay nanocomposite exhibited also the higher immobilized amorphous fraction and the higher nucleation parameter K{sub g} in the Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis. This is due to its better dispersion and

  1. Process of chemical recycling of post-consumer PET using a factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Carlos Eduardo de O.; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros B. de; Vinhas, Gloria M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated important variables in the depolymerization reaction of post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET via alkaline hydrolysis. Through this reaction is obtained terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer, which when purified, is used for the production of PET resin. The study was based on a 2"2 factorial design in which the independent variables were the concentration of NaOH solution and the reaction time, and the dependent variable was the yield of PTA obtained. The experiments that generated the best results, 100 % of yield, were obtained with the higher values of the independent variables. Statistical analysis showed that the concentration of NaOH solution is the variable that most influences in the process. The PTA obtained was analyzed by NMR ¹H technique, confirming the strong resemblance to commercial PTA obtained by petrochemical way. (author)

  2. Electrical and optical properties of nitrogen doped SnO2 thin films deposited on flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Feng; Zhang, Yeyu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Qiyue; Xie, Zonghan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The best SnO 2 :N TCO film: about 80% transmittance and 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped tin oxide film was deposited on PET by RF-magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the properties of thin films were investigated. • For SnO 2 :N film, visible light transmittance was 80% and electrical resistivity was 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :N) thin films were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at room temperature by RF-magnetron sputtering. Effects of oxygen partial pressure (0–4%) on electrical and optical properties of thin films were investigated. Experimental results showed that SnO 2 :N films were amorphous state, and O/Sn ratios of SnO 2 :N films were deviated from the standard stoichiometry 2:1. Optical band gap of SnO 2 :N films increased from approximately 3.10 eV to 3.42 eV as oxygen partial pressure increased from 0% to 4%. For SnO 2 :N thin films deposited on PET, transmittance was about 80% in the visible light region. The best transparent conductive oxide (TCO) deposited on flexible PET substrates was SnO 2 :N thin films preparing at 2% oxygen partial pressure, the transmittance was about 80% and electrical conductivity was about 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm

  3. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays.

  4. Optimizing The Organic/Inorganic Barrier Structure For Flexible Plastic Substrate Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chiuan Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A multilayered barrier structure stacked with organosilicon and silicon oxide (SiOx films consecutively prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD was developed to encapsulate flexible plastic substrate. The evolution on the residual internal stress, structural quality of the organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure as well as its adhesion to the substrate were found to correlate closely with the thickness of the inset organosilicon layer. Due to the significant discrepancy in the thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and SiOx film, the thickness of the organosilicon layer deposited onto the substrate and SiOx film thus was crucial to optimize the barrier property of the organosilicon/SiOx structure. The organosilicon/SiOx barrier structure possessed a lowest residual compressive stress and quality adhesion to the substrate was achieved from engineering the organosilicon layer thickness in the multilayered structure. The relaxation of the residual internal stress in the barrier structure led to a dense SiOx film as a consequence of the enhancement in the Si-O-Si networks and thereby resulted in the reduction of the water vapor permeation. Accordingly, a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR below 1 × 10-2 g/m2 /day being potential for the application on the flexible optoelectronic device packaging was achievable from the 3-pairs organosilicon/SiOx multilayered structure deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate.

  5. Indium-Free PTB7/PC71BM Polymer Solar Cells with Solution-Processed Al:ZnO Electrodes on PET Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fuchs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted PTB7/PC71BM polymer solar cells are prepared on solution-processed Al:ZnO transparent contacts on PET substrates. Al:ZnO is deposited by a low temperature chemical bath deposition route (T < 100°C at any step to comply with the temperature sensitive substrate. A maximum conversion efficiency of 6.4% and 6.9% is achieved for the indium-free solar cells on PET and glass substrates, respectively. The devices are relatively stable in air whereby an initial efficiency loss in the order of 15% after storage for 15 days can be fully recovered by light soaking.

  6. The influence of ultraviolet radiation on poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.

    2004-11-01

    The thermals properties of the polyethylene terephthalate samples exposed to UV radiation were studied. The results show a slight decrease ofΔ Cp and glass transition temperature values with the increase of the exposed times. The kinetics study of the cooled anisothermal crystallization, shows a weak increase of the values of the apparent energy with the irradiation times. Results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis of the irradiated specimens indicate a stable thermal behavior. The results show that the PET material is a good resistant for the UV radiation, and the UV radiation affects only the exposed surface of the material and not the whole volume. The decrease of Tg is due to the changes in the molecular weight which occur at the surface of the irradiations samples. The decease of Δ Cp values is probably because of some degradation of the aromatic part of PET at the surface, which gives a double increase of the specific heat capacity. In addition, the changes of the surface properties obstruct the crystallization process at the surface. (Author)

  7. Simultaneous recovery of benzene-rich oil and metals by steam pyrolysis of metal-poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2014-03-18

    The possibility of simultaneous recovery of benzene and metals from the hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-based materials such as X-ray films, magnetic tape, and prepaid cards under a steam atmosphere at a temperature of 450 °C was evaluated. The hydrolysis resulted in metal-containing carbonaceous residue and volatile terephthalic acid (TPA). The effects of metals and additives on the recovery process were also investigated. All metals were quantitatively recovered, and silver, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and anatase (TiO2) were recovered without any changes in their crystal structures or compositions. In a second step, TPA was decarboxylized in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) at 700 °C, producing benzene with an average yield of 34% and purity of 76%. Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) incorporated in magnetic tape and prepaid cards could decarboxylate TPA. Aluminum present in the prepaid cards produced hydrogen by the reaction with steam. However, the presence of metals had no adverse influence on the recovery of benzene-rich oil in the presence of CaO. Therefore, this method can be applied to PET-based materials containing inorganic substances, which cannot be recycled effectively otherwise.

  8. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou Chongwu

    2011-01-01

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ DC /σ Op , for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ TE . Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  9. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-06-17

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ(DC)/σ(Op), for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ(TE). Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  10. Influence of flavour absorption by food-packaging materials (low-density polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate) on taste perception of a model solution and orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of flavour absorption by low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on taste perception of a model solution containing seven flavour compounds and orange juice in glass bottles was studied with and without pieces of the respective plastic

  11. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparanga, Alvin R.; Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  12. Wettability modification of porous PET by atmospheric femtosecond PLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Youssef; Forstmann, Guillaume; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    In this study, porous structures were created on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining. While such structures offer a texture that is desirable for several applications, their wettability does not always match the application in question. The aim of this investigation is to tune the wettability of such surfaces by incorporating a controlled amount of nanoparticles into the structure. The machined PET samples were thus used as substrates for fs pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of titanium under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were deposited as nanochain clusters due to the formation of an oxide layer between individual nanoparticles. The stability of nanoparticle incorporation was tested by placing the samples in an ultrasonic ethanol bath. Results indicated that nanoparticles were still successfully incorporated into the microstructure after sonication. Nanoparticle surface coverage was observed to be controllable through the operating fluence. The dynamic contact angles of the resulting composite surface were observed to decrease with increasing titanium incorporation. Therefore, this work highlights atmospheric fs PLD as a method for wettability modification of high surface area microstructures without undermining their topology. In addition, this technique uses almost the same equipment as the machining process by which the microstructures are initially created, further highlighting its practicality.

  13. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics

  14. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  15. Particle identification with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detector with high detection threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K.; Syam, D.

    2014-10-01

    In the present work we describe the results of studies, using accelerator data, to determine the accuracy with which particles can be identified and their energies determined with a commercially available polymer (PET) used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD). The achieved charge resolution was ± 1 . The initial energy of stopping particle in PET was determined with an accuracy of 10 % for ion energies above the Bragg peak.

  16. Particle identification with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detector with high detection threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, S. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Maulik, A., E-mail: atanu.maulik@gmail.com [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Syam, D. [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, Kolkata 700 124 (India)

    2014-10-01

    In the present work we describe the results of studies, using accelerator data, to determine the accuracy with which particles can be identified and their energies determined with a commercially available polymer (PET) used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD). The achieved charge resolution was ±1. The initial energy of stopping particle in PET was determined with an accuracy of 10% for ion energies above the Bragg peak.

  17. Studying physical properties of CuInS2 absorber layers grown by spin coating method on different kinds of substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerioun, M. H.; Ghazi, M. E.; Izadifard, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, first the CuInS2 (CIS2) layers are deposited on Aluminum and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as flexible substrates, and on glass and soda lime glass (SLG) as rigid substrates by the sol-gel method. Then the samples are analyzed by x-ray diffractomery (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the crystal structures and surface roughness of the samples. The I-V curve measurements and Seebeck effect setup are used to measure the electrical properties of the samples. The XRD data obtained for the CIS2 layers show that all the prepared samples have a single phase with a preferred orientation that is substrate-dependent. The samples grown on the rigid substrates had higher crystallite sizes. The results obtained for the optical measurements indicate the dependence of the band gap energy on the substrate type. The measured Seebeck coefficient showed that the carriers were of p-type in all the samples. According to the AFM images, the surface roughness also varied in the CIS2 layers with different substrates. In this regard, the type of substrate could be an important parameter for the final performance of the fabricated CIS2 cells.

  18. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  19. The thermal analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ziyu [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hay, J.N., E-mail: j.n.hay@bham.ac.uk [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Jenkins, M.J. [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    Graphical abstract: Changes to infra-red spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on heating and cooling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microgram samples have been analysed to determine glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbance of cis/trans bands have been followed with temperature on heating and cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractional crystallinity was determined directly without calibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR absorption bands are characterized as type I or type II according to their behaviour with temperature. - Abstract: Thermal analysis-FTIR spectroscopy, TA-FTIR, has been used to characterize the phase transitions in thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and it has been shown to have distinct advantages over other TA techniques in particular it was not so limited in sensitivity. Since the technique measured property, such as amorphous content or fractional crystallinity directly rather than the rate of change of the properties with time or temperature, it was not so restricted in the time scale over which measurements were made. It also had the advantage of measuring the change in concentration of different functional groups with temperature and determining the temperature range over which chain mobility set in and defining the type of molecular groups involved in the configurational changes. The change in absorbance and shift in peak position with temperature are discussed in terms of the separation of crystalline and amorphous bands as well as defining the cis/trans ratio as a function of temperature. Depending on the change in absorbance or peak position with temperature of the IR bands, they have been characterized as type I or type II behaviour. Measurements on both have been used to characterize the glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET.

  20. The thermal analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ziyu; Hay, J.N.; Jenkins, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Changes to infra-red spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on heating and cooling. Highlights: ► Microgram samples have been analysed to determine glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET. ► The absorbance of cis/trans bands have been followed with temperature on heating and cooling. ► Fractional crystallinity was determined directly without calibration. ► The IR absorption bands are characterized as type I or type II according to their behaviour with temperature. - Abstract: Thermal analysis-FTIR spectroscopy, TA-FTIR, has been used to characterize the phase transitions in thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and it has been shown to have distinct advantages over other TA techniques in particular it was not so limited in sensitivity. Since the technique measured property, such as amorphous content or fractional crystallinity directly rather than the rate of change of the properties with time or temperature, it was not so restricted in the time scale over which measurements were made. It also had the advantage of measuring the change in concentration of different functional groups with temperature and determining the temperature range over which chain mobility set in and defining the type of molecular groups involved in the configurational changes. The change in absorbance and shift in peak position with temperature are discussed in terms of the separation of crystalline and amorphous bands as well as defining the cis/trans ratio as a function of temperature. Depending on the change in absorbance or peak position with temperature of the IR bands, they have been characterized as type I or type II behaviour. Measurements on both have been used to characterize the glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET.

  1. Three-dimensional culture of human mesenchymal stem cells in a polyethylene terephthalate matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanfen; Li Ding; Shang Chunhua; Wang Jufang; Wang Xiaoning; Yang Shangtian

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was used as the scaffold material to support the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cells were cultured either statically in multi-wells or in a spinner flask agitated at 80 rpm for up to 20 days. To optimize the cell expansion condition, effects of the initial cell density and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined. During culture, cell growth and metabolism were tested. After 20 days, cells were harvested and surface markers were identified and quantified with flow cytometry. The results showed that hMSCs seeded at the lowest density gave the highest expansion fold. hMSCs grown in porous three-dimensional (3D) matrices displayed significantly different characteristics in terms of their proliferation and metabolism. PET matrices with 3D space could sustain cell proliferation for a long time. In addition, a low concentration (5 ng mL -1 ) of bFGF significantly enhanced the expansion of hMSCs in PET. Cell attachment and distribution in PET matrices were studied with confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which also confirmed cell proliferation. Furthermore, most of the cells in PET matrices were CD29, CD44 and CD105 positive, and CD34, CD45 and CD14 negative, confirming that hMSCs cultured in 3D PET matrices can be expanded and maintained in their undifferentiated state for at least 20 days without subculturing.

  2. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 . The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  3. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Glutaric anhydride peroxide (GAP) was grafted on PET surface by UV irradiation method. Then MDI was attached to GAP on PET surface. • The fabric was vulcanized by nitrile rubber. • Peet test was performed after each stage of surface modification. • Curing temperature was increased and the tests were repeated. • Effect of MDI coating on PET without carboxylation was evaluated. Effect of vulcanizing temperature on this product was also studied. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  4. Stiffness modulus of Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixture: A statistical analysis of the laboratory testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of PET modification on stiffness property of asphalt mixture was examined. • Different temperatures and loading amounts were designated. • Statistical analysis was used to find interactions between selected variables. • A good agreement between experimental results and predicted values was obtained. • Optimal amount of PET was calculated to achieve the highest mixture performance. - Abstract: Stiffness of asphalt mixture is a fundamental design parameter of flexible pavement. According to literature, stiffness value is very susceptible to environmental and loading conditions. In this paper, effects of applied stress and temperature on the stiffness modulus of unmodified and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) modified asphalt mixtures were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A quadratic model was successfully fitted to the experimental data. Based on the results achieved in this study, the temperature variation had the highest impact on the mixture’s stiffness. Besides, PET content and amount of stress showed to have almost the same effect on the stiffness of mixtures. The optimal amount of PET was found to be 0.41% by weight of aggregate particles to reach the highest stiffness value

  5. Effect of Nanodisperse Carbon Fillers and Isocyanate Chain Extender on Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Agabekov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diisocyanate chain extender (CE on the mechanical, rheological, and relaxation properties, as well as on molecular weight and crystallizability, of starting poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET and its composites containing carbon nanomaterials (CNM such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs and commercial carbon (CC has been studied. The composites were compounded in molten PET using twin-screw extruder (screw diameter 35 mm; L/D=40. To improve the distribution of CNM in the polymeric matrix (before introduction into the melt, they were blended with PET powder and subjected to an ultrasonic treatment in methylene chloride. The salient features of the materials structure were estimated based on DSC and relaxation spectrometry (dynamic mechanical analysis data. It has been found that CNM additives partly suppress the PET-chain extension reactions which take place during interaction between macromolecular end groups and CE. Besides, both CNT and CC favour crystallizability of the modified PET owing to nucleation of the crystallization process. The influence of CNT appears to be more effective than that of CC. Enhancements in true mechanical strength and deformability of PET/CE/CNM composites, as against PET/CE materials, were found to be most clearly exhibited by the CNT-containing composites.

  6. Effect of short fiber reinforcement on the properties of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsli, Nevin Gamze; Yesil, Sertan; Aytac, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved to the tensile strength. ► Fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of r-PET/PEN blend. ► CF reinforced composite has the highest storage modulus value. - Abstract: In this study, short carbon (CF), glass (GF) and hybrid carbon/glass fiber reinforced recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends were prepared by melt mixing method. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composites were investigated by using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimeter, dynamic mechanical analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis showed that there is a better interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix for CF reinforced composite. It was found that addition of short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values more than the addition of PEN into r-PET. According to DMA analysis, fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of composites when compared with r-PET/PEN blend and among them storage modulus of CF reinforced composite was the highest. It was concluded that mechanical properties of r-PET can be enhanced with addition of PEN and more efficiently with short fiber reinforcement

  7. Prediction models of mechanical properties for pet-mortar composite in sodium sulphateaggressive mediums

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tani Nabil; Benosman A.S.; Senhadji Y.; Taïbi H.; Mouli M.; Belbachir M.

    2018-01-01

    In this research, an investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulphate attack on the durability of composites produced with waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced by various volume fractions of waste PET particles (6%, 12% and 17%). The test solutions used to supply the sulphate ions and cations were 5%sodium sulphate solution. Compressive strengths measure...

  8. Solvent-Induced Crystallization in Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) during Mass Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao

    2001-03-01

    The solvent transport in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and related phase transformation were investigated. The data of mass sorption were analyzed according to Harmon¡¦s model for Case I (Fickian), Case II (swelling) and anomalous transport. This transport process in PET is accompanied by the induced crystallization of the original amorphous state. The transformation was studied by wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), density gradient column, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). During this process, the matrix is under a compressive strain that causes different kinetic path of crystallization as compared to that by thermal annealing. This state of strain will assist the development of the solvent-induced crystallization. It also can be explained in terms of the principle of Le Chatelier if the local equilibrium is assumed. The model regarding the crystallization was proposed in terms of the study of long period L, the crystal thickness lc and the thickness of amorphous layer la, obtained from the linear correlation function and interface distribution function.

  9. Bubble column and CFD simulation for chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzuhairi, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important simulation tool, which uses powerful computer to get optimal design in industrial processes. New approach technique of bubble column for three phases has been used with respect to chemical recycling of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). The porous ceramic has been used in thin plate (5 mm) with a narrow pore size distribution. Excellent agreement between CFD has been predicted and experimental profiles of hold-up and velocity close to wall have been observed for a column diameter 0.08 m, column height 0.15 m (HD), and superficial gas velocity (VG) 0.05 m/s. The main purpose of the current study is to highlight depolymerization of PET chemically by using the close system of Ethylene Glycol, PET-Catalyzed, and Nitrogen glycolysis process in bubble column of three phases technique by using Nano catalyst, SiO2 with various weight percent (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5) based on PET weight and preheated Nitrogen up to 100° C by extra heater in bubble column reactor. The depolymerization time could be reduced in order to improve heat and mass transfer in comparison with the traditional methods. Little amount not exceeding 0.01% of Nano SiO2 is enough for completing depolymerization. The final product of PET depolymerization has full characterization by FTIR, AFM, CHN tests and has been used as a vital additive for Bitumen, it has been investigated as a moisture-proof, water seepage-proof material, and as a tough resistant to environmental conditions.

  10. Flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag multilayer electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate using roll-to-roll sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the optical, electrical, structural, and surface properties of roll-to-roll [R2R] sputter-grown flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag [IAIA] multilayer films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates as a function of the top indium zinc oxide [IZO] thickness. It was found that the optical transmittance of the IAIA multilayer was significantly influenced by the top IZO layer thickness, which was grown on identical AIA multilayers. However, the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was maintained between the range 5.01 to 5.1 Ω/square regardless of the top IZO thickness because the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was mainly dependent on the thickness of the Ag layers. Notably, the optimized IAIA multilayer had a constant resistance change (ΔR/R0) under repeated outer bending tests with a radius of 10 mm. The mechanical integrity of the R2R-sputtered IAIA multilayer indicated that hybridization of an IZO and Ag metal layer is a promising flexible electrode scheme for the next-generation flexible optoelectronics. PMID:22222144

  11. Enhanced electrical properties of AZO thin films grown on different substrates by using a facing-target sputtering system with hetero targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChangHyun; Bae, Kang; Jin, IkHyeon; Kim, HwaMin; Sohn, SunYoung

    2015-09-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited on glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at room temperature by using conventional rf-magneton sputtering (CMS) and a facing-target sputtering (FTS) with hetero targets of Al2O3 and ZnO. Their structural, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were characterized by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall-effect measurement and ultravioletvisible spectrophotometry, respectively. The films exhibit highly c-axis preferred orientation and a closely packed nanocrystalline. Structure the FTS-films deposited on plastic substrate are found to receive much less stress due to bombardment of high-energy particles compress to the CMS-films deposited on plastic substrates, during the sputtering process, which can enhance the electrical properties and crystalline quality of the FTS-films compared with those of the CMS-films. The resistivities of the FTS-films are 6.50 × 10-4 Ω·cm on glass, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω·cm on PEN and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm on PET while the values for the CMS-films are 7.6 × 10-4 Ω·cm on glass, 1.20 × 10-3 Ω·cm on PEN and 1.58 × 10-3 Ω·cm on PET.

  12. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shengkun; Ma, Kui; Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired w...

  13. Graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) composite laminates on flexible substrates for volatile organic compound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabut, Chanoknan; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Muangrat, Worawut; Bunjongpru, Win; Phonyiem, Mayuree; Song, Young Jae

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a gas sensor for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection based on graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (GR/PMMA) composite laminates fabricated using CVD-grown graphene. Graphene was transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by PMMA-supported wet transfer process without PMMA removal in order to achieve the deposition of GR/PMMA composite laminates on PET. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors show completely different sensitivities to VOC vapors. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors showed the highest sensitivities to dichloromethane (DCM). The response of the GR/PMMA sensor to DCM was 3 times higher than that of the graphene sensor but the GR/PMMA sensor hardly responded to acetone, chloroform, or benzene. The sensing mechanism of the graphene sensor can be based on the dielectric constant of VOCs, the size of VOC molecule, and electron hopping effects on defect graphene, while that of the GR/PMMA sensor can be explained in terms of the polymer swelling owing to the Hansen solubility parameter.

  14. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  15. The effects of irradiation on physicochemical characteristics of PET packaging film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, D.H.; Lee, K.H.; Park, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on physicochemical characteristics of biaxially stretched poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) packaging film were investigated in the range of 0-200 kGy. The diethylene glycol (DEG) contents in PET chains were increased at the low doses, 5 and 10 kGy, while these values were decreased at high doses, in the range of 30-200 kGy. Molecular weights, intrinsic viscosity and carboxy end group contents decreased slightly after 60 kGy dose. Permeability, thermal properties, color, haze and surface resistivity on γ-irradiation of oriented PET films were not significantly affected. Although some of the effects were measurable, they have no significance with respect to the use of PET for packaging of foods or medical devices to be irradiated

  16. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of High Modulus Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate: Influence of Molecular Weight, Extrusion, and Drawing Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Min Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET which is one of the most commercially important polymers, has for many years been an interesting candidate for the production of high performance fibres and tapes. In current study, we focus on investigating the effects of the various processing variables on the mechanical properties of PET produced by a distinctive process of melt spinning and uniaxial two-stage solid-state drawing (SSD. These processing variables include screw rotation speed during extrusion, fibre take-up speed, molecular weight, draw-ratio, and drawing temperature. As-spun PET production using a single-screw extrusion process was first optimized to induce an optimal polymer microstructure for subsequent drawing processes. It was found that less crystallization which occurred during this process would lead to better drawability, higher draw-ratio, and mechanical properties in the subsequent SSD process. Then the effect of drawing temperature (DT in uniaxial two-stage SSD process was studied to understand how DT (PET. The designed process in current work is simulated to an industrial production process for PET fibres; therefore, results and analysis in this paper have significant importance for industrial production.

  18. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  19. Non-isothermal crystallization of PET/PLA blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huipeng; Pyda, Marek; Cebe, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Binary blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with poly(lactic acid), PET/PLA, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering. The PET/PLA blends, prepared by solution casting, were found to be miscible in the melt over the entire composition range. Both quenched amorphous and semicrystalline blends exhibit a single, composition dependent glass transition temperature. We report the non-isothermal crystallization of (a) PET, with and without the presence of PLA crystals and (b) PLA, with and without the presence of PET crystals. PET can crystallize in all blends, regardless of whether PLA is amorphous or crystalline, and degree of crystallinity of PET decreases as PLA content increases. In contrast, PLA crystallization is strongly affected by the mobility of the PET fraction. When PET is wholly amorphous, PLA can crystallize even in 70/30 blends, albeit weakly. But when PET is crystalline, PLA cannot crystallize when its own content drops below 0.90. These different behaviors may possibly be related to the tendency of each polymer to form constrained chains, i.e., to form the rigid amorphous fraction, or RAF. PET is capable of forming a large amount of RAF, whereas relatively smaller amount of RAF forms in PLA. Like the crystals, the rigid amorphous fraction of one polymer component may inhibit the growth of crystals of the other blend partner.

  20. Fabrication of flexible conductive films derived from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) on the nonwoven fabrics substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chieh-Han [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Hsiu-Ping [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Don, Trong-Ming, E-mail: tmdon@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei 251, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, Wen-Yen, E-mail: ycchiu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-16

    In this research, conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) aqueous dispersion was synthesized at first via chemical oxidative polymerization and followed by mixing it with poly(styrene-r-butyl acrylate) P(St-BA) aqueous latex, creating a conductive material with outstanding stretchability. The elastic conductive composite were then film formed on the glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric substrate by spin coating and dip coating, respectively. Composite films with various contents of PEDOT:PSS polymer (10–100 wt.%) had been prepared. From the conductivity measurements, the conductivity was still kept as high as 88 S cm{sup −1} even the PEDOT:PSS content was lowered to 10 wt.%. Furthermore, the elasticity of conductive films on the PET-nonwoven fabric substrate was evaluated by the 180° bending test repeating 100 times. With introducing soft P(St-BA) material in the PEDOT:PSS phase, the surface resistance increased merely 3–6 times after bending 100 times, while the surface resistance for pure PEDOT:PSS film could reach 18–20 times. - Highlights: • Flexible PEDOT:PSS based material had been coated on the PET-nonwoven fabrics. • The integrity of conductive circuit on fabrics was evaluated by bending test. • With adding rubbery material, the flexibility of PEDOT:PSS coating was enhanced.

  1. Fabrication of flexible conductive films derived from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) on the nonwoven fabrics substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chieh-Han; Shen, Hsiu-Ping; Don, Trong-Ming; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this research, conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) aqueous dispersion was synthesized at first via chemical oxidative polymerization and followed by mixing it with poly(styrene-r-butyl acrylate) P(St-BA) aqueous latex, creating a conductive material with outstanding stretchability. The elastic conductive composite were then film formed on the glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric substrate by spin coating and dip coating, respectively. Composite films with various contents of PEDOT:PSS polymer (10–100 wt.%) had been prepared. From the conductivity measurements, the conductivity was still kept as high as 88 S cm −1 even the PEDOT:PSS content was lowered to 10 wt.%. Furthermore, the elasticity of conductive films on the PET-nonwoven fabric substrate was evaluated by the 180° bending test repeating 100 times. With introducing soft P(St-BA) material in the PEDOT:PSS phase, the surface resistance increased merely 3–6 times after bending 100 times, while the surface resistance for pure PEDOT:PSS film could reach 18–20 times. - Highlights: • Flexible PEDOT:PSS based material had been coated on the PET-nonwoven fabrics. • The integrity of conductive circuit on fabrics was evaluated by bending test. • With adding rubbery material, the flexibility of PEDOT:PSS coating was enhanced

  2. Real-time optical modelling and investigation of inorganic nano-layer growth onto flexible polymeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskarakis, A.; Georgiou, D.; Logothetidis, S.

    2010-01-01

    A major factor for the achievement of the desirable performance, efficiency and lifetime of flexible organic electronic devices is the optimization of the encapsulation layers that protect the device active layers by atmospheric gas molecule permeation. The active layers consisted of small molecule and/or polymer organic semiconductors as well as the organic conductors need to be encapsulated into a transparent medium that will provide the necessary protection and maintain their charge generation and transport characteristics. The encapsulation layers are generally consisted of inorganic thin films (silicon oxide-SiO x and aluminium oxide-AlO x ) deposited onto the polymeric substrates, such as PolyEthylene Terephthalate (PET). In this work, in situ and real-time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the ultraviolet spectral region has been implemented in order to investigate the growth of inorganic SiO x and AlO x nano-layers onto PET flexible polymeric substrates as well as the PET/inorganic interface effects during the early stages of growth. The analysis of the pseudodielectric function that was measured in real-time in very short time scales (in the order of hundreds of ms) has provided detailed information on the time evolution of the thickness and deposition rate of the inorganic nano-layers during their growth process as well as on their optical and electronic properties. This work proposes a methodology for using real-time optical monitoring technique with the aim to tailor and control the functionality of these materials for application in flexible electronic devices.

  3. Rheological, mechanical and morphological properties of poly(methyl methacrylate/poly(ethylene terephthalate blend with dual reactive interfacial compatibilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciklécia da Silva Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the rheological, mechanical and morphological behavior of immiscible blend poly (methyl methacrylate with elastomeric particles (PMMAelast and post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate (PET with and without the use of the interfacial compatibilizer poly (methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate (MGE was studied. The significant increase in torque presented in rheological analyses has shown a indication of chemical reactions between the epoxy group of MGE with end groups of PET chains and also with the elastomeric phase of PMMAelast. The increased concentration of PET yielded an increase in maximum strength and elasticity modulus and a decrease in elongation at break. The PMMAelast/PET binary blend (50/50 wt% and PMMAelast/PET/MGE compatibilized blend (65/30/5 wt% showed pronounced results in elongation at break compared to PMMAelast, whereas, in the first results were due to the evidence of a co-continuous morphological structure and in the second, due to the efficiency of the dual reactive interfacial compatibilization of PMMAelast/PET blends. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses showed that PMMAelast/PET/MGE blends exhibit complex phase morphology due to the presence of elastomeric particles in the PMMAelast copolymer and in the use of MGE terpolymer.

  4. The Chemical Recycling of PET in the Framework of Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilias, D. S.; Karayannidis, G. P.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, all the techniques used in the chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are critically reviewed according to the overall benefits together with the environmental surcharge that they cause. Those, which are consistent with the principles of sustainable development, are indicated. Experimental data are presented for the acid hydrolysis of PET and compared with previous results on the alkaline hydrolysis of PET with, or without, the use of a phase transfer catalyst. Overall material balances are carried out for the hydrolysis of PET. Finally, it can be postulated that recycling according to the scheme:is the only one within the framework of sustainable development. Therefore, the recycling of PET does not only serve as a partial solution to the solid waste problem but also contributes to the conservation of raw petrochemical products and energy

  5. Effect of compatibilizer on impact and morphological analysis of recycled HDPE/PET blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salleh, Mohd Nazry [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Chen, Ruey Shan [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. PET and HDPE are incompatible polymers and their blends showed poor properties. Compatibilization is a step to obtain blends with good mechanical properties and in this work, ethylene glycidyl methacrylate copolymer (E-GMA) was used as a compatibilizing agent. The effect of blends based on rHDPE and rPET with and without a compatibilizer, E-GMA were examined. From the studies clearly showed that the addition of 5% E-GMA increased the impact strength. SEM analysis of rHDPE/rPET blends confirmed the morphological interaction and improved interfacial bonding between two phases.

  6. Improved adhesion of Ag NPs to the polyethylene terephthalate surface via atmospheric plasma treatment and surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied, as important antibacterial materials, on textile and polymer surfaces. However, their adhesion to nonreactive polymer surfaces is generally too weak for many applications. Here, we propose a two-step process, atmospheric plasma treatment followed by a surface chemical modification process, which enhances their adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. We found that, compared to either plasma treatments or surface chemical functionalizations, alone, this combination greatly enhanced their adhesion. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase of active sites (sbnd OH, sbnd CHdbnd O and COOH) at the PET surface, permitting increased bonding to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), whose sbnd NH2 groups were then able to form a bonding complex with the Ag NPs.

  7. Measurement of low neutron-fluences using electrochemically etched PC and PET track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Dajko, G.; Turek, K.; Spurny, F.

    1979-01-01

    Systematic investigations have been carried out to study different properties of electrochemically etched (ECE) polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) foils. The dependence of the density of background discharge spots on surface-thickness removal, electrical field strength and frequency of voltage is given. The effect of these parameters on the neutron sensitivity of polycarbonate and polyethylene-terephthalate foils irradiated at right angles to 14.7 MeV, 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutrons is also studied. With knowledge of the background and sensitivity data, the etching and electrical parameters are optimized for low neutron-fluence measurements. (author)

  8. Wearable supercapacitors on polyethylene terephthalate fabrics with good wash fastness and high flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixia; Babaahmadi, Vahid; He, Nanfei; Liu, Yixin; Pan, Qin; Montazer, Majid; Gao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    All solid-state micro-supercapacitors (MSC) have emerged as attractive energy-storage units for portable and wearable electronics. Here, we describe a textile-based solid-state MSC via laser scribing of graphene oxide (GO) coatings on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. The laser-scribed graphene oxide layers (LGO) possess three-dimensionally porous structure suitable for electrochemical-double-layer formation. To improve the wash fastness and the flexibility of the as-prepared MSCs, glutaraldehyde (GA) was employed to crosslink the GO layers and PVA-gel electrolyte onto the PET fabric. The resultant all solid-state MSCs exhibited excellent flexibility, high areal specific capacitance (756 μF·cm-2 at 20 mV·s-1), and good rate capability when subject to bending and laundering. Furthermore, the MSC device showed a high power density of about 1.4 W·cm-3 and an energy density of 5.3 × 10-5 Wh·cm-3, and retained 98.3% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA·cm-2. This work is the first demonstration of in-plane MSCs on PET fabric surfaces with enhanced durability and flexibility.

  9. The Action of Chain Extenders in Nylon-6, PET, and Model Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loontjens, T.; Pauwels, K.; Derks, F.; Neilen, M.; Sham, C.K.; Serné, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of two complementary chain extenders is studied in model systems as well as in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon–6. Chain extenders are low molecular weight compounds that can be used to increase the molecular weight of polymers in a short time. The reaction must preferably be

  10. Manufacturing of multilayer graphene oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with tunable crystallinity, chain orientations and thermal transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Monfared Zanjani, Jamal [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Saner Okan, Burcu, E-mail: bsanerokan@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Nanografen Nanotechnological Products Limited Company, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze 41430, Kocaeli (Turkey); Menceloglu, Yusuf [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Nanografen Nanotechnological Products Limited Company, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze 41430, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Thermally exfoliated graphene oxide (TEGO) reinforced polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposites with controlled crystallinity, chain conformations and thermo-mechanical properties were produced with very low TEGO weight fractions by a twin-screw compounding extruder. Tensile modulus was found to increase by 52% by the addition of 1 wt% TEGO. This significant increase in mechanical properties of PET nanocomposites was explained by well intercalation of PET chains through multi-layer graphene sheets and complete coverage of graphene surface by electrostatic interactions. An increase in the ratio of gauche and trans conformations in PET chains indicated that PET nanocomposites became more crystalline by increasing TEGO amount. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the favorable interaction between TEGO sheets and PET matrix facilitating the dispersion and flattening of graphene sheets into polymeric matrix during elongation. The integration of 1 wt% TEGO sheets into PET matrix enhanced heat distortion temperature from 71 °C for neat specimen upto 91.6 °C at the constant stress of 0.45 MPa, and increased Vicat softening point from 76 °C upto 95 °C. Therefore, the failures of PET considerably reduced by improving short-term heat resistance and its softening properties between glass transition temperature and melting temperature by the incorporation of TEGO sheets. - Highlights: • 52% modulus improvement by the addition of 1 wt% graphene in PET. • Well-intercalation of PET chains through graphene sheets during compounding process. • Homogeneous graphene dispersion by favorable interactions between graphene and PET. • Enhancement in Heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point of PET composite. • Considerable reduction in failures of PET by improving short-term heat resistance.

  11. Scanning-probe-microscopy of polyethylene terephthalate surface treatment by argon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Beltran, Francisco [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Sanchez, Isaac C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); España-Sánchez, Beatriz L.; Mota-Morales, Josué D.; Carrillo, Salvador; Enríquez-Flores, C.I. [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne, E-mail: epaill@univ-lemans.fr [Institute for Molecules and Materials, UMR CNRS 6283, Av. O. Messiaen, Universitè du Maine, Le Mans 72085 (France); Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel, E-mail: gluna@qro.cinvestav.mx [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Kelvin-probe-force microscopy helps study of PET surface treated by Ar ion beam. • Ar ion beam surface treatment promotes chain scission and N insertion. • Surface roughness and work function increases as intensity of ion energy increases. • Adhesive force of PET decrease due to the surface changes by ion bombardment. - Abstract: The effect of argon (Ar{sup +}) ion beam treatment on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples was studied by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and the changes in surface topography were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) sheds light of adhesion force between treated polymer films and a Pt/Cr probe under dry conditions, obtaining the contact potential difference of material. As a result of Ar{sup +} ion bombardment, important surface chemical changes were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements such as chains scission and incorporation of nitrogen species. Ion beam treatment increases the surface roughness from 0.49 ± 0.1 nm to 7.2 ± 0.1 nm and modify the surface potential of PET samples, decreasing the adhesive forces from 12.041 ± 2.1 nN to 5.782 ± 0.06 nN, and producing a slight increase in the electronic work function (Φ{sub e}) from 5.1 V (untreated) to 5.2 V (treated). Ar{sup +} ion beam treatment allows to potentially changing the surface properties of PET, modifying surface adhesion, improving surface chemical changes, wetting properties and surface potential of polymers.

  12. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  13. Pros and cons of analytical methods to quantify surrogate contaminants from the challenge test in recycled polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Alfaro, Pilar, E-mail: palfarot@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Nerin, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-14

    Different analytical methods were optimized and applied to quantify certain surrogate contaminants (toluene, chlorobenzene, phenol, limonene and benzophenone) in samples of contaminated and recycled flakes and virgin pellets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coming from the industrial challenge test. A screening analysis of the PET samples was carried out by direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). The methods developed and used for quantitative analysis were a) total dissolution of PET samples in dichloroacetic acid and analysis by HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, b) dichloromethane extraction and analysis by GC-MS. The concentration of all surrogates in the contaminated PET flakes analyzed by HS-SPME method was lower than expected according to information provided by the supplier. Dichloroacetic acid interacted with the surrogates, resulting in a tremendous decrease of limonene concentration. The degradation compounds from limonene were identified. Dichloromethane extraction and GC-MS analysis evidenced the highest values of analytes in these PET samples. Based on the foregoing data, the efficiency of the recycling process was evaluated, whereby the removal of 99.9% of the surrogates proceeding from the contaminated flakes was confirmed.

  14. Pros and cons of analytical methods to quantify surrogate contaminants from the challenge test in recycled polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Juliana S.; Alfaro, Pilar; Nerin, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Different analytical methods were optimized and applied to quantify certain surrogate contaminants (toluene, chlorobenzene, phenol, limonene and benzophenone) in samples of contaminated and recycled flakes and virgin pellets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coming from the industrial challenge test. A screening analysis of the PET samples was carried out by direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). The methods developed and used for quantitative analysis were a) total dissolution of PET samples in dichloroacetic acid and analysis by HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, b) dichloromethane extraction and analysis by GC-MS. The concentration of all surrogates in the contaminated PET flakes analyzed by HS-SPME method was lower than expected according to information provided by the supplier. Dichloroacetic acid interacted with the surrogates, resulting in a tremendous decrease of limonene concentration. The degradation compounds from limonene were identified. Dichloromethane extraction and GC-MS analysis evidenced the highest values of analytes in these PET samples. Based on the foregoing data, the efficiency of the recycling process was evaluated, whereby the removal of 99.9% of the surrogates proceeding from the contaminated flakes was confirmed.

  15. Influence of flavour absorption on oxygen permentation through LDPE, PP, PC and PET plastics food packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Stege, van der H.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of flavour absorption on the oxygen permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied using an isostatic continuous flow system. Polymer samples were exposed to a model solution containing limonene,

  16. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kashish; Hall, Robert A.; George, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a new version of ALD based on the separation of reactant gases in space instead of time. In this paper, the authors present results for spatial ALD on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor. The design for this reactor is based on two concentric cylinders. The outer cylinder remains fixed and contains a series of slits. These slits can accept a wide range of modules that attach from the outside. The modules can easily move between the various slit positions and perform precursor dosing, purging, or pumping. The inner cylinder rotates with the flexible substrate and passes underneath the various spatially separated slits in the outer cylinder. Trimethyl aluminum and ozone were used to grow Al 2 O 3 ALD films at 40 °C on metallized polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to characterize this spatial ALD reactor. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements revealed a constant Al 2 O 3 ALD growth rate of 1.03 Å/cycle with rotation speeds from 40 to 100 RPM with the outer cylinder configured for one Al 2 O 3 ALD cycle per rotation. The Al 2 O 3 ALD growth rate then decreased at higher rotation rates for reactant residence times < 5 ms. The Al 2 O 3 ALD films were also uniform to within <1% across the central portion of metallized PET substrate. Fixed deposition time experiments revealed that Al 2 O 3 ALD films could be deposited at 2.08 Å/s at higher rotation speeds of 175 RPM. Even faster deposition rates are possible by adding more modules for additional Al 2 O 3 ALD cycles for every one rotation of the inner cylinder

  17. Superior toughness obtained via tuning the compatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene–octene) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Juan-juan; Peng, Fang; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Guang-hui; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a new elastomer-toughened plastic system based on PET. • Superior toughness was achieved by adding POE into PET. • The best toughness correlated with a moderate level of interfacial adhesion. • The mechanism of toughening was attributed to matrix shear yielding. - Abstract: As a partial of the systematic investigation of the preparation and characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) blending/compounding materials with excellent comprehensive mechanics in the authors’ group, this study deals with the compatibilization modification of PET/elastomer blends to obtain superior toughness. Poly(ethylene–octene) (POE) was employed as elastomer toughener, while maleic anhydride grafted POE (mPOE) was selected as compatibilizer. To highlight the effect of compatibility on toughening, the sum amount of elastomer component, POE and mPOE, was fixed at 20 wt%, but the mass ratio of mPOE/POE was changeable. It is interesting to find that an optimization of toughening can be attained at 3 wt% mPOE, at which the notched impact strength is about 15 folds for that of neat PET. The toughening behavior observed is due to a combination of good dispersion of elastomer phase particles and, particularly, appropriate interfacial adhesion condition. Microscopic fractured morphology reveals that a moderate level of interfacial adhesion is important for good dispersion of elastomer phase and debonding between PET matrix and elastomer particles, which initiate matrix shear yielding to dissipate more energy than other interfacial adhesion conditions

  18. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  19. Effects of argon and oxygen flow rate on water vapor barrier properties of silicon oxide coatings deposited on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Ryong; Choudhury, Moinul Haque; Kim, Won-Ho; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Plasma polymer coatings were deposited from hexamethyldisiloxane on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates while varying the operating conditions, such as the Ar and O 2 flow rates, at a fixed radio frequency power of 300 W. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the untreated PET was 54.56 g/m 2 /day and was decreased after depositing the silicon oxide (SiO x ) coatings. The minimum WVTR, 0.47 g/m 2 /day, was observed at Ar and O 2 flow rates of 4 and 20 sccm, respectively, with a coating thickness of 415.44 nm. The intensity of the peaks for the Si-O-Si bending at 800-820 cm -1 and Si-O-Si stretching at 1000-1150 cm -1 varied depending on the Ar and O 2 flow rates. The contact angle of the SiO x coated PET increased as the Ar flow rate was increased from 2 to 8 sccm at a fixed O 2 flow rate of 20 sccm. It decreased gradually as the oxygen flow rate increased from 12 to 28 sccm at a fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate. The examination by atomic force microscopy revealed a correlation of the SiO x morphology and the water vapor barrier performance with the Ar and O 2 flow rates. The roughness of the deposited coatings increased when either the O 2 or Ar flow rate was increased.

  20. Influence of expanded graphite (EG) and graphene oxide (GO) on physical properties of PET based nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkiewicz Sandra; Nachman Małgorzata; Szymczyk Anna; Špitalský Zdeno; Mosnáček Jaroslav; Rosłaniec Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    This work is the continuation and refinement of already published communications based on PET/EG nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization1, 2. In this study, nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with expanded graphite were compared to those with functionalized graphite sheets (GO). The results suggest that the degree of dispersion of nanoparticles in the PET matrix has important effect on the structure and physical properties of the nanocomposites. The existence of gr...

  1. Poly(ester-amide)s derived from PET containing uniform bisester amide segments

    OpenAIRE

    Ascanio Nuñez, Yanireth

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) has experienced a growth in its demand as a bottle container and food packaging material. However, in order to expand its uses, its barrier properties to gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen, have to be improved. In this way, bisester amide units have been introduced as a third component in the main chain of PET, with the aim to reduce both CO2 and O2 permeability. In this project, poly(ester-amide)s based on PET (PETxMXy) have been synthesized, according to th...

  2. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  3. Combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the infrared absorption spectra of polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, S.M.; ElBially, A.; Elshourbaguie, S.

    1991-01-01

    The combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the intensities of infrared absorption bands of polyethylene terephthalate, particularly the bands sensitive to conformational changes, were studied. The results revealed that solvent treatment of PET results in significant changes in the intensities of its infrared absorption bands and the exposure of PET to gamma radiation in the presence of solvents helps in the appearance of the two bands at 1550 and 1630 cm . Also, the combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the intensities of the absorption bands is greater than the effect of each agent alone. The extent of the induced changes depends on the nature of solvent and the applied dosage. Further more, for any given solvent or dosage, the rate of change of the intensities of the trans band is not equal to that of the gauche bands.3 fig

  4. Effect of a SiO2 buffer layer on the characteristics of In2O3-ZnO-SnO2 films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, B.-J.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, S.-T.; Kim, H.-M.; Park, S.-H.; Kim, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Transparent and conducting In 2 O 3 -ZnO-SnO 2 (IZTO) thin films were prepared on flexible PET substrates at room temperature by using an ion-gun-assisted sputtering technique. We mainly investigated the effect of a SiO 2 buffer layer, deposited in-between the film and the PET substrate, on the electrical stability of the film under various external stresses caused by moist-heat or violent temperature variations. The insertion of the SiO 2 layer improves structural, optical and electrical properties of the films: The IZTO/SiO 2 /PET film with a buffer shows a change (∼4 %) in the sheet resistance much smaller than that of the IZTO/PET film without a buffer (∼22 %), against a severe thermal stress of the repeated processes between quenching at -25 .deg. C and annealing at 100 .deg. C for 5 min at each process. Under a moist-heat stress at 90 % relative humidity at 80 .deg. C, the IZTO/SiO 2 /PET film responds with only a slight change (∼8.5 %) in the sheet resistance from 30.2 to 33.0 Ω/□ after being exposed for 240 h. The enhanced stability is understood to be the result of the buffer layers acting as a blocking barrier to water vapor or organic solvents diffusing from the PET substrate during deposition or annealing.

  5. Radiation-induced conduction under high electric field (1 x 106 to 1 x 108 V/m) in polyethylene-terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Kurashige, M.; Ito, D.; Nakakita, T.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced conduction in polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) has been measured under high electric field (1.0 x 10 6 to 1.6 x 10 8 V/m). In a 6-μm-thick PET film, saturation of the radiation-induced current occurs at field strengths above 1.2 x 10 8 V/m. This has been demonstrated by the thickness and dose rate dependence of the induced current. Radiation-induced conductivity increases monotonically with field strength, then shows a saturation tendency. This may be explained by geminate recombination. Above 1 x 10 8 V/m, slowly increasing radiation-induced current appears. This may be caused by electron injection from the cathode, enhanced by the accumulation of the hetero space charges near it

  6. Evaluation of permanent deformation characteristics of unmodified and Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixtures using dynamic creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste PET was utilized as modifier in asphalt mixture. • Deformation characteristics of asphalt mixtures were assessed. • Dynamic creep test was conducted at different temperatures and stress levels. • Permanent deformation models were introduced. - Abstract: One of the major types of plastics that can be found in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a non-biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer, and is considered as polyester material. Generating large amount of waste PET, mainly as bottles, would cause environmental hazards by disposing in landfills. This paper aims to evaluate effects of utilizing waste PET flakes as modifier in asphalt mixture as an alternative solution to overcome the potential risks arise from producing large amount of waste PET as well as evaluating the deformation characteristics of unmodified and PET modified asphalt mixtures. To achieve this aim, different percentages of PET were designated for this investigation, namely: 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% by weight of aggregate particles, and dynamic creep test was performed at different stress levels (300 kPa and 400 kPa) and temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C). Consequently, Zhou three-stage model was developed. The results showed that permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt mixture were considerably improved by utilization of PET modification, when the permanent strain was remarkably decreased in PET modified mixture compared to the conventional mixture at all stress levels and temperatures. Besides, based on Zhou model, it was concluded that elastic and visco-elastic properties of asphalt mixture were improved by application of PET modification

  7. Effect of plasma power on reduction of printable graphene oxide thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mahapatra, Santosh K.; Pal, Chandana; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Ray, Asim K.

    2018-05-01

    Room temperature hydrogen plasma treatment on solution processed 300 nm graphene oxide (GO) films on flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates has been performed by varying the plasma power between 20 W and 60 W at a constant exposure time of 30 min with a view to examining the effect of plasma power on reduction of GO. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic studies show that high energy hydrogen species generated in the plasma assist fast exfoliation of the oxygenated functional groups present in the GO samples. Significant decrease in the optical band gap is observed from 4.1 eV for untreated samples to 0.5 eV for 60 W plasma treated samples. The conductivity of the films treated with 60 W plasma power is estimated to be six orders of magnitude greater than untreated GO films and this enhancement of conductivity on plasma reduction has been interpreted in terms of UV-visible absorption spectra and density functional based first principle computational calculations. Plasma reduction of GO/ITO/PET structures can be used for efficiently tuning the electrical and optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for flexible electronics applications.

  8. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  9. Effect of Different Manufacturing Methods on the Conflict between Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Spiral and Porous Polyethylene Terephthalate/Sodium Alginate Bone Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Lou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the incompatibility between high porosity and mechanical properties, this study fabricates bone scaffolds by combining braids and sodium alginate (SA membranes. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET plied yarns are braided into hollow, porous three dimensional (3D PET braids, which are then immersed in SA solution, followed by cross-linking with calcium chloride (CaCl2 and drying, to form PET bone scaffolds. Next, SA membranes are rolled and then inserted into the braids to form the spiral and porous PET/SA bone scaffolds. Samples are finally evaluated for surface observation, porosity, water contact angle, compressive strength, and MTT assay. The test results show that the PET bone scaffolds and PET/SA bone scaffolds both have good hydrophilicity. An increasing number of layers and an increasing CaCl2 concentration cause the messy, loose surface structure to become neat and compact, which, in turn, decreases the porosity and increases the compressive strength. The MTT assay results show that the cell viability of differing SA membranes is beyond 100%, indicating that the PET/SA bone scaffolds containing SA membranes are biocompatible for cell attachment and proliferation.

  10. A study of elemental migration from poly(ethylene terephthalate) of food packagings to simulated solutions by radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saki, Mitiko; Silva, Leonardo G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian plastic production for food packagings, in recent years, has grown in the same proportion as food consumption. Considering that the plastic manufacturing involves catalytic processes and the use of additives, when the foods are in direct contact with these materials, the components present in plastics may migrate to the food. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has established boundary-values of migrants as well as procedures to evaluate migration of elements and substances from plastic packaging to food. In this study elemental composition of poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET - packaging and results of elemental migration were obtained. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine elemental concentrations in PET packagings and the radiometric method was applied for elemental migration determination. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating the PET samples with neutrons, followed by migration exposition and radioactivity measurement in food-simulated solution. Experimental conditions used for migration were 10 days exposure period at 40 deg C. Migration was evaluated for soft drink, juice and water PET packaging. The analytical results indicated that PET packagings contain Co and Sb and those elements are transferred to the simulated solutions. However, these migration results were lower than the maximum tolerance values established by ANVISA. The migration detection limits also indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  11. Effect of oxygen pressure of SiOx buffer layer on the electrical properties of GZO film deposited on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Du; Ko, Young Gun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Song, Jean-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2009-01-01

    The present work was made to investigate the effect of oxygen pressure of SiO x layer on the electrical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films deposited on poly-ethylene telephthalate (PET) substrate by utilizing the pulsed-laser deposition at ambient temperature. For this purpose, the SiO x buffer layers were deposited at various oxygen pressures ranging from 13.3 to 46.7 Pa. With increasing oxygen pressure during the deposition of SiO x layer as a buffer, the electrical resistivity of GZO/SiO x /PET films gradually decreased from 7.6 x 10 -3 to 6.8 x 10 -4 Ω.cm, due to the enhanced mobility of GZO films. It was mainly due to the grain size of GZO films related to the roughened surface of the SiO x buffer layers. In addition, the average optical transmittance of GZO/SiO x /PET films in a visible regime was estimated to be ∼ 90% comparable to that of GZO deposited onto a glass substrate.

  12. Facile preparation of super-hydrophilic poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric using dilute sulfuric acid under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fang [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Yuansong [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A durable super-hydrophilic PET fabric was prepared using dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation. • Dilute sulfuric acid was gradually concentrated enough to sulfonate PET fabric. • Microwave irradiation made PET fabric modification highly efficient. • The mechanical properties of modified PET fibers were kept well. • The method was novel, rapid, and eco-friendly. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was greatly modified by using dilute sulfuric acid, which gradually became concentrated enough to sulfonate the fabric when microwave irradiation (MW) was applied. The modified PET fabric was super-hydrophilic. Modifying the fabric caused the water contact angle to decrease from 132.46 (for the unmodified fabric) to 0°, the water absorption rate to increase from 36.45 to 119.78%, and the capillary rise height to increase from 0.4 to 14.4 cm. The hydrophilicity of the modified PET fabric was not affected by washing it many times. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that there were sulfonic acid groups on the modified fibers. Almost no difference between the surfaces of the unmodified and modified PET fibers was found using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that the unmodified and modified fabrics had similar thermostabilities. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline structures of the unmodified and modified fibers showed that they were almost the same. The strength, elasticity, and rigidity of the unmodified fabric were retained by the modified fabric. The modified fabric had better dyeing properties than the unmodified fabric.

  13. Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Abolfazl; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Maghanaki, Amir Abedin

    2005-08-01

    One of the environmental issues in most regions of Iran is the large number of bottles made from poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) deposited in domestic wastes and landfills. Due to the high volume of these bottles, more than 1 million m3 landfill space is needed for disposal every year. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using PET waste in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt) to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. For this purpose the mechanical properties of plastiphalt mixes were compared with control samples. This study focused on the parameters of Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. The waste PET used in this study was in the form of granules of about 3 mm diameter which would replace (by volume) a portion of the mineral coarse aggregates of an equal size (2.36-4.75 mm). In all prepared mixes the determined 6.6% optimum bitumen content was used. In this investigation, five different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement were used. The results showed that the aggregate replacement of 20% by volume with PET granules would result in a reduction of 2.8% in bulk compacted mix density. The value of flow in the plastiphalt mix was lower than that of the control samples. The results also showed that when PET was used as partial aggregate replacement, the corresponding Marshall stability and Marshall quotient were almost the same as for the control samples. According to most of specification requirement, these results introduce an asphalt mix that has properties that makes it suitable for practical use and furthermore, the recycling of PET for asphalt concrete roads helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy.

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of commercial multilayer PET/PP film irradiated with electron-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Angel V.; Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Oliveira, Vitor M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties, for one commercial flexible food packaging multilayer structure, were studied. The laminated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ polypropylene (PP) structure was irradiated up to 60 kGy, using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. Mechanical properties showed significant changes (p < 0.05). In addition, the DSC analysis, after treatment, showed that the fusion enthalpy and crystallinity of the PET/PP structure components presented significant changes (p < 0.05) with the electron-beam radiation doses applied. It was observed an increase in PP crystallinity while the PET crystallinity decreases. Such decrease in PET crystallinity indicates the predominance of a cross-linking process on the irradiated PET layer; responsible for the increase in some mechanical properties of the studied film. (author)

  15. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xiubo; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  16. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  17. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tian Xiubo [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-12-15

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  18. Optical response of large-area aluminum-coated nano-bucket arrays on flexible PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohertz, Donna; Chuo, Yindar; Omrane, Badr; Landrock, Clint; Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2014-09-01

    The high-cost of fabrication of nanohole arrays for extraordinary optical transmission, surface-plasmon-resonance-based sensors, inhibits their widespread commercial adoption. Production typically involves the application of small-area patterning techniques, such as focused-ion-beam milling, and electron-beam lithography onto high-cost gold-coated substrates. Moving to lower-cost manufacturing is a critical step for applications such as the detection of environmental oil-leaks, or water quality assurance. In these applications, the sensitivity requirements are relatively low, and a bio-compatible inert surface, such as gold, is unnecessary. We report on the optical response of aluminum-coated nano-bucket arrays fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The arrays are fabricated using an economical roll-to-roll UV-casting process from large sheets of nickel templates generated from master quartz stamps. The nano-featured surface is subsequently coated with 50 nm of thermally-evaporated aluminum. The roll-to-roll production process has a 97% yield over a 600 m roll producing nano-buckets with 240 nm diameters, 300 nm deep, with a 70° taper. When exposed to a series of refractive index standards (glucose solutions), changes in the locations of the resonance transmission peaks result in optical sensitivities as high as 390 ± 20 nm/RIU. The peak transmission is approximately 5% of illumination, well within the sensitivity requirements of most common low-cost detectors.

  19. Electroconductive PET/SWNT Films by Solution Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Brian W.; Dean, Derrick R.

    2008-01-01

    The market for electrically conductive polymers is rapidly growing, and an emerging pathway for attaining these materials is via polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites, because of the superior properties of CNTs. Due to their excellent electrical properties and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, we expect CNTs could be easily aligned to maximize their effectiveness in imparting electrical conductivity to the polymer matrix. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were dispersed in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) matrix by solution blending then cast onto a glass substrate to create thin, flexible films. Various SWNT loading concentrations were implemented (0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 wt.%) to study the effect of additive density. The processing method was repeated to produce films in the presence of magnetic fields (3 and 9.4 Tesla). The SWNTs showed a high susceptibility to the magnetic field and were effectively aligned in the PET matrix. The alignment was characterized with Raman spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy was utilized to study the electrical behavior of the films. Concentration and dispersion seemed to play very important roles in improving electrical conductivity, while alignment played a secondary and less significant role. The most interesting result proved to be the effect of a magnetic field during processing. It appears that a magnetic field may improve dispersion of unmodified SWNTs, which seems to be more important than alignment. It was concluded that SWNTs offer a good option as conductive, nucleating filler for electroconductive polymer applications, and the utilization of a magnetic field may prove to be a novel method for CNT dispersion that could lead to improved nanocomposite materials.

  20. Thermal oxidative degradation behaviours of flame-retardant thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester/PET blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaohua; Zhao Chengshou; Wang Yuzhong; Zhou Qian; Deng Yi; Qu Minghai; Yang Bing

    2006-01-01

    The flame retardancy and the thermal oxidative degradation behaviors of the blend of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with a kind of phosphorus-containing thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester (TLCP) with high flame retardancy (limited oxygen index, 70%) have been investigated by oxygen index test (LOI), UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. The results show that TLCP can dramatically improve the flame retardancy and the melt dripping behavior of PET. Moreover, the apparent activation energies of thermal oxidative degradation of the blends were evaluated using Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. It is found that addition of TLCP improve thermal stability and restrain thermal decomposition of PET in air, especially at the primary degradation stage. Py-GC/MS analysis shows that there are remarkable changes in the pyrolysis products when TLCP are blended into PET. The interaction between TLCP and PET has changed their thermal oxidative degradation mechanism

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of three plastic additives' diffusion in polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying

    2017-06-01

    Accurate diffusion coefficient data of additives in a polymer are of paramount importance for estimating the migration of the additives over time. This paper shows how this diffusion coefficient can be estimated for three plastic additives [2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl) (UV-P), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. MD simulations were performed at temperatures of 293-433 K. The diffusion coefficient was calculated through the Einstein relationship connecting the data of mean-square displacement at different times. Comparison of the diffusion coefficients simulated by the MD simulation technique, predicted by the Piringer model and experiments, showed that, except for a few samples, the MD-simulated values were in agreement with the experimental values within one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the diffusion process for additives is discussed in detail, and four factors - the interaction energy between additive molecules and PET, fractional free volume, molecular shape and size, and self-diffusion of the polymer - are proposed to illustrate the microscopic diffusion mechanism. The movement trajectories of additives in PET cell models suggested that the additive molecules oscillate slowly rather than hopping for a long time. Occasionally, when a sufficiently large hole was created adjacently, the molecule could undergo spatial motion by jumping into the free-volume hole and consequently start a continuous oscillation and hop. The results indicate that MD simulation is a useful approach for predicting the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of plastic additives, and help to estimate the migration level of additives from PET packaging.

  2. Chemical Recycling of PET Wastes with Different Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khoonkari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate, known as PET, has been the subject of increased interest as a valuable feedstock for different chemical processes. In this work, glycolysis of PET waste granules was carried out using excess ethylene glycol in the presence of different simple chemicals acting as catalysts, which are, namely, categorized in ionic liquids, metal salts, hydrotalcites, and enzymes. From every category, some materials as a sample were used, and the one which is going to bring the best result is noted. The effect of some parameters such as temperature, pressure, amount of sample, material ratio, and stirring rate was investigated. As a result we compared the best of each category with the others and final result is shown.

  3. Surface Treatment of PET Nonwovens with Atmospheric Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shufang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) nonwovens are treated using an atmospheric plasma and the effects of the treatment time, treatment power and discharge distance on the ability of water-penetration into the nonwovens are investigated. The result indicates that the method can improve the wettability of PET nonwovens remarkably, but the aging decay of the sample's wettability is found to be notable as a function of the storage time after treatment due to the internal rotation of the single bond of surface macromolecules. As shown by SEM and XPS analysis, the etching and surface reaction are significant, and water-penetration weight is found to increase remarkably with the increasing power. This variation can be attributed to momentum transfer and enhanced higher-energy particle excitation.

  4. Guiding of slow Ne7+ ions through nanocapillaries in insulating polyethylene terephthalate: Incident current dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Hellhammer, R.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Kanai, Y.; Kambara, T.; Ikeda, T.; Hoshino, M.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The transmission of highly charged ions through nanocapillaries in insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymers was investigated. In experiments at laboratories in RIKEN (Japan) and HMI (Germany) different detection methods were applied to study the ion current dependence in a wide range covering two orders of magnitude. At HMI an electrostatic ion spectrometer was used and at RIKEN a two-dimensional position sensitive detector was implemented. New PET samples with parallel capillaries and low density were manufactured. For tilted capillaries, the ions are guided along the capillary axis, since the majority of ions are deflected in a charge patch created in the capillary entrance. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of capillary guiding. The fraction of transmitted ions was found to be nearly independent on the incident ion current indicating a sudden increase in the discharge current depleting the entrance charge patch. The experimental results were well-reproduced by model calculations based on a nonlinear (exponential) expression for the discharge current

  5. The formation and growing properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber growing media after thermo-oxidative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.P.; Lin, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This research uses three kinds of recycled synthetic fibers that all possess excellent thermal plasticity property as raw material to develop a new firm cultivation media: polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and polypropylene. One can not only freely control plants cultivation growing condition by changing bulk density of the media, but also solve disposal problem after usage by applying thermal oxidative treatment during manufacturing processes. The water content, air permeability and formation conditions of these fiber growing media that are required in plants growing habitat were discussed, and compared the fallout with rockwool (RW) growing media that is commonly used at present days. The results indicated that the polyethylene terephthalate fiber media could attain best formation characteristics among these fibers at the same bulk density range. Furthermore, the fiber media that were thermo-oxidative treated at 240-260 deg. C could obtained above 90% total porosity, 23-49% air capacity and 48-68% water availability, water contents raised from 1735-1094 to 2145-1156% under bulk densities of 0.03-0.09 g/cm 3 , which conforms to the common plant growing habitat conditions. Its performance well surpasses the rockwool growing media. We also discovered that the thermo-oxidative treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber media could be easily broken down and become powdery by exerting pressure, thus greatly reduce its volume and effectively improve disposal processes that are difficult presently for the huge refuse create by rockwool

  6. Centrifugally Spun Recycled PET: Processing and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phu Phong Vo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal spinning, which is a high-productivity fiber fabrication technique, was used to produce a value-added product from recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (rPET. In the present study, rPET fibers, with fiber diameters ranging from submicron to micrometer in scale, were fabricated by spinning a solution of rPET in a mixture of dichloromethane and trifluoroacetic acid. The influence of the polymer solution concentration (the viscosity, the rotational speed of the spinneret, and the inner diameter of the needles on the formation and morphology and mechanical properties of the fibers were examined through scanning electron microscopy and using a tensile testing machine. The thermal behaviors of fibrous mats with various average diameters were also investigated through differential scanning calorimetry. The smoothest and smallest fibers, with an average diameter of 619 nm, were generated using an rPET solution of 10 wt % under a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm using needles having an inner diameter of 160 μm. The fibrous mats have an average tensile strength and modulus of 4.3 MPa and 34.4 MPa, respectively. The productivity and the mechanical properties indicate that centrifugal spinning is an effective technique to fabricate high-value product from rPET.

  7. Effect of PET functionalization in composites of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cazan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET from tire rubber–PET–high density polyethylene (HDPE composites represents a key strategy for improving the composite properties. This is a practical and effective method to improve the interface between matrix (waste tire rubber and fillers (waste PET and HDPE. By PET functionalization, adherence and surface properties of composite materials can be controlled. PET functionalization was performed with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400, 1% and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS 1%. The characterization of the components and composite are discussed in terms of surface energy values (evaluated from water contact angle measurements and surface morphology by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The structural and conformational changes were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy while the crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The improved interfacial adhesion, thermal stability and mechanical properties (stress–strain, compression and impact resistance of the composites are correlated with the PET functionalization, with non-ionic (PEG and an anionic surfactant (SDS. The results proved that the interface properties are improved by functionalization of PET. The best mechanical properties were recorded at 30 min moulding. The samples with 45% PET–SDS showed the best combination of mechanical properties: tensile strength (1.56 N/mm2, impact strength (43.72 kJ/m2 and compression (158.78 N/mm2.

  8. Fabrication of a large-area, flexible micro-pyramid PET film SERS substrate and its application in the detection of dye in herbal tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Jie; Kong, Lili; Wang, Keihui

    2018-05-01

    A simple method, based on a roll-to-roll ultraviolet micro-pyramid imprinting technique and a nanoparticle self-assembling process in aqueous solution, to fabricate a large-area, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) polyethylene glycol terephthalate substrate is proposed. The SERS substrate is demonstrated to be of high sensitivity. The detection concentration of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) measured by a portable Raman spectrometer is down to 10-9 mol l-1. The relative standard deviation values of different spots and different substrates are less than 13%. In addition, the feasibility for rapid detection of dye in herbal tea based on this SERS substrate and a portable Raman spectrometer is investigated. Three industrial dyes are employed to simulate the dyeing process. It is presented that R6G of 4.8× {{10}-7} g ml-1, malachite green of 10-6 g ml-1 and Auramine O of 10-6 g ml-1 in herbal tea could be detected rapidly. The experimental results imply that this method could be potentially applied in the field of dyed herbal tea detection.

  9. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-In; Kim, Seil; Lee, Kun-Jae; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  10. Improved adhesion of Ag NPs to the polyethylene terephthalate surface via atmospheric plasma treatment and surface functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tao [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Liu, Yong [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Solmont Technology Wuxi Co., Ltd. 228 Linghu Blvd. Tianan Tech Park, A1-602, Xinwu District, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214135 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Yang, De-Quan, E-mail: dequan.yang@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Solmont Technology Wuxi Co., Ltd. 228 Linghu Blvd. Tianan Tech Park, A1-602, Xinwu District, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214135 (China); Sacher, Edward [Regroupement Québécois de Matériaux de Pointe, Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Case Postale 6079, succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A two-step process has been developed to enhance the adhesion of immobilized Ag NPs to the PET surface. • The method is simple, easy to use and low-cost for mass production. • The increased density of active sites (−OH, −CH=O and COOH) at the PET surface, after plasma treatment, permits increased reaction with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). • The presence of APTES with high surface density permits −NH{sub 2}-Ag complex formation, increasing the adhesion of the Ag NPs. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied, as important antibacterial materials, on textile and polymer surfaces. However, their adhesion to nonreactive polymer surfaces is generally too weak for many applications. Here, we propose a two-step process, atmospheric plasma treatment followed by a surface chemical modification process, which enhances their adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. We found that, compared to either plasma treatments or surface chemical functionalizations, alone, this combination greatly enhanced their adhesion. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase of active sites (−OH, −CH=O and COOH) at the PET surface, permitting increased bonding to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), whose −NH{sub 2} groups were then able to form a bonding complex with the Ag NPs.

  11. Flexible low-cost cardiovascular risk marker biosensor for point-of-care applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2015-10-22

    The detection and quantification of protein on a laser written flexible substrate for point-of-care applications are described. A unique way of etching gold on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate is demonstrated by reducing the damage that may be caused on PET sheets otherwise. On the basis of the quantity of the C-reactive protein (CRP) present in the sample, the risk of cardiac disease can be assessed. This hsCRP test is incorporated to detect the presence of CRP on a PET laser patterned biosensor. Concentrations of 1, 2, and 10 mg/l were chosen to assess the risk of cardiac diseases as per the limits set by the American Heart Association.

  12. Silicon oxide barrier films deposited on PET foils in pulsed plasmas: influence of substrate bias on deposition process and film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steves, S; Bibinov, N; Awakowicz, P; Ozkaya, B; Liu, C-N; Ozcan, O; Grundmeier, G

    2013-01-01

    A widely used plastic for packaging, polyethylene terephtalate (PET) offers limited barrier properties against gas permeation. For many applications of PET (from food packaging to micro electronics) improved barrier properties are essential. A silicon oxide barrier coating of PET foils is applied by means of a pulsed microwave driven low-pressure plasma. While the adjustment of the microwave power allows for a control of the ion production during the plasma pulse, a substrate bias controls the energy of ions impinging on the substrate. Detailed analysis of deposited films applying oxygen permeation measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are correlated with results from plasma diagnostics describing the deposition process. The influence of a change in process parameters such as gas mixture and substrate bias on the gas temperature, electron density, mean electron energy, ion energy and the atomic oxygen density is studied. An additional substrate bias results in an increase in atomic oxygen density up to a factor of 6, although plasma parameter such as electron density of n e = 3.8 ± 0.8 × 10 17 m −3 and electron temperature of k B T e = 1.7 ± 0.1 eV are unmodified. It is shown that atomic oxygen densities measured during deposition process higher than n O = 1.8 × 10 21 m −3 yield in barrier films with a barrier improvement factor up to 150. Good barrier films are highly cross-linked and show a smooth morphology. (paper)

  13. Electron beam induced modifications in flexible biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate sheets: Improved mechanical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, N. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Koiry, S.P. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Singh, A., E-mail: asb_barc@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Tillu, A.R. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Debnath, A.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Aswal, D.K., E-mail: dkaswal@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Mondal, R.K. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effects of electron beam irradiation (with dose ranging from 2 to 32 kGy) on mechanical and electrical properties of biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) sheets. The sol-gel analysis, Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations of the irradiated BOPET sheets suggest partial cross-linking of PET chains through the diethylene glycol (DEG). The mechanical properties of BOPET, such as, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical resistivity shows improvement with increasing dose and saturate for doses >10 kGy. The improved mechanical properties and high electrical resistivity of electron beam modified BOPET sheets may have additional advantages in applications, such as, packaging materials for food irradiation, medical product sterilization and electronic industries. - Graphical abstract: Irradiation of BOPET by electron beam leads to the formation of diethylene glycol that crosslink's the PET chains, resulting in improved mechanical properties and enhanced electrical resistivity. - Highlights: • BOPET exhibit improved tensile strength/Young's modulus after e-beam exposure. • Electrical resistivity of BOPET increases after e-beam exposure. • Cross-linking of PET chains through diethylene glycol was observed after e-beam exposure.

  14. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  15. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  16. 阻燃共聚酯的热降解动力学研究——Ⅰ.含磷共聚PET和PET的比较%STUDY ON KINETIC OF THERMAL DEGRADATION OF FLAME RETARDANT COPOLYESTERS——Ⅰ.THE COMPARISION BETWEEN PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING COPOLYESTER AND PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴博; 王玉忠

    2001-01-01

    The thermal degradation of poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) and phosphorus-containing copolyester,obtained from the polycondensation of terephthalate acid,ethylene glycol and 2-carboxyethyl (phenyl phosphinic) acid in air were studied by thermogravimetric analysis(TG) in order to determine the activation energy of phosphorus-containing copolyester and PET.The activation energy was determined using Kissinger method and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method,withaut the knowledge of the reaction mechanism(RM),giving the values 219.18~229.65kJ/mol and 217.61~238.85kJ/mol respectively.The results show that there is little difference between the values of thermogravimetric activation energy of phosphorus-containing copolyester and PET,both of the reaction mechanism are same.

  17. The effect of hot multistage drawing on molecular structure and optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminoddin Haji

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mechanical and structural parameters related to the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers drawn at hot multistage have been investigated. The changes in optical parameters upon changing draw ratio are used to obtain the mechanical orientation factors and , various orientation functions f2(θ, f4(θ and f6(θ, and amorphous and crystalline orientation functions (f a and f c. Also, the numbers of random links between the network junction points (N1, the average optical orientation (Fav, and the distribution function of segment ω(cos θ were calculated. In addition, an empirical formula was suggested to correlate changes in the birefringence with the draw ratio and its constants were determined. The study demonstrated change on the molecular orientation functions and structural parameters upon hot multistage drawing. Significant variations in the characteristic properties of the drawn PET fibers were due to reorientation of the molecules caused by applied heat and external tension.

  18. Quantificação de antimônio em garrafas de politereftalato de etileno (PET brasileiras por fluorescência de raios-X e avaliação quimiométrica para verificar a presença de pet reciclado através do teor de ferro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Shimamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony is a common catalyst in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate used for food-grade bottles manufacturing. However, antimony residues in final products are transferred to juices, soft drinks or water. The literature reports mentions of toxicity associated to antimony. In this work, a green, fast and direct method to quantify antimony, sulfur, iron and copper, in PET bottles by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is presented. 2.4 to 11 mg Sb kg-1 were found in 20 samples analyzed. The coupling of the multielemental technique to chemometric treatment provided also the possibility to classify PET samples between bottle-grade PET/recycled PET blends by Fe content.

  19. Effect of annealing and biaxial deformation on the dielectric properties of composites of multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urvakis, Marius; Kupreviciute, Auste; Banys, Juras; Macutkevic, Jan; Mayoral, Beatriz; McNally, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The dielectric properties of composites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with MWCNTs were investigated over a wide frequency and temperature range below and close to the electrical percolation threshold. In composites with 1 wt.% multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) inclusions, the dielectric properties below room temperature are mostly determined by β relaxation, as a consequence of the rotation of PET molecules. In stretched samples, the CNTs are oriented at about 45 deg to the stretch direction. Such deformation increased the potential for molecular rotation. However, annealing after stretching increased homogeneity of the composite and decreased the potential barrier for polymer chain rotation. Electrical conductivity effects and Maxwell-Wagner polarization mostly cause the dielectric properties of the samples with 2% MWCNT inclusions. The potential barrier for carrier tunneling is lowest in the annealed sample.

  20. 5-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)-L-tryptophan as a substrate of system L transport for tumor imaging by PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Stefanie D; Mu, Linjing; Müller, Adrienne; Keller, Claudia; Kuznetsova, Olga F; Schweinsberg, Christian; Franck, Dominic; Müller, Cristina; Ross, Tobias L; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M

    2012-03-01

    Large neutral l-amino acids are substrates of system L amino acid transporters. The level of one of these, LAT1, is increased in many tumors. Aromatic l-amino acids may also be substrates of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the level of which is enhanced in endocrine tumors. Increased amino acid uptake and subsequent decarboxylation result in the intracellular accumulation of the amino acid and its decarboxylation product. (18)F- and (11)C-labeled neutral aromatic amino acids, such as l-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(18)F-fluorophenylalanine ((18)F-FDOPA) and 5-hydroxy-l-[β-(11)C]tryptophan, are thus successfully used in PET to image endocrine tumors. However, 5-hydroxy-l-[β-(11)C]tryptophan has a relatively short physical half-life (20 min). In this work, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the (18)F-labeled tryptophan analog 5-(2-(18)F-fluoroethoxy)-l-tryptophan ((18)F-l-FEHTP) as a PET probe for tumor imaging. (18)F-l-FEHTP was synthesized by no-carrier-added (18)F fluorination of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan. In vitro cell uptake and efflux of (18)F-l-FEHTP and (18)F-FDOPA were studied with NCI-H69 endocrine small cell lung cancer cells, PC-3 pseudoendocrine prostate cancer cells, and MDA-MB-231 exocrine breast cancer cells. Small-animal PET was performed with the respective xenograft-bearing mice. Tissues were analyzed for potential metabolites. (18)F-l-FEHTP specific activity and radiochemical purity were 50-150 GBq/μmol and greater than 95%, respectively. In vitro cell uptake of (18)F-l-FEHTP was between 48% and 113% of added radioactivity per milligram of protein within 60 min at 37°C and was blocked by greater than 95% in all tested cell lines by the LAT1/2 inhibitor 2-amino-2-norboranecarboxylic acid. (18)F-FDOPA uptake ranged from 26% to 53%/mg. PET studies revealed similar xenograft-to-reference tissue ratios for (18)F-l-FEHTP and (18)F-FDOPA at 30-45 min after injection. In contrast to the (18)F-FDOPA PET results, pretreatment with the

  1. Texturation and superhydrophobicity of polyethylene terephthalate thanks to plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrade, Jeanne; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Debarnot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Anti-bioadhesive surfaces were designed from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by three steps plasma-treatment. First, the nano-pattern is created by oxygen plasma-treatment with controlled dimensions. Then, the plasma-treated polymeric surface was hydrophobized with a tetrafluorocarbon plasma, allowing to obtain a water contact angle of 145 ± 4°. However, the SEM pictures give evidence to show the degradation of the structuration caused by the CF 4 -plasma and consequently, the superhydrophobicity was not reached. Thus, a plasma-polypyrrole layer was deposited before the plasma-fluorination, which has a protective role against the degradation generated by fluorinated species, preserving the structuration and improving the fluorination rate. Therefore, the obtained surfaces are superhydrophobic with water contact angle of 157 ± 2° and a hysteresis of 65 ± 3°. The ability of these surfaces to reduce bioadhesion will be performed in further work.

  2. Ink for Ink-Jet Printing of Electrically Conductive Structures on Flexible Substrates with Low Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcki, A.; Smolarek-Nowak, A.; Felba, J.; Kinart, A.

    2017-07-01

    The development of new technologies in electronics related to flexible polymeric substrates forces the industry to introduce suitable tools (special type of dispensers) and modern conductive materials for printing electronic circuits. Moreover, due to the wide use of inexpensive polymeric foils (polyethene, PE, or poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET), there is a need to develop materials with the lowest possible processing temperatures. The present paper presents the selection criteria of suitable components and their preparation for obtaining electrically conductive ink with a special nanosilver base. In the case of the discussed solution, all components allow to make circuits in relatively low sintering temperature (even below 130°C). Additionally, the authors show the most significant ink parameters that should be taken into consideration during Research and Development (R&D) works with electrically conductive inks. Moreover, ink stability parameters are discussed and some examples of printed circuits are presented.

  3. Poli(tereftalato de etileno, PET: uma revisão sobre os processos de síntese, mecanismos de degradação e sua reciclagem Poly(ethylene terephthalate, PET: a review on the synthesis processes, degradation mechanisms and its recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Romão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre o poli(tereftalato de etileno enfatizando os processos de síntese e os mecanismos de degradação. Atualmente o Brasil apresenta um dos maiores índices mundiais de reciclagem mecânica deste polímero, correspondendo a um percentual de 53%. O sucesso desse termoplástico na indústria de reciclagem deve-se à sua ampla diversidade de aplicações, desde a indústria têxtil (multifilamento até as indústrias de alimentos, onde as embalagens recicladas grau alimentício poderão ser misturadas com a resina virgem em diversas proporções e reprocessadas para o uso. Uma abordagem sobre a atual legislação do uso de PET reciclado em contato com alimentos também é mostrada neste trabalho. No processo de síntese do PET realizado em duas ou três etapas, são usados comonômeros e aditivos para otimizar as condições de processamento do material. Entretanto, tanto durante a síntese como no processo de reciclagem, ocorrem reações de degradação (termomecânica e termo-oxidativa e reações secundárias, formando acetaldeído, oligômeros, e o dietileno glicol. A presença desses "contaminantes" acelera o processo de degradação do polímero, afetando a qualidade do produto final.We present a review on poly(ethylene terephthalate, emphasizing the synthesis processes and the degradation mechanisms. Brazil is currently among the countries that most recycle PET, with 53% of this polymer being mechanically recycled. The success of this thermoplastic in the recycling industry is due to its large diversity of applications, from the textile industry to food packaging, where the food grade recycled packages will be mixed with the pristine resin for reprocessing and use. We also discuss the present legal aspects concerning PET recycling and its use in contact with food. In the synthesis of PET, usually done in two or three steps, several co-monomers and additives are used to optimize the final properties and

  4. Structure and gas-barrier properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited on inner walls of cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of radio-frequency (RF) power on the structure and gas permeation through amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited on cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples is investigated. The results show that a higher radio-frequency power leads to a smaller sp 3 /sp 2 value but produces fewer defects with smaller size. The permeability of PET samples decreases significantly after a-C:H deposition and the RF only exerts a small influence. However, the coating uniformity, color, and wettability of the surface are affected by the RF power. A higher RF power results in to better uniformity and it may be attributed to the combination of the high-density plasma and sample heating.

  5. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  6. Synthesis of poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) polyester using monomers derived from renewable resources: thermal behavior comparison with PET and PEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George Z; Tsanaktsis, Vasilios; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2014-05-07

    Poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF) is a new alipharomatic polyester that can be prepared from monomers derived from renewable resources like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. For this reason it has gained high interest recently. In the present work it was synthesized from the dimethylester of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol by applying the two-stage melt polycondensation method. The thermal behavior of PEF was studied in comparison to its terephthalate and naphthalate homologues poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), which were also synthesized following the same procedure. The equilibrium melting point of PEF was found to be 265 °C while the heat of fusion for the pure crystalline PEF was estimated to be about 137 J g(-1). The crystallization kinetics was analyzed using various models. PET showed faster crystallization rates than PEN and this in turn showed faster crystallization than PEF, under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The spherulitic morphology of PEF during isothermal crystallization was investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM). A large nucleation density and a small spherulite size were observed for PEF even at low supercoolings, in contrast to PET or PEN. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that PEF is thermally stable up to 325 °C and the temperature for the maximum degradation rate was 438 °C. These values were a little lower than those for PET or PEN.

  7. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  8. Growth and optical properties of Ag clusters deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Camacho, J M; Weidlinger, G; Sun, L D; Hohage, M; Primetzhofer, D; Bauer, P; Zeppenfeld, P; Schmidegg, K

    2011-01-01

    The growth and concomitant evolution of the optical properties of Ag nano-clusters deposited on biaxially extruded poly(ethylene terephthalate) films is studied by reflectance difference spectroscopy. It is demonstrated by low energy ion scattering and simulated optical spectra that the clusters form a two-dimensional layer buried beneath the surface of the substrate. The experimental spectra are described by simulations in which different configurations of the host such as anisotropy, amorphization, and dilution are considered in an effective medium approach. The contribution of the anisotropic substrate is used to explain the resulting line shapes. We also discuss the role of the rate of change of the filling fraction with Ag coverage in the evolution of the spectra and the detection of the onset of coalescence by optical means.

  9. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei; Guo, Jing

    2016-12-01

    We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol-gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl2, a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  10. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  11. Characterization and Properties of Electroless Nickel Plated Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Nonwoven Fabric Enhanced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yamin; Lu Canhui; Liang Mei; Zhang Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a more economical pretreatment method for electroless nickel plating, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure was used to improve the hydrophilicity and adhesion of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric. The properties of the PET nonwoven fabric including its liquid absorptive capacity (W A ), aging behavior, surface chemical composition, morphology of the surface, adhesion strength, surface electrical resistivity and electromagnetic interference (EMI)- shielding effectiveness (SE) were studied. The liquid absorptive capacity (W A ) increased due to the incorporation of oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing functional groups on the surface of PET nonwoven fabric after DBD air-plasma treatment. The surface morphology of the nonwoven fibers became rougher after plasma treatment. Therefore, the surface was more prone to absorb tin sensitizer and palladium catalyst to form an active layer for the deposition of electroless nickel. SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that a uniform coating of nickel was formed on the PET nonwoven fabric. The average EMI-SE of Ni-plating of PET nonwoven fabric maintained a relatively stable value (38.2 dB to 37.3 dB) in a frequency range of 50 MHz to 1500 MHz. It is concluded that DBD is feasible for pretreatment of nonwoven fabric for electroless nickel plating to prepare functional material with good EMI-SE properties.

  12. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  13. Indium-free Cu/fluorine doped ZnO composite transparent conductive electrodes with stretchable and flexible performance on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Gong, Haibo; Yang, Xiaopeng; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zi, Min; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Cao, Bingqiang

    2015-03-01

    Material-abundant ZnO and metal thin film have been proposed as potential alternatives for the most widely commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent and conductive electrode. Yet the deterioration of optical transparency and conductivity for these materials makes them difficult to compete with ITO. In this work, a double-layer structured film-composed of FZO and Cu film is presented at room temperature, which combines the high transparency of FZO and high conductivity of Cu film. We first studied the effect of oxygen pressure on the transparency and conductivity of free-standing FZO layer deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by PLD method. Also the structural, electrical, and optical properties of bilayers electrode dependence on the Cu layer thickness were optimized in detail. As the Cu layer thickness increases, the resistivity decreases. The lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-5 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 1.11 × 1022 cm-3 and mobility of 8.52 cm2 V-1 s-1 was obtained at the optimum Cu (12 nm) layer thickness. We find that FZO layer have anti-reflection effect for Cu/FZO (250 nm) bilayer in the wavelength range of 650-1000 nm compared with single Cu layer. And we firstly study the stretchable performance for Cu film-based composite electrodes with stretching ratio changing from 0 to 5%. Furthermore, we study excellent mechanical flexibility and stability of composite electrodes by bending test.

  14. Effect of ZnO nano in the blend PET / PC ( 80/20) subjected to UV radiation; Efeito do nano ZnO na mistura PET/PC(80/20) submetida a radiacao UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Homero M.; Mendes, Luis C.; Albitres, Gerson A.V.; Cestari, Sibele P.; Mattos, Gabriela C., E-mail: homero@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to reuse recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in blend with polycarbonate (PC) in order to avoid UV degradation in outdoor application. Nanocomposite based on blend of recycled (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) in the ratio of 80/20 with nano zinc oxide (ZnO) at different concentrations was prepared. The blend was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for accelerated aging chamber, we evaluated the effect of the presence nZnO filler as a barrier to UV rays. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state (NMR). It is the degradation retardant effect at concentrations starting from 3% nZnO. (author)

  15. THE ROLE OF INTRAMOLECULAR TIES ENERGY IN THE PYROLYSIS PROCESS OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Iu. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Recycling plastic waste to focus on. The main type of used products made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET is a container from the various types of beverages. There was considered a possibility of waste of PET (bottles, bottles, packaging containers by pyrolysis. Most of the proposed methods are not suitable for recycling (recycling of waste consumption contamination. Purpose - to develop technological foundations and optimum modes waste PET to obtain useful secondary products, taking into account the energy of chemical intramolecular bonds. Applied scientific basis of recycling PET into useful forms of secondary products, in particular the establishment of the collapse of the intramolecular bonds, depending on the temperature of the pyrolysis method of mathematical processing - differentiation of polynomial equations change in the degree of pyrolysis temperature-dependent. The optimum modes of processing. The block diagram of apparatus for processing contaminated waste PET pyrolysis methods of control processing in accordance with the specified composition of secondary products. The possibility of controlling the amount and types of fuel components of secondary products due to measurable parameters of the pyrolysis process. The effective temperature pyrolysis of waste PET with the CCA-tures energy intramolecular bonds.

  16. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  17. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.Y.; Duan, J.L.; Maekawa, Y.; Koshikawa, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2004-01-01

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm -1 . Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  18. Low-Cost Printed Flexible Antenna by Using an Office Printer for Conformal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Nisar Paracha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost inkjet printing method for antenna fabrication on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate is presented in this paper. An office inkjet printer is used to have desired patterns of silver nanoparticle ink on the PET substrate without any postprocessing. Silver nanoparticle ink cures instantly as soon as it is ejected from the printer on a chemically treated PET substrate. The thickness of the silver nanoparticle layer was measured to be 300 nm with a sheet resistance of as low as 0.3 Ω/sq and a conductivity around 1.11 × 107 S/m with single layer deposition. A coplanar waveguide- (CPW- fed Z-shape planar antenna on the PET substrate achieved the measured radiation efficiency of 62% and the IEEE gain of 1.44 dBi at 2.45 GHz. The printed antenna is also tested in bending conditions to ascertain its performance for the Internet of things (IoT conformal applications for the future 5G network.

  19. Study of oxygen scavenging PET-based films activated by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work an active barrier system consisting of a thin and transparent film based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Dynamic oxygen absorption measurements were performed at different values of relative humidity and temperature, pointing out that humidity is a key factor in activating the oxidation of the polymer sample. Moreover, the thermal and optical properties of the films were investigated and a good correlation was found between the crystallinity increase and the consequent transparency reduction occurring after the oxygen absorption.

  20. Study of oxygen scavenging PET-based films activated by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana

    2016-05-01

    In this work an active barrier system consisting of a thin and transparent film based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Dynamic oxygen absorption measurements were performed at different values of relative humidity and temperature, pointing out that humidity is a key factor in activating the oxidation of the polymer sample. Moreover, the thermal and optical properties of the films were investigated and a good correlation was found between the crystallinity increase and the consequent transparency reduction occurring after the oxygen absorption.

  1. Briquettes of rice husk, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and dried leaves as implementation of wastes recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, Sucipto; Usman, Mohammad Nurdianfajar; Citrasari, Nita

    2017-06-01

    This research aim is to determine the best briquettes as implementation of wastes recycle based on scoring method, main component composition, compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content, also the suitability with SNI 01-6235-2000. Main component that used are rice husk, 2mm and 6 mm PET, and dried leaves. Composition variation in this research are marked as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 2 mm PET plastic and K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 6 mm PET plastic. The total weight of the briquettes is 100 g and divided into 90% main components and 10% tapioca as binder. The compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content were tested according to ASTM D 5865-04, ASTM D 3173-03, ASTM D 3175-02, ASTM D 3174-02. The tested results were used to determine the best briquette by scoring method, and the chosen briquettes is K2 with 6 mm PET plastic. The composition is 70% rice husk, 20% 6 mm PET plastic, and 10% dried leaves with the compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content value is 51,55 kg/cm2; 5123 kal/g; 3,049%; 31,823%, dan 12,869%. The suitable value that meet the criteria according to SNI 01-6235-2000 is compressive strength, caloric value, water content, and ash content.

  2. Dielectric properties investigation of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction thin films by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Xu, Mengmeng; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Hairong; Peng, Biaolin; Long, Changbai; Zhai, Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bottom-up self-assembly Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction was fabricated by electrochemical deposition on indium tin oxide (ITO) flexible substrate (polyethylene terephthalate-PET). ► The dielectric response of Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction thin films had been investigated. ► The universal dielectric response was used to investigate the hopping behavior in Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction. -- Abstract: Structures and morphologies of the Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) flexible substrate (polyethylene terephthalate-PET) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The dielectric response of bottom-up self-assembly Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction was investigated. The low frequency dielectric dispersion (LFDD) was observed. The universal dielectric response (UDR) was used to investigate the frequency dependence of dielectric response for Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction, which was attributed to the long range and the short range hopping charge carriers at the low frequency and the high frequency region, respectively

  3. Gas barrier properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films coated on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma polymerization in argon/n-hexane gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Petr, Martin; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Biederman, Hynek

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films were deposited by RF plasma polymerization in argon/n-hexane gas mixture on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils. It was found that such deposited films may significantly improve the barrier properties of PET. It was demonstrated that the principal parameter that influences barrier properties of such deposited films towards oxygen and water vapor is the density of the coatings. Moreover, it was shown that for achieving good barrier properties it is advantageous to deposit coatings with very low thickness. According to the presented results, optimal thickness of the coating should not be higher than several tens of nm. - Highlights: • a-C:H films were prepared by plasma polymerization in Ar/n-hexane atmosphere. • Barrier properties of coatings are dependent on their density and thickness. • Highest barrier properties were observed for films with thickness 15 nm.

  4. Effect of the incorporation of modified purified clay with different content surfactants in the thermal and mechanical PET nanocomposites; Efeito da incorporacao de argila purificada modificada com diferentes teores de surfactantes nas propriedades termicas e mecanicas dos nanocompositos de PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Itamara F. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (DEMAT/UFPB), PB (Brazil); Soares, Anna P.S.; Silva, Suedina M.L., E-mail: suedina@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UEAMa/CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil); Malta, Oscar M.L. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DQF/CCEN/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    An organically modified bentonite purified with different amounts of alkyl ammonium salts and alkyl phosphonium was used as filler in the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). PET/organophilic bentonite masterbatch were prepared in a Haake torque rheometer at 260° C, 60 rpm for 10min. Then, the master batch obtained were mixed with PET in quantities necessary to obtain the nominal content of 1 wt% of bentonite, a twin screw extruder counter-rotating to 275°C in all heating zones and 60 rpm. Subsequently, the mixtures were injected (Arburg All Rounder), in the form of tensile specimens (ASTM D638). The effect of incorporating this type of filler on thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites of PET will be investigated. The incorporation of different types of organoclay to PET resulted in intercalated nanocomposites and partially exfoliated. The intercalated morphology showed higher thermal stability. (author)

  5. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-06-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 μg mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 μg of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assembly and benign step-by-step post-treatment of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxides for transparent conductive thin films with multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiayi; He, Junhui

    2012-05-01

    We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on PET showed a significant decrease in electrical conductivity. In addition, the graphene thin film had a smooth surface with tunable wettability.We report a new approach for the fabrication of flexible and transparent conducting thin films via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of oppositely charged reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and the benign step-by-step post-treatment on substrates with a low glass-transition temperature, such as glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The RGO dispersions and films were characterized by means of atomic force microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometery, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact angle/interface systems and a four-point probe. It was found that the graphene thin films exhibited a significant increase in electrical conductivity after the step-by-step post-treatments. The graphene thin film on the PET substrate had a good conductivity retainability after multiple cycles (30 cycles) of excessively bending (bending angle: 180°), while tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on

  7. Use of CdS quantum dot-functionalized cellulose nanocrystal films for anti-counterfeiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Lai, C.; Marchewka, R.; Berry, R. M.; Tam, K. C.

    2016-07-01

    Structural colors and photoluminescence have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications. We report for the first time the use of CdS quantum dot (QD)-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as building blocks to fabricate nanothin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly for anti-counterfeiting applications. Both negatively- and positively-charged CNC/QD nanohybrids with a high colloidal stability and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared. The controllable LBL coating process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The rigid structure of CNCs leads to nanoporous structured films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates with high transmittance (above 70%) over the entire range of visible light and also resulted in increased hydrophilicity (contact angles of ~40 degrees). Nanothin films on PET substrates showed good flexibility and enhanced stability in both water and ethanol. The modified PET films with structural colors from thin-film interference and photoluminescence from QDs can be used in anti-counterfeiting applications.Structural colors and photoluminescence have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications. We report for the first time the use of CdS quantum dot (QD)-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as building blocks to fabricate nanothin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly for anti-counterfeiting applications. Both negatively- and positively-charged CNC/QD nanohybrids with a high colloidal stability and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared. The controllable LBL coating process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The rigid structure of CNCs leads to nanoporous structured films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates with high transmittance (above 70%) over the entire range of visible light and also resulted in increased hydrophilicity (contact angles of ~40 degrees). Nanothin films

  8. Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.

    2004-06-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

  9. Effects of Interphase Modification and Biaxial Orientation on Dielectric Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Multilayer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kezhen; Zhou, Zheng; Schuele, Donald E; Wolak, Mason; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol % PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm(3) at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high-energy-density film capacitor applications.

  10. Effects of waste PET bottles aggregate on the properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun-Wang; Moon, Dae-Joong; Chung, Jee-Seung; Cho, Sun-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the surface microstructure of waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles lightweight aggregate (WPLA) to examine the effect of granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) on WPLA. The WPLA was made from the waste PET bottles and GBFS, and experimental tests were conducted on compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, slump, and density of waste PET bottles lightweight aggregate concrete (WPLAC). The 28-day compressive strength of WPLAC with the replacement ratio of 75% reduces about 33% compared to the control concrete in the water-cement ratio of 45%. The density of WPLAC varies from 1940 to 2260 kg/m 3 by the influence of WPLA. The structural efficiency of WPLAC decreases as the replacement ratio increases. The workability of concrete with 75% WPLA improves about 123% compared to that of the normal concrete in the water-cement ratio of 53%. The adhered GBFS is able to strengthen the surface of WPLA and to narrow the transition zone owing to the reaction with calcium hydroxide

  11. Mechanical behavior of sustainable building materials using PET waste and industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, C. A; Mendoza-Rangel, J. M; González, J. R; Rodríguez, J. A; Valdez, P

    2015-01-01

    The building industry is facing the challenge of satisfying a growing demand for housing spaces that can be mitigated by the use of construction materials manufactured with industrial by-products that allow the production of low-cost housing with a low environmental impact. In this research, an alternative building system to manufacture lightweight masonry blocks with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and fiber-reinforced panels using binary mixture (Portland cement and fly ash), was s...

  12. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress.

  13. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  14. Thermal Properties, Structure and Morphology of Graphene Reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate/ Polypropylene Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuwa, I.M.; Hassan, A.; Shamsudin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the thermal properties, structure and morphology of a blend of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) reinforced with graphene nano platelets (GNP) were investigated. A blend of PET/ PP (70/ 30 weight percent) compatibilized with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted maleic anhydride triblock copolymer (10 phr) were fabricated by melt extrusion process in a twin screw extruder. The effective thermal conductivity of the nano composites increased as a function of the GNP concentration. More than 80 % increase in effective thermal conductivity was observed for the 7 phr reinforced sample compared to the neat blend. This observation was attributed to the development interconnected GNP sheets which formed heat conductive bridges that are suitable for maximum heat transfer. However, in the case of thermal stability which is a function of dispersibility of GNP in polymer matrix, the maximum increase was observed at 3 phr GNP loading which could be attributed to the uniform dispersion of GNPs in the matrix. It is explained that the GNP nano fillers migrated to the surface of matrix forming an effective oxygen barrier due to char formation. Morphological studies revealed uniform dispersion graphene in the polymer matrix at 3 phr GNP loading along with isolated instances of exfoliation of the graphene layers. (author)

  15. Conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cell bipolar plates made from PVDF, PET and co-continuous PVDF/PET filled with carbon additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, L.; Mighri, F.; Deyrail, Y. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Chemical Engineering, Laval University, QC (Canada); Elkoun, S. [CREPEC, Center for Applied Research on Polymers and Composites, QC (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sherbrooke University, QC (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and characterise electrically conductive materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and bipolar plates (BPPs). These BPPs were made from highly conductive blends of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), as matrix phase. The conductive materials were developed from carefully formulated blends composed of conductive carbon black (CB) powder and, in some cases, graphite synthetic flakes mixed with pure PET, PVDF or with PVDF/PET systems. They were first developed by twin-screw extrusion process then compression-molded to give BPP final shape. As the developed blends have to meet properties suitable for BPP applications, they were characterised for their rheological properties, electrical through-plane resistivity (the inverse of conductivity), oxygen permeability, flexural and impact properties. Results showed that lower resistivity was obtained with PVDF/CB blends due to the higher interfacial energy between the PVDF matrix and CB and also the higher density and crystallinity of PVDF, compared to those of PET. It was also observed that the lowest resistivity values were obtained with mixing PVDF and PET at controlled compositions to ensure PVDF/PET co-continuous morphology. Also, slow cooling rates helped to attain the lowest values of through-plane resistivity for all studied blends. This behaviour was related to the higher crystallinity obtained with low cooling rates leading to smaller amorphous regions in which carbon particles are much more concentrated. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Effect of the incorporation of modified purified clay with different content surfactants in the thermal and mechanical PET nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Itamara F.; Soares, Anna P.S.; Silva, Suedina M.L.; Malta, Oscar M.L.

    2011-01-01

    An organically modified bentonite purified with different amounts of alkyl ammonium salts and alkyl phosphonium was used as filler in the preparation of nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). PET/organophilic bentonite masterbatch were prepared in a Haake torque rheometer at 260° C, 60 rpm for 10min. Then, the master batch obtained were mixed with PET in quantities necessary to obtain the nominal content of 1 wt% of bentonite, a twin screw extruder counter-rotating to 275°C in all heating zones and 60 rpm. Subsequently, the mixtures were injected (Arburg All Rounder), in the form of tensile specimens (ASTM D638). The effect of incorporating this type of filler on thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites of PET will be investigated. The incorporation of different types of organoclay to PET resulted in intercalated nanocomposites and partially exfoliated. The intercalated morphology showed higher thermal stability. (author)

  17. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  18. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  19. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  20. Effect of ZnO nano in the blend PET / PC ( 80/20) subjected to UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Homero M.; Mendes, Luis C.; Albitres, Gerson A.V.; Cestari, Sibele P.; Mattos, Gabriela C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to reuse recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in blend with polycarbonate (PC) in order to avoid UV degradation in outdoor application. Nanocomposite based on blend of recycled (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) in the ratio of 80/20 with nano zinc oxide (ZnO) at different concentrations was prepared. The blend was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for accelerated aging chamber, we evaluated the effect of the presence nZnO filler as a barrier to UV rays. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state (NMR). It is the degradation retardant effect at concentrations starting from 3% nZnO. (author)

  1. Electro-Mechanical Coupling of Indium Tin Oxide Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate ITO/PET for Flexible Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed A.

    2013-05-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used transparent electrode in flexible solar cells because of its high transparency and conductivity. But still, cracking of ITO on PET substrates due to tensile loading is not fully understood and it affects the functionality of the solar cell tremendously as ITO loses its conductivity. Here, we investigate the cracking evolution in ITO/PET exposed to two categories of tests. Monotonous tensile testing is done in order to trace the crack propagation in ITO coating as well as determining a loading range to focus on during our study. Five cycles test is also conducted to check the crack closure effect on the resistance variation of ITO. Analytical model for the damage in ITO layer is implemented using the homogenization concept as in laminated composites for transverse cracking. The homogenization technique is done twice on COMSOL to determine the mechanical and electrical degradation of ITO due to applied loading. Finally, this damage evolution is used for a simulation to predict the degradation of ITO as function in the applied load and correlate this degradation with the resistance variation. Experimental results showed that during unloading, crack closure results in recovery of conductivity and decrease in the overall resistance of the cracked ITO. Also, statistics about the crack spacing showed that the cracking pattern is not perfectly periodical however it has a positively skewed distribution. The higher the applied load, the less the discrepancy in the crack spacing data. It was found that the cracking mechanism of ITO starts with transverse cracking with local delamination at the crack tip unlike the mechanism proposed in the literature of having only cracking pattern without any local delamination. This is the actual mechanism that leads to the high increase in ITO resistance. The analytical code simulates the damage evolution in the ITO layer as function in the applied strain. This will be extended further to

  2. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Joshua J.; Davis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  3. A comparison of reactive plasma pre-treatments on PET substrates by Cu and Ti pulsed-DC and HIPIMS discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audronis, M., E-mail: m.audronis@yahoo.co.uk [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Hinder, S.J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mack, P. [ThermoFisher Scientific Ltd, Imberhorne Lane, East Grinstead, Sussex, RH19 1UB (United Kingdom); Bellido-Gonzalez, V. [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Bussey, D.; Matthews, A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-30

    PET web samples have been treated by magnetically enhanced glow discharges powered using either medium frequency pulse direct current (p-DC) or low frequency high power pulse (HIPIMS) sources. The plasma pre-treatment processes were carried out in an Ar-O{sub 2} atmosphere using either Cu or Ti sputter targets. XPS, AFM and sessile drop water contact angle measurements have been employed to examine changes in surface chemistry and morphology for different pre-treatment process parameters. Deposition of metal oxide onto the PET surface is observed as a result of the sputter magnetron-based glow discharge web treatment. Using the Cu target, both the p-DC and HIPIMS processes result in the formation of a thin CuO layer (with a thickness between 1 and 11 nm) being deposited onto the PET surface. Employing the Ti target, both p-DC and HIPIMS processes give rise to a much lower concentration of Ti (< 5 at.%), in the form of TiO{sub 2} on the PET treated surface. The TiO{sub 2} is probably distributed as an island-like distribution covering the PET surface. Presence of Cu and Ti oxide constituents on the treated PET is beneficial in aiding the adhesion but alone (i.e. without oxygen plasma activation) is not enough to provide very high levels of hydrophilicity as is clear from sessile drop water contact angle measurements on aged samples. Exposure to the plasma treatments leads to a small amount of roughening of the substrate surface, but the average surface roughness in all cases is below 2.5 nm. The PET structure at the interface with a coating is mostly or wholly preserved. The oxygen plasma treatment, metal oxide deposition and surface roughening resulting from the HIPIMS and p-DC treatments will promote adhesion to any subsequent thin film that is deposited immediately following the plasma treatment.

  4. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq −1 ). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed. (paper)

  5. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-02-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq-1). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed.

  6. Raw material generated from pet bottle recycling and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling process is no longer a pejorative connotation business to become the main business of any company not only because of the need to conserve virgin resources, but mainly because of the benefits to the environment. In this sense, this paper aims at assessing the possibility of exports of polyethylene terephthalate - PET known for - a type of product that can be recycled and reprocessed into products of various types and applications. This article has been structured based on exploratory research bibliographic database of scientific articles, books, newspapers and magazines where we analyze the main steps involved in the recycling of PET and its exploitation for export. Support of organizations and associations such as the Brazilian Association of PET (ABIPET contributed to the development of theoretical framework. The market operated and what can still be very large, with the possibility of exponential growth supported by: the economy in the use of virgin resources reduces the impact of chemicals in the environment, saving energy used in the production process, reducing the use of financial resources allocated to the reuse of materials.

  7. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Wang Zheng; Qi Jiancheng; Wu Jinhui; Tian Tao; Hao Limei; Yang Jingquan; Hou Lili

    2011-01-01

    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ε-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.

  8. Covalent Binding of Heparin to Functionalized PET Materials for Improved Haemocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Kolar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hemocompatibility of vascular grafts made from poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET is insufficient due to the rapid adhesion and activation of blood platelets that occur upon incubation with whole blood. PET polymer was treated with NHx radicals created by passing ammonia through gaseous plasma formed by a microwave discharge, which allowed for functionalization with amino groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization using derivatization with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde indicated that approximately 4% of the –NH2 groups were associated with the PET surface after treatment with the gaseous radicals. The functionalized polymers were coated with an ultra-thin layer of heparin and incubated with fresh blood. The free-hemoglobin technique, which is based on the haemolysis of erythrocytes, indicated improved hemocompatibility, which was confirmed by imaging the samples using confocal optical microscopy. A significant decrease in number of adhered platelets was observed on such samples. Proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells was enhanced on treated polymers, especially after a few hours of cell seeding. Thus, the technique represents a promising substitute for wet-chemical modification of PET materials prior to coating with heparin.

  9. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Song; Wang Zheng; Qi Jiancheng; Wu Jinhui; Tian Tao; Hao Limei; Yang Jingquan [Institute of Medical Equipment, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Tianjin 300161 (China); Hou Lili, E-mail: yjq789@sohu.com [National Bio-protection Engineering Center, Tianjin 300161 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. {epsilon}-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.

  10. Assessment of recycled PET properties for application on oil wells as sand control agents; Avaliacao de propriedades de PET reciclado para aplicacao em pocos de petroleo como agente de contencao de areia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Zacarias Ignacio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delpech, Marcia Cerqueira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: mcd@uerj.br

    2008-07-01

    The Sand Control is fundamental for oil production in unconsolidated sandstone formations. It consists of the installation of a filter made of stainless steel screens and grained materials (sand control agents) which are, normally, high density inorganic substances (sand, ceramic, bauxite). Shallow formations, near to the sea bed, are more sensitive and need different kinds of sand control agents with low density. The objective of this work was the evaluation of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, as sand control agent for oil wells. Pack permeability and thermal stability tests results, after up to six months of exposure to sea water and crude oil, have indicated that the recycled PET kept the necessary characteristics for the proposed application. Also, it was observed that the PET grain pack did not presented significant property modifications in the exposure conditions, when compared to the non-exposed samples. (author)

  11. Comprehensive Study on Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of PET/PEN Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien Ali Khonakdar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interchange reactions on the crystallization, melting, and dynamic mechanical thermal behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate/poly(ethylene naphthalate (PET/PEN blends prepared by melt mixing have been investigated. The occurrence of interchange reactions has been verified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA were used to study the effect of transesterification reaction on crystallinity, melting and dynamic mechanical properties of the blends. It was found that by extension of transesterification, the miscibility of the blend increased. Time and temperature of mixing were most important parameters affecting the transesterification level. On blending, the melt crystallinity of poly(ethylene terephthalate was reduced and in contrast that of poly(ethylene naphthalate was increased; where melt crystallization temperatures of both phases were depressed. A single composition-dependent glass transition peak, which was indicative of miscibility, was detected in second heating thermograms of the blends. It was observed that cold crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate phase decreases while that of poly(ethylene naphthalate was suppressed on blending. It was found that each phase crystallized individually and a melting point depression which was an indication of compatibility was evident at the same time. Dynamic mechanical analysis confirmed the proton nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry results. The secondary viscoelastic transitions of each phase in blend samples were also probed. Increment of peak area in the loss factor has implied the miscibility of blend due to formation of poly(ethylene terephthalate/poly(ethylene naphthalate random copolymer.

  12. Indium oxide-based transparent conductive films deposited by reactive sputtering using alloy targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Maruyama, Eri; Jia, Junjun; Machinaga, Hironobu; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2017-04-01

    High-quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and In2O3-ZnO (IZO), were successfully deposited on either synthetic silica or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in the “transition region” by reactive dc magnetron sputtering using In-Zn and In-Sn alloy targets, respectively, with a specially designed plasma emission feedback system. The composition, crystallinity, surface morphology, and electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed. All of the IZO films were amorphous, whereas the ITO films were polycrystalline over a wide range of deposition conditions. The minimum resistivities of the IZO and ITO films deposited on the heated PET substrates at 150 °C were 3.3 × 10-4 and 5.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm, respectively. By applying rf bias to unheated PET substrates, ITO films with a resistivity of 4.4 × 10-4 Ω·cm were deposited at a dc self-bias voltage of -60 V.

  13. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei, E-mail: ymgong@dlpu.edu.cn; Guo, Jing, E-mail: guojing8161@163.com

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric PET fibers were conductive modified by ITO and the subsequent Ag coating. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber has the surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used as a basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods. - Abstract: We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol–gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl{sub 2}, a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  14. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric PET fibers were conductive modified by ITO and the subsequent Ag coating. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber has the surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used as a basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods. - Abstract: We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol–gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl 2 , a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  15. Influence of expanded graphite (EG and graphene oxide (GO on physical properties of PET based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszkiewicz Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the continuation and refinement of already published communications based on PET/EG nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization1, 2. In this study, nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene terephthalate with expanded graphite were compared to those with functionalized graphite sheets (GO. The results suggest that the degree of dispersion of nanoparticles in the PET matrix has important effect on the structure and physical properties of the nanocomposites. The existence of graphene sheets nanoparticles enhances the crystallization rate of PET. It has been confirmed that in situ polymerization is the effective method for preparation nanocomposites which can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles in polymer matrices and improve the interfacial interaction between nanofiller and polymer matrix. The obtained results have shown also that due to the presence of functional groups on GO surface the interactions with PET matrix can be stronger than in the case of exfoliated graphene (EG and matrix.

  16. Improving the low temperature dyeability of polyethylene terephthalate fabric with dispersive dyes by atmospheric pressure plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elabid, Amel E.A.; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Jianjun; Guo, Ying; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure glow-like plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge has been successfully applied to the low temperature dyeing (95 °C) of PET fabric. • Simultaneously the dye uptake was increased as twice as much and the color strength rate was increased by about 20% for less than 3 min plasma treated PET. • Dyeing mechanism research showed the significance of surface roughing and functional group introduction by this kind of discharge. • Results highlight a novel environmentally friendly dyeing process for one of the largest commodity in polymer fabric. - Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber and textile is one of the largest synthetic polymer commodity in the world. The great energy consumption and pollution caused by the high temperature and pressure dyeing of PET fibers and fabrics with disperse dyes has been caused concern these years. In this study, an atmospheric pressure plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge operated at 20 kHz has been used to improve the low temperature dyeability of PET fabric at 95 °C with three cation disperse dyes: Red 73, Blue 183 and Yellow 211. The dyes uptake percentage of the treated PET fabrics was observed to increase as twice as much of untreated fabric. The color strength rate was increased more than 20%. The reducing of the water contact angle and the raising of the capillary height of treated PET fabric strip indicate its hydrophilicity improvement. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results display nano to micro size of etching pits appeared uniformly on the fiber surface of the treated PET. Simultaneously, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of the oxygen content in the surface caused by the introduction of polar groups such as C=O and COOH. The rough surface with improved polar oxygen groups showed hydrophilicity and affinity to C.I. dispersive dyes and is believed to be caused by the strong and very fine

  17. Highly flexible, conductive and transparent MoO3/Ag/MoO3 multilayer electrode for organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, T.; Cattin, L.; Louarn, G.; Lare, Y.; Bou, A.; Makha, M.; Torchio, P.

    2013-01-01

    MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 (MAM) multilayer structures were deposited by vacuum evaporation on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. We demonstrate that, as in the case of glass substrate, the sheet resistance of such structures depends significantly on the Ag film deposition rate. When it is deposited between 0.2 and 0.4 nm/s, an Ag thickness of 11 nm allows achieving sheet resistance of 13 Ω/sq and an averaged transmission of 74%. A study of the influence of the PET substrate on the optimum MoO 3 thicknesses was done. A good qualitative agreement between the theoretical calculations of the variation of the optical transmittance of the MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures is obtained. The optimum MAM structures MoO 3 (17.5 nm)/Ag (11 nm)/MoO 3 (35 nm) has a factor of merit F M = 4.21 10 −3 (Ω/sq) −1 . Proven by the scotch test the MAM structures exhibit a good adhesion to the PET substrates. The MAM structures were also submitted to bending tests. For outer bending, the samples exhibit no variation of their resistance value, while for inner bending there is a small increase of the resistance of the MAM structures. However this increasing is smaller than that exhibited by Indium Tin Oxide. When the PET/MAM structures are used as anode in organic photovoltaic cells, it is shown that the need to use thicker Ag films inside the multilayer and to cover the MAM with Au to obtain promising Current density vs Voltage characteristics is due to the heating of the PET substrate during the deposition process. - Highlights: • MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrate. • MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures deposited by vacuum evaporation. • The Ag deposition rate influences the properties of the structures. • The MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 optimum structure has a factor of merit F M = 4.21 10 −3 (Ω/sq) −1 . • The MoO 3 /Ag/MoO 3 structures exhibit a high flexibility

  18. Enhancement of osseointegration of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament by coating of silk fibroin and depositing of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia; Wan, Fang; Yang, Jianjun; Hao, Wei; Wang, Yaxian; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Application of artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is one of the research focuses of sports medicine but the biological tendon–bone healing still remains a problem. The preliminary study of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface could effectively induce the osteoblast differentiation, but the tendon–bone healing was still not stable. As a green synthesis process, the biomimetic mineralization can simulate the natural bone growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods HAP crystals were grown under the guide of silk fibroin (SF) PET surface by biomimetic route. Several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized for proving the introduction of both SF and HAP. The viability and osseointegration of bone marrow stromal cells on the surface of three kinds of ligament, including PET group (non-coating group), PET+SF group (SF-coating group), and PET+SF+HAP group (combined HAP- and SF-coating group), were analyzed by CCK-8 assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection. Seventy-two mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Among them, 36 rabbits were sacrificed for mechanical testing, and histological examination for the others. Results The SF and SF+HAP were successfully coated on the surface of PET fiber. The CCK-8 assay showed that the cell proliferation on PET+SF+HAP group was better than the other two groups from 24 to 120 hours. After 14 days of culture, the cells in the PET+SF+HAP group delivered higher levels of ALP than the other two groups. After 3 days of culture, the expression level of integrin β1 in the PET+SF+HAP group and PET+SF group were higher than in the PET group. The mean load to failure and the stiffness value of the PET+SF+HAP group were both higher than the other two groups. Hematoxylin and

  19. Enhancement of osseointegration of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament by coating of silk fibroin and depositing of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia; Wan, Fang; Yang, Jianjun; Hao, Wei; Wang, Yaxian; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-01-01

    Application of artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is one of the research focuses of sports medicine but the biological tendon-bone healing still remains a problem. The preliminary study of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface could effectively induce the osteoblast differentiation, but the tendon-bone healing was still not stable. As a green synthesis process, the biomimetic mineralization can simulate the natural bone growth in vitro and in vivo. HAP crystals were grown under the guide of silk fibroin (SF) PET surface by biomimetic route. Several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized for proving the introduction of both SF and HAP. The viability and osseointegration of bone marrow stromal cells on the surface of three kinds of ligament, including PET group (non-coating group), PET+SF group (SF-coating group), and PET+SF+HAP group (combined HAP- and SF-coating group), were analyzed by CCK-8 assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection. Seventy-two mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Among them, 36 rabbits were sacrificed for mechanical testing, and histological examination for the others. The SF and SF+HAP were successfully coated on the surface of PET fiber. The CCK-8 assay showed that the cell proliferation on PET+SF+HAP group was better than the other two groups from 24 to 120 hours. After 14 days of culture, the cells in the PET+SF+HAP group delivered higher levels of ALP than the other two groups. After 3 days of culture, the expression level of integrin β1 in the PET+SF+HAP group and PET+SF group were higher than in the PET group. The mean load to failure and the stiffness value of the PET+SF+HAP group were both higher than the other two groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that new bone

  20. The Optical and Electrical Properties of ZnO/Ag/ZnO Films on Flexible Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dongyan; Wang, Pangpang; Murakami, Ri-Ichi; Ding, Bingjun; Song, Xiaoping

    The deposition of ZnO/Ag/ZnO film on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering method. The thicknesses of ZnO layers were 30 nm and Ag films' thicknesses were changed from 1 nm to 6 nm by controlled the sputtering time. This kind of film can be used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials. The electrical and optical properties of composite layers were determined by Ag films. The optimum sputtering time of Ag thin films was found to be 20 s for the high optical transmittance with good electrical conductivity. The ZnO/Ag(20 s)/ZnO layer, which has high optical transmittance of 73% at 550 nm, shows sheet resistance as low as 6.7 ohm/sq. These multilayer transparent films had low electrical resistance as the widely used transparent conductive oxide electrodes. SEM, XRD, the UV-Vis-NIR and Hall Effect measurement system were used to characterize properties of fabricated films. The reasons for the change of transmittance and resistance will also be interpreted.

  1. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikam, Pravin N., E-mail: pravinya26@gmail.com; Deshpande, Vineeta D., E-mail: drdeshpandevd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400019, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ{sub AC}) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ{sub AC} of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}), critical frequency (ω{sub c}), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  2. Characterization of polyester composites from recycled polyethylene terephthalate reinforced with empty fruit bunch fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chiachun; Ahmad, Ishak; Heng, Muichin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was synthesized from recycled PET. → Effect of surface treatment on EFB/UPR was studied. → Treatment on EFB improved the mechanical and thermal properties. → Treatment on EFB also improved fiber-matrix interaction. -- Abstract: Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was synthesized from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) which acted as a matrix for the preparation of UPR/empty fruit bunch fibers (EFB) composite. Chemical recycling on fine pieces of PET bottles were conducted through glycolysis process using ethylene glycol. The unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was then prepared by reacting the glycolysed product with maleic anhydride. FTIR analysis of glycolyzed product and prepared UPR showed that cross-links between unsaturated polyester chain and styrene monomer occurred at the unsaturated sites which resulted in the forming of cross-linking network. The preparation of UPR/EFB composite was carried out by adding EFB into prepared UPR matrix. The effects of surface treatment on EFB with sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), silane coupling agent and maleic anhydride (MA) were then studied. The experimental results showed that treated EFB have higher values of tensile and impact strength compared with untreated EFB. The best results were obtained for silane treatment followed by MA and NaOH treatments where the tensile strength was increased by about 21%, 18% and 13% respectively. SEM micrographs of the tensile fracture surfaces of UPR/EFB composite also proved that treatment on EFB has increased the interfacial adhesion between the fiber and UPR matrix compared to the untreated UPR/EFB composite.

  3. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al_2O_3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ_A_C) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ_A_C of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ_D_C), critical frequency (ω_c), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ_D_C) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  4. The Utilisation of Shredded PET as Aggregate Replacement for Interlocking Concrete Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, M.; Kaamin, M.; Sahat, S.; Hamid, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    The consumption of plastic has grown substantially all over the world in recent years and this has created huge quantities of plastic-based waste. Plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to the modern way of living, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. This creates substantial garbage every day, which is much unhealthy. Plastic bottles such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was use as the partially component in this making of interlocking blocks concrete. This project investigates the strength and workability of the interlocking block concrete by replacing course aggregate with % PET. The suitability of recycled plastics (PET) as course aggregate in interlocking block concrete and its advantages are discussed here. Moreover, there were more benefits when using interlocking block than using conventional block such as it easy for construction because they are aligning, easy to place, high speed stacking and they offer more resistance to shear and buildings would be even stronger. Based on the test perform, the failure parameter were discussed .From the compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with increased of PET used. From the results, it shows that higher compressive strength was found with 5% natural course aggregate replaced with PET compared to other percentages.

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of mortars containing PET and PC waste aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawi, Kinda; Kamali-Bernard, Siham; Prince, William

    2010-11-01

    Non-biodegradable plastic aggregates made of polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste are used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in mortar. Various volume fractions of sand 3%, 10%, 20% and 50% are replaced by the same volume of plastic. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites. The main results of this study show the feasibility of the reuse of PC and PET waste aggregates materials as partial volume substitutes for natural aggregates in cementitious materials. Despite of some drawbacks like a decrease in compressive strength, the use of PC and PET waste aggregates presents various advantages. A reduction of the specific weight of the cementitious materials and a significant improvement of their post-peak flexural behaviour are observed. The calculated flexural toughness factors increase significantly with increasing volume fraction of PET and PC-aggregates. Thus, addition of PC and PET plastic aggregates in cementitious materials seems to give good energy absorbing materials which is very interesting for several civil engineering applications like structures subjected to dynamic or impact efforts. The present study has shown quite encouraging results and opened new way for the recycling of PC waste aggregate in cement and concrete composites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  7. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  8. Study of electron beam irradiation effects on morphologic properties of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, Edvaldo L.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e; Wiebeck, Helio

    2009-01-01

    Amidst the pollutants, plastics and especially the 'PET bottles' packaging type, which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) have been causing big damage to the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by mechanical recycling 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective of finding a solution for this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation dose effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The morphologic properties of the non-irradiated and irradiated polymeric blend were evaluated by the Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the results appeared to be a not mixing and compatible blend. The use of the ionizing radiation improved the homogeneity of the blend. These modifications have been randomized and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation. (author)

  9. Study of electron beam irradiation effects on morphologic properties of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Edvaldo L.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e, E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wiebeck, Helio, E-mail: hwiebeck@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2009-07-01

    Amidst the pollutants, plastics and especially the 'PET bottles' packaging type, which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) have been causing big damage to the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by mechanical recycling 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective of finding a solution for this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation dose effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The morphologic properties of the non-irradiated and irradiated polymeric blend were evaluated by the Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the results appeared to be a not mixing and compatible blend. The use of the ionizing radiation improved the homogeneity of the blend. These modifications have been randomized and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation. (author)

  10. UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid in the sub-micronchannels of oxidized PET track-etched membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report on functionalization of track-etched membrane based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET TeMs) oxidized by advanced oxidation systems and by grafting of acrylic acid using photochemical initiation technique for the purpose of increasing functionality thus expanding its practical application. Among advanced oxidation processes (H2O2/UV) system had been chosen to introduce maximum concentration of carboxylic acid groups. Benzophenone (BP) photo-initiator was first immobilized on the surfaces of cylindrical pores which were later filled with aq. acrylic acid solution. UV-irradiation from both sides of PET TeMs has led to the formation of grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains inside the membrane sub-micronchannels. Effect of oxygen-rich surface of PET TeMs on BP adsorption and subsequent process of photo-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) were studied by ESR. The surface of oxidized and AA grafted PET TeMs was characterized by UV-vis, ATR-FTIR, XPS spectroscopies and by SEM.

  11. 76 FR 13128 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...: Emily Halle or Gene Calvert, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. See...

  12. 77 FR 18206 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...: Gene Calvert or Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2010 through June 30...

  13. Pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate containing real waste plastics using Ni loaded zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-asadi, M.; Miskolczi, N.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containing real waste plastic was investigated using different Ni loaded catalysts: Ni/ZSM-5, Ni/y-zeolite, Ni/β-zeolite and Ni/natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Raw materials were pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor between 600 and 900°C using 10% of catalysts. It was found, that both temperature increasing and catalysts presence can increase the gas yields, however owing to gasification reactions, the pyrolysis oil yield decreased with increasing temperature. Ni/y-zeolite catalyst had the most benefit in gas yield increasing at low temperature; however Ni/ZSM-5 showed advanced property in gas yield increasing at high temperature. Gases contained hydrogen, carbon oxides and hydrocarbons, which composition was significantly affected by catalysts. Ni loaded zeolites favoured to the formation of hydrogen and branched hydrocarbons; furthermore the concentrations of both CO and CO2 were also increased as function of elevated temperature. That phenomenon was attributed to the further decomposition of PET, especially to the side chain scission reactions. Owing to the Boudouard reaction, the ratio of CO2/CO can increased with temperature. Pyrolysis oils were the mixtures of n-saturated, n-unsaturated, branched, oxygen free aromatics and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Temperature increasing has a significant effect to the aromatization and isomerization reactions, while the catalysts can efficiently decreased the concentration of oxygen containing compounds.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers. Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... purposes of this section, ethylene-1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers (1,4-benzene...

  15. Effect of Pore Geometry on Resistive-Pulse Sensing of DNA Using Track-Etched PET Nanopore Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Dila; Dinler, Ali; San, Nevim; Kececi, Kaan

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of nanopore geometry on translocation properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) membranes. In order to vary the cone angles of the conically shaped nanopores, which were obtained by track-etch method, we have added different volume fractions of methanol to the alkali etching solution. We have confirmed through the characterization of PET membranes that methanol has a promoting effect on cone angle. Additionally, we have reported the positive influence of a higher cone angle for resistive pulse sensing of 50-bp DNA. We have also shown the change in electric field as a function of cone angle by using finite element simulations and confirmed a higher electric field with increasing cone angle.

  16. PET-modified red mud as catalysts for oxidative desulfurization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Nayara T; Heitmann, Ana P; Mansur, Herman S; Mansur, Alexandra A; Oliveira, Luiz C A; de Castro, Cinthia S

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of catalysts based on red mud/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites and their subsequent heat treatment under N 2 atmosphere. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray d