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Sample records for terephthalate pet plastic

  1. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastics through Bayesian decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    Full Text Available Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster

  2. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics through Bayesian decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed.

  3. Robust Identification of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastics through Bayesian Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed. PMID

  4. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  5. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  6. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  7. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  8. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  9. Up-cycling of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) to the biodegradable plastic PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Shane T; Runic, Jasmina Nikodinovic; Kaminsky, Walter; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; Keely, Chris M; Blau, Werner; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-10-15

    The conversion of the petrochemical polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to a biodegradable plastic polyhydroxyal-kanoate (PHA) is described here. PET was pyrolised at 450 degrees C resulting in the production of a solid, liquid, and gaseous fraction. The liquid and gaseous fractions were burnt for energy recovery, whereas the solid fraction terephthalic acid (TA) was used as the feedstock for bacterial production of PHA. Strains previously reported to grow on TA were unable to accumulate PHA. We therefore isolated bacteria from soil exposed to PET granules at a PET bottle processing plant From the 32 strains isolated, three strains capable of accumulation of medium chain length PHA (mclPHA) from TA as a sole source of carbon and energy were selected for further study. These isolates were identified using 16S rDNA techniques as P. putida (GO16), P. putida (GO19), and P. frederiksbergensis (GO23). P. putida GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA composed predominantly of a 3-hydroxydecanoic acid monomer while P. frederiksbergensis GO23 accumulates 3-hydroxydecanoic acid as the predominant monomer with increased amounts of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid compared to the other two strains. PHA was detected in all three strains when nitrogen depleted below detectable levels in the growth medium. Strains GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA at a maximal rate of approximately 8.4 mg PHA/l/h for 12 h before the rate of PHA accumulation decreased dramatically. Strain GO23 accumulates PHA at a lower maximal rate of 4.4 mg PHA/l/h but there was no slow down in the rate of PHA accumulation over time. Each of the PHA polymers is a thermoplastic with the onset of thermal degradation occurring around 308 degrees C with the complete degradation occurring by 370 degrees C. The molecular weight ranged from 74 to 123 kDa. X-ray diffraction indicated crystallinity of the order of 18-31%. Thermal analysis shows a low glass transition (-53 degrees C) with a broad melting

  10. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays.

  11. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs.

  12. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  13. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of paper biomass and plastic mixtures (HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate)) and product analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayeeta; Pathak, T.S.; Srivastava, R.; Singh, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics (HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate)) has been performed in a fixed-bed reactor in presence of cobalt based alumina, ceria and ceria-alumina catalysts to analyze the product distribution and selectivity. Catalysts are synthesized using co-precipitation method and characterized by BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) surface area and XRD analysis. The effect of catalytic co-pyrolysis at different temperature with product distribution has been evaluated. The results have clearly shown the synergistic effect between biomass and plastics, the liquid products gradually increases forming with rise in the plastic content in the blend. Gaseous products have yielded most during pyrolysis of blend having biomass/plastics ratio of 5:1 with the presence of 40% Co/30% CeO_2/30% Al_2O_3 catalyst with hydrogen gas production touched its peak of 47 vol%. Catalytic performance enhanced with increase with the cobalt loading, with best performance attributing to 40% Co/30% CeO_2/30% Al_2O_3 catalyst. - Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics (HDPE, PP & PET) blends in fixed-bed reactor. • Strong synergistic effect evident between biomass and plastics. • Solid residue diminished with application of catalysts. • Aromatics and olefins production increases with higher plastic content. • More hydrogen production with application of catalysts with higher cobalt content.

  14. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  15. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  16. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress.

  17. A study of thermal decomposition and combustion products of disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic using high resolution fourier transform infrared spectroscopy selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry...

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Kristýna; Ferus, Martin; Matulková, Irena; Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Dvořák, O.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, 9-10 (2009), s. 1205-1214 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : polyethylene terephthalate (PET) * coimbustion * high resolution FTIR spectroscopy * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2009

  18. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  19. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to continuation or... was given by posting copies of the notice in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  20. The Effect of Adding PET (Polyethylen Terephthalate) Plastic Waste on SCC (Self-Compacting Concrete) to Fresh Concrete Behavior and Mechanical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswatama W, K.; Suyoso, H.; Meyfa U, N.; Tedy, P.

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect PET waste plastics on SCC then PET plastic waste content for SCC is made into 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; and 10%. As reference concrete is made SCC with 0% PET level. The results on all fresh concrete test items indicate that for all PET waste levels made are meeting the criteria as SCC. The effect of adding PET to fresh concrete behavior on all test items shows that the filling ability and passing ability of concrete work increases with increasing of PET. However, the increase in PET will decrease its mechanical properties. The result of heat test shows that the mechanical properties of concrete (compressive strength, splitting, and elastic modulus) after heating at 250°C temperature has not changed, while at 600°C has significant capacity decline. To clarify the differences between SCC before and after heating, microstructure analysis was done in the form of photo magnification of specimen using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope).

  1. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) detector to search for rare events in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Sara, Swapan; Syam, D.

    2015-01-01

    A particular brand of commercially available plastic, identified as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) to detect heavy charged particles. It was found that PET has a much higher detection threshold compared to other commercially available NTDs, making PET particularly suitable for detecting rare events in cosmic rays. To characterize and calibrate PET, systemetic studies were carried out using ions from various accelerators in India and Europe. Results of those studies have shown that PET can be effectively used as a charge particle detector with good energy and charge resolution. (author)

  2. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  3. Plastic Degradation and Its Environmental Implications with Special Reference to Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global consumption and their natural resistance to degradation, plastic materials and their accumulation in the environment is of increasing concern. This review aims to present a general overview of the current state of knowledge in areas that relate to biodegradation of polymers, especially poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET. This includes an outline of the problems associated with plastic pollution in the marine environment, a description of the properties, commercial manufacturing and degradability of PET, an overview of the potential for biodegradation of conventional polymers and biodegradable polymers already in production.

  4. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics

  6. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  7. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hidrólise parcial da superfície do polyethylene terephthalate (PET: transformando um rejeito em um material de troca catiônica para aplicação ambiental Partial hydrolysis of pet surface: transforming a plastic waste into a material with cationic exchange properties for environmental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Rosmaninho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed a simple and versatile undergraduate chemical experiment in polymer and environmental technology based on the process of polyethylene terephthalate (PET hydrolysis. Polyethylene terephthalate from post-consume bottles is submitted to a controlled partial hydrolysis which allows the students to follow the reaction by a simple procedure. The students can explore the reaction kinetics, the effect of catalysts and the exposed polyethylene terephthalate surface area on the hydrolysis reaction. The second and innovative part of this experiment is the technological and environmental application of the hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate as a material with cation exchange properties. The surface hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate can be used as adsorbent for cationic contaminants.

  9. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürü, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Çubuk, M. Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S. Ali [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Civil Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Bilici, İbrahim [Hitit University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 19100 Çorum (Turkey)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We derived two novel additive materials from PET bottle waste: TLPP and VPP. • We used them to modify the base asphalt separately. • The additives improved both the asphalt and the asphalt mixture performance. • TLPP, VPP offer a beneficial way about disposal of ecologically hazardous PET waste. - Abstract: This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material.

  10. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M. Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S. Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We derived two novel additive materials from PET bottle waste: TLPP and VPP. • We used them to modify the base asphalt separately. • The additives improved both the asphalt and the asphalt mixture performance. • TLPP, VPP offer a beneficial way about disposal of ecologically hazardous PET waste. - Abstract: This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material

  11. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in bituminous mixture for improved performance of roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A. F.; Razali, A. R.; Razelan, I. S. M.; Jalil, S. S. A.; Noh, M. S. M.; Idris, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Plastic bottle for recycling can be found from the household waste stream, and most of them are made from Polyethylene Terephthalate. In this research, PET is utilized to explore the potential prospects to upgrade asphalt mixture properties. The objectives include deciding the best measure of PET to be used. For experimental, Marshall mix design was utilized to determine the ideal bitumen binder content and to test the modified mixture properties. The samples were created per the requirement for aggregate course wearing (ACW14) using the Standard Specification of Road Work (SSRW) in Malaysia. 20 samples were utilized to determine the binder content, and 30 samples were used to research the impact of modifying asphalt mixtures. 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of PET by weight of the optimum binder content (4.8%) were tested. Optimum PET content is 10%, and the result shows a good stability with 16.824kN, 2.32g/cm3 bulk density, void filled with bitumen (VFB) with 71.35%, flow with 3.2248mm, air void (AV) with 4.53%, and void of mineral aggregate (VMA) with 15.15%. The outcomes showed that PET modifier gives better engineering properties. Therefore, 10% of PET by the weight of binder content was suggested as the best amount of the modifier.

  13. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-08-30

    This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the... terephthalate (PET) film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from India. The Department finds that revocation of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Carey or Dana Mermelstein, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  15. Medical effects of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, bamboo activated charcoal was mixed with acrylic resin in various proportions and deposited on poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabrics. A series of characterizations were carried out to estimate the performances of PET non-woven fabrics such as far infrared ray emission, heat retention, negative ...

  16. Ultrasonic Characterisation of Epoxy Resin/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran ORAL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out in order to determine the elastic properties of the Epoxy Resin (ER / Polyethylene terephthalate (PET Char Powder Composites by ultrasonic wave velocity measurement method. Plastic waste was recycled as raw material for the preparation of epoxy composite materials. The supplied chars were mixed with epoxy resin matrix at weight percentages of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % for preparing ER/PET Char Powder (PCP composites. The effect of PET char powder on the elastic properties of ER/PCP composites were investigated by ultrasonic pulse-echo method. According to the obtained results, the composition ratio of 80:20 is the most appropriate composition ratio, which gave the highest elastic constants values for ER/PCP composites. On the other hand, the best electrical conductivity value was obtained for 70:30 composition ratio. It was observed that ultrasonic shear wave velocity correlated more perfectly than any other parameters with hardness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12190

  17. Radiation damage and recovery properties of common plastics PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate) and PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) using a 137Cs gamma ray source up to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, J.; Tiras, E.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-08-01

    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) are cheap and common polyester plastics used throughout the world in the manufacturing of bottled drinks, containers for foodstuffs, and fibers used in clothing. These plastics are also known organic scintillators with very good scintillation properties. As particle physics experiments increase in energy and particle flux density, so does radiation exposure to detector materials. It is therefore important that scintillators be tested for radiation tolerance at these generally unheard of doses. We tested samples of PEN and PET using laser stimulated emission on separate tiles exposed to 1 Mrad and 10 Mrad gamma rays with a 137Cs source. PEN exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 71.4% and 46.7% of the light of an undamaged tile, respectively, and maximally recover to 85.9% and 79.5% after 5 and 9 days, respectively. PET exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 35.0% and 12.2% light, respectively, and maximally recover to 93.5% and 80.0% after 22 and 60 days, respectively.

  18. Radiation damage and recovery properties of common plastics PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate) and PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) using a 137Cs gamma ray source up to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.; Tiras, E.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) are cheap and common polyester plastics used throughout the world in the manufacturing of bottled drinks, containers for foodstuffs, and fibers used in clothing. These plastics are also known organic scintillators with very good scintillation properties. As particle physics experiments increase in energy and particle flux density, so does radiation exposure to detector materials. It is therefore important that scintillators be tested for radiation tolerance at these generally unheard of doses. We tested samples of PEN and PET using laser stimulated emission on separate tiles exposed to 1 Mrad and 10 Mrad gamma rays with a 137 Cs source. PEN exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 71.4% and 46.7% of the light of an undamaged tile, respectively, and maximally recover to 85.9% and 79.5% after 5 and 9 days, respectively. PET exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 35.0% and 12.2% light, respectively, and maximally recover to 93.5% and 80.0% after 22 and 60 days, respectively.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of three plastic additives' diffusion in polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying

    2017-06-01

    Accurate diffusion coefficient data of additives in a polymer are of paramount importance for estimating the migration of the additives over time. This paper shows how this diffusion coefficient can be estimated for three plastic additives [2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl) (UV-P), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)] in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. MD simulations were performed at temperatures of 293-433 K. The diffusion coefficient was calculated through the Einstein relationship connecting the data of mean-square displacement at different times. Comparison of the diffusion coefficients simulated by the MD simulation technique, predicted by the Piringer model and experiments, showed that, except for a few samples, the MD-simulated values were in agreement with the experimental values within one order of magnitude. Furthermore, the diffusion process for additives is discussed in detail, and four factors - the interaction energy between additive molecules and PET, fractional free volume, molecular shape and size, and self-diffusion of the polymer - are proposed to illustrate the microscopic diffusion mechanism. The movement trajectories of additives in PET cell models suggested that the additive molecules oscillate slowly rather than hopping for a long time. Occasionally, when a sufficiently large hole was created adjacently, the molecule could undergo spatial motion by jumping into the free-volume hole and consequently start a continuous oscillation and hop. The results indicate that MD simulation is a useful approach for predicting the microstructure and diffusion coefficient of plastic additives, and help to estimate the migration level of additives from PET packaging.

  20. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  1. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S. de A.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  2. Pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate containing real waste plastics using Ni loaded zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-asadi, M.; Miskolczi, N.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containing real waste plastic was investigated using different Ni loaded catalysts: Ni/ZSM-5, Ni/y-zeolite, Ni/β-zeolite and Ni/natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Raw materials were pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor between 600 and 900°C using 10% of catalysts. It was found, that both temperature increasing and catalysts presence can increase the gas yields, however owing to gasification reactions, the pyrolysis oil yield decreased with increasing temperature. Ni/y-zeolite catalyst had the most benefit in gas yield increasing at low temperature; however Ni/ZSM-5 showed advanced property in gas yield increasing at high temperature. Gases contained hydrogen, carbon oxides and hydrocarbons, which composition was significantly affected by catalysts. Ni loaded zeolites favoured to the formation of hydrogen and branched hydrocarbons; furthermore the concentrations of both CO and CO2 were also increased as function of elevated temperature. That phenomenon was attributed to the further decomposition of PET, especially to the side chain scission reactions. Owing to the Boudouard reaction, the ratio of CO2/CO can increased with temperature. Pyrolysis oils were the mixtures of n-saturated, n-unsaturated, branched, oxygen free aromatics and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Temperature increasing has a significant effect to the aromatization and isomerization reactions, while the catalysts can efficiently decreased the concentration of oxygen containing compounds.

  3. Speciation of inorganic antimony in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwo, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a regulated drinking water contaminant that has been found to leach from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic containers into the waters stored in them. The common inorganic species of antimony in water are Sb(III) and Sb(V), with the former being more toxic and the latter being more soluble. In order to assess the extent to which waters stored in PET bottles are contaminated with inorganic Sb and to further examine the effect of typical storage conditions on migration rates, speciation analysis of inorganic Sb using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) was undertaken on selected PET plastic bottled waters marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Six brands of PET plastic bottled waters were obtained at source on the day of packaging, and analyses undertaken on samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers at intervals of four weeks for twelve weeks, under three carefully chosen storage conditions distinctive of bottled water usage. Selected physicochemical properties of samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers and total Sb of samples of the plastic containers were also determined to discover the effect of some physical properties and certain major ions, and the influence of the different quality PET plastic types on Sb migration respectively. The study revealed amounts of total Sb in the PET plastic containers of the 6 brands ranging from 123.46 mg/kg to 146.45 mg/kg. The selected physicochemical properties of the waters stored in the PET plastic containers considered were pH (6.78 – 7.43), Ca2+ (1.61 – 12.39 mg/L), Mg2+ (1.00 – 4.96 mg/L), HCO3− (6.18 – 55.41 mg/L) and TDS (8.70 – 70.40 mg/L)). PET bottled waters of 5 out of the 6 brands contained Sb (initial total Sb ranging from 1.11 – 14.65 μg/L) before storage. Total Sb concentrations of the waters stored in the plastic containers were observed to increase with storage time under all the three storage conditions for

  4. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  5. Molar-Mass of Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) (PET) During Ultimate Uniaxial Drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, A.G.P.U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  6. A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET and Polylactic Acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Steinkellner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethylterephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively.

  7. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Eirini, Liodaki; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Emmanouil, Liodakis; Papadopoulos, Othonas; Othonas, Papadopoulos; Machens, Hans-Günther; Hans-Günther, Machens; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Nikolaos, Papadopulos A

    2012-02-01

    In this report we highlight the use of PET scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge.

  8. Scanning electron microscopic study of hazardous waste flakes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by aminolysis and ammonolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok, E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (A Deemed University), Bhopal 462051 (India); Soni, R.K.; Dutt, Krishna; Singh, Swati [Department of Chemistry, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut 250004 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste flakes were degraded with aqueous methylamine and aqueous ammonia, respectively at room temperature in the presence and absence of quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst for different periods of time. The aminolysed and ammonolysed PET samples were investigated for the surface morphology with the help of scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It shows that the semi-crystalline PET waste samples reduce to monodisperse rods before fully degradation to the end products. The presence of the catalyst provides site for degradation of PET waste and enhances the rate of degradation. The SEM shows early developments of fissures in comparison to the one in absence of quaternary ammonium salt used as catalyst.

  9. Scanning electron microscopic study of hazardous waste flakes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by aminolysis and ammonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Alok; Soni, R.K.; Dutt, Krishna; Singh, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste flakes were degraded with aqueous methylamine and aqueous ammonia, respectively at room temperature in the presence and absence of quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst for different periods of time. The aminolysed and ammonolysed PET samples were investigated for the surface morphology with the help of scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It shows that the semi-crystalline PET waste samples reduce to monodisperse rods before fully degradation to the end products. The presence of the catalyst provides site for degradation of PET waste and enhances the rate of degradation. The SEM shows early developments of fissures in comparison to the one in absence of quaternary ammonium salt used as catalyst.

  10. Development of high shrinkage polyethylene terephthalate (PET) shape memory polymer tendons for concrete crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teall, Oliver; Pilegis, Martins; Sweeney, John; Gough, Tim; Thompson, Glen; Jefferson, Anthony; Lark, Robert; Gardner, Diane

    2017-04-01

    The shrinkage force exerted by restrained shape memory polymers (SMPs) can potentially be used to close cracks in structural concrete. This paper describes the physical processing and experimental work undertaken to develop high shrinkage die-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET) SMP tendons for use within a crack closure system. The extrusion and die-drawing procedure used to manufacture a series of PET tendon samples is described. The results from a set of restrained shrinkage tests, undertaken at differing activation temperatures, are also presented along with the mechanical properties of the most promising samples. The stress developed within the tendons is found to be related to the activation temperature, the cross-sectional area and to the draw rate used during manufacture. Comparisons with commercially-available PET strip samples used in previous research are made, demonstrating an increase in restrained shrinkage stress by a factor of two for manufactured PET filament samples.

  11. HPLC study of migration of terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid from PET bottles into edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Limbo, Sara; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mazinani, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers for food oil packaging were evaluated with a newly established determination method for terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA). The analysis of monomers, TPA and IPA that migrate from PET bottles into oils was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Three types of commercial oils (sunflower oil, canola oil and blended oil which included sunflower oil, soy bean oil and cottonseed oil) were bottled in PET containers. These samples were incubated for 10 days at 49 °C as accelerated test condition. The means of recovery for this method varied from 70% to 72% and from 101% to 111% for TPA and IPA, respectively. The results showed that the amounts of specific migration of TPA and IPA into the samples conform to European Union legislation that identifies specific migration limits. More important, the results highlighted a different behavior of migration as a function of the fatty acid profile. Previous investigations have been performed with food simulants such as HB307 or 20% ethanol but our study used real food samples and determined trace amounts of the migrated compounds. Further investigation will be needed to better explain the influence of fatty acid conformation on migration of PET monomers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and thermal properties of the obtained graft copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Xiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Mozhen, E-mail: pstwmz@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ge Xuewu, E-mail: xwge@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-05-15

    n-Butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully grafted onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using simultaneous radiation induced graft copolymerization with gamma rays. When BA concentration ranges from 20% to 30%, the Degree of Grafting (DG), measured by gravimetry and {sup 1}H NMR, increases with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose, but decreases with dose rate from 0.83 to 2.53 kGy/h. The maximum DG can reach up to 22.1%. The thermal transition temperatures such as glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) and cold-crystallization temperature (T{sub cc}) of PET in grafted films were little different from those in original PET film, indicating that microphase separation occurred between PBA side chains and PET backbone. This work implied that if PET/elastomers (e.g., acrylate rubber) blends are radiated by high energy gamma rays under a certain condition, PET-g-polyacrylate copolymer may be produced in-situ, which will improve the compatibility between PET and the elastomers so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  13. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  14. UTILIZING WASTE PLASTIC POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AS ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATES TO PRODUCE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM H. ALFAHDAWI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, there is an increasing need for the fabrication of mortar and concrete that can be characterised as sustainable and environmentally friendly. Ideally, this concrete should be inexpensive, lightweight, and outstanding in terms of its physical and mechanical specifications. Plastic materials have increasingly been used in the fabrication of different types of concrete admixtures and mortar constituents. These plastic materials take the form of fillers or shredded fibres derived from polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of plastic materials presents the following benefits: (i enhanced mixture quality and (ii a reduction in the amount of accumulated single-use plastic materials that negatively impact the environment. This work reviews several previous studies on the utilisation and preparations of plastic materials and their effects on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Other topics, including hardened concrete, fresh concrete, application, and thermo-physical characteristics, are also elaborated.

  15. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eirini, L.; Emmanouil, L.; Othonas, P.; Hans-Guenther, M.; Nikolaos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we highlight the use of position emission tomography (PET) scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge. (author)

  16. Effect of [gamma]-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, A.; Asano, M.; Yamaki, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2005-04-01

    The pre-treatment effect of γ-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films bombarded with swift heavy ions was investigated by electric conductometry and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The Xe-ion bombarded PET films were etched for 6 h in 0.2 M NaOH aqueous solution at 70 °C to prepare track-etched membranes. As γ-irradiation doses increased in the range of 0-160 kGy, the surface pore diameter obtained by SEM observation decreased while that obtained by conductometry became large. This inconsistent result between the two methods was due to an increase in the crosslinked region in the latent tracks caused by γ-irradiation.

  17. Determination of oligomers in virgin and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples by UPLC-MS-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Sara; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-03-01

    An oligomer is a molecule that consists of a few monomer units. It can be formed during polymer manufacturing and also due to polymer degradation processes or even during use conditions. Since oligomers are not included in chemical databases, their identification is a complex process. In this work, the oligomers present in 20 different PET pellet samples have been determined. Two different sample treatment procedures, solvent extraction and total dissolution, were applied in order to select the most efficient one. The analyses were carried out by UPLC-MS-QTOF. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the structural elucidation of these compounds and their correct identification. The main oligomers identified were cyclic as well as lineal from the first, second, and third series. All of them were composed of terephthalic acid (TPA), diethylene glycol (DEG), and ethylene glycol (EG). Quantitative values were very different in both procedures. In total dissolution of PET samples, the concentration of oligomers was always, at least, 10 times higher than in solvent extraction; some of the compounds were only detected when total dissolution was used. Results showed that the oligomers with the highest concentration values were dimers and trimers, cyclic, as well as lineal, from the first and second series. The oligomer with the maximum concentration value was TPA 2 -EG-DEG that was found in all the samples in a concentration range from 2493 to 19,290 ng/g PET. No differences between virgin and recycled PET were found. Migration experiments were performed in two PET bottles, and results showed the transference of most of these oligomers to a fat food simulant (ethanol 95%). Graphical abstract Graphical abstract of the two procedures developd and optimized for identifying oligomers in PET pellets and in migration form PET bottles.

  18. Exposure to antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays used in ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldimann, M; Blanc, A; Dudler, V

    2007-08-01

    Antimony residues, a result of the use of a polycondensation catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) oven-proof trays, were analysed in ready-to-eat meals. The toxicity of antimony has raised concerns about consumer safety; therefore, the migration of small fractions of these residues into ready meals and foods as a result of cooking directly in the PET trays was studied. A straightforward approach of measuring real samples was selected to obtain accurate exposure data. Background antimony concentration was determined separately from a series of lunch meals, which ranged from not detectable to 3.4 microg kg(-1). Microwave and conventional oven-cooking caused a distinct increase in the concentration of antimony in food and ready meals of 0-17 and 8-38 microg kg(-1), respectively, depending, to a certain extent, on the industrial preparations. The migrated quantities of antimony corresponded to 3-13 microg. For comparison, PET roasting bags and ready-made dough products in PET baking dishes were also evaluated. About half of the products prepared at a temperature of 180 degrees C exceeded the specific migration limit set for food contact material by the European Commission. However, the migrated amounts of antimony relative to the accepted tolerable daily intake (TDI) show that exposure from this type of food is currently not of toxicological concern.

  19. Briquettes of rice husk, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and dried leaves as implementation of wastes recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, Sucipto; Usman, Mohammad Nurdianfajar; Citrasari, Nita

    2017-06-01

    This research aim is to determine the best briquettes as implementation of wastes recycle based on scoring method, main component composition, compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content, also the suitability with SNI 01-6235-2000. Main component that used are rice husk, 2mm and 6 mm PET, and dried leaves. Composition variation in this research are marked as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 2 mm PET plastic and K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 6 mm PET plastic. The total weight of the briquettes is 100 g and divided into 90% main components and 10% tapioca as binder. The compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content were tested according to ASTM D 5865-04, ASTM D 3173-03, ASTM D 3175-02, ASTM D 3174-02. The tested results were used to determine the best briquette by scoring method, and the chosen briquettes is K2 with 6 mm PET plastic. The composition is 70% rice husk, 20% 6 mm PET plastic, and 10% dried leaves with the compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content value is 51,55 kg/cm2; 5123 kal/g; 3,049%; 31,823%, dan 12,869%. The suitable value that meet the criteria according to SNI 01-6235-2000 is compressive strength, caloric value, water content, and ash content.

  20. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Abolfazl; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Maghanaki, Amir Abedin

    2005-08-01

    One of the environmental issues in most regions of Iran is the large number of bottles made from poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) deposited in domestic wastes and landfills. Due to the high volume of these bottles, more than 1 million m3 landfill space is needed for disposal every year. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using PET waste in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt) to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. For this purpose the mechanical properties of plastiphalt mixes were compared with control samples. This study focused on the parameters of Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. The waste PET used in this study was in the form of granules of about 3 mm diameter which would replace (by volume) a portion of the mineral coarse aggregates of an equal size (2.36-4.75 mm). In all prepared mixes the determined 6.6% optimum bitumen content was used. In this investigation, five different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement were used. The results showed that the aggregate replacement of 20% by volume with PET granules would result in a reduction of 2.8% in bulk compacted mix density. The value of flow in the plastiphalt mix was lower than that of the control samples. The results also showed that when PET was used as partial aggregate replacement, the corresponding Marshall stability and Marshall quotient were almost the same as for the control samples. According to most of specification requirement, these results introduce an asphalt mix that has properties that makes it suitable for practical use and furthermore, the recycling of PET for asphalt concrete roads helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy.

  2. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez, Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  3. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of commercially-available polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate as nuclear track detector materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Vazquez-Lopez, C.; Trejo, R.; Lopez, K.; Rickards, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the study of the sensitivity of materials to be used as nuclear track detectors, it was found that commercial polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from Ciel® water bottles, commercial roof cover polycarbonate, and recycled packaging strips (recycled PET), can be used as nuclear track detectors. These three commercial materials present nuclear tracks when bombarded by 2.27 MeV nitrogen ions produced in a Pelletron particle accelerator, and by fission fragments from a 252Cf source (79.4 and 103.8 MeV), after a chemical etching with a 6.25M KOH solution, or with a 6.25M KOH solution with 20% methanol, both solutions at 60±1°C. As an example, the nitrogen ions deposit approximately 1 keV/nm in the form of ionization and excitation at the surface of PET, as calculated using the SRIM code. The fission fragments deposit up to 9 keV/nm at the surface, in both cases generating sufficient free radicals to initiate the track formation process. However, 5 MeV alpha particles, typical of radon (222Rn) emissions, deposit only 0.12 keV/nm, do not present tracks after the chemical etching process. This valuable information could be very useful for further studies of new materials in nuclear track methodology.

  5. Study of the radiosterilization dose effect on properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoldi, Ana Beatriz Godoy; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e; Rosario, Salmo Cordeiro do

    2002-01-01

    The packing are in constant development, in function, especially, the process of globalization. The opening of the brazilian market after currency stabilization, caused technological innovations, change of habits and costumes of the population and environmental matters. Year after year, because of cost reductions, it became more extreme the hard study of the polymeric materials and their copolymers, their possible blends and their recycling, always seeking a better wrapping of the products, especially when it concerns to the food, increasing its shelf life. The process of sterilization of foods and modification of polymers through radiation are targets of growing interest by of the current industries linked to the nutrition and packing sectors. The objective of this paper is to discuss the application of the radiation (electron beam) in the sterilization of packings of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, evaluating the possible effects on their properties. (author)

  6. PET and Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Sevencan; Songul A. Vaizoglu

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water,...

  7. Structural insight into molecular mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate) degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Seongjoon; Cho, In Jin; Seo, Hogyun; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Sagong, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Plastics, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), possess many desirable characteristics and thus are widely used in daily life. However, non-biodegradability, once thought to be an advantage offered by plastics, is causing major environmental problem. Recently, a PET-degrading bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis, was identified and suggested for possible use in degradation and/or recycling of PET. However, the molecular mechanism of PET degradation is not known. Here we report the crystal ...

  8. Fog Collection on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers: Influence of Cross Section and Surface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Krause, Tobias; Danter, Leon; Baars, Albert; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2017-06-06

    Fog-collecting meshes show a great potential in ensuring the availability of a supply of sustainable freshwater in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog collection using various polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross sections and surface structures with the aim of developing optimized biomimetic fog collectors. Water droplet movement and the onset of dripping from fiber samples were compared. Fibers with round, oval, and rectangular cross sections with round edges showed higher fog-collection performance than those with other cross sections. However, other parameters, for example, width, surface structure, wettability, and so forth, also influenced the performance. The directional delivery of the collected fog droplets by wavy/v-shaped microgrooves on the surface of the fibers enhances the formation of a water film and their fog collection. A numerical simulation of the water droplet spreading behavior strongly supports these findings. Therefore, our study suggests the use of fibers with a round cross section, a microgrooved surface, and an optimized width for an efficient fog collection.

  9. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  10. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparanga, Alvin R.; Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  11. Nonisothermal melt-crystallization kinetics for in situ prepared poly(ethylene terephthalate)/monmorilonite (PET/OMMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, G.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Vassiliou, A.A.; Papageorgiou, G.Z.; Bikiaris, D.; Chrissafis, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The melting temperature of the nanocomposites was shifted slightly to higher temperatures. → OMMT can act as nucleating agent. → The samples present lower activation energy compared to that of neat PET. → They crystallized by mechanisms with different activation energies. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization containing 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). In order to prepare exfoliated nanocomposites a new thermally stable modifier for montmorillonite nanoparticles like chlorohexadecane triphenylphosphine (CHDTPP) was synthesized. The preparation of nanocomposites was carried out using the two-stage melt polycondensation method. As verified by TEM micrographs, the dispersion of OMMT nanoparticles into the PET matrix was homogeneous while these were dispersed in the exfoliated form, proving the effectiveness of the modifier. The influence of OMMT nanomaterials on the thermal behaviour of PET and its non-isothermal crystallization was studied. Furthermore, the crystallization kinetics of PET and its nanocomposites were investigated by DSC. The activation energy was calculated using the Friedman's method. The Avrami exponent was calculated and analyzed. The effect of OMMT nanoparticles on spherulite growth rate of PET in all nanocomposites was also evaluated using the modified Lauritzen-Hoffman equation. From all these results it was found that OMMT nanoparticles can act as nucleating agents enhancing the crystallization rate of PET. The dispersion of OMMT nanoparticles in exfoliate form plays also an important role.

  12. Application of electrostatic separation to the recycling of plastic wastes: separation of PVC, PET, and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Yu, Hyo-Shin; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Jai-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Plastics are widely used in everyday life as a useful material, and thus their consumption is growing at a rate of about 5% per year in Korea. However, the constant generation of plastic wastes and their disposal generates environmental problems along with economic loss. In particular, mixed waste plastics are difficult to recycle because of their inferior characteristics. A laboratory-scale triboelectrostatic separator unit has been designed and assembled for this study. On the basis of the control of electrostatic charge, the separation of three kinds of mixed plastics, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), in a range of similar gravities has been performed through a two-stage separation process. Polypropylene (PP) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) were found to be the most effective materials for a tribo-charger in the separation of PVC, PET, and ABS. The charge-to-mass ratio (nC/g) of plastics increased with increasing air velocity in the tribo charger. In the first stage, using the PP cyclone charger, the separation efficiency of particles considerably depended on the air velocity (10 m/s), the relative humidity ( 20 kV), and the splitter position (+2 cm from the center) in the triboelelctrostatic separator unit. At this time, a PVC grade of 99.40% and a recovery of 98.10% have successfully been achieved. In the second stage, using the HIPS cyclone charger, a PET grade of 97.80% and a recovery of 95.12% could be obtained under conditions of 10 m/s, over 25 kV, a central splitter position, and less than 40% relative humidity. In order to obtain 99.9% PVC grade and 99.3% PET grade, their recoveries should be sacrificed by 20.9% and 27%, respectively, with moving the splitter from the center to a (+)6 cm position.

  13. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  14. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled; Preparacao de blendas polimericas a partir do glicerol, acido fumarico e do politereftalato de etileno (PET) pos consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Prado, Luis A.S. de A. [Institut fuer Kunststoffe und Verbundwerkstoffe - Technische Universitaet Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  15. Evaluation of compressive strength and water absorption of soil-cement bricks manufactured with addition of pet (polyethylene terephthalate wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of compressive strength of soil-cement bricks obtained by the inclusion in their mixture of PET flakes through mineral water bottles grinding. The Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET has been characterized by its difficulty of disaggregation in nature, requiring a long period for this. On the other hand, with the increase in civil construction activities the demand for raw material also increases, causing considerable environmental impacts. In this context, the objective of this research is to propose a simple methodology, preventing its dumping and accumulation in irregular areas, and reducing the demand of raw materials by the civil construction industry. The results showed that compressive strengths obtained were lower than recommended by NBR 8491 (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], 2012b at seven days of curing time. However, they may be used as an alternative solution in masonry works in order to not submit themselves to great loads or structural functions. The studied bricks also presented water absorption near to recommended values by NBR 8491 (ABNT, 2012b. Manufacturing costs were also determined for this brick, comparing it with the costs of other brick types. Each brick withdrew from circulation approximately 300 g of PET waste. Thus, for an area of 1 m2 the studied bricks can promote the withdrawal of approximately 180 beverage bottles of 2 L capacity.

  16. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures from high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste by chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, M. N. M.; Hashim, M. S.; Hussin, R.; Aida, S.; Kamdi, Z.; Ainuddin, AR; Yunos, MZ

    2017-10-01

    In this study, carbon nanostructures were synthesized from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste by single-stage chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. In CVD, iron was used as catalyst and pyrolitic of carbon source was conducted at temperature 700, 800 and 900°C for 30 minutes. Argon gas was used as carrier gas with flow at 90 sccm. The synthesized carbon nanostructures were characterized by FESEM, EDS and calculation of carbon yield (%). FESEM micrograph shows that the carbon nanostructures were only grown as nanofilament when synthesized from PET waste. The synthesization of carbon nanostructure at 700°C was produced smooth and the smallest diameter nanofilament compared to others. The carbon yield of synthesized carbon nanostructures from PET was lower from HDPE. Furthermore, the carbon yield is recorded to increase with increasing of reaction temperature for all samples. Elemental study by EDS analysis were carried out and the formation of carbon nanostructures was confirmed after CVD process. Utilization of polymer waste to produce carbon nanostructures is beneficial to ensure that the carbon nanotechnology will be sustained in future.

  17. Tensile properties of interwoven hemp/PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) epoxy hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Firdaus, A. Z. A.; Amin, N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composites. The effect of hybridization of hemp (warp) with PET fibres (weft) on tensile properties was of interest. Hemp and PET fibres were selected as the reinforcing material while epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. The interwoven Hemp/PET fabric was used to produce hybrid composite using a vacuum infusion process. The tensile test was conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance to the ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composite were then compared with the neat woven hemp/epoxy composite. The results show that the strength of hemp/PET with the warp direction was increased by 8% compared to the neat woven hemp composite. This enhancement of tensile strength was due to the improved interlocking structure of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid fabric.

  18. Study of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET post consumption and its properties, when it is undergone ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Claudio dos

    2008-01-01

    The plastic materials have an important role in the life style changing, in the lives of the people and it is more and more utilized in the production and consumption by the world population. By the plastic utilization, it became possible the growth phenomenon of disposable products. As a consequence of this conjecture, the recycling of these materials becomes an obliging option of the modern society. The economy provided by the reutilization of the recycling materials is advantageous not only in consideration to the reutilization of the natural resources involved in these products, but specially for its benefit provided in which concern to the preservation of the environmental matters. Within the big universe of the plastics and plastic packaging materials, available in the current market, it was carried out, during this work, the mechanical recycling of the packagings post consumption, produced from PET polymer and more specifically, the bottles used in packagings for beverages as a whole; such as carbonated beverages, mineral water, isotonic, and so on. Thus, the aim of this work was to recycle the PET post-consumption and evaluate the effects provoked by the action of different ionizing radiation doses, in the properties of this recycled polymer, based on virgin PET. Based on the conclusive results, it was taken for granted that the effects provoked by the action of the ionizing radiation from the electron beam by electron accelerators and gamma rays emitted by 60 Co source in the virgin and recycled PET polymer promoted the predominance of the scission reactions at random of the main chain, with consequent decrease of the polymer molecular weight. Such fact was corroborated by the flow index essay and intrinsic viscosity. It was also carried out, thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) proving the decreasing of molecular weight in the irradiated PET samples. (author)

  19. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a fixed bed drop type pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was carried out at different temperatures (450,500,550, and 600°C) at ratio 1:1 by using fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product yield. As the temperature increased, the pyrolysis oil increased until it reaches certain high temperature (600°C), the pyrolysis oil decreased as of more NCG were produced. The temperature 550°C is considered as the optimum pyrolysis temperature since it produced the highest amount of pyrolysis oil with 36 wt.%. In pyrolysis oil, the calorific value (13.98kJ/g) was low because of the presence of high water content (52.46 wt.%). Main chemicals group from pyrolysis oil were an aldehyde, ketones, acids, aromatics, and phenol and all compound have abundant of hydrogen and carbon were identified. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and PET produced a higher amount of carbon oxides and recycling back the NCG could increase liquid and char yields.

  20. Particle identification with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detector with high detection threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K.; Syam, D.

    2014-10-01

    In the present work we describe the results of studies, using accelerator data, to determine the accuracy with which particles can be identified and their energies determined with a commercially available polymer (PET) used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD). The achieved charge resolution was ± 1 . The initial energy of stopping particle in PET was determined with an accuracy of 10 % for ion energies above the Bragg peak.

  1. Particle identification with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) detector with high detection threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, S. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Maulik, A., E-mail: atanu.maulik@gmail.com [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Raha, Sibaji; Saha, Swapan K. [Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 091 (India); Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Syam, D. [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, Kolkata 700 124 (India)

    2014-10-01

    In the present work we describe the results of studies, using accelerator data, to determine the accuracy with which particles can be identified and their energies determined with a commercially available polymer (PET) used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD). The achieved charge resolution was ±1. The initial energy of stopping particle in PET was determined with an accuracy of 10% for ion energies above the Bragg peak.

  2. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  3. Molecular Weight and Crystallization Temperature Effects on Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET Homopolymers, an Isothermal Crystallization Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Baldenegro-Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET homopolymers with different molecular weight was studied in a wide temperature range (140–230 °C using different experimental techniques. Three different morphological regions, labeled r1, r2 and r3, were distinguished as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc. In r1 (low Tc crystallized samples were characterized by a low crystalline degree with a small spherulite texture containing thin crystals. In r2 (intermediate Tc samples showed medium size spherulites composed of two distinct crystalline families (thin and thick crystals. In this temperature range, the crystallization exhibited a maximum value and it was associated with a high content of secondary crystals. In r3 (high Tc, samples presented considerable amorphous zones and regions consisting of oversized spherulites containing only thick crystals. Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, using synchrotron radiation, indicated a rapid evolution of the crystalline degree within the second region, in contrast with the quite slow evolution observed in the third region. On the other hand, by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and time-resolved SAXS experiment, it was found that the long period (L as well as the lamellar thickness (lc increase as a function of Tc, corroborating the formation of the thickest crystals in the third region. From all these observations, a morphological model was proposed for each region.

  4. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery.

  5. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  6. Influence of flavour absorption on oxygen permentation through LDPE, PP, PC and PET plastics food packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Stege, van der H.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of flavour absorption on the oxygen permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied using an isostatic continuous flow system. Polymer samples were exposed to a model solution containing limonene,

  7. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: structural characterization of terephthalic acid and the effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Talitha Granja; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros Bastos de; Vinhas, Gloria Maria

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental impact caused by PET packaging disposal, this material recycling has been thoroughly discussed and evaluated. In particular, chemical recycling enables achievement of the monomers that are used in PET resin manufacture: ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (PTA). Therefore, studies for this process optimization are important from environmental and economic points of view. The present study investigated certain parameters that influence the depolymerization reaction of PET post-consumer via alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain PTA. Assays were performed at 70 °C by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the reaction time. The best results were obtained at 10.82 mol L -1 NaOH and 9 h reaction time. Consequently, it was possible to prove this process viability, once analyses by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that PTA was obtained in all reactions performed. (author)

  8. UTILIZING WASTE PLASTIC POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AS ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATES TO PRODUCE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM H. ALFAHDAWI; S. A. OSMAN; R. HAMID; ABDULKADER ISMAIL AL-HADITHI

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, there is an increasing need for the fabrication of mortar and concrete that can be characterised as sustainable and environmentally friendly. Ideally, this concrete should be inexpensive, lightweight, and outstanding in terms of its physical and mechanical specifications. Plastic materials have increasingly been used in the fabrication of different types of concrete admixtures and mortar constituents. These plastic materials take the form of fillers or shredded fibres derived...

  9. On the Diels-Alder approach to solely biomass-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET): conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrolein into p-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Mika; Toste, F Dean

    2011-10-24

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a polymeric material with high global demand. Conventionally, PET is produced from fossil-fuel-based materials. Herein, we explored the feasibility of a sustainable method for PET production by using solely bio-renewable resources. Specifically, 2,5-dimethylfuran (derived from lignocellulosic biomass through 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) and acrolein (produced from glycerol, a side product of biodiesel production) were converted into the key intermediate p-xylene (a precursor of terephthalic acid). This synthesis consists of a sequential Diels-Alder reaction, oxidation, dehydration, and decarboxylation. In particular, the pivotal first step, the Diels-Alder reaction, was studied in detail to provide useful kinetic and thermodynamic data. Although it was found that this reaction requires low temperature to proceed efficiently, which presents a limitation on economic feasibility on an industrial scale, the concept was realized and bio-derived p-xylene was obtained in 34% overall yield over four steps. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Development of a bioprocess to convert PET derived terephthalic acid and biodiesel derived glycerol to medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Shane T.; Nikodinovic Runic, Jasmina; O' Connor, Kevin E. [University College Dublin (Ireland). School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences; Kaminsky, Walter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P. [Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Materials Ireland Polymer Research Center

    2012-08-15

    Sodium terephthalate (TA) produced from a PET pyrolysis product and waste glycerol (WG) from biodiesel manufacture were supplied to Pseudomonas putida GO16 in a fed-batch bioreactor. Six feeding strategies were employed by altering the sequence of TA and WG feeding. P. putida GO16 reached 8.70 g/l cell dry weight (CDW) and 2.61 g/l PHA in 48 h when grown on TA alone. When TA and WG were supplied in combination, biomass productivity (g/l/h) was increased between 1.3- and 1.7-fold and PHA productivity (g/l/h) was increased 1.8- to 2.2-fold compared to TA supplied alone. The monomer composition of the PHA accumulated from TA or WG was predominantly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid. PHA monomers 3-hydroxytetradeeanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid were not present in PHA accumulated from TA alone but were present when WG was supplied to the fermentation. When WG was either the sole carbon source or the predominant carbon source supplied to the fermentation the molecular weight of PHA accumulated was lower compared to PHA accumulated when TA was supplied as the sole substrate. Despite similarities in data for the properties of the polymers, PHAs produced with WG present in the PHA accumulation phase were tacky while PHA produced where TA was the sole carbon substrate in the polymer accumulation phase exhibited little or no tackiness at room temperature. The co-feeding of WG to fermentations allows for increased utilisation of TA. The order of feeding of WG and TA has an effect on TA utilisation and polymer properties. (orig.)

  11. Fire-retardant Polyester Composites from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Wastes Reinforced with Coconut Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Munirah Abdullah; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut fibre reinforced composite was prepared by blending unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from waste PET with 0.3 v % of coconut fibre. The coconut fibres were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide followed by silane prior to inclusion into the UPR. The untreated coconut fibres reinforced composite were used as a control. DriconR as a phosphate type of flame retardant was then added to the composite to reduce the flammability of the composite. The amount of DriconR was varied from 0 to 10 wt % of the overall mass of resin. The burning properties and limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the treated and untreated composites increased with the addition of Dricon. The tensile strength and modulus of both composites were also increased with the addition of DriconR. The treated fibre composite with 5 wt % DriconR showed the highest burning time and LOI with the values of 101.5 s and 34 s, respectively. The optimum tensile strength and modulus for treated fibre composite was at 5 wt % DriconR whereas the untreated fibre composite was at 2.5 wt % loading of DriconR. Thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis indicated that the degradation temperature increased with the addition of DriconR up to 5 wt % into UPR/ coconut fibre composites. Morphological observations indicated better distribution of DriconR for treated fibre composite resulted in enhancement of the tensile properties of the treated fibre composite. (author)

  12. Structural insight into molecular mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seongjoon; Cho, In Jin; Seo, Hogyun; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Sagong, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-26

    Plastics, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), possess many desirable characteristics and thus are widely used in daily life. However, non-biodegradability, once thought to be an advantage offered by plastics, is causing major environmental problem. Recently, a PET-degrading bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis, was identified and suggested for possible use in degradation and/or recycling of PET. However, the molecular mechanism of PET degradation is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of I. sakaiensis PETase (IsPETase) at 1.5 Å resolution. IsPETase has a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad at its active site and contains an optimal substrate binding site to accommodate four monohydroxyethyl terephthalate (MHET) moieties of PET. Based on structural and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, the detailed process of PET degradation into MHET, terephthalic acid, and ethylene glycol is suggested. Moreover, other PETase candidates potentially having high PET-degrading activities are suggested based on phylogenetic tree analysis of 69 PETase-like proteins.

  13. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/fumed silica (PET/SiO2) prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, G.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Bikiaris, D.; Chrissafis, K.

    2010-01-01

    A number of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization using different amounts (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt%) of fumed silica (SiO 2 ). The polymerization of PET was carried out by the two-stage melt polycondensation method. From DSC studies it was found that the melting point of the nanocomposites was shifted slightly to higher temperatures by the addition of SiO 2 till 3 wt% while for PET-4 wt% SiO 2 nanocomposite the melting point was reduced. As the amount of SiO 2 was increased the crystallization became faster, and there was, also, a shifting of the temperature of the crystallization peak to higher values, this being evidence that SiO 2 can act as nucleating agent. At higher content (3 and 4 wt%) the temperature of the crystallization peak is lower than that of PET-2 wt% SiO 2 due to the formation of crosslinked macromolecules. The activation energy is calculated with the Friedman's method. PET/SiO 2 samples present lower activation energy compared to that of neat PET, except those of PET-4% SiO 2 , in which the activation energy have a maximum value for α = 0.8 probably due to the second crystallization peak. Extensive crystallization studies by using Avrami, Ozawa and Malek methods verified that PET and its nanocomposites must be crystallized by two mechanisms with different activation energies taking place in different degrees of crystallization.

  14. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10 6 was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  15. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zewen, E-mail: zuozewen@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10{sup 6} was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  16. Laser direct joining of metal and plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Seiji; Kawahito, Yousuke

    2008-01-01

    We have developed an innovative rapid laser direct joining process of metal and plastic lap plates without adhesives or glues. The joints made between a Type 304 stainless steel plate and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic sheet of 30 mm width possessed tensile shear loads of about 3000 N. Transmission electron microscope photographs of the joint demonstrated that Type 304 and the PET were bonded on the atomic, molecular or nanostructural level through a Cr oxide film

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid; Preparacao e caracterizacao de blendas polimericas a base de PET reciclado e poliester derivado do acido tereftalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: leandro.ohara@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  18. CFD Modelling of Adsorption Behaviour in AGN Tank with Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste Based Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Afdhol, M. K.; Sanal, Alristo; Nasruddin

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia imports fuel (fuel oil) in large quantities. Indonesia has reserves of methane gas in the form of natural gas in large numbers but has obstacles in the process of storage. To produce a storage tank to a safe condition then proclaimed to use ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) technology. Manufacture of activated PET based activated carbon for storage of natural gas where technology has been widely studied, but still has some shortcomings. Therefore to predict the performance of ANG technology, modeling of ANG tank with Fluent CFD program is done so the condition inside the ANG tank can be known and can be used to increased the performance of ANG technology. Therefore, in this experiment natural gas storage test is done at the ANG tank model using Fluent CFD program. This experiment is begin with preparation tools and material by characterize the natural gas and activated carbon followed by create the mesh and model of ANG tank. The next process is state the characteristic of activated carbon and fluid in this experiment. The last process is run the simulation using the condition that already been stated which is at 27°C and 35 bar during 15 minutes. The result is at adsorption contour we can see that adsorption is higher at the top of the tank because the input of the adsorbent is at the top of the ANG tank so the adsorbate distribution is uneven that cause the adsorbate concentration at the top of the ANG tank is higher than the bottom tank.

  19. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  20. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  1. The Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene-Polyethylene Terephthalate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Avazverdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, one of the thermoplastic polymers, is encountered with arduous problems in its recycling. After recycling, its mechanical properties drop dramatically and therefore it cannot be used to produce the products as virgin PET does. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer which can be easily recycled using the conventional recycling processes. The decreased mechanical properties of virgin polyethylene due to the environmental factors can be improved by reinforcing fillers. In this paper, we studied the effects of adding recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET as a filler, in various amounts with different sizes, on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene. Composite samples were prepared using an internal mixer at temperature 185°C, well below rPET melting point (250°C, and characterized by their mechanical properties. To improve the compatibility between different components, PE grafted with maleic anhydride was added as a coupling agent in all the compositions under study. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were performed using the tensile strength, impact strength, surface hardness and melt flow index (MFI tests. To check the dispersity of the polyethylene terephthalate powder in the polyethylene matrix, light microscopy was used. The results showed that the addition of rPET improved the tensile energy, tensile modulus and surface hardness of the composites while reduced the melt flow index, elongation-at-yield, tensile strength and fracture energy of impact test. We could conclude that with increasing rPET percentage in the recycled polyethylene matrix, the composite became brittle, in other words it decreased the plastic behavior of recycled polyethylene. Decreasing particle size led to higher surface contacts, increased the mechanical properties and made the composite more brittle. The light microscopy micrographs of the samples showed a good distribution of small rPET

  2. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-01-01

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  3. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-12-13

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  4. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  5. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, M., E-mail: kuramoto@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nakamori, T., E-mail: nakamori@maxwell.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M. [Yamagata University, Kojirakawa 1-4-12, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kataoka, J. [Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  6. Development of TOF-PET using Compton scattering by plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Kimura, S.; Gunji, S.; Takakura, M.; Kataoka, J.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a time-of-flight (TOF) technique using plastic scintillators which have fast decay time of a few ns for positron emission tomography (PET). While the photoelectric absorption probability of the plastic for 511 keV gamma rays are extremely low due to its small density and effective atomic number, the cross section of Compton scattering is comparable to that of absorption by conventional inorganic scintillators. We thus propose TOF-PET using Compton scattering with plastic scintillators (Compton-PET), and performed fundamental experiments towards exploration of the Compton-PET capability. We demonstrated that the plastic scintillators achieved the better time resolution in comparison to LYSO(Ce) and GAGG(Ce) scintillators. In addition we evaluated the depth-of-interaction resolving capability with the plastic scintillators.

  7. Influence of flavour absorption by food-packaging materials (low-density polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate) on taste perception of a model solution and orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of flavour absorption by low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on taste perception of a model solution containing seven flavour compounds and orange juice in glass bottles was studied with and without pieces of the respective plastic

  8. Effect of carbon nanotube reinforcement on the properties of the recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends containing functional elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesil, Sertan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical properties of r-PET improved with addition of PEN, elastomers and CNT. • Elastomer size and dispersion played important role in the variation of properties. • Selective localization of CNT affected the mechanical and electrical properties. • E-EA-MAH based samples had higher mechanical properties than E-MA-GMA based ones. - Abstract: In this study, the mechanical, thermomechanical, thermal, electrical properties and the morphology of the composites, based on blends of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (r-PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) that were mixed with functional elastomers and multi walled carbon nanotube (CNT) were investigated. Two types of functional elastomers; terpolymer of ethylene–ethyl acrylate–maleic anhydride (E-EA-MAH) and terpolymer of ethylene–methyl acrylate–glycidyl methacrylate (E-MA-GMA), were used to ensure the miscibility between PET and PEN during the preparation of the blends and composites. All composite and blend samples were extruded by using a laboratory scale twin screw microcompounder. Test samples were prepared via laboratory scale injection molding machine. According to the results of the thermomechanical tests, usage of both elastomers enhanced the miscibility between r-PET and PEN. Morphological analyses showed that the blends and composites which contain E-EA-MAH exhibited better elastomer phase dispersion with smaller domain sizes when compared with the samples with E-MA-GMA. Samples prepared with E-EA-MAH had better mechanical properties than the ones containing E-MA-GMA due to the better elastomer phase dispersion. Moreover, addition of CNT also improved the mechanical properties of the samples for both elastomer types. In contrast to mechanical test results, samples prepared with E-MA-GMA had higher electrical conductivity values when compared with those of the ones containing E-EA-MAH due to the differences in the selective distribution of CNT particles between the

  9. Metamorphosis in the Porosity of Recycled Concretes Through the Use of a Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Additive. Correlations between the Porous Network and Concrete Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil-Escalante, José Miguel; Gómez-Soberón, José Manuel; Almaral-Sánchez, Jorge Luis; Cabrera-Covarrubias, Francisca Guadalupe

    2017-02-14

    In the field of construction, sustainable building materials are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to understanding the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based additive in their matrix (produced by synthesis and glycolysis of recycled PET bottles) in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes. Porosity reductions of up to 30.60% are achieved with the addition of 1%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 7% and 9% of the additive, defining a new state in the behavioral model of the additive (the overdosage point) in the concrete matrix; in addition, the porous network of these concretes and their correlation with other physical and mechanical properties are also explained.

  10. 76 FR 13128 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...: Emily Halle or Gene Calvert, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. See...

  11. 77 FR 18206 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...: Gene Calvert or Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2010 through June 30...

  12. Pyrolysis studies of PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br plastics mixed with PET and dehalogenation (Br, Cl) of the liquid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, Thallada; Kaneko, Jun; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima Naka, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); Jakab, Emma [Research Laboratory of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Matsui, Toshiki [Toda Kogyo Co. Ltd., Hiroshima 739-0652 (Japan); Uddin, Md. Azhar [Process Safety and Environment Protection Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    Pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE)/polystyrene (PS)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/high impact polystyrene with brominated flame retardant (HIPS-Br) plastics mixed with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was performed at 430C under atmospheric pressure using a semi-batch operation. The presence of PET in the pyrolysis mixture of PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br affected significantly the formation of decomposition products and the decomposition behavior of the plastic mixture. We observed the following effects of PET on the pyrolysis of PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br mixed plastics: (1) the yield of liquid product decreased and the formation of gaseous products increased; (2) a waxy residue was formed in addition to the solid carbon residue; (3) the formation of SbBr{sub 3} was not detected in liquid products; (4) the yield of chlorinated branched alkanes increased as well as vinyl bromide and ethyl bromide were formed. The use of calcium carbonate carbon composite (Ca-C) completely removed the chlorine and bromine content from the liquid products during PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br pyrolysis, however in the presence of PET, the catalytic experiment (Ca-C, 8g) yielded liquid products containing 310ppm of Br and 20ppm of Cl. In addition, the Ca-C increased the yield of liquid products about 3-6wt.%, as well as enhanced the gaseous product evolution and decreased the yield of residue. The halogen free liquid hydrocarbons can be used as a feedstock in a refinery or as a fuel.

  13. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  14. Surface treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and its toughening effect on poly(ethylene terephthalate)/elastomer blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    To improve the compatibility between ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate random terpolymer (E-MA-GMA) elastomer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), thereby enhance the toughening effect of E-MA-GMA on PET, γ-radiation-induced graft copolymerization technique was used to graft methyl acrylate (MA) monomer onto PET. The produced PET-g-PMA copolymer can be used as a self-compatibilizer in PET/E-MA-GMA blend since the copolymer contains the same segments, respectively, with PET and E-MA-GMA. The impact strength of PET/E-MA-GMA blend increased nearly by 30% in the presence of less than 0.1 wt% PET-g-PMA compared with that of the neat PET/elastomer blend, without loss of the tensile strength of the blends. This work proposed a potential application of radiation-induced grafting copolymerization technique on the in-situ compatibilization of PET/elastomer blends so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic. - Highlights: • PMA was grafted onto PET resins by γ-ray radiation-induced copolymerization. • The obtained PET-g-PMA can improve the compatibility between PET and E-MA-GMA. • A small amount of PET-g-PMA can enhance the impact strength of PET/E-MA-GMA blend

  15. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Glutaric anhydride peroxide (GAP) was grafted on PET surface by UV irradiation method. Then MDI was attached to GAP on PET surface. • The fabric was vulcanized by nitrile rubber. • Peet test was performed after each stage of surface modification. • Curing temperature was increased and the tests were repeated. • Effect of MDI coating on PET without carboxylation was evaluated. Effect of vulcanizing temperature on this product was also studied. - Abstract: Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  16. Migration measurement and modelling from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) into soft drinks and fruit juices in comparison with food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2008-08-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are widely used for beverages. Knowledge about the migration of organic compounds from the PET bottle wall into contact media is of interest especially when post-consumer recyclates are introduced into new PET bottles. Using migration theory, the migration of a compound can be calculated if the concentration in the bottle wall is known. On the other hand, for any given specific migration limit or maximum target concentration for organic chemical compounds in the bottled foodstuffs, the maximum allowable concentrations in the polymer CP,0 can be calculated. Since a food simulant cannot exactly simulate the real migration into the foodstuff or beverages, a worse-case simulation behaviour is the intention. However, if the migration calculation should not be too overestimative, the polymer-specific kinetic parameter for migration modelling, the so-called AP value, should be established appropriately. One objective of the study was the kinetic determination of the specific migration behaviour of low molecular weight compounds such as solvents with relatively high diffusion rates and, therefore, with high migration potential from the PET bottle wall into food simulants in comparison with real beverages. For this purpose, model contaminants were introduced into the bottle wall during pre-form production. The volatile compounds toluene and chlorobenzene were established at concentrations from about 20-30 mg kg(-1) to 300-350 mg kg(-1). Phenyl cyclohexane was present at concentrations of 35, 262 and 782 mg kg(-1), respectively. The low volatile compounds benzophenone and methyl stearate have bottle wall concentrations of about 100 mg kg(-1) in the low spiking level up to about 1000 mg kg(-1) in the highly spiked test bottle. From these experimental data, the polymer specific parameters (AP values) from mathematical migration modelling were derived. The experimental determined diffusing coefficients were determined, calculated and

  17. Adhesion of nitrile rubber (NBR) to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. Part 1: PET surface modification by methylenediphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber composite industry. It is well known that surface physical, mechanical and chemical treatments are effective methods to improve interfacial bonding. Ultra violet (UV) light irradiation is an efficient method which is used to increase interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabric was used to increase its bonding to nitrile rubber (NBR). NBR is perfect selection to produce fuel and oil resistant rubber parts but it has weak bonding to fabrics. For this purpose at first, the PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was reacted and grafted to carboxylated PET. T-peel test was used to evaluate PET fabric to NBR bonding strength. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-AT) was used to assess surface modifications of the PET fabrics. The chemical composition of the PET surfaces before and after carboxylation and MDI grafting was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that at vulcanizing temperature of 150 °C, carboxylation in contrary to MDI grafting, improved considerably PET to NBR adhesion. Finally effect of curing temperature on PET to NBR bonding strength was determined. It was found that increasing vulcanizing temperature to 170 °C caused considerable improvement (about 134%) in bonding strength.

  18. Effect of the addition of ultraviolet absorber (Tinuvin 234) on the quality of soybean oil packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Alves, M.A. de; Arruda, C.S.; Ogliari, P.J.; Meinert, E.M.; Teixeira, E.; Barrera-Arellano, D.; Block, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the effect of the addition of the UV absorber Tinuvin 234 on the quality of soybean oil packaged in PET bottles stored at ambient temperature for 6 months under fluorescent light (634 lux). Along this period determinations were made of: peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm (EE) and sensorial evaluation (SE). The analysis of variance and resistance between the linear coefficients of each treatment indicates that significant difference does not exist (p0.0001) during the storage in relation to all determinations (PV, FFA, EE and SE). The results indicate that the addition of the absorbent Tinuvin 234 to PET bottles in the concentrations of 0.12% and 0.22% was not efficient in slowing down the deterioration of the oil exposed to the fluorescent light, when compared with soybean oil in PET bottles without addition of Tinuvin 234. (author) [es

  19. Interface detection in poly-ethylene terephthalate-metal laminates using variable energy positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Galindo, R.; Schut, H.; Veen, A. van; Rastogi, R.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thin coatings of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) on metal ('laminates') have been studied with a variable energy positron annihilation technique. A correlation between PET crystallinity and the positron annihilation parameter S related to the free volume in the polymer is found. It is shown that buried interfaces in these systems may be detected provided the S parameter of the polymer coating is lower than that of the substrate and higher than that of the surface. Also it is found that large positron diffusion lengths in the substrate favour interface detection. Further, changes in S parameter of PET-metal laminates were measured during uniaxial deformation and shown to be in qualitative accordance with a very simple model description that accounts for changes in free volume in PET during plastic deformation as well as the area fraction of cracks occurring in the PET

  20. Study of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET post consumption and its properties, when it is undergone ionizing radiation; Estudo da reciclagem do poli(tereftalato de etileno) (PET) pos-consumo e de suas propriedades, quando submetido a radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Claudio dos

    2008-07-01

    The plastic materials have an important role in the life style changing, in the lives of the people and it is more and more utilized in the production and consumption by the world population. By the plastic utilization, it became possible the growth phenomenon of disposable products. As a consequence of this conjecture, the recycling of these materials becomes an obliging option of the modern society. The economy provided by the reutilization of the recycling materials is advantageous not only in consideration to the reutilization of the natural resources involved in these products, but specially for its benefit provided in which concern to the preservation of the environmental matters. Within the big universe of the plastics and plastic packaging materials, available in the current market, it was carried out, during this work, the mechanical recycling of the packagings post consumption, produced from PET polymer and more specifically, the bottles used in packagings for beverages as a whole; such as carbonated beverages, mineral water, isotonic, and so on. Thus, the aim of this work was to recycle the PET post-consumption and evaluate the effects provoked by the action of different ionizing radiation doses, in the properties of this recycled polymer, based on virgin PET. Based on the conclusive results, it was taken for granted that the effects provoked by the action of the ionizing radiation from the electron beam by electron accelerators and gamma rays emitted by {sup 60}Co source in the virgin and recycled PET polymer promoted the predominance of the scission reactions at random of the main chain, with consequent decrease of the polymer molecular weight. Such fact was corroborated by the flow index essay and intrinsic viscosity. It was also carried out, thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) proving the decreasing of molecular weight in the irradiated PET samples. (author)

  1. In vitro evaluation of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate-plasticized polyvinyl chloride blood bags for red blood cell storage in AS-1 and PAGGSM additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graminske, Sharon; Puca, Kathleen; Schmidt, Anna; Brooks, Scott; Boerner, Amanda; Heldke, Sybil; de Arruda Indig, Monika; Brucks, Mark; Kossor, David

    2018-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) makes polyvinyl chloride flexible for use in blood bags and stabilizes the red blood cell (RBC) membrane preventing excessive hemolysis. DEHP migrates into the blood product and rodent studies have suggested that DEHP exposure may be associated with adverse health effects albeit at high dosages. Although structurally and functionally similar to DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT; or Eastman 168 SG [Eastman Chemical Company]) is metabolically distinct with a comprehensive and benign toxicology profile. This study evaluated RBC stability in DEHT-plasticized bags with AS-1 and PAGGSM compared to conventional DEHP-plasticized bags with AS-1. Thirty-six whole blood units were collected into CPD solution, leukoreduced, centrifuged, and divided into RBCs and plasma. To limit donor-related variability, three ABO-identical RBCs were mixed together and then divided equally and stored among the three different plasticizer and additive solution combinations. RBCs from 12 trios were analyzed for a standard panel of in vitro variables on Day 0 and after storage. No individual bag on Day 42 exceeded the US 1.0% hemolysis criteria. While hemolysis during storage was higher in the DEHT bags, the PAGGSM RBCs were close to the control RBCs (0.38% vs. 0.32%, respectively). ATP retention was higher than 70% and potassium levels were similar regardless of plasticizer. Additional RBC variables exhibited some significant differences but were not viewed as clinically important. DEHT/PAGGSM provides similar hemolysis protection to that of DEHP/AS-1. Although hemolysis values with DEHT and AS-1 are higher than that of DEHP, DEHT is a potential DEHP alternative. © 2018 AABB.

  2. Interfacial characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate-based piezoelectric multi-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.H.; Pan, C.T.; Chen, Y.C.; Liang, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the deformation between interfaces and the adhesion mechanism of multi-layer flexible electronic composites. Indium tin oxide (ITO), aluminum (Al), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature to form flexible structures (e.g., ITO/PET, Al/PET, ZnO/ITO/PET, and ZnO/Al/PET) for piezoelectric transducers. ITO and Al films are used as the conductive layers. A ZnO thin film shows a high (002) c-axis preferred orientation at 2θ = 34.45° and excellent piezoelectric properties. Nanoscratching and nano-indention testing were conducted to analyze the adhesion following periodic mechanical stress. Additionally, two Berkovich and conical probes with a curvature radius of 40 nm and 10 μm are examined for the scratching test. A 4-point probe is used to measure the conductive properties. The plastic deformation between the ductile Al film and PET substrate is observed using scanning electron microscopy to examine the chip formation on the ITO/PET. Delamination between the ZnO and Al/PET substrate was not observed. The result suggests that ZnO film has excellent adhesion with Al/PET compared to ITO/PET. - Highlights: ► Interfaces and adhesion mechanism of multi-layer flexible electronic composites ► Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) based flexible structures ► Nano-scratching and nano-indention tests were used to analyze adhesion. ► Using two various probes of Berkovich and conical ► Piezoelectric zinc oxide film has excellent adhesion with aluminum/PET

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on different nano-oxides on plastic PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Milan; Gemeiner, Pavol; Beková, Zuzana; Dvonka, Vladimír; Búc, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) foils and glass slides coated with thin conductive layers were used as substrates for TiO2 or ZnO based photoactive electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with organo-metallic Ru-dye, standard iodine electrolyte and Pt coated FTO/glass counterelectrode (CE). Different compositions of nanoparticle oxides in forms of alcohol pastes as well as the CE paste were applied onto the substrates by screen printing or by doctor blade techniques. Photocurrents and I-V loading characteristics were measured depending on the solar cell structure and preparation, including the oxide composition, electrode conductivity and the dye type. The influence of thin TiO2 blocking layer prepared by sol-gel technique is also discussed.

  4. Electro-Mechanical Coupling of Indium Tin Oxide Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate ITO/PET for Flexible Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed A.

    2013-05-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used transparent electrode in flexible solar cells because of its high transparency and conductivity. But still, cracking of ITO on PET substrates due to tensile loading is not fully understood and it affects the functionality of the solar cell tremendously as ITO loses its conductivity. Here, we investigate the cracking evolution in ITO/PET exposed to two categories of tests. Monotonous tensile testing is done in order to trace the crack propagation in ITO coating as well as determining a loading range to focus on during our study. Five cycles test is also conducted to check the crack closure effect on the resistance variation of ITO. Analytical model for the damage in ITO layer is implemented using the homogenization concept as in laminated composites for transverse cracking. The homogenization technique is done twice on COMSOL to determine the mechanical and electrical degradation of ITO due to applied loading. Finally, this damage evolution is used for a simulation to predict the degradation of ITO as function in the applied load and correlate this degradation with the resistance variation. Experimental results showed that during unloading, crack closure results in recovery of conductivity and decrease in the overall resistance of the cracked ITO. Also, statistics about the crack spacing showed that the cracking pattern is not perfectly periodical however it has a positively skewed distribution. The higher the applied load, the less the discrepancy in the crack spacing data. It was found that the cracking mechanism of ITO starts with transverse cracking with local delamination at the crack tip unlike the mechanism proposed in the literature of having only cracking pattern without any local delamination. This is the actual mechanism that leads to the high increase in ITO resistance. The analytical code simulates the damage evolution in the ITO layer as function in the applied strain. This will be extended further to

  5. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  6. Processing and characterization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with chain extenders, thermoplastic elastomer, and/or poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Alireza Javadi; Srikanth Pilla; Lih-Sheng Turng; Shaoqin Gong; Craig Clemons; Jun Peng

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resin is one of the most widely used thermoplastics, especially in packaging. Because thermal and hydrolytic degradations, recycled PET (RPET) exhibits poor mechanical properties and lacks moldability. The effects of adding elastomeric modifiers, chain extenders (CE), and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate), PBAT, as a toughener...

  7. Reconstruction of signal in plastic scintillator of PET using Tikhonov regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, Lech

    2015-08-01

    The new concept of Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) detection system, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The Jagiellonian-PET (J-PET) detector improves the TOF resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators. Since registration of the waveform of signals with duration times of few nanoseconds is not feasible, a novel front-end electronics allowing for sampling in a voltage domain at four thresholds was developed. To take fully advantage of these fast signals a novel scheme of recovery of the waveform of the signal, based on idea from the Tikhonov regularization method, is presented. From the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This step is crucial to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. The method is tested using signals registered by means of the single detection module of the J-PET detector built out from the 30 cm long plastic scintillator strip. It is shown that using the recovered waveform of the signals, instead of samples at four voltage levels alone, improves the spatial resolution of the hit position reconstruction from 1.05 cm to 0.94 cm. Moreover, the obtained result is only slightly worse than the one evaluated using the original raw-signal. The spatial resolution calculated under these conditions is equal to 0.93 cm.

  8. Production of heterologous cutinases by E. coli and improved enzyme formulation for application on plastic degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Daniela S; Matamá,Teresa; Cavaco-Paulo,Artur; Campos-Takaki,Galba M; Salgueiro,Alexandra A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The hydrolytic action of cutinases has been applied to the degradation of plastics. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have long half-life which constitutes a major problem for their treatment as urban solid residues. The aim of this work was to characterize and to improve stable the enzyme to optimize the process of degradation using enzymatic hydrolysis of PET by recombinant cutinases. Results: The wild type form of cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi and its C-terminal fusion to c...

  9. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  10. Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET: structural characterization of terephthalic acid and the effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis at low temperature; Reciclagem quimica do PET pos-consumo: caracterizacao estrutural do acido tereftalico e efeito da hidrolise alcalina em baixa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Talitha Granja; Almeida, Yeda Medeiros Bastos de; Vinhas, Gloria Maria, E-mail: gmvinhas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2014-09-15

    Due to the environmental impact caused by PET packaging disposal, this material recycling has been thoroughly discussed and evaluated. In particular, chemical recycling enables achievement of the monomers that are used in PET resin manufacture: ethylene glycol (EG) and terephthalic acid (PTA). Therefore, studies for this process optimization are important from environmental and economic points of view. The present study investigated certain parameters that influence the depolymerization reaction of PET post-consumer via alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain PTA. Assays were performed at 70 °C by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide and the reaction time. The best results were obtained at 10.82 mol L{sup -1} NaOH and 9 h reaction time. Consequently, it was possible to prove this process viability, once analyses by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that PTA was obtained in all reactions performed. (author)

  11. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil. This administrative..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Scott or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7... antidumping duty order on PET film from Brazil. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From...

  12. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR... Halle, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... Results in the Administrative Review on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan (PET...

  13. Recovery of PET from packaging plastics mixtures by wet shaking table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M T; Agante, E; Durão, F

    2007-01-01

    Recycling requires the separation of materials appearing in a mass of wastes of heterogeneous composition and characteristics, into single, almost pure, component/material flows. The separation of materials (e.g., some types of plastics) with similar physical properties (e.g., specific gravity) is often accomplished by human sorting. This is the case of the separation of packaging plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW). The low cost of virgin plastics and low value of recycled plastics necessitate the utilization of low cost techniques and processes in the recycling of packaging plastics. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of production of a PET product, cleaned from PVC and PS, using a wet shaking table. The wet shaking table is an environmentally friendly process, widely used to separate minerals, which has low capital and operational costs. Some operational variables of the equipment, as well as different feed characteristics, were considered. The results show that the separation of these plastics is feasible although, similarly to the mineral field, in somewhat complex flow sheets.

  14. Green synthesis of chromium-based metal-organic framework (Cr-MOF) from waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is of great economic value to produce high-value PET-based MOF materials by the veritable elimination of waste PET, and provide sufficient MOF materials for hydrogen storage applications. Consequently, this work demonstrates the use of waste PET...

  15. Performance studies towards a TOF-PET sensor using Compton scattering at plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Gunji, S.; Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Aoki, T.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a sensor head for a time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner using plastic scintillators that have a very fast timing property. Given the very small cross section of photoelectric absorption in plastic scintillators at 511 keV, we use Compton scattering in order to compensate for detection efficiency. The detector will consist of two layers of scatterers and absorbers which are made of plastic and inorganic scintillators such as GAGG:Ce, respectively. Signals are read by monolithic Multi Pixel Photon Counters, and with energy deposits and interaction time stamps are being acquired. The scintillators are built to be capable of resolving interaction position in three dimensions, so that our system has also a function of depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET scanners. TOF resolution of ~ 200 ps (FWHM) is achieved in both cases of using the leading-edge discriminator and time-walk correction and using a configuration sensitive to DOI. Both the position resolution and spectroscopy are demonstrated using the prototype data acquisition system, with Compton scattering events subsequently being obtained. We also demonstrated that the background rejection technique using the Compton cone constraint could be valid with our system.

  16. Time resolution of the plastic scintillator strips with matrix photomultiplier readout for J-PET tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, P.; Rundel, O.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Giergiel, K.; Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B.; Kamińska, D.; Kapłon, Ł.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Sharma, N. G.; Słomski, A.; Silarski, M.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Witkowski, P.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2016-03-01

    Recent tests of a single module of the Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomography system (J-PET) consisting of 30 cm long plastic scintillator strips have proven its applicability for the detection of annihilation quanta (0.511 MeV) with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 0.266 ns. The achieved resolution is almost by a factor of two better with respect to the current TOF-PET detectors and it can still be improved since, as it is shown in this article, the intrinsic limit of time resolution for the determination of time of the interaction of 0.511 MeV gamma quanta in plastic scintillators is much lower. As the major point of the article, a method allowing to record timestamps of several photons, at two ends of the scintillator strip, by means of matrix of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) is introduced. As a result of simulations, conducted with the number of SiPM varying from 4 to 42, it is shown that the improvement of timing resolution saturates with the growing number of photomultipliers, and that the 2× 5 configuration at two ends allowing to read twenty timestamps, constitutes an optimal solution. The conducted simulations accounted for the emission time distribution, photon transport and absorption inside the scintillator, as well as quantum efficiency and transit time spread of photosensors, and were checked based on the experimental results. Application of the 2× 5 matrix of SiPM allows for achieving the coincidence resolving time in positron emission tomography of ≈ 0.170 ns for 15 cm axial field-of-view (AFOV) and ≈ 0.365 ns for 100 cm AFOV. The results open perspectives for construction of a cost-effective TOF-PET scanner with significantly better TOF resolution and larger AFOV with respect to the current TOF-PET modalities.

  17. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  18. A study of elemental migration from poly(ethylene terephthalate) of food packagings to simulated solutions by radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saki, Mitiko; Silva, Leonardo G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian plastic production for food packagings, in recent years, has grown in the same proportion as food consumption. Considering that the plastic manufacturing involves catalytic processes and the use of additives, when the foods are in direct contact with these materials, the components present in plastics may migrate to the food. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has established boundary-values of migrants as well as procedures to evaluate migration of elements and substances from plastic packaging to food. In this study elemental composition of poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET - packaging and results of elemental migration were obtained. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine elemental concentrations in PET packagings and the radiometric method was applied for elemental migration determination. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating the PET samples with neutrons, followed by migration exposition and radioactivity measurement in food-simulated solution. Experimental conditions used for migration were 10 days exposure period at 40 deg C. Migration was evaluated for soft drink, juice and water PET packaging. The analytical results indicated that PET packagings contain Co and Sb and those elements are transferred to the simulated solutions. However, these migration results were lower than the maximum tolerance values established by ANVISA. The migration detection limits also indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  19. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  20. Sustainable carbothermal reduction and nitridation of Malaysian ilmenite by polyethylene terephthalate and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Eltefat; Hamid, Sheikh Abdul Rezan Sheikh Abdul; Hussin, Hashim; Baharun, Norlia; Ariffin, Kamar Shah; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Fauzi, M. N. Ahmad; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the carbothermal reduction and nitridation (CTRN) of Malaysian ilmenite has been studied as a part of crucial steps involved in reduction and subsequent chlorination processes for synthesizing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) from nitrided Malaysian ilmenite concentrates. In CTRN, waste plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) could be utilized as an alternative source of carbon reductant. In this study, titanium oxycarbonitride (TiOxCyNz) separated from iron (Fe) phase was synthesized by non-isothermal CTRN of Malaysian ilmenite under H2-N2 atmosphere by utilizing a mixture of Sarawak Mukah-Balingan coal and PET as reducing agents in a horizontal tube furnace. Experiments have been carried out in the temperature range of 1150-1250°C for 3 hours with various ratios of PET to coal (25 wt.% PET, 50 wt.% PET, and 75 wt.% PET). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods of analysis were conducted to assess the microstructures and chemical compositions of the unreduced and reduced samples. The results indicated that utilizing PET had a significant effect on iron separation from titanium oxycarbonitride (TiO0.02C0.13N0.85) at 1250°C with a mixture of 75 wt.% PET. Furthermore, XRD and SEM studies demonstrated that with increasing PET weight ratio in the mixtures, the rate of conversion increased and a low-carbon TiOxCyNz with minimal intermediate titanium sub-oxides was synthesized. The method of applying PET as potential reductant for CTRN of ilmenite has beneficial side effects in sustainable recycling of waste PET.

  1. Development of biodegradable metaloxide/polymer nanocomposite films based on poly-ε-caprolactone and terephthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu, E-mail: varmaindian@gmail.com [Centro de Investigación de Polímeros Avanzados (CIPA), Avenida Collao 1202, Edificio de Laboratorios, Concepción (Chile); Pariguana, Manuel [Centro de Investigación de Polímeros Avanzados (CIPA), Avenida Collao 1202, Edificio de Laboratorios, Concepción (Chile); Centro de Innovación Tecnológica Agroindustrial CITE Agroindustrial, Panamericana Sur Km, 293.3, Ica (Peru); Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd [Department of Packaging, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220 710 (Korea, Republic of); Jayaramudu, Tippabattini [Center for Nano Cellulose Future Composites, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Ku, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi [Department of Polymer Technology, Tshwane University of Technology, CSIR-Campus, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa)

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation describes the development of metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films from biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone, disposed poly(ethylene terephthalate) oil bottles monomer and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles. The terephthalic acid and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using a temperature-dependent precipitation technique and double precipitation method, respectively. The terephthalic acid synthesized was confirmed by FTIR analysis and furthermore, it was characterized by thermal analysis. The as-prepared CuO-ZnO nanoparticles structure was confirmed by XRD analysis and its morphology was analyzed by SEM/EDS and TEM. Furthermore, the metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films have excellent mechanical properties, with tensile strength and modulus better than pure films. The metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films that were successfully developed show a relatively brighter colour when compared to CuO film. These new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films can replace many non-degradable plastics. The new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films developed are envisaged to be suitable for use in industrial and domestic packaging applications. - Graphical abstract: Biodegradable metal-oxide/polymer nanocomposites films prepared by using poly-ε-caprolactone with disposed PET oil bottles terephthalic acid monomer. The development of biodegradable film provides a new material with desirable mechanical, physical and chemical properties and can be utilized for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Terephthalic acid obtained from disposed PET oil bottles via precipitation technique. • New nano metal-oxides were developed by double precipitation technique. • Nano metal-oxide polymer films were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. • Nano metal-oxide polymer films exhibit superior mechanical characteristics.

  2. Biodegradability of Plastics: Challenges and Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubowicz, Stephan; Booth, Andy M

    2017-11-07

    Plastics are one of the most widely used materials and, in most cases, they are designed to have long life times. Thus, plastics contain a complex blend of stabilizers that prevent them from degrading too quickly. Unfortunately, many of the most advantageous properties of plastics such as their chemical, physical and biological inertness and durability present challenges when plastic is released into the environment. Common plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are extremely persistent in the environment, where they undergo very slow fragmentation (projected to take centuries) into small particles through photo-, physical, and biological degradation processes 1 . The fragmentation of the material into increasingly smaller pieces is an unavoidable stage of the degradation process. Ultimately, plastic materials degrade to micron-sized particles (microplastics), which are persistent in the environment and present a potential source of harm for organisms.

  3. Recycling polyethylene terephthalate wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyi; Yu, Jing; Li, Hedong; Lam, Jeffery Y K; Shih, Kaimin; Sham, Ivan M L; Leung, Christopher K Y

    2018-05-26

    As an important portion of the total plastic waste bulk but lack of reuse and recycling, the enormous amounts of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) solid wastes have led to serious environmental issues. This study explores the feasibility of recycling PET solid wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCCs), which exhibit strain-hardening and multiple cracking under tension, and therefore have clear advantages over conventional concrete for many construction applications. Based on micromechanical modeling, fiber dispersion and alkali resistance, the size of recycled PET fibers was first determined. Then the hydrophobic PET surface was treated with NaOH solution followed by a silane coupling agent to achieve the dual purpose of improving the fiber/matrix interfacial frictional bond (from 0.64 MPa to 0.80 MPa) and enhancing the alkali resistance for applications in alkaline cementitious environment. With surface treatment, recycling PET wastes as fibers in SHCCs is a promising approach to significantly reduce the material cost of SHCCs while disposing hazardous PET wastes in construction industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental investigation on the properties of concrete containing post-consumer plastic waste as coarse aggregate replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zasiah TAFHEEM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of various forms of plastic has been increased in recent days due to the boost in industrialization and other human activities. Most of the plastic wastes are abandoned and require large landfill area for storage. More importantly, the low biodegradability of plastic poses a serious threat to environment protection issue. Various methods have been followed for the disposal of plastic in an attempt to reduce the negative impact of the plastic on the environment. Recently, various types of plastic have been incorporated in concrete to minimize the exposure of plastic to the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of concrete containing polyethylene terephthalate (PET, and high density polyethylene (HDPE plastic that were used as partial replacement of coarse aggregate (CA. In this study, four compositions of stone aggregate(S: plastic waste ratios have been used by volume basis: 100% S: 0% Plastic (control concrete, 90% S: 10% PET, 90% S: 10% HDPE, and 90% S: 5% PET+5% HDPE. The effects of waste plastic addition on the mechanical properties of concrete are presented in this paper. Test results reveal that minimum reduction in compressive strength has been found 35% in case of 10% PET plastic replaced concrete whereas splitting tensile strength for 10% PET replaced concrete has been increased by 21% while compared to control concrete. In addition, fresh unit weight of concrete containing plastic waste has been decreased by 4% in comparison to control concrete.

  5. Transforming plastic surfaces with electrophilic backbones from hydrophobic to hydrophilic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Bowen, Raffick A R; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate a simple nonaqueous reaction scheme for transforming the surface of plastics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The chemical modification is achieved by base-catalyzed trans-esterification with polyols. It is permanent, does not release contaminants, and causes no optical or mechanical distortion of the plastic. We present contact angle measurements to show successful modification of several types of plastics including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polycarbonate (PC). Its applicability to blood analysis is explored using chemically modified PET blood collection tubes and found to be quite satisfactory. We expect this approach will reduce the cost of manufacturing plastic devices with optimized wettability and can be generalized to other types of plastic materials having an electrophilic linkage as its backbone.

  6. Recovery of electrical resistance in copper films on polyethylene terephthalate subjected to a tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, O.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Zizak, I.; Cordill, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial recovery (decrease) of electrical resistance during and after unloading is demonstrated for copper films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates subjected to a tensile strain with different peak values. Particularly, the films strained to 5% exhibit full resistance recovery after unloading despite clearly visible plastic deformation of the film. The recovery of electrical resistance in connection with the mechanical behavior of film/substrate couple is discussed with the help of in situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Tensile tests on 200 nm Cu films on PET substrate are performed. • Electrical resistance is recorded in-situ during loading and unloading. • Significant recovery (decrease) of resistance is observed during and after unloading. • Films strained to 5% demonstrate full resistance recovery. • Viscoelastic relaxation of PET is responsible for recovery of Cu film resistance

  7. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Goh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottle is one of the common plastic wastes existed in the municipal solid waste in Malaysia. One alternative to solve the abundant of PET wastes is chemical recycling of the wastes to produce a value added product. This technology not only can decrease the PET wastes in landfill sites but also can produce many useful recycled PET products. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET obtained from glycolysis reaction of PET waste was purified using crystallization process. The hot distilled water was added to glycolysis product followed by cooling and filtration to extract BHET in white solid form from the product. The effect of three operating conditions namely crystallization time, crystallization temperatures and amount of distilled water used to the yield of crystallization process were investigated. The purity of crystallization products were analyzed using HPLC and DSC. The optimum conditions of 3 hours crystallization time, 2 °C crystallization temperature and 5:1 mass ratio of distilled water used to glycolize solid gave the highest yield and purity of the crystallization process. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd August 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Goh, H.W., Salmiaton, A., Abdullah, N., Idris, A. (2015. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 143-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154  

  8. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskal, P.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Bednarski, T.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kubicz, E.; Moskal, I.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Sharma, N.G.; Silarski, M.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.; Białas, P.; Gajos, A.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.

    2014-01-01

    A Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this paper we report on tests of a single detection module built out from the BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5×19×300 mm 3 ) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68 Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80 ps (σ) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93 cm (σ) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to σ(E)/E≈0.044/√(E(MeV)) and corresponds to the σ(E)/E of 7.5% at the Compton edge

  9. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, P.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Bednarski, T.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kubicz, E.; Moskal, I.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.; Białas, P.; Gajos, A.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Molenda, M.; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.

    2014-11-01

    A Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this paper we report on tests of a single detection module built out from the BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5×19×300 mm3) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80 ps (σ) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93 cm (σ) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to σ(E) / E ≈ 0.044 /√{ E(MeV) } and corresponds to the σ(E) / E of 7.5% at the Compton edge.

  10. A feasibility study of ortho-positronium decays measurement with the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminska, D.; Gajos, A.; Czerwinski, E.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Bialas, P.; Dulski, K.; Glowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Korcyl, G.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedzwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedzwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Wieczorek, A.; Zielinski, M.; Moskal, P.; Curceanu, C.; Silarski, M.; Gorgol, M.; Jasinska, B.; Zgardzinska, B.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Kowalski, P.; Raczynski, L.; Wislicki, W.; Krzemien, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the application of the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) for the registration of gamma quanta from decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The J-PET is the first positron emission tomography scanner based on organic scintillators in contrast to all current PET scanners based on inorganic crystals. Monte Carlo simulations show that the J-PET as an axially symmetric and high acceptance scanner can be used as a multi-purpose detector well suited to pursue research including e.g. tests of discrete symmetries in decays of ortho-positronium in addition to the medical imaging. The gamma quanta originating from o-Ps decay interact in the plastic scintillators predominantly via the Compton effect, making the direct measurement of their energy impossible. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that the J-PET scanner will enable studies of the o-Ps → 3γ decays with angular and energy resolution equal to σ(θ) ∼ 0.4 circle and σ(E) ∼ 4.1 keV, respectively. An order of magnitude shorter decay time of signals from plastic scintillators with respect to the inorganic crystals results not only in better timing properties crucial for the reduction of physical and instrumental background, but also suppresses significantly the pile-ups, thus enabling compensation of the lower efficiency of the plastic scintillators by performing measurements with higher positron source activities. (orig.)

  11. A feasibility study of ortho-positronium decays measurement with the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminska, D.; Gajos, A.; Czerwinski, E.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Bialas, P.; Dulski, K.; Glowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Korcyl, G.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedzwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedzwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Wieczorek, A.; Zielinski, M.; Moskal, P. [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Curceanu, C.; Silarski, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, CP 13, Frascati (Italy); Gorgol, M.; Jasinska, B.; Zgardzinska, B. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Department of Nuclear Methods, Institute of Physics, Lublin (Poland); Hiesmayr, B.C. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Kowalski, P.; Raczynski, L.; Wislicki, W. [Swierk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Krzemien, W. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Department, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    We present a study of the application of the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) for the registration of gamma quanta from decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The J-PET is the first positron emission tomography scanner based on organic scintillators in contrast to all current PET scanners based on inorganic crystals. Monte Carlo simulations show that the J-PET as an axially symmetric and high acceptance scanner can be used as a multi-purpose detector well suited to pursue research including e.g. tests of discrete symmetries in decays of ortho-positronium in addition to the medical imaging. The gamma quanta originating from o-Ps decay interact in the plastic scintillators predominantly via the Compton effect, making the direct measurement of their energy impossible. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that the J-PET scanner will enable studies of the o-Ps → 3γ decays with angular and energy resolution equal to σ(θ) ∼ 0.4 {sup circle} and σ(E) ∼ 4.1 keV, respectively. An order of magnitude shorter decay time of signals from plastic scintillators with respect to the inorganic crystals results not only in better timing properties crucial for the reduction of physical and instrumental background, but also suppresses significantly the pile-ups, thus enabling compensation of the lower efficiency of the plastic scintillators by performing measurements with higher positron source activities. (orig.)

  12. A feasibility study of ortho-positronium decays measurement with the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, D.; Gajos, A.; Czerwiński, E.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Curceanu, C.; Dulski, K.; Głowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Gorgol, M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Jasińska, B.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Krzemień, W.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Silarski, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Zgardzińska, B.; Zieliński, M.; Moskal, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of the application of the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) for the registration of gamma quanta from decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The J-PET is the first positron emission tomography scanner based on organic scintillators in contrast to all current PET scanners based on inorganic crystals. Monte Carlo simulations show that the J-PET as an axially symmetric and high acceptance scanner can be used as a multi-purpose detector well suited to pursue research including e.g. tests of discrete symmetries in decays of ortho-positronium in addition to the medical imaging. The gamma quanta originating from o-Ps decay interact in the plastic scintillators predominantly via the Compton effect, making the direct measurement of their energy impossible. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that the J-PET scanner will enable studies of the { o-Ps }→ 3γ decays with angular and energy resolution equal to σ (θ ) ≈ {0.4°} and σ (E) ≈ 4.1 {keV}, respectively. An order of magnitude shorter decay time of signals from plastic scintillators with respect to the inorganic crystals results not only in better timing properties crucial for the reduction of physical and instrumental background, but also suppresses significantly the pile-ups, thus enabling compensation of the lower efficiency of the plastic scintillators by performing measurements with higher positron source activities.

  13. Rigid Polyurethane Foam from Glyco lysed Polyethylene Terephthalate Dissolved in Palm-based Polyol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Lily Iliyana Mohd Dawi; Nur Ashikin Abdul Aziz

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the thermal and mechanical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste (of plastic drinking bottles) was conducted. The PET waste was glyco lysed with ethylene glycol prior to blending with palm based-polyol (PKO-p). This blend was then reacted with 2, 4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) at a ratio of 1:1 to form the PU foam. The incorporation of the glyco lysed PET (g-PET) into the PKO-p was studied at 50, 70 and 100 % w/ w loading. PU foam prepared from 100 % w/ w g-PET (without PKO-p) resulted in PU with high glass transition temperature and mechanical strength. This water-blown foam has molded and core densities of 182 kg m -3 and 179 kg m -3 , respectively, with maximum compressive stress and modulus at 396 kPa and 1920 kPa, respectively. An initial enthalpy value of 3164.8 cal g -1 and a glass transition temperature of 65 degree Celsius were observed. (author)

  14. Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate – A review focusing on chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Geyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET is of crucial importance, since worldwide amounts of PETwaste increase rapidly due to its widespread applications. Hence, several methods have been developed, like energetic, material, thermo-mechanical and chemical recycling of PET. Most frequently, PET-waste is incinerated for energy recovery, used as additive in concrete composites or glycolysed to yield mixtures of monomers and undefined oligomers. While energetic and thermo-mechanical recycling entail downcycling of the material, chemical recycling requires considerable amounts of chemicals and demanding processing steps entailing toxic and ecological issues. This review provides a thorough survey of PET-recycling including energetic, material, thermo-mechanical and chemical methods. It focuses on chemical methods describing important reaction parameters and yields of obtained reaction products. While most methods yield monomers, only a few yield undefined low molecular weight oligomers for impaired applications (dispersants or plasticizers. Further, the present work presents an alternative chemical recycling method of PET in comparison to existing chemical methods.

  15. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jonathan Hill, AD/CVD Operations, Office IV, Enforcement & Compliance, International... Operations, Office IV ``Initiation of Antidumping New Shipper Review of Polyethylene Terephthalate Film...

  16. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  17. New Titanium-Based Catalysts for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Youngkeun; Yoon, Seungwoong; Hwang, Yongtaek; Song, Bogeun

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a polymer with relatively low cost and high performance, which is widely used in various applications such as bottles, textile fibers, films and engineering plastics for automobiles and electric industries. Commercial catalysts used for synthesis of PET are in general antimony (Sb) compounds. Antimony(III) oxide, antimony(III) acetate and antimony(III) glycolate are used as a catalyst in 95% of PET manufacturing industries worldwide. The few organoantimony compounds that have been identified in environmental and biological samples are all in the form of methylated Sb-species. The Sb trace element is extremely toxic to mammals, and interferes with embryonic and fetal development, also, carcinogenic to humans. In addition to being found in drinking water, food packaging and soft-drink bottles. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Sb species concentration lower than 20 ppb are acceptable for drinking water. According to a recent study, in 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. Therefore, a very important challenge for polyester catalysis is to come-up with a new Sb-free catalysts with low environmental impact. Intensive efforts have been made to find other stable and more environmental friendly non-antimony catalysts, such as those based on titanium. Titanium-based catalysts have been known for many years and actually are used for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polypropylene terephthalate (PPT) production, however, polycondensation (PC) of PET manufacture is not well studied in literature. To date, only few esterification processes have been applied for the synthesis of PET by titanium catalysts. Herein, we report an efficient synthesis characterization and polymerization of PET for a series of new nontoxic organotitanium

  18. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  19. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  20. Influence of shape and size of the particles on jigging separation of plastics mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Fernando; Castilho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Plastics are popular for numerous applications due to their high versatility and favourable properties such as endurance, lightness and cheapness. Therefore the generation of plastic waste is constantly increasing, becoming one of the larger categories in municipal solid waste. Almost all plastic materials are recyclable, but for the recycling to be possible it is necessary to separate the different types of plastics. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of the jig separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. For this study six granulated plastics had been used: Polystyrene (PS), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET-S, PET-D) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC-M, PVC-D). Plastics mixtures were subjected to jigging in a laboratorial Denver mineral jig. The results showed that the quality of the jigging separation varies with the mixture, the density differences and with the size and shape of the particles. In the case of particles with more regular shapes the quality of separation of bi-component plastic mixtures improved with the increase of the particle size. For lamellar particles the influence of particle size was minimal. In general, the beneficiation of plastics with similar densities was not effective, since the separation efficiency was lower than 25%. However, in bi-component plastic mixtures that join a low density plastic (PS) with a high density one (PMMA, PET-S, PET-D, PVC-M and PVC-D), the quality of the jigging separation was greatly improved. The PS grade in the sunk was less than 1% for all the plastic mixtures. Jigging proved to be an effective method for the separation of bi-component plastic mixtures. Jigging separation will be enhanced if the less dense plastic, that overflows, has a lamellar shape and if the denser plastic, that sinks, has a regular one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of poly(ethylene terephthalate/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization and their thermal property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terephthalate (TA intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs were synthesized using hydroxides as raw materials, and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET/LDH nanocomposites with different contents of TA intercalated LDHs were prepared by in-situ polymerization. The structure, morphology and thermal property of PET/LDH nanocomposites were investigated. The TA intercalated LDHs were partially exfoliated and well dispersed in PET matrix. The PET/LDH nanocomposites exhibit enhanced thermal stability relative to pure PET, confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis results. The results of differential scanning calorimetry suggest that LDH nanoparticles could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of PET.

  2. Superior toughness obtained via tuning the compatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene–octene) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Juan-juan; Peng, Fang; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Guang-hui; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a new elastomer-toughened plastic system based on PET. • Superior toughness was achieved by adding POE into PET. • The best toughness correlated with a moderate level of interfacial adhesion. • The mechanism of toughening was attributed to matrix shear yielding. - Abstract: As a partial of the systematic investigation of the preparation and characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) blending/compounding materials with excellent comprehensive mechanics in the authors’ group, this study deals with the compatibilization modification of PET/elastomer blends to obtain superior toughness. Poly(ethylene–octene) (POE) was employed as elastomer toughener, while maleic anhydride grafted POE (mPOE) was selected as compatibilizer. To highlight the effect of compatibility on toughening, the sum amount of elastomer component, POE and mPOE, was fixed at 20 wt%, but the mass ratio of mPOE/POE was changeable. It is interesting to find that an optimization of toughening can be attained at 3 wt% mPOE, at which the notched impact strength is about 15 folds for that of neat PET. The toughening behavior observed is due to a combination of good dispersion of elastomer phase particles and, particularly, appropriate interfacial adhesion condition. Microscopic fractured morphology reveals that a moderate level of interfacial adhesion is important for good dispersion of elastomer phase and debonding between PET matrix and elastomer particles, which initiate matrix shear yielding to dissipate more energy than other interfacial adhesion conditions

  3. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  4. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  5. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apri, M., E-mail: m.apri@math.itb.ac.id; Silmi, M. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R. [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-06

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  6. Evaluation of permanent deformation characteristics of unmodified and Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixtures using dynamic creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste PET was utilized as modifier in asphalt mixture. • Deformation characteristics of asphalt mixtures were assessed. • Dynamic creep test was conducted at different temperatures and stress levels. • Permanent deformation models were introduced. - Abstract: One of the major types of plastics that can be found in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a non-biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer, and is considered as polyester material. Generating large amount of waste PET, mainly as bottles, would cause environmental hazards by disposing in landfills. This paper aims to evaluate effects of utilizing waste PET flakes as modifier in asphalt mixture as an alternative solution to overcome the potential risks arise from producing large amount of waste PET as well as evaluating the deformation characteristics of unmodified and PET modified asphalt mixtures. To achieve this aim, different percentages of PET were designated for this investigation, namely: 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1% by weight of aggregate particles, and dynamic creep test was performed at different stress levels (300 kPa and 400 kPa) and temperatures (10 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C). Consequently, Zhou three-stage model was developed. The results showed that permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt mixture were considerably improved by utilization of PET modification, when the permanent strain was remarkably decreased in PET modified mixture compared to the conventional mixture at all stress levels and temperatures. Besides, based on Zhou model, it was concluded that elastic and visco-elastic properties of asphalt mixture were improved by application of PET modification

  7. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.

    2015-01-01

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples

  8. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczyński, L., E-mail: lech.raczynski@ncbj.gov.pl [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Moskal, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W. [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Kapłon, Ł. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Kochanowski, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2015-06-21

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples.

  9. Compressive sensing of signals generated in plastic scintillators in a novel J-PET instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyński, L.; Moskal, P.; Kowalski, P.; Wiślicki, W.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Gajos, A.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Kubicz, E.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pałka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Salabura, P.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.

    2015-06-01

    The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The discussed detector offers improvement of the Time of Flight (TOF) resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators and dedicated electronics allowing for sampling in the voltage domain of signals with durations of few nanoseconds. In this paper we show that recovery of the whole signal, based on only a few samples, is possible. In order to do that, we incorporate the training signals into the Tikhonov regularization framework and we perform the Principal Component Analysis decomposition, which is well known for its compaction properties. The method yields a simple closed form analytical solution that does not require iterative processing. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This is the key to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. In this paper we show that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of acquired samples.

  10. Mechanical strengths of modified PET mortar composites in aggressive MgSO4 medium: ACI & B.S predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tani N; Benosman A.S.; Senhadji Y.; Taïbi H.; Mouli M.

    2018-01-01

    Composites mortars based on plastic aggregates are often considered as an innovative materials of the future because of their potential and the advantages they present. In this paper, a comparative study was carried out on the effect of magnesium sulfate MgSO4 (5%) attack on the durability of composite mortars modified by recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Laboratory tests were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced b...

  11. The formation and growing properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber growing media after thermo-oxidative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.P.; Lin, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This research uses three kinds of recycled synthetic fibers that all possess excellent thermal plasticity property as raw material to develop a new firm cultivation media: polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and polypropylene. One can not only freely control plants cultivation growing condition by changing bulk density of the media, but also solve disposal problem after usage by applying thermal oxidative treatment during manufacturing processes. The water content, air permeability and formation conditions of these fiber growing media that are required in plants growing habitat were discussed, and compared the fallout with rockwool (RW) growing media that is commonly used at present days. The results indicated that the polyethylene terephthalate fiber media could attain best formation characteristics among these fibers at the same bulk density range. Furthermore, the fiber media that were thermo-oxidative treated at 240-260 deg. C could obtained above 90% total porosity, 23-49% air capacity and 48-68% water availability, water contents raised from 1735-1094 to 2145-1156% under bulk densities of 0.03-0.09 g/cm 3 , which conforms to the common plant growing habitat conditions. Its performance well surpasses the rockwool growing media. We also discovered that the thermo-oxidative treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber media could be easily broken down and become powdery by exerting pressure, thus greatly reduce its volume and effectively improve disposal processes that are difficult presently for the huge refuse create by rockwool

  12. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Infrastructure Plastics with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Gaston, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Bioenergy Center

    2017-12-05

    We report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with 18 plastic types was evaluated using neat diesel fuel as the baseline. The plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), POM copolymer, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), polythiourea (PTU), four nylon grades, and four thermosetting resins. Specimens of each material were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 16 weeks to achieve full saturation. Except for PP and HDPE, the plastic materials underwent higher volume expansion in bio-oil than in the baseline diesel (which was negligible in most cases). This volume increase corresponds to the higher polarity of the bio-oil. PPS, PET, and PTFE were unaffected by bio-oil exposure, but modest swelling (between 2 and 5%) occurred for the two acetals (POM and POM copolymer), Nylon-12, PBT, PETG, and the four resin grades. More moderate swelling (8–15%) was noted for Nylon-6, Nylon-6/6, and Nylon-11, and excessive swell (>40%) occurred for PTU. The nonpolar nature of PP and HDPE matches that of diesel, leading to higher solubility (swell) in this fuel type. Finally, the relatively low volume expansion following exposure indicates that many of the existing infrastructure plastics (excluding PTU) should be suitable for use with bio-oil.

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  14. PVC removal from mixed plastics by triboelectrostatic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Park, Jai-Koo

    2007-01-01

    Ever increasing oil price and the constant growth in generation of waste plastics stimulate a research on material separation for recycling of waste plastics. At present, most waste plastics cause serious environmental problems due to the disposal by reclamation and incineration. Particularly, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials among waste plastics generates hazardous HCl gas, dioxins containing Cl, and so on, which lead to air pollution and shorten the life of incinerator, and it makes difficultly recycling of other plastics. Therefore, we designed a bench scale triboelectrostatic separator for PVC removal from mixed plastics (polyvinyl chloride/polyethylene terephthalate), and then carried out material separation tests. In triboelectrostatic separation, PVC and PET particles are charged negatively and positively, respectively, due to the difference of the work function of plastics in tribo charger of the fluidized-bed, and are separated by means of splitter through an opposite electric field. In this study, the charge efficiency of PVC and PET was strongly dependent on the tribo charger material (polypropylene), relative humidity (below 30%), air velocity (over 10 m/s), and mixture ratio (PET:PVC = 1:1). At the optimum conditions (electrode potential of 20 kV and splitter position of -2 cm), PVC rejection and PET recovery in PET products were 99.60 and 98.10%, respectively, and the reproducibility of optimal test was very good (±1%). In addition, as a change of splitter position, we developed the technique to recover high purity PET (over 99.99%) although PET recovery decreases by degrees

  15. Ultra smooth NiO thin films on flexible plastic (PET) substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering and effect of oxygen partial pressure on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, S.; Goswami, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent p-type nickel oxide thin films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique in argon + oxygen atmosphere with different oxygen partial pressures at room temperature. The morphology of the NiO thin films grown on PET and glass substrates was studied by atomic force microscope. The rms surface roughnesses of the films were in the range 0.63-0.65 nm. These ultra smooth nanocrystalline NiO thin films are useful for many applications. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that the grains of NiO films on the highly flexible PET substrate were purely crystalline and spherical in shape with diameters 8-10 nm. XRD analysis also supported these results. NiO films grown on the PET substrates were found to have better crystalline quality with fewer defects than those on the glass substrates. The sheet resistances of the NiO films deposited on PET and glass substrates were not much different; having values 5.1 and 5.3 kΩ/□ and decreased to 3.05, 3.1 kΩ/□ respectively with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The thicknesses of the films on both substrates were ∼700 nm. It was also noted that further increase in oxygen partial pressure caused increase in resistivity due to formation of defects in NiO.

  16. Impact of Bio-Based Plastics on Current Recycling of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Alaerts

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based plastics are increasingly appearing in a range of consumption products, and after use they often end up in technical recycling chains. Bio-based plastics are different from fossil-based ones and could disturb the current recycling of plastics and hence inhibit the closure of plastic cycles, which is undesirable given the current focus on a transition towards a circular economy. In this paper, this risk has been assessed via three elaborated case studies using data and information retrieved through an extended literature search. No overall risks were revealed for bio-based plastics as a group; rather, every bio-based plastic is to be considered as a potential separate source of contamination in current recycling practices. For PLA (polylactic acid, a severe incompatibility with PET (polyethylene terephthalate recycling is known; hence, future risks are assessed by measuring amounts of PLA ending up in PET waste streams. For PHA (polyhydroxy alkanoate there is no risk currently, but it will be crucial to monitor future application development. For PEF (polyethylene furanoate, a particular approach for contamination-related issues has been included in the upcoming market introduction. With respect to developing policy, it is important that any introduction of novel plastics is well guided from a system perspective and with a particular eye on incompatibilities with current and upcoming practices in the recycling of plastics.

  17. Response to Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-08-19

    Yang et al suggest that the use of low-crystallinity poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) exaggerates our results. However, the primary focus of our study was identifying an organism capable of the biological degradation and assimilation of PET, regardless of its crystallinity. We provide additional PET depolymerization data that further support several other lines of data showing PET assimilation by growing cells of Ideonella sakaiensis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  19. Separation of packaging plastics by froth flotation in a continuous pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Durao, Fernando; Ferreira, Celia

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research was to apply froth flotation to separate post-consumer PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) from other packaging plastics with similar density, in a continuously operated pilot plant. A representative sample composed of 85% PET, 2.5% PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and 11.9% PS (Polystyrene) was subjected to a combination of alkaline treatment and surfactant adsorption followed by froth flotation. A mineral processing pilot plant, owned by a Portuguese mining company, was adapted for this purpose. The experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of PET, containing 83% of the PET in feed, in a single bank of mechanical flotation cells. The concentrate grade attained was 97.2% PET, 1.1% PVC and 1.1% PS. By simulation it was shown that the Portuguese recycling industry specifications can be attained if one cleaning and one scavenger stages are added to the circuit.

  20. Poli(tereftalato de etileno, PET: uma revisão sobre os processos de síntese, mecanismos de degradação e sua reciclagem Poly(ethylene terephthalate, PET: a review on the synthesis processes, degradation mechanisms and its recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Romão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre o poli(tereftalato de etileno enfatizando os processos de síntese e os mecanismos de degradação. Atualmente o Brasil apresenta um dos maiores índices mundiais de reciclagem mecânica deste polímero, correspondendo a um percentual de 53%. O sucesso desse termoplástico na indústria de reciclagem deve-se à sua ampla diversidade de aplicações, desde a indústria têxtil (multifilamento até as indústrias de alimentos, onde as embalagens recicladas grau alimentício poderão ser misturadas com a resina virgem em diversas proporções e reprocessadas para o uso. Uma abordagem sobre a atual legislação do uso de PET reciclado em contato com alimentos também é mostrada neste trabalho. No processo de síntese do PET realizado em duas ou três etapas, são usados comonômeros e aditivos para otimizar as condições de processamento do material. Entretanto, tanto durante a síntese como no processo de reciclagem, ocorrem reações de degradação (termomecânica e termo-oxidativa e reações secundárias, formando acetaldeído, oligômeros, e o dietileno glicol. A presença desses "contaminantes" acelera o processo de degradação do polímero, afetando a qualidade do produto final.We present a review on poly(ethylene terephthalate, emphasizing the synthesis processes and the degradation mechanisms. Brazil is currently among the countries that most recycle PET, with 53% of this polymer being mechanically recycled. The success of this thermoplastic in the recycling industry is due to its large diversity of applications, from the textile industry to food packaging, where the food grade recycled packages will be mixed with the pristine resin for reprocessing and use. We also discuss the present legal aspects concerning PET recycling and its use in contact with food. In the synthesis of PET, usually done in two or three steps, several co-monomers and additives are used to optimize the final properties and

  1. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  2. Rheological Properties and Foaming Behavior of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalates) Modified with Pyromellitic Dianhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Ping; Xin, Chun-Ling; Guo, Ya-Feng; Luo, Yi-Wei; He, Ya-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Improving the melt viscoelasticity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a well-known method to obtain foamable PET. The aim of this study is to prepare high melt strength PET and evaluate the influence of rheological properties of PET on the foaming behavior. For this purpose, pyromelliticdianhydride was used as the chain extender to modify a linear PET through melt reactive processing. The rheological properties of the unmodified and modified PETs were measured by a dynamic rheometer. Results showed that the modified PET had higher complex viscosity than the unmodified one. Furthermore, the batch foaming by using supercritical CO2 as a blowing agent was carried to evaluate the foamability of modified PETs. It was found that an enlarged foaming temperature window was obtained for modified PETs compared to unmodified PET. Moreover, the modified PETs foams exhibited higher expansion ratio, smaller cell size and higher cell density at high temperatures than the neat PET.

  3. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

  4. Conversion of hazardous plastic wastes into useful chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid

    2009-08-15

    Azoisobutylnitrile (AIBN) initiator was used in the treatment of most widely used domestic plastics in lieu of catalysts. The pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics with azoisobutylnitrile was carried out individually under nitrogen atmosphere. A series of single (plastic/AIBN) and binary (mixed plastics/AIBN) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm(3) micro-autoclave reactor. The optimum conditions selected for this study were: 5% AIBN by weight of total plastics, 60 min, 650 psi and 420 degrees C. It was found that HDPE, LDPE, PP underwent to a maximum cracking and produced highest amounts of liquid and gaseous products. Pyrolysis of PET and PS plastics with AIBN afforded comparatively significant amount of insoluble organic materials. In other reactions, fixed ratios of mixed plastics were pyrolyzed with AIBN that afforded excellent yields of liquid hydrocarbons. This result shows a very significant increase in the liquid portions of the products on using AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics. The use of AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics is seems to be feasible and an environmental friendly alternative to catalytic process for maximizing the liquid fuels or chemical feed stocks in higher amounts.

  5. Conversion of hazardous plastic wastes into useful chemical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid

    2009-01-01

    Azoisobutylnitrile (AIBN) initiator was used in the treatment of most widely used domestic plastics in lieu of catalysts. The pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics with azoisobutylnitrile was carried out individually under nitrogen atmosphere. A series of single (plastic/AIBN) and binary (mixed plastics/AIBN) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm 3 micro-autoclave reactor. The optimum conditions selected for this study were: 5% AIBN by weight of total plastics, 60 min, 650 psi and 420 o C. It was found that HDPE, LDPE, PP underwent to a maximum cracking and produced highest amounts of liquid and gaseous products. Pyrolysis of PET and PS plastics with AIBN afforded comparatively significant amount of insoluble organic materials. In other reactions, fixed ratios of mixed plastics were pyrolyzed with AIBN that afforded excellent yields of liquid hydrocarbons. This result shows a very significant increase in the liquid portions of the products on using AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics. The use of AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics is seems to be feasible and an environmental friendly alternative to catalytic process for maximizing the liquid fuels or chemical feed stocks in higher amounts.

  6. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  7. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  8. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  9. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: → LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. → Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. → Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. → Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  10. 78 FR 9670 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1.... (Polyplex), and SRF Limited (SRF), producers and exporters of PET Film from India. Based on the results of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum or Toni Page, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  11. 76 FR 9745 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan. See... Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration... products produced by Nan Ya, are not covered by the scope of the antidumping order on PET Film from Taiwan...

  12. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Korea, covering the June 1, 2009, to May 31, 2010, period... the preliminary results. In addition, the Department is revoking the antidumping order on PET film... CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International...

  13. 78 FR 48651 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of.... (SMTC) (collectively, Shinkong), producer and exporter of PET Film from Taiwan. The Department...: Milton Koch, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S...

  14. 78 FR 67113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... antidumping duty orders on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (``PET Film'') from India and... Operations, Office VII, Enforcement and Compliance, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of...) 482-2371, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on PET Film...

  15. 78 FR 50029 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from Brazil... any reviewable entries, shipments or sales of subject PET film by Terphane during the POR, we are.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  16. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd... export of PET Film from India. Also, based on our analysis of Ester's comments, we made certain revisions..., Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th...

  17. 78 FR 42105 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET'' film) from India and the antidumping duty orders on PET film from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...-205-3169), Office of Investigations, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street SW., Washington...

  18. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Plastic Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Ferdianta; Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Purwono, Suryo

    2018-03-01

    Inorganic waste especially plastics still become a major problem in many places. Low biodegradability of this materials causes the effort in recycling become very difficult. Most of the municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling facilities in developing country only use composting method to recover the organic fraction of the waste, while the inorganic fraction is still untreated. By pyrolysis, plastic waste can be treated to produce liquid fuels, flammable gas and chars. Reduction in volume and utilization of the liquid and gas as fuel are the major benefits of the process. By heat integration actually this process can become a self-sufficient system in terms of energy demand. However, the drawback of this process is usually due to the diverse type of plastic in the MSW creating low grade of liquid fuel and harmful gases. In this study, the mixture of plastics i.e. polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is treated using pyrolysis with catalyst in several operating temperature. PET is problematic to be treated using pyrolysis due to wax-like byproduct in liquid which may cause pipe clogging. The catalyst is the mixture of natural zeolite and bentonite which is able to handle PP and PET mixture feed to produce high grade liquid fuels in terms of calorific value and other fuel properties.

  19. The Utilisation of Shredded PET as Aggregate Replacement for Interlocking Concrete Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, M.; Kaamin, M.; Sahat, S.; Hamid, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    The consumption of plastic has grown substantially all over the world in recent years and this has created huge quantities of plastic-based waste. Plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to the modern way of living, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. This creates substantial garbage every day, which is much unhealthy. Plastic bottles such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was use as the partially component in this making of interlocking blocks concrete. This project investigates the strength and workability of the interlocking block concrete by replacing course aggregate with % PET. The suitability of recycled plastics (PET) as course aggregate in interlocking block concrete and its advantages are discussed here. Moreover, there were more benefits when using interlocking block than using conventional block such as it easy for construction because they are aligning, easy to place, high speed stacking and they offer more resistance to shear and buildings would be even stronger. Based on the test perform, the failure parameter were discussed .From the compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with increased of PET used. From the results, it shows that higher compressive strength was found with 5% natural course aggregate replaced with PET compared to other percentages.

  20. Low auto-fluorescence fabrication methods for plastic nanoslits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shenbo

    2016-04-01

    Plastic nanofluidic devices are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical applications. However, they suffer from high auto-fluorescence when used for on-chip optical detection. In this study, the auto-fluorescence problem of plastic nanofluidic devices was remedied by newly developed fabrication methods that minimise their auto-fluorescence: one by depositing a gold (Au) layer on them, the other by making them ultra-thin. In the first method, the Au layer [minimum thickness is 40 nm on 150 μm SU-8, 50 nm on 1 mm polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and 40 on 2 nm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] blocks the auto-fluorescence of the polymer; in the second method, auto-fluorescence is minimised by making the chips ultra-thin, selected operating thickness of SU-8 is 20 μm, for PET it is 150 μm, and for PMMA it is 0.8 mm.

  1. Application of fluidization to separate packaging waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M Teresa; Ferreira, Célia; Portela, Antía; Santos, João Tiago

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the experimental work described in this paper is the study of the separation of PS (polystyrene) from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) from drop-off points using a fluidized bed separator. This is a low-cost process commonly used in the hydro-classification of mineral ores. Firstly, experimental tests were carried out with artificial granulated samples with different grain sizes, types and sources of plastic ("separability tests"). The particle settling velocities were determined under different operating conditions. Then, based on the results, the laboratory tests continued with real mixtures of waste plastics ("separation tests") and the efficiency of the process was evaluated. From a PET-rich mixture, a concentrate of PS with a 75% grade in PS was produced while the underflow was quite clear from PS (grade less than 0.5% in PS).

  2. Degradation and depolymerization of plastic waste by local bacterial isolates and bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Amal A.; Alzuhairi, Mohammed; Aljanabi, Noor H.

    2018-05-01

    Accumulation of plastics, especially Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is an ever increasing ecological threat due to its excessive usage in everyday human life. Nowadays, there are many methods to get rid of plastic wastes including burning, recycling and burying. However, these methods are not very active since their long period, anaerobic conditions that increase the rate of toxic materials released into the environment. This work aims to study the biological degradation of PET microorganism isolated from soil sample. Thirty eight (38) bacterial isolates were isolated from ten soil and plastic waste sample collected from four different waste disposal sites in Baghdad city during different periods between December 2016 and March 2017. Isolation was performed using enrichment culture method (flasks method) by culturing the soil samples in flasks with MSM medium where there is no carbon source only PET. Results showed that Al-Za'farania sample gave a higher number of isolates (13 isolates), while other samples gave less number of isolates. Screening was performed depending on their ability to grow in liquid MSM which contains PET powder and pieces and change the color of the PET-emulsified liquid medium as well as their ability to form the clear zone on PET-MSM agar. The results showed that NH-D-1 isolate has the higher ability to degrade DPET and PET pieces. According to morphological, biochemical characterization and Vitek-2 technique, the most active isolate was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii.

  3. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Siamak [Department of Polymer and Color Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohamad-Esmail [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based nanocomposites containing hydrophilic (i.e. Aerosil 200 or Aerosil TT 600) or hydrophobic (i.e. Aerosil R 972) nano-silica were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica type on surface properties of the resultant nanocomposites was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement (CAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). The possible interaction between nano-silica particles and PET functional groups at bulk and surface were elucidated by transmission FTIR and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. AFM studies of the resultant nanocomposites showed increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. Contact angle measurements of the resultant PET composites demonstrated that the wettability of such composites depends on surface treatment of the particular nano-silica particles used. SEM images illustrated that hydrophilic nano-silica particles tended to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix.

  4. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  6. Threat of plastic ageing in marine environment. Adsorption/desorption of micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; D'Almeida, Mélanie; Magueresse, Anthony; Le Grand, Adélaïde; Duval, Hélène; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Le Tilly, Véronique

    2018-02-01

    Ageing of various plastics in marine environment was monitored after immersion of two synthetic (polyvinylchloride, PVC, and polyethylene terephthalate, PET) and one biodegradable (poly(butylene adipate co-terephtalate), PBAT) plastics for 502days in the bay of Lorient (Brittany, France). Data analysis indicates that aged PVC rapidly releases estrogenic compounds in seawater with a later adsorption of heavy metals; PET undergoes a low weakening of the surface whereas no estrogenic activity is detected; PBAT ages faster in marine environment than PVC. Aged PBAT exhibits heterogeneous surface with some cavities likely containing clay minerals from the chlorite group. Besides, this degraded material occasionally shows a high estrogenic activity. Overall, this study reports, for the first time, that some aged plastics, without being cytotoxic, can release estrogenic compounds in marine environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of plasma polymerized para-xylene intermediate layers on characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyuhyung; Kho, Samil; Jung, Donggeun; Boo, Jin-hyo

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with the plasma polymerized para-xylene (PPpX) intermediate layer were investigated. For the purpose of reducing moisture permeation through plastic substrates, a PPpX intermediate layer was inserted between FOLEDs and the plastic substrates. As the concentration of C-H bonding in the PPpX film deposited at 25 deg. C was increased, PPpX films showed increased transmittance. Surface morphologies of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) covered with the PPpX intermediate layer were improved compared to PET without PPpX on it. Due to the highly cross-linked network structure in the plasma polymer film, water vapor permeability of PET substrates with the PPpX intermediate layer of 75 nm was decreased compared to PET substrates without PPpX on it. FOLEDs with the PPpX intermediate layer showed improved optical and electrical characteristics as well as lifetimes than FOLEDs without the PPpX intermediate layer

  8. Auditory cortical activation and plasticity after cochlear implantation measured by PET using fluorodeoxyglucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszewicz-Moszyńska, Zuzanna; Lachowska, Magdalena; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible relationships between duration of cochlear implant use and results of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements in the temporal lobes performed while subjects listened to speech stimuli. Other aspects investigated were whether implantation side impacts significantly on cortical representations of functions related to understanding speech (ipsi- or contralateral to the implanted side) and whether any correlation exists between cortical activation and speech therapy results. Objective cortical responses to acoustic stimulation were measured, using PET, in nine cochlear implant patients (age range: 15 to 50 years). All the patients suffered from bilateral deafness, were right-handed, and had no additional neurological deficits. They underwent PET imaging three times: immediately after the first fitting of the speech processor (activation of the cochlear implant), and one and two years later. A tendency towards increasing levels of activation in areas of the primary and secondary auditory cortex on the left side of the brain was observed. There was no clear effect of the side of implantation (left or right) on the degree of cortical activation in the temporal lobe. However, the PET results showed a correlation between degree of cortical activation and speech therapy results.

  9. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  10. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Hoh, Eunha; Hentschel, Brian T; Kaye, Shawn

    2013-02-05

    Concerns regarding marine plastic pollution and its affinity for chemical pollutants led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and organic contaminants in an urban bay. At five locations in San Diego Bay, CA, we measured sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) throughout a 12-month period to the five most common types of mass-produced plastic: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). During this long-term field experiment, sorption rates and concentrations of PCBs and PAHs varied significantly among plastic types and among locations. Our data suggest that for PAHs and PCBs, PET and PVC reach equilibrium in the marine environment much faster than HDPE, LDPE, and PP. Most importantly, concentrations of PAHs and PCBs sorbed to HDPE, LDPE, and PP were consistently much greater than concentrations sorbed to PET and PVC. These data imply that products made from HDPE, LDPE, and PP pose a greater risk than products made from PET and PVC of concentrating these hazardous chemicals onto fragmented plastic debris ingested by marine animals.

  11. Life cycle of the plastics in the wastes. Energy development analysis of the PET disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.; Carlini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The work is directed to an energy-environmental evaluation, through the LCA methodology, of the life cycle of the containers for liquids in PET, particularly to the phase post use. Applied the italian decree with the force of law (Decreto Ronchi), the methodology LCA has been described in the basic points. Then such methodology has been applied to the containers for liquids in PET. Several disposal systems have been studied and it was found out the most suitable system from the energy and environmental point of view. The recycling turned out to be the best solution either from the energy point of view or environmental. The incineration with energy saving has found out better than the conferring in disposal (with biogas recovery) from the energy point of view, on the contrary the conferring in disposal has found out better than the environmental one [it

  12. Toughening modification of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends by an epoxy-functionalized elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhou; Wang, Kai; Yan, Wei; Guo, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    New toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (40/60 wt%) blends were obtained by melting with Glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(ethylene octane) copolymer (POE-g-GMA), varying the POE-g-GMA content up to 20 wt%, in a twin-screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The influence of POE-g-GMA on the properties of the PBT/PET blends was investigated by mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, gel fractions analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The mechanical testing results indicated that the incorporation of POE-g-GMA led to increases in the notched impact strength and decreases in the tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. When POE-g-GMA content reached 20 wt%, the notched impact strength (8.0 kJ m-2) was achieved for the PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA blends. FT-IR results proved that some PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA copolymers were produced, which improved the compatibility between POE-g-GMA and the PBT/PET matrix. The extent of crosslinking was observed by gel fraction measurements. DMA results further testified chain-extending and micro-crosslink reactions occurred between POE-g-GMA and PBT/PET blends. In addition, the reactions induced by POE-g-GMA affected the crystallization behavior of PBT/PET blends obviously, as observed from DSC results. By means of SEM observation of the impact fracture surface morphology, and the discussion of the micro-crosslink reaction process between the epoxide-containing elastomers and PBT/PET matrix, the toughening mechanism was proposed to be taken into account the shear yielding of PBT/PET matrix and cavitation of elastomer particles.

  13. Recovery of Terephthalic Acid by employing magnetic nanoparticles as a solid support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ghamary

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research work is focused on the improvement of Terephthalic acid recovery from PET wastes by using organically modified nano-Fe3O4@Cyanuric Chloride as the solid support. The performance of organically modified nano magnetic was examined in detail and the obtained results were compared with the unsupported reaction data. Required reaction time for complete glycolysis of the wastes, consumption of the solvent as well as catalyst decreases up 99%, 37.5% and 40% respectively. Result showed that nano-Fe 3O4@Cyanuric Chloride delivered good performance as solid support in depolymerizing of PET to the terephthalic acid.

  14. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengkun; Ma, Kui; Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired with PET were assigned to PET group; the other eight rabbits repaired with PET along with injection of HE were assigned to HA-PET group. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical and histological examination. The HA-PET group revealed higher biomechanical property compared with the PET group. Histologically, more collagen tissues grew into the HA-PET group compared with PET group. In conclusion, application of sodium hyaluronate can improve the healing of Achilles tendon reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

  15. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljeva, I.V.; Mjakin, S.V.; Makarov, A.V.; Krasovsky, A.N.; Varlamov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  16. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljeva, I.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: radiant@skylink.spb.ru; Mjakin, S.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Makarov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasovsky, A.N. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Varlamov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  17. Confinement-induced vitrification in polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta Calleja, F. J.; Flores, A.; Di Marco, G.; Pieruccini, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis performed on cold-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET), cold crystallized (annealed) in the temperature interval 100-140 deg. C, reveals the presence of marginally glassy domains above the annealing temperature T a . This suggests that the thermodynamic force driving crystallization causes the structural arrest of some noncrystalline domains. The latter thus need a temperature higher than T a to completely defreeze. Differential scanning calorimetry supports this point of view. Analogous investigations on unoriented PET, cold crystallized in the same conditions, do not show the same peculiarities; thus, chain orientation is relevant to vitrification. This phenomenology is first cast in the language of thermodynamics by introducing an excess chemical potential δμ describing the presence of structural constraints in the amorphous domains and the effect of chain orientation. For a first test of this picture, the orientation contribution to δμ is calculated by means of the Gaussian chain model (this implicitly assumes that δμ is related to the density fluctuations). The resulting expression is then used to discuss the structural differences between cold-drawn and unoriented PET samples reported in the literature

  18. Toxic effects of polyethylene terephthalate microparticles and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on the calanoid copepod, Parvocalanus crassirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindler, Franz M; Alajmi, Fahad; Huerlimann, Roger; Zeng, Chaoshu; Newman, Stephen J; Vamvounis, George; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2017-07-01

    Large amounts of plastic end up in the oceans every year where they fragment into microplastics over time. During this process, microplastics and their associated plasticizers become available for ingestion by different organisms. This study assessed the effects of microplastics (Polyethylene terephthalate; PET) and one plasticizer (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; DEHP) on mortality, productivity, population sizes and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris. Copepods were exposed to DEHP for 48h to assess toxicity. Adults were very healthy following chemical exposure (up to 5120µg L -1 ), whereas nauplii were severely affected at very low concentrations (48h LC 50 value of 1.04 ng L -1 ). Adults exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of DEHP (0.1-0.3µg L -1 ) or microplastics (10,000-80,000 particles mL -1 ) exhibited substantial reductions in egg production. Populations were exposed to either microplastics or DEHP for 6 days with 18 days of recovery or for 24 days. Populations exposed to microplastics for 24 days significantly depleted in population size (60±4.1%, pplastic and DEHP treatments after 6 days of exposure, but not after 18 days of recovery. Hsp70-like expression showed to be unresponsive to either DEHP or microplastic exposure. Clearly, microplastics and plasticizers pose a serious threat to zooplankton and potentially to higher trophic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly catalytic carbon nanotube counter electrode on plastic for dye solar cells utilizing cobalt-based redox mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitola, Kerttu; Halme, Janne; Feldt, Sandra; Lohse, Peter; Borghei, Maryam; Kaskela, Antti; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lund, Peter D.; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A flexible, slightly transparent and metal-free random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on plain polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic substrate outperformed platinum on conductive glass and on plastic as the counter electrode (CE) of a dye solar cell employing a Co(II/III)tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) complex redox mediator in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent. The CE charge-transfer resistance of the SWCNT film was 0.60 Ω cm 2 , 4.0 Ω cm 2 for sputtered platinum on indium tin oxide-PET substrate and 1.7 Ω cm 2 for thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass, respectively. The solar cell efficiencies were in the same range, thus proving that an entirely carbon-based SWCNT film on plastic is as good CE candidate for the Co electrolyte

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of mortars containing PET and PC waste aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawi, Kinda; Kamali-Bernard, Siham; Prince, William

    2010-11-01

    Non-biodegradable plastic aggregates made of polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste are used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in mortar. Various volume fractions of sand 3%, 10%, 20% and 50% are replaced by the same volume of plastic. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites. The main results of this study show the feasibility of the reuse of PC and PET waste aggregates materials as partial volume substitutes for natural aggregates in cementitious materials. Despite of some drawbacks like a decrease in compressive strength, the use of PC and PET waste aggregates presents various advantages. A reduction of the specific weight of the cementitious materials and a significant improvement of their post-peak flexural behaviour are observed. The calculated flexural toughness factors increase significantly with increasing volume fraction of PET and PC-aggregates. Thus, addition of PC and PET plastic aggregates in cementitious materials seems to give good energy absorbing materials which is very interesting for several civil engineering applications like structures subjected to dynamic or impact efforts. The present study has shown quite encouraging results and opened new way for the recycling of PC waste aggregate in cement and concrete composites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and Engineering of a Plastic Degrading Aromatic Polyesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoe, Bryon S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silveira, Rodrigo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dominick, Graham [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Austin, Harry P. [University of Portsmouth; Allen, Mark S. [University of Portsmouth; Thorne, Alan W. [University of Portsmouth; McGeehan, John E. [University of Portsmouth; Kearns, Fiona [University of South Florida; Pollard, Benjamin [University of South Florida; Duman, Ramona [Diamond Light Source; El Omari, Kamel [Diamond Light Source; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy [Diamond Light Source; Wagner, Armin [Diamond Light Source; Woodcock, H. Lee [University of South Florida; Skaf, Munir S. [University of Campinas

    2018-04-17

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the most abundantly produced synthetic polymers and is accumulating in the environment at a staggering rate as discarded packaging and textiles. The properties that make PET so useful also endow it with an alarming resistance to biodegradation, likely lasting centuries in the environment. Our collective reliance on PET and other plastics means that this buildup will continue unless solutions are found. Recently, a newly discovered bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, was shown to exhibit the rare ability to grow on PET as a major carbon and energy source. Central to its PET biodegradation capability is a secreted PETase (PET-digesting enzyme). Here, we present a 0.92 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of PETase, which reveals features common to both cutinases and lipases. PETase retains the ancestral a/..beta..-hydrolase fold but exhibits a more open active-site cleft than homologous cutinases. By narrowing the binding cleft via mutation of two active-site residues to conserved amino acids in cutinases, we surprisingly observe improved PET degradation, suggesting that PETase is not fully optimized for crystalline PET degradation, despite presumably evolving in a PET-rich environment. Additionally, we show that PETase degrades another semiaromatic polyester, polyethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is an emerging, bioderived PET replacement with improved barrier properties. In contrast, PETase does not degrade aliphatic polyesters, suggesting that it is generally an aromatic polyesterase. These findings suggest that additional protein engineering to increase PETase performance is realistic and highlight the need for further developments of structure/activity relationships for biodegradation of synthetic polyesters.

  2. Characterization and engineering of a plastic-degrading aromatic polyesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Harry P; Allen, Mark D; Donohoe, Bryon S; Rorrer, Nicholas A; Kearns, Fiona L; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Pollard, Benjamin C; Dominick, Graham; Duman, Ramona; El Omari, Kamel; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Wagner, Armin; Michener, William E; Amore, Antonella; Skaf, Munir S; Crowley, Michael F; Thorne, Alan W; Johnson, Christopher W; Woodcock, H Lee; McGeehan, John E; Beckham, Gregg T

    2018-05-08

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the most abundantly produced synthetic polymers and is accumulating in the environment at a staggering rate as discarded packaging and textiles. The properties that make PET so useful also endow it with an alarming resistance to biodegradation, likely lasting centuries in the environment. Our collective reliance on PET and other plastics means that this buildup will continue unless solutions are found. Recently, a newly discovered bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, was shown to exhibit the rare ability to grow on PET as a major carbon and energy source. Central to its PET biodegradation capability is a secreted PETase (PET-digesting enzyme). Here, we present a 0.92 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of PETase, which reveals features common to both cutinases and lipases. PETase retains the ancestral α/β-hydrolase fold but exhibits a more open active-site cleft than homologous cutinases. By narrowing the binding cleft via mutation of two active-site residues to conserved amino acids in cutinases, we surprisingly observe improved PET degradation, suggesting that PETase is not fully optimized for crystalline PET degradation, despite presumably evolving in a PET-rich environment. Additionally, we show that PETase degrades another semiaromatic polyester, polyethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is an emerging, bioderived PET replacement with improved barrier properties. In contrast, PETase does not degrade aliphatic polyesters, suggesting that it is generally an aromatic polyesterase. These findings suggest that additional protein engineering to increase PETase performance is realistic and highlight the need for further developments of structure/activity relationships for biodegradation of synthetic polyesters. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. (ethylene terephthalate) biomimetic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In vitro bioactivity of the HAp/PEA-co-PET composites was studied by soaking in simulated .... 2.2d Characterization of cyclic oligomers: The C-OEA, ... GENESIS2000, EDAX) for microanalysis. ... Both spectra did not show the signal of end.

  4. Effect of waste plastic bottles on the stiffness and fatigue properties of modified asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Amir; Hamedi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PET reduced the mix stiffness at both temperatures of 5 and 25 °C. • PET improved the fatigue behavior at both testing temperatures. • At more than 210 microstrain, adding temperature resulted in higher fatigue life. • SBS modified mixes showed better fatigue behavior than PET modified ones. • Overall PET had comparable effects to SBS on the stiffness and fatigue behavior. - Abstract: Nowadays, the use of recycled waste materials as modifier additives in asphalt mixes could have several economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the stiffness and specially fatigue properties of asphalt mixes at two different temperatures of 5 and 20 °C. Likewise, the effect of PET was compared to styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) which is a conventional polymer additive which has been vastly used to modify asphalt mixes. Different PET contents (2–10% by weight of bitumen) were added directly to mixture as the method of dry process. Then the resilient modulus and fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with indirect tensile loading procedure. Overall, the mix stiffness reduced by increasing the PET content. Although stiffness of asphalt mix initially increased by adding lower amount of PET. Based on the results of resilient modulus test, the stiffness of PET modified mix was acceptable and warranted the proper deformation characteristics of these mixes at heavy loading conditions. At both temperatures, PET improved the fatigue behavior of studied mixes. PET modified mixes revealed comparable stiffness and fatigue behavior to SBS at 20 °C. However, at 5 °C the fatigue life of SBS modified mixes was to some extent higher than that of PET modified ones especially at higher strain levels of 200 microstrain

  5. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  6. Effect of catalyst contact mode and gas atmosphere during catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yuan; Johnston, Patrick; Bai, Xianglan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PE, PP, PS and PET were catalytically pyrolyzed in a tandem micro-pyrolyzer. • Product distribution and composition were varied at in-situ and ex-situ pyrolysis. • Hydrogen carrier gas suppressed coke formation and reduced polyaromatic content. • Positive synergies between PE and PS, or PE and PET were found. - Abstract: In the present study, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were pyrolyzed using HZSM-5 zeolite in a tandem micro-pyrolyzer to investigate the effects of plastic type, catalyst and feedstock contact mode, as well as the type of carrier gas on product distribution. Among the four plastics, PS produced highest aromatic yields up to 85% whereas PE and PP mainly produced aliphatic hydrocarbons. In comparison to ex-situ pyrolysis, in-situ pyrolysis of the plastics produced more solid residue but also promoted the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons, except PS. For PS, ex-situ pyrolysis produced a higher yield of aromatics than in-situ pyrolysis, mostly contributed by high styrene yield. During in-situ pyrolysis, the catalyst reduced the decomposition temperatures of the plastics in the order of PE, PP, PS and PET from high to low. Hydrogen carrier gas reduced solid residue and also increased the selectivity of single ring aromatics in comparison to inert pyrolysis. Hydrogen was more beneficial to PS and PET than PE and PP in terms of reducing coke yield and increasing hydrocarbon yield. The present study also showed that catalytically co-pyrolyzing PS and PE, or PET and PE increases the yield of aromatics and reduces the yield of solid residue due to hydrogen transfer from PE to PS or PET and alkylation reactions among the plastic-derivatives.

  7. Long-term sorption of metals is similar among plastic types: implications for plastic debris in aquatic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M Rochman

    Full Text Available Concerns regarding plastic debris and its ability to accumulate large concentrations of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and metals in seawater. At three locations in San Diego Bay, we measured the accumulation of nine targeted metals (aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead sampling at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, to five plastic types: polyethylene terephthalate (PET, high-density polyethylene (HDPE, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, low-density polyethylene (LDPE, and polypropylene (PP. Accumulation patterns were not consistent over space and time, and in general all types of plastic tended to accumulate similar concentrations of metals. When we did observe significant differences among concentrations of metals at a single sampling period or location in San Diego Bay, we found that HDPE typically accumulated lesser concentrations of metals than the other four polymers. Furthermore, over the 12-month study period, concentrations of all metals increased over time, and chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc and lead did not reach saturation on at least one plastic type during the entire 12-month exposure. This suggests that plastic debris may accumulate greater concentrations of metals the longer it remains at sea. Overall, our work shows that a complex mixture of metals, including those listed as priority pollutants by the US EPA (Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb, can be found on plastic debris composed of various plastic types.

  8. Long-term sorption of metals is similar among plastic types: implications for plastic debris in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Hentschel, Brian T; Teh, Swee J

    2014-01-01

    Concerns regarding plastic debris and its ability to accumulate large concentrations of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and metals in seawater. At three locations in San Diego Bay, we measured the accumulation of nine targeted metals (aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead) sampling at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, to five plastic types: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). Accumulation patterns were not consistent over space and time, and in general all types of plastic tended to accumulate similar concentrations of metals. When we did observe significant differences among concentrations of metals at a single sampling period or location in San Diego Bay, we found that HDPE typically accumulated lesser concentrations of metals than the other four polymers. Furthermore, over the 12-month study period, concentrations of all metals increased over time, and chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc and lead did not reach saturation on at least one plastic type during the entire 12-month exposure. This suggests that plastic debris may accumulate greater concentrations of metals the longer it remains at sea. Overall, our work shows that a complex mixture of metals, including those listed as priority pollutants by the US EPA (Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb), can be found on plastic debris composed of various plastic types.

  9. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Pawelec, Iwona; Lisiecki, Slawomir; Jotko, Marek; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Mosnácek, Jaroslav; Roslaniec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt%) of graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for ...

  10. Morphology and thermal properties of recycled polyacrylonitrile fiber blends with poly(ethylene terephthalate): Microstructural characterization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adegbola, TA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The compounding of rPAN/PET [polyacrylonitrile/poly(ethylene terephthalate]; 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 wt %) using a melt-blending technique was the main focus of this investigation. An X-ray diffraction study indicated the possibility of interphase...

  11. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited... Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce..., International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New Shipper Reviews of the Antidumping Duty...

  12. 78 FR 45512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... or Jacky Arrowsmith at 202-482-1396 or 202-482-5255, respectively, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... terephthalate film (PET Film) from India and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as..., Office of Investigations, International Trade Commission, regarding ``Sunset Reviews Initiated on April 2...

  13. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the... Page or Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... Interested Parties From Elfi Blum, International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New...

  14. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from....'' EFFECTIVE DATE: February 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, from Barbara E. Tillman, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  15. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is... Administrative Review: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates...

  16. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  17. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  18. Valorization of post-consumer waste plastic in cementitious concrete composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, O. Yazoghli; Dheilly, R.M.; Queneudec, M.

    2007-01-01

    The sheer amount of disposable bottles being produced nowadays makes it imperative to identify alternative procedures for recycling them since they are non-biodegradable. This paper describes an innovative use of consumed plastic bottle waste as sand-substitution aggregate within composite materials for building application. Particularly, bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been used as partial and complete substitutes for sand in concrete composites. Various volume fractions of sand varying from 2% to 100% were substituted by the same volume of granulated plastic, and various sizes of PET aggregates were used. The bulk density and mechanical characteristics of the composites produced were evaluated. To study the relationship between mechanical properties and composite microstructure, scanning electron microscopy technique was employed. The results presented show that substituting sand at a level below 50% by volume with granulated PET, whose upper granular limit equals 5 mm, affects neither the compressive strength nor the flexural strength of composites. This study demonstrates that plastic bottles shredded into small PET particles may be used successfully as sand-substitution aggregates in cementitious concrete composites. These new composites would appear to offer an attractive low-cost material with consistent properties; moreover, they would help in resolving some of the solid waste problems created by plastics production and in saving energy

  19. Intrinsic char reactivity of plastic waste (PET) during CO2 gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, M.V.; Fermoso, J.; Pevida, C.; Pis, J.J.; Rubiera, F.

    2010-01-01

    Char reactivity has a strong influence on the gasification process, since char gasification is the slowest step in the process. A sample of waste PET was devolatilised in a vertical quartz reactor and the resulting char was partially gasified under a CO 2 atmosphere at 925 C in order to obtain samples with different degrees of conversion. The reactivity of the char in CO 2 was determined by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis at different temperatures in a kinetically controlled regime and its reactive behaviour was evaluated by means of the random pore model (RPM). The texture of the char was characterised by means of N 2 and CO 2 adsorption isotherms. The results did not reveal any variation in char reactivity during conversion, whereas the micropore surface area was affected during the gasification process. It was found that the intrinsic reaction rate of the char can be satisfactorily calculated by normalizing the reaction rate by the narrow micropore surface area calculated from the CO 2 adsorption isotherms. It can be concluded therefore that the surface area available for the gasification process is the area corresponding to the narrow microporosity. (author)

  20. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-06-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 μg mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 μg of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro Blood Compatibility of Polyethylene Terephthalate with Covalently Bounded Hirudin on Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang; WANG Jin; HUANG San

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET,Dacron) was modified by surface immobilization of hirudin with glutaraldehyde(GA) as coupling reagent to improve the blood compatibility.Hirudin-immobilizcd PETs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements.The blood compatibility of the PETs was evaluated by platelet adhesion evaluation and fibrinogen conformational change measurements in vitro.The results showed the decrease of platelet adhesion and activation on hirudinimmobilized PET with increasing of glutaraldehyde concentration.Fibrinogen experiment showed that fibrinogen adherence and conformational changes of PET-HRD were less than those of untreated PET,which made the materials difficult to form thrombus.The proper reason of blood compatibility improvement was low interface tension between hirudin-immobilized PETs and blood,as well as blood proteins,and low ratio of dispersive/polar component of the surface energy(γsd/γsp) and high hydrophilicity.

  3. Effect of calcium-ozone treatment on chemical and biological properties of polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Ahmed Nafis; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Ozone (O3 ) treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in distilled water was performed in the presence and absence of calcium (Ca(2+) ). PET was oxidized and thus carboxylic and hydroxyl functional groups were introduced on its surface after O3 treatment, regardless of the presence or absence of Ca(2+) . In the case of O3 treatment with Ca(2+) , PET surface was modified with Ca(2+) . Ca(2+) immobilization was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometric analysis. Hydrophilicity was investigated by measuring contact angles (CA). CA of PET decreased significantly after ozonation. Surface topography of PET before and after ozone treatment was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and showed no morphological changes. In vitro studies showed enhanced rat bone marrow cell responses on the O3 -treated PET surface. Ca(2+) -O3 oxidation at 37°C for 6 h is expected to be an effective method to fabricate PET with good biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Converting Biomass and Waste Plastic to Solid Fuel Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zannikos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the production of briquettes for household use from biomass in combination with plastic materials from different sources. Additionally, the combustion characteristics of the briquettes in a common open fireplace were studied. It is clear that the geometry of the briquettes has no influence on the smoke emissions. When the briquettes have a small amount of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, the behavior in the combustion is steadier because of the increase of oxygen supply. The smoke levels are between the 3rd and 4th grades of the smoke number scale. Measuring the carbon monoxide emission, it was observed that the burning of the plastic in the mixture with biomass increases the carbon monoxide emissions from 10% to 30% as compared to carbon monoxide emission from sawdust biomass emissions which was used as a reference.

  5. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  6. PET and PVC Separation with Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Mei, Alessandro; Leonardi, Alessandra; Lupo, Emanuela; La Marca, Floriana

    2015-01-01

    Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density). Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers—polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)—in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials) to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900–1700 nm) reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry. PMID:25609050

  7. PET and PVC separation with hyperspectral imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Monica; Mei, Alessandro; Leonardi, Alessandra; Lupo, Emanuela; Marca, Floriana La

    2015-01-20

    Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density). Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers--polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)--in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials) to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900-1700 nm) reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry.

  8. PET and PVC Separation with Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density. Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to increase the quality of recycled products, which have to comply with specific standards determined by industrial applications. This paper presents the results of the characterization of two different plastic polymers—polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyvinyl chloride (PVC—in different phases of their life cycle (primary raw materials, urban and urban-assimilated waste and secondary raw materials to show the contribution of hyperspectral sensors in the field of material recycling. This is accomplished via near-infrared (900–1700 nm reflectance spectra extracted from hyperspectral images acquired with a two-linear-spectrometer apparatus. Results have shown that a rapid and reliable identification of PET and PVC can be achieved by using a simple two near-infrared wavelength operator coupled to an analysis of reflectance spectra. This resulted in 100% classification accuracy. A sensor based on this identification method appears suitable and inexpensive to build and provides the necessary speed and performance required by the recycling industry.

  9. Flexible and Transparent Plastic Electrodes Composed of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Films for Supercapacitor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Ashis K.; Hong, Jongdal

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we described about the preparation and electrochemical properties of a flexible energy storage system based on a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The PET treated with UV/ozone was fabricated with multilayer films composed of 30 polyaniline (PANi)/graphene oxide (GO) bilayers using layerby-layer assembly of positively charged PANi and negatively charged GO. The conversion of GO to the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the multilayer film was achieved using hydroiodic acid vapor at 100 .deg. C, whereby PANi structure remained nearly unchanged except a little reduction of doping state. Cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge curves of 30 PANi/RGO bilayers on PET substrate (shorten to PANi-RGO 30 /PET) exhibited an excellent volumetric capacitance, good cycling stability, and rapid charge/discharge rates despite no use of any metal current collectors. The specific capacitance from charge/discharge curve of the PANi-RGO 30 /PET electrode was found to be 529 F/cm 3 at a current density of 3 A/cm 3 , which is one of the best values yet achieved among carbon-based materials including conducting polymers. Furthermore, the intrinsic electrical resistance of the PANi-RGO 30 /PET electrodes varied within 20% range during 200 bending cycles at a fixed bend radius of 2.2 mm, indicating the increase in their flexibility by a factor of 225 compared with the ITO/PET electrode

  10. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  11. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  12. Hydrophilic-impermeable modified polyethylene terephthalate for selective endothelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouane, D.; Fafet, J. F.; Barbet, R.; Dieval, F.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to create a modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) responding to vascular implants’ requirements, mainly with a surface promoting selective endothelialization. The surface alteration was carried out by hydrophilic functionalization in an alkaline solution with the presence of specific surfactant (TA). The carboxylic groups resulting from this reaction were quantified by colorimetric titration using bleu toluidine O dye (TBO). A single-sided coating process was then optimized to cover the PET surface by micro spherical structures’ polymeric layer. This coating provided to the PET surface high impermeability to the water under a pressure of 120 mmHg and enhanced its hydrophilic property. This spherical topography reduced the adhesion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) by 37% and inhibited their proliferation after 3 days by 50%. The hydrophilic functionalized PET (PET-TA) surface decreased the MSC adhesion by 50% and promoted HUVEC attachment with a number twice more important than the number of HUVEC adhered onto non treated-PET.

  13. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/polyaniline blends as potential antioxidant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nand, Ashveen V.; Ray, Sudip; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Kilmartin, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Successful incorporation of particulate polyaniline, consisting of nanorods, in PET was achieved. ► Interactions between PET and polyaniline in the blends were characterized using FTIR, XPS, DSC and DMTA. ► Polyaniline introduced free radical scavenging capacity in PET. - Abstract: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blends with a nanorod form of polyaniline (NR-PANI), formed by a falling pH synthesis, were prepared by dispersion in a melt of PET at 265 °C. Blends with 1, 2 and 3 wt% NR-PANI loading were prepared. Optical microscopy revealed an even distribution of NR-PANI particles within the PET matrix. The blends were characterized using FTIR, XPS, DSC and DMTA. Melt flow index values suggested hydrolysis of PET chains to lower molecular weight units when NR-PANI was blended. Some PET hydrolysis was also evident from the increasing oxygen to carbon ratios with an increased NR-PANI content in the blends. While the PET glass transition temperature remained relatively unaffected, the degree of PET crystallinity was increased with the addition of NR-PANI. The electrical conductivity as well as the free radical scavenging capacity of PET increased with greater NR-PANI loading in the matrix. The mechanical properties of PET, however, declined with NR-PANI loading suggesting a lack of adequate interfacial adhesion between the NR-PANI particles and the PET matrix.

  14. Electrical conduction in 100 keV Kr+ ion implanted poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P. K.; Kumar, V.; Gupta, Renu; Mahendia, S.; Anita, Kumar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples have been implanted to 100 keV Kr+ ions at the fluences 1×1015-- 1×1016 cm-2. From I-V characteristics, the conduction mechanism was found to be shifted from ohmic to space charge limited conduction (SCLC) after implantation. The surface conductivity of these implanted samples was found to increase with increasing implantation dose. The structural alterations in the Raman spectra of implanted PET samples indicate that such an increase in the conductivity may be attributed to the formation of conjugated double bonded carbonaceous structure in the implanted layer of PET.

  15. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate using excimer and CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Attempts have been made to evaluate microstructuring which affects cell behaviour, physical and chemical changes produced by laser irradiation onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using the CO 2 laser and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes in chemical and physical properties of the irradiated PET surface were investigated by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and contact angle measurements. ATR-IR Spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 laser and excimer laser irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the morphology of the laser irradiated PET surface changed due to laser irradiation. The results obtained from the cell behaviour studies revealed that changes of physico-chemical properties of the laser treated PET film have significantly changed in comparison with the unmodified PET

  16. THE ROLE OF INTRAMOLECULAR TIES ENERGY IN THE PYROLYSIS PROCESS OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Iu. Salikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Recycling plastic waste to focus on. The main type of used products made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET is a container from the various types of beverages. There was considered a possibility of waste of PET (bottles, bottles, packaging containers by pyrolysis. Most of the proposed methods are not suitable for recycling (recycling of waste consumption contamination. Purpose - to develop technological foundations and optimum modes waste PET to obtain useful secondary products, taking into account the energy of chemical intramolecular bonds. Applied scientific basis of recycling PET into useful forms of secondary products, in particular the establishment of the collapse of the intramolecular bonds, depending on the temperature of the pyrolysis method of mathematical processing - differentiation of polynomial equations change in the degree of pyrolysis temperature-dependent. The optimum modes of processing. The block diagram of apparatus for processing contaminated waste PET pyrolysis methods of control processing in accordance with the specified composition of secondary products. The possibility of controlling the amount and types of fuel components of secondary products due to measurable parameters of the pyrolysis process. The effective temperature pyrolysis of waste PET with the CCA-tures energy intramolecular bonds.

  17. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: A multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.F. Brenkman (Hylke J.F.); Gertsen, E.C. (E. C.); E. Vegt (Erik); R. van Hillegersberg (Richard); M.I. van Berge Henegouwen; S.S. Gisbertz (Suzanne S.); M. Luyer (Misha); G.A.P. Nieuwenhuijzen (Gerard); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan); S.M. Lagarde (Sjoerd); W.O. de Steur (Wobbe O.); H.H. Hartgrink (H.); J.H.M.B. Stoot (Jan); K.W.E. Hulsewé (Karel W.E.); E.J. Spillenaar Bilgen (Ernst Jan); M.J. van Det (Marc J.); E.A. Kouwenhoven (Ewout); D.L. van der Peet (Donald); F. Daams (Freek); J.W. van Sandick (J.); N.C.T. Grieken (Nicole); J. Heisterkamp (Joos); B. van Etten (Boudewijn); J.W. Haveman; J.-P.E.N. Pierie (Jean-Pierre); Jonker, F. (F.); Thijssen, A.Y. (A. Y.); E.J.T. Belt (Eric); P. van Duijvendijk (Peter); Wassenaar, E. (E.); H.W.M. van Laarhoven (Hanneke); Wessels, F.J. (F. J.); N. Haj Mohammad; H.F. van Stel (Henk); G.W.J. Frederix (Geert); P.D. Siersema (Peter); J.P. Ruurda (Jelle)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but

  18. Thermal and kinetic behaviors of biomass and plastic wastes in co-pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çepelioğullar, Özge; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of biomass together with the plastic wastes in thermogravimetric analyzer. • Investigations into thermal and kinetic behaviors at high temperature regions. • Determination of the kinetic parameters. - Abstract: In this study, co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of biomass-plastic blends were investigated. Cotton stalk, hazelnut shell, sunflower residue, and arid land plant Euphorbia rigida, were blended in definite ratio (1:1, w/w) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were conducted with a heating rate of 10 °C min −1 from room temperature to 800 °C in the presence of N 2 atmosphere with a flow rate of 100 cm 3 min −1 . After thermal decomposition in TGA, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data and a detailed discussion of co-pyrolysis mechanism was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that the structural differences between biomass and plastics directly affect their thermal decomposition behaviors. Biomass pyrolysis generally based on three main steps while plastic material’s pyrolysis mechanism resulted in two steps for PET and three steps for PVC. Also, the required activation energies needed to achieve the thermal degradation for plastic were found higher than the biomass materials. In addition, it can be concluded that the evaluation of plastic materials together with biomass created significant changes not only for the thermal behaviors but also for the kinetic behaviors

  19. Microbial enzymes for the recycling of recalcitrant petroleum-based plastics: how far are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Petroleum-based plastics have replaced many natural materials in their former applications. With their excellent properties, they have found widespread uses in almost every area of human life. However, the high recalcitrance of many synthetic plastics results in their long persistence in the environment, and the growing amount of plastic waste ending up in landfills and in the oceans has become a global concern. In recent years, a number of microbial enzymes capable of modifying or degrading recalcitrant synthetic polymers have been identified. They are emerging as candidates for the development of biocatalytic plastic recycling processes, by which valuable raw materials can be recovered in an environmentally sustainable way. This review is focused on microbial biocatalysts involved in the degradation of the synthetic plastics polyethylene, polystyrene, polyurethane and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Recent progress in the application of polyester hydrolases for the recovery of PET building blocks and challenges for the application of these enzymes in alternative plastic waste recycling processes will be discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×1016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  1. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  2. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. ► Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. ► Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  3. Assessment of Brain Damage and Plasticity in the Visual System Due to Early Occipital Lesion: Comparison of FDG-PET with Diffusion MRI Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-won; Tiwari, Vijay N.; Shin, Joseph; Chugani, Harry T.; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the relation between glucose metabolic changes of the primary visual cortex, structural abnormalities of the corresponding visual tracts, and visual symptoms in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Materials and Methods In 10 children with unilateral SWS (ages 1.5–5.5 years), a region-of-interest analysis was applied in the bilateral medial occipital cortex on positron emission tomography (PET) and used to track diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) streamlines corresponding to the central visual pathway. Normalized streamline volumes of individual SWS patients were compared with values from age-matched control groups as well as correlated with normalized glucose uptakes and visual field deficit. Results Lower glucose uptake and lower corresponding streamline volumes were detected in the affected occipital lobe in 9/10 patients, as compared to the contralateral side. Seven of these 9 patients had visual field deficit and normal or decreased streamline volumes on the unaffected side. The two other children had no visual symptoms and showed high contralateral visual streamline volumes. There was a positive correlation between the normalized ratios on DWI and PET, indicating that lower glucose metabolism was associated with lower streamline volume in the affected hemisphere (R = 0.70, P = 0.024). Conclusion We demonstrated that 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET combined with DWI tractography can detect both brain damage on the side of the lesion and contralateral plasticity in children with early occipital lesions. PMID:24391057

  4. Protein crystallography and site-direct mutagenesis analysis of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase PETase from Ideonella sakaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; He, Lihui; Wang, Liping; Li, Tao; Li, Changcheng; Liu, Huayi; Luo, Yunzi; Bao, Rui

    2018-03-30

    Compared with traditional recycle strategies, biodegradation provides a sustainable solution for poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) wastes disposal. PETase, a newly identified enzyme from Ideonella sakaiensis, has high efficiency and specificity towards PET, which provides a prominent prospect on PET degradation. Based on the biochemical analysis, we propose that the wide substrate-binding pocket is critical for its excellent property on crystallized PET hydrolysis. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis exhibited improvement in PETase catalytic efficiency, providing valuable insight on how the molecular engineering of PETase can optimize its application in biocatalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer: a FDG-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, C.T.; Guan, Y.H.; Xu, W.D.; Zhao, J.; Sun, G.X.; Lin, X.T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study FDG-PET for imaging the brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer. Methods: One male patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion underwent a two-stage procedure (first phase: C7 root → ulnar nerve; second phase: ulnar nerve → recipient nerve) 4 years ago; Another with right brachial plexus root avulsion also underwent a two-stage procedure 3 years ago. First two patients underwent basic FDG-PET imaging, the next day FDG-PET scans were performed after initiative or passive limb movement. Using ROI and MPI tools to evaluate the images. The ratios of sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami to white matter were used as the semiquantitive index. Results: Whether brain plasticity had occurred was determined by whether the affected limb can perform initiative movement. The increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion were 40.1%, 37.9%, 48.3%, 31.9% after initiative movement, the right corresponding brain regions were 39.4%, 34.3%, 48.5%,35.4% respectively. However, the increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with right brachial plexus root avulsion were increased by 12.6%, 9.6%, 10.7%, 5.3% after passive movement, the right corresponding brain regions were respectively 17.9%, 12.9%, 15.4%, 10.1%. It was founded that the metabolism of bilateral sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased after initiative movement, while the metabolism of right sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased more obviously than that of the left brain regions when using MPI tool to substract the images before and after the affected limb movement. Conclusions: Sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami were necessary to the initiative movement. After being activated by movement, the metabolisms of plasticised brain regions increased obviously. However, the

  6. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrados, A.; Marco, I. de; Caballero, B.M.; López, A.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of plastic waste. ► Comparison of different samples: real waste, simulated and real waste + catalyst. ► Study of the effects of inorganic components in the pyrolysis products. - Abstract: Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  7. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  8. Durable grafting of silkworm pupa protein onto the surface of polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianfeng, E-mail: 584884673@qq.com [College of Textiles & Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716 (China); Zheng, Dandan, E-mail: 183737543@qq.com [College of Textiles & Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu, E-mail: zhangfx656472@sina.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com [College of Textiles & Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716 (China)

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, reactive –NH{sub 2} groups (8.36 × 10{sup −6} mol/g fabric) were introduced to the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics by a nitration and reduction method, and epoxy groups were introduced to silkworm pupa protein (SPP) by reaction with epoxy chloropropane. PET-SPP composite fabrics were then prepared by reaction of these two precursors. The results showed that the SPP was firmly grafted onto the PET fabric surface and that the hydrophilicity of the fabric was markedly improved by the grafting of SPP. SEM images revealed a layer of substance covering the surface of the PET fibers, and XPS investigation showed that the nitrogen content of the PET-SPP fabric was higher than that of the original PET fabric (2.32% vs 0%). ATR-FTIR adsorption bands at 1653 and 1543 cm{sup −1} suggested the successful grafting of SPP onto the PET fabric surface. The DSC and TG of the PET fibers demonstrated that the thermal stability of the original PET fibers was maintained well by the SPP-grafted PET fibers. The breaking strength, bending rigidity, air permeability, and crease recovery angle of the original PET fabric were also retained by the SPP-grafted PET fabric. - Highlights: • Reactive –NH{sub 2} groups were introduced to PET fibers by nitration and reduction method. • Reactive epoxy groups were introduced to silkworm pupa protein by reacting with epoxy chloropropane. • The silkworm pupa protein could be grafted firmly on the PET fabric surface through covalent bond. • The skin-friendly property and hydrophilicity of PET-SPP fabric were improved greatly. • The wearability of PET-SPP composite fabric kept well.

  9. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review covers two producers/exporters of subject... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  10. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  11. Separation of mixed waste plastics via magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Xie, Jun; Gu, Fu; Sharmin, Nusrat; Hall, Philip; Fu, Jianzhong

    2018-06-01

    Separation becomes a bottleneck of dealing with the enormous stream of waste plastics, as most of the extant methods can only handle binary mixtures. In this paper, a novel method that based on magnetic levitation was proposed for separating multiple mixed plastics. Six types of plastics, i.e., polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyamide 6 (PA6), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), were used to simulate the mixed waste plastics. The samples were mixed and immersed into paramagnetic medium that placed into a magnetic levitation configuration with two identical NdFeB magnets with like-poles facing each other, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to verify the separation outputs. Unlike any conventional separation methods such as froth flotation and hydrocyclone, this method is not limited by particle sizes, as mixtures of different size fractions reached their respective equilibrium positions in the initial tests. The two-stage separation tests demonstrated that the plastics can be completely separated with purities reached 100%. The method has the potential to be industrialised into an economically-viable and environmentally-friendly mass production procedure, since quantitative correlations are determined, and the paramagnetic medium can be reused indefinitely. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PET/CT imaging for treatment verification after proton therapy: a study with plastic phantoms and metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Katia; Paganetti, Harald; Cascio, Ethan; Flanz, Jacob B; Bonab, Ali A; Alpert, Nathaniel M; Lohmann, Kevin; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    The feasibility of off-line positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for routine three dimensional in-vivo treatment verification of proton radiation therapy is currently under investigation at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. In preparation for clinical trials, phantom experiments were carried out to investigate the sensitivity and accuracy of the method depending on irradiation and imaging parameters. Furthermore, they addressed the feasibility of PET/CT as a robust verification tool in the presence of metallic implants. These produce x-ray CT artifacts and fluence perturbations which may compromise the accuracy of treatment planning algorithms. Spread-out Bragg peak proton fields were delivered to different phantoms consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), PMMA stacked with lung and bone equivalent materials, and PMMA with titanium rods to mimic implants in patients. PET data were acquired in list mode starting within 20 min after irradiation at a commercial luthetium-oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based PET/CT scanner. The amount and spatial distribution of the measured activity could be well reproduced by calculations based on the GEANT4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes. This phantom study supports the potential of millimeter accuracy for range monitoring and lateral field position verification even after low therapeutic dose exposures of 2 Gy, despite the delay between irradiation and imaging. It also indicates the value of PET for treatment verification in the presence of metallic implants, demonstrating a higher sensitivity to fluence perturbations in comparison to a commercial analytical treatment planning system. Finally, it addresses the suitability of LSO-based PET detectors for hadron therapy monitoring. This unconventional application of PET involves countrates which are orders of magnitude lower than in diagnostic tracer imaging, i.e., the signal of interest is comparable to the noise originating from the intrinsic radioactivity of

  13. Avaliação do uso de poli(tereftalato de etileno (PET como matriz de imobilização de cinzas de incineradores Assessment of the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix for immobilization of incinerator ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Gonçalves Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial hazardous wastes must receive appropriate treatment to ensure a safe disposal to humans and environment. One of the techniques adopted for this purpose is the stabilization/solidification in polymer matrices. This paper evaluated the use of recycled polyethylene terephthalate as an incorporation matrix of incinerator ash. The polymer and the ash were submitted to an extrusion process in different percentages. The final product was evaluated through thermal and leaching tests and the leachate extracts constituents were determinated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed a reduction in the release of substances up to 99% by mass for the conditions used.

  14. Evaluation of PET and laparoscopy in STagIng advanced gastric cancer: a multicenter prospective study (PLASTIC-study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, H J F; Gertsen, E C; Vegt, E; van Hillegersberg, R; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Gisbertz, S S; Luyer, M D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, G A P; van Lanschot, J J B; Lagarde, S M; de Steur, W O; Hartgrink, H H; Stoot, J H M B; Hulsewe, K W E; Spillenaar Bilgen, E J; van Det, M J; Kouwenhoven, E A; van der Peet, D L; Daams, F; van Sandick, J W; van Grieken, N C T; Heisterkamp, J; van Etten, B; Haveman, J W; Pierie, J P; Jonker, F; Thijssen, A Y; Belt, E J T; van Duijvendijk, P; Wassenaar, E; van Laarhoven, H W M; Wessels, F J; Haj Mohammad, N; van Stel, H F; Frederix, G W J; Siersema, P D; Ruurda, J P

    2018-04-20

    Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but evidence is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of PET and SL in addition to initial staging in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. This prospective observational cohort study will include all patients with a surgically resectable, advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (cT3-4b, N0-3, M0), that are scheduled for treatment with curative intent after initial staging with gastroscopy and CT. The modalities to be investigated in this study is the addition of PET and SL. The primary outcome of this study is the proportion of patients in whom the PET or SL lead to a change in treatment strategy. Secondary outcome parameters are: diagnostic performance, morbidity and mortality, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of these additional diagnostic modalities. The study recently started in August 2017 with a duration of 36 months. At least 239 patients need to be included in this study to demonstrate that the diagnostic modalities are break-even. Based on the annual number of gastrectomies in the participating centers, it is estimated that approximately 543 patients are included in this study. In this study, it is hypothesized that performing PET and SL for locally advanced gastric adenocarcinomas results in a change of treatment strategy in 27% of patients and an annual cost-reduction in the Netherlands of €916.438 in this patient group by reducing futile treatment. The results of this study may be applicable to all countries with comparable treatment algorithms and health care systems. NCT03208621 . This trial was registered prospectively on June 30, 2017.

  15. A novel bonding method for fabrication of PET planar nanofluidic chip with low dimension loss and high bonding strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Zhifu; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shenbo; Qi, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Plastic planar nanofluidic chips are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical applications. However, the majority of the present bonding methods for planar nanofluidic chips suffer from high dimension loss and low bonding strength. In this work, a novel thermal bonding technique based on O 2 plasma and ethanol treatment was proposed. With the assistance of O 2 plasma and ethanol, the PET (polyethylene terephthalate) planar nanofluidic chip can be bonded at a low bonding temperature of 50 °C. To increase the bonding rate and bonding strength, the O 2 plasma parameters and thermal bonding parameters were optimized during the bonding process. The tensile test indicates that the bonding strength of the PET planar nanofluidic chip can reach 0.954 MPa, while the auto-fluorescence test demonstrates that there is no leakage or blockage in any of the bonded micro- or nanochannels. (paper)

  16. Separation and recycling of cotton from cotton/PET blends by depolymerization of PET catalyzed by bases and ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Groeneveld, R.A.J. (Richard); Oelerich, J. (Jens)

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of post consumer cotton textile waste is highly requested, due to the high environmental impact of cotton production. Often cotton is mixed in blends with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the generation of high value products from recycled cotton, it essential that PET is

  17. Active Site Flexibility as a Hallmark for Efficient PET Degradation by I. sakaiensis PETase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecker, Tobias; Galaz-Davison, Pablo; Engelberger, Felipe; Narui, Yoshie; Sotomayor, Marcos; Parra, Loreto P; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A

    2018-03-27

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most-consumed synthetic polymers, with an annual production of 50 million tons. Unfortunately, PET accumulates as waste and is highly resistant to biodegradation. Recently, fungal and bacterial thermophilic hydrolases were found to catalyze PET hydrolysis with optimal activities at high temperatures. Strikingly, an enzyme from Ideonella sakaiensis, termed PETase, was described to efficiently degrade PET at room temperature, but the molecular basis of its activity is not currently understood. Here, a crystal structure of PETase was determined at 2.02 Å resolution and employed in molecular dynamics simulations showing that the active site of PETase has higher flexibility at room temperature than its thermophilic counterparts. This flexibility is controlled by a novel disulfide bond in its active site, with its removal leading to destabilization of the catalytic triad and reduction of the hydrolase activity. Molecular docking of a model substrate predicts that PET binds to PETase in a unique and energetically favorable conformation facilitated by several residue substitutions within its active site when compared to other enzymes. These computational predictions are in excellent agreement with recent mutagenesis and PET film degradation analyses. Finally, we rationalize the increased catalytic activity of PETase at room temperature through molecular dynamics simulations of enzyme-ligand complexes for PETase and other thermophilic PET-degrading enzymes at 298, 323, and 353 K. Our results reveal that both the binding pose and residue substitutions within PETase favor proximity between the catalytic residues and the labile carbonyl of the substrate at room temperature, suggesting a more favorable hydrolytic reaction. These results are valuable for enabling detailed evolutionary analysis of PET-degrading enzymes and for rational design endeavors aiming at increasing the efficiency of PETase and similar enzymes toward plastic

  18. Preparation of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend from PET bottles and modification studies induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, Edvaldo Luis

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems nowadays. Amidst the pollutants, plastic and especially the packings type P ET bottles , which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are causing big damage in the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by a process of simplified mechanical recycling from 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective to find solution to this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation doses effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 e 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness), thermal (Vicat softening temperature, differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric) and microscopic (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) properties of the blend were studied. The analysis of the results showed to be a not mixing and compatible blend, with mechanical and thermal properties (which appeared to be similar to the properties of the component material used in the blend in separate) satisfactory, resulting in a resistant material and of low cost, being able to be used in the production of parts that do not demand specifications techniques. The use of the ionizing radiation improved some of the mechanical and thermal properties of the blend (these modifications had been random and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation and the type of property) making possible more specific applications for this material. (author)

  19. Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rezaul Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A self-powered ultraviolet (UV photodetector (PD based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered ultrathin Ti/Au top metal contacts and UV transparent PET/ITO substrates allowed the PDs to be illuminated through either frontside or backside. Morphology, structural, chemical, and optical properties of sputtered NiO and ZnO films were also investigated.

  20. Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Md Rezaul [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Xie, Ting; Liu, Guannan [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Barron, Sara C. [Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Motayed, Abhishek [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Rao, Mulpuri V. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Debnath, Ratan, E-mail: ratan.debnath@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered ultrathin Ti/Au top metal contacts and UV transparent PET/ITO substrates allowed the PDs to be illuminated through either frontside or backside. Morphology, structural, chemical, and optical properties of sputtered NiO and ZnO films were also investigated.

  1. Flexible organic light-emitting device based on magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Tong, S.W.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    A radio-frequency sputtering deposition method was applied to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) on a plastic substrate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The correlation of deposition conditions and ITO film properties was systematically investigated and characterized. The optimal ITO films had a transmittance of over 90% in the visible range (400-700 nm) and a resistivity of 5.0x10 -4 Ω-cm. Sequentially α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium, and magnesium-silver were thermally deposited on the ITO-coated PET substrate to fabricate flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated devices had a maximum current efficiency of ∼4.1 cd/A and a luminance of nearly 4100 cd/m 2 at 100 mA/cm 2 . These values showed that the FOLEDs had comparable performance characteristics with the conventional organic light-emitting diodes made on ITO-coated glasses with the same device configuration

  2. Novel scintillating material 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole for the fully digital and MRI compatible J-PET tomograph based on plastic scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; Dulski, Kamil; Niedźwiecki, Szymon; Alfs, Dominika; Białas, Piotr; Curceanu, Catalina; Czerwiński, Eryk; Danel, Andrzej; Gajos, Aleksander; Głowacz, Bartosz; Gorgol, Marek; Hiesmayr, Beatrix; Jasińska, Bożena; Kacprzak, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Daria; Kapłon, Łukasz; Kochanowski, Andrzej; Korcyl, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Paweł; Kozik, Tomasz; Krzemień, Wojciech; Kubicz, Ewelina; Kucharek, Mateusz; Mohammed, Muhsin; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, Monika; Pałka, Marek; Raczyński, Lech; Rudy, Zbigniew; Rundel, Oleksandr; Sharma, Neha G; Silarski, Michał; Uchacz, Tomasz; Wiślicki, Wojciech; Zgardzińska, Bożena; Zieliński, Marcin; Moskal, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    A novel plastic scintillator is developed for the application in the digital positron emission tomography (PET). The novelty of the concept lies in application of the 2-(4-styrylphenyl)benzoxazole as a wavelength shifter. The substance has not been used as scintillator dopant before. A dopant shifts the scintillation spectrum towards longer wavelengths making it more suitable for applications in scintillators of long strips geometry and light detection with digital silicon photomultipliers. These features open perspectives for the construction of the cost-effective and MRI-compatible PET scanner with the large field of view. In this article we present the synthesis method and characterize performance of the elaborated scintillator by determining its light emission spectrum, light emission efficiency, rising and decay time of the scintillation pulses and resulting timing resolution when applied in the positron emission tomography. The optimal concentration of the novel wavelength shifter was established by maximizing the light output and it was found to be 0.05 ‰ for cuboidal scintillator with dimensions of 14 mm x 14 mm x 20 mm.

  3. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt% of graphene oxide (GO have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for PET nanocomposite films over the neat PET is approximately factors of 2–3.3. DSC study on the nonisothermal crystallization behaviors proves that GO acts as a nucleating agent to accelerate the crystallization of PET matrix. The evolution of the lamellar nanostructure of nanocomposite and neat PET was monitored by SAXS during nonisothermal crystallization from the melt. It was found that unfilled PET and nanocomposite with the highest concentration of GO (0.5 wt% showed almost similar values of the long period (L=11.4 nm for neat PET and L=11.5 nm for PET/0.5GO.

  4. Effects of UV Aging on the Cracking of Titanium Oxide Layer on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Gray, Matthew H.; Tirawat, Robert; Larsen, Ross E.; Chen, Fangliang

    2016-04-18

    Thin oxide and metal films deposited on polymer substrates is an emerging technology for advanced reflectors for concentrated solar power applications, due to their unique combination of light weight, flexibility and inexpensive manufacture. Thus far, there is little knowledge on the mechanical integrity or structural persistence of such multi-layer thin film systems under long-term environmental aging. In this paper, the cracking of a brittle titanium dioxide layer deposited onto elasto-plastic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate is studied through a combination of experiment and modeling. In-situ fragmentation tests have been conducted to monitor the onset and evolution of cracks both on pristine and on samples aged with ultraviolet (UV) light. An analytical model is presented to simulate the cracking behavior and to predict the effects of UV aging. Based on preliminary experimental observation, the effect of aging is divided into three aspects and analyzed independently: mechanical property degradation of the polymer substrate; degradation of the interlayer between substrate and oxide coating; and internal stress-induced cracks on the oxide coating.

  5. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  6. Characterization polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites mixing with nano-silica and titanium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Mircea A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET based nanocomposites containing nano-silica (Aerosil (Degusa and titanium oxide (TiO2 (Merk were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica and titanium oxide on properties of the resulting nanocomposites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The possible interaction between nano-silica and titanium oxide particles with PET functional groups at bulk and surface was elucidated by transmission of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. AFM studies of the resulting nanocomposites showed an increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. SEM images illustrated that nano-silica particles have tendency to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix much more than titanium oxide powder.

  7. Influence of laser surface modifying of polyethylene terephthalate on fibroblast cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts have been made to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical properties of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface due to laser irradiation. These changes have been investigated from viewpoints of microstructuring and its effect on fibroblast cell behavior. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using CO 2 and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The data from ATR-FTIR spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 and excimer laser irradiation. SEM observations showed that specific microstructures were created on the PET surface due to laser irradiation. In order to study biocompatibility and cell behavior, we utilized standard in vitro L929-fibroblast cell culture system. Fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading were significantly correlated to the morphology and wettability of the laser irradiated PET surface

  8. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  10. Electron-beam-induced conduction in polyethylene terephthalate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckley, L M; Lewis, T J; Taylor, D M [University Coll. of North Wales, Bangor (UK). School of Electronic Engineering Science

    1976-06-21

    Measurements are reported of electron-beam-induced conduction in thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for electron energies up to 10 keV. The ratio of induced dielectric current to incident beam current (the gain) is orders of magnitude less than unity over practically the whole range of beam penetration. This result is quite unlike that normally found for inorganic dielectrics where the gain will exceed unity and reach a maximum at or near full penetration. In spite of the very different gain characteristics it is shown that the model recently proposed by Nunes de Oliviera and Gross (J. App. Phys.; 46:3132 (1975)), and by Aris et al (IEE Conf. Publ. No.129.; 267 (1975) and J. Phys. C. Solid State Phys.; 9:797 (1976)) and applied to mica and tantalum oxide respectively is also applicable to PET. Use is made of the known carrier mobility and lifetime data for this polymer and it is shown that very large space-charge distortions of the field can be produced by the beam which may well account for the frequent sample failure experienced during the experiments. The work supports suggestions by earlier workers that the current in unirradiated PET is electrode limited and predicts the maximum (space-charge limited) current likely to occur in this polymer.

  11. Spatial and seasonal variation in diversity and structure of microbial biofilms on marine plastics in Northern European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Loeder, Martin G J; Gerdts, Gunnar; Osborn, A Mark

    2014-11-01

    Plastic pollution is now recognised as a major threat to marine environments and marine biota. Recent research highlights that diverse microbial species are found to colonise plastic surfaces (the plastisphere) within marine waters. Here, we investigate how the structure and diversity of marine plastisphere microbial community vary with respect to season, location and plastic substrate type. We performed a 6-week exposure experiment with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles in the North Sea (UK) as well as sea surface sampling of plastic polymers in Northern European waters. Scanning electron microscopy revealed diverse plastisphere communities comprising prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing analysis revealed that plastisphere microbial communities on PET fragments varied both with season and location and comprised of bacteria belonging to Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and members of the eukaryotes Bacillariophyceae and Phaeophyceae. Polymers sampled from the sea surface mainly comprised polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene particles. Variation within plastisphere communities on different polymer types was observed, but communities were primarily dominated by Cyanobacteria. This research reveals that the composition of plastisphere microbial communities in marine waters varies with season, geographical location and plastic substrate type. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel process for separation of hazardous poly(vinyl chloride) from mixed plastic wastes by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Long

    2017-11-01

    A novel method, calcium hypochlorite (CHC) treatment, was proposed for separation of hazardous poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic from mixed plastic wastes (MPWs) by froth flotation. Flotation behavior of single plastic indicates that PVC can be separated from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene) (ABS), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by froth flotation combined with CHC treatment. Mechanism of CHC treatment was examined by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under the optimum conditions, separation of PVC from binary plastics with different particle sizes is achieved efficiently. The purity of PC, ABS, PMMA, PS and PET is greater than 96.8%, 98.5%, 98.8%, 97.4% and 96.3%, respectively. Separation of PVC from multi-plastics was further conducted by two-stage flotation. PVC can be separated efficiently from MPWs with residue content of 0.37%. Additionally, reusing CHC solution is practical. This work indicates that separation of hazardous PVC from MPWs is effective by froth flotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL ADHESION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/GLASS BEAD COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; YU Zhongzhen; ZHU Jin; LI Ge; ZHU Shanguang

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and glass bead was investigated by scanning electron microscope and parallel-plate rheometer. Effect of interfacial adhesion on the crystallization and mechanical properties of PET/glass bead composites was also studied by differential scanning calorimeter and mechanical testers.The results obtained indicate that the glass bead has a heterogeneous nucleation effect on the PET crystallization. Although better interfacial adhesion is advantageous to the increase of the tensile strength of the composite, yet it is unfavorable to the crystallization of PET. It should be pointed out that the crystallization rate of filled PET is always higher than that of pure PET, regardless of the state of interfacial adhesion.

  15. Texturation and superhydrophobicity of polyethylene terephthalate thanks to plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrade, Jeanne; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Debarnot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Anti-bioadhesive surfaces were designed from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by three steps plasma-treatment. First, the nano-pattern is created by oxygen plasma-treatment with controlled dimensions. Then, the plasma-treated polymeric surface was hydrophobized with a tetrafluorocarbon plasma, allowing to obtain a water contact angle of 145 ± 4°. However, the SEM pictures give evidence to show the degradation of the structuration caused by the CF 4 -plasma and consequently, the superhydrophobicity was not reached. Thus, a plasma-polypyrrole layer was deposited before the plasma-fluorination, which has a protective role against the degradation generated by fluorinated species, preserving the structuration and improving the fluorination rate. Therefore, the obtained surfaces are superhydrophobic with water contact angle of 157 ± 2° and a hysteresis of 65 ± 3°. The ability of these surfaces to reduce bioadhesion will be performed in further work.

  16. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  17. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  18. Comparison of Self-Expanding Polyethylene Terephthalate and Metallic Stents Implanted in Porcine Iliac Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Scheerder, Ivan de; Wang Kai; Verbeken, Eric; Piessens, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of the biocompatibility of self-expanding polyethylene terephthalate (PET) stents with self-expanding metallic stents (Wallstents). Methods: Diameter- and length-matched PET stents and Wallstents were symmetrically implanted in the paired iliac arteries of 13 crossbred domestic swine. Stent deployment was studied angiographically and with intravascular ultrasound immediately after stent implantation. The angiographic stented lumen diameter was measured using quantitative vessel analysis before, immediately after stenting, and at 6-week follow-up. Cross-section histopathology and area morphometry were performed. Results: Immediately poststenting, intravascular ultrasound revealed proximal dislocation of 5 of the 13 PET stents, whereas all metal stents were firmly embedded at the implantation site. At 6-week follow-up, three of the remaining PET stents were totally or subtotally occluded by organized thrombus, whereas all metal stents were patent. Compared with immediately poststenting, the angiographic lumen diameter within the five remaining PET stents was reduced by 30%, and that of the metallic stents was virtually unaltered (p < 0.02). This observation was confirmed by postmortem morphometry, wherein the PET-stented vessel segments a diameter stenosis of 40% was measured vs only 9% in the metallic stents (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: PET-stent deployment is difficult to control due to the lack of radiopacity of this stent. PET stents seem to be more thrombogenic and lead to significantly more neointimal proliferation than metallic stents

  19. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Concrete Containing Waste Plastic as Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader Ismail Al-Hadithi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The world's population growth and the increasing demand for new infrastructure facilities and buildings , present us with the vision of a higher resources consumption, specially in the form of more durable concrete such as High Performance Concrete (HPC . Moreover , the growth of the world pollution by plastic waste has been tremendous. The aim of this research is to investigate the change in mechanical properties of HPC with added waste plastics in concrete. For this purpose 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% in volume of natural fine aggregate in the HPC mixes were replaced by an equal volume of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET waste , got by shredded PET bottles. The mechanical properties (compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strength evaluated at the ages of (7 ,28, 56 and 91 days while the static modulus of elasticity tested at (28 and 91 days . The results indicated that HPC containing PET-aggregate presented lower compressive strength and static elasticity . The splitting strength displayed an arising trend at the initial stages, however, they have a tendency to decrease after a while. On the other hand, flexural strength results gave better modulus of rapture at all ages of curing , as compared with reference concrete specimens.

  20. Performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate with different mix design ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Mazenan, P. N.; Zahir, Z.; Shahidan, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is focuses to the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste and to determine the optimum mix ratio of bricks containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, it indicates that the replacement of RCA shows an increasing strength as the strength starts to increase from 25% to 50% for both mix design ratio. The strength for RCA 75% volume of replacement started to decrease as the volume of PET increase. However, the result of water absorption with 50% RCA and 1.0% PET show less permeable compared to control brick at both mix design ratio. Thus, one would expect the density of brick decrease and the water absorption to increase as the RCA and PET content is increased.

  1. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired with PET were assigned to PET group; the other eight rabbits repaired with PET along with injection of HE were assigned to HA-PET group. All rabbits were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical and histological examination. The HA-PET group revealed higher biomechanical property compared with the PET group. Histologically, more collagen tissues grew into the HA-PET group compared with PET group. In conclusion, application of sodium hyaluronate can improve the healing of Achilles tendon reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

  2. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  3. The study on grafting comonomer of n-butyl acrylate and styrene onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Xiang; Wang Mozhen [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ge Xuewu, E-mail: xwge@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was successfully grafted with n-butyl acrylate and styrene comonomer through gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization. The degree of grafting (DG) and the composition of grafted side chain were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR. It was found that St can inhibit the homopolymerization of BA effectively and increase the DG when the concentration of comonomer mixture is kept constant. The proportion of St to BA in grafted side chain has a positive dependence on the feed ratio of St, which ultimately approaches the feed ratio. The thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-graft-poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-styrene) (PET-g-P(BA-co-St)) films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The T{sub g} of PET decreases with the DG, indicating that the grafted P(BA-co-St) copolymer has good compatibility with PET backbone.

  4. Thermal behavior and pyrolytic degradation kinetics of polymeric mixtures from waste packaging plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuffi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior and pyrolytic kinetic analysis of main waste polymers (polypropylene (PP, polyethylene film (PE, poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, polystyrene (PS and three synthetic mixtures representing commingled postconsumer plastics wastes (CPCPWs output from material recovery facilities were studied. Thermogravimetry (TG pyrolysis experiments revealed that the thermal degradation of single polymers and the synthetic mixture enriched in PP occurred in one single step. The other two mixtures underwent a two-consecutive, partially overlapping degradation steps, whose peaks related to the first-order derivative of TG were deconvoluted into two distinct processes. Further TG experiments carried out on binary mixtures (PS/PP, PET/PP, PET/PEfilm and PP/PEfilm showed a thermal degradation reliance on composition, structure and temperatures of single polymer components. A kinetic analysis was made for each step using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS method, thus determining almost constant activation energy (Ea for pyrolysis of PS, PET, PP and PE film in the range 0.25<α<0.85, unlike for pyrolysis of CPCPWs, with particular reference to CPCPW1 and the second step of CPCPW2 and CPCPW3, both ascribable to degradation of PP and PE film. To account for the reliability of these values the integral isoconversional modified method developed by Vyazovkin was also applied.

  5. Will bottle-grade PET demand lure fiber-grade capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    As demand for bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) continues strong and new capacity hastens to meet it, some industry observers wonder if conversions to bottle-grade from fiber-grade capacity will become an industry trend. Taiwan's Nan Ya Plastics was recently said to be considering such a switch, but company sources say it has no such plans. Peter Driscoll, senior partner at PCI Fibres ampersand Raw Materials (Crawley, UK), says that while it is true that demand for the bottle-grade material remains unsatisfied, he doubts that many conversions will take place. You must remember, says Driscoll, that it is not always possible to switch, and that even where it is possible there are limitations

  6. Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate. Application to the synthesis of multiblock copolyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Malek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycling of the poly(ethylene terephthalate, (PET, has been successfully carried out by glycolysis in the presence of bis (2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET resulting in the formation of hydroxytelechelic oligomers. These oligomers were then treated with carboxytelechelic poly(ε-caprolactone oligomers of Mn = 2300 and Mn = 730 g•mol–1 molecular weight, in the absence or presence of the titanium tetrabutyloxide (Ti(OBu4 as a catalyst to get multiblock copolyesters. The chemical structure of the synthesized copolyesters was investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy. Moreover the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to explore their thermal properties. The ester-ester interchange reaction was observed between the two oligopolyesters, was studied and discussed in detail.

  7. Multi-functional carbon microspheres with double shell layers for flame retardant poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baoxia; Niu, Mei; Yang, Yongzhen; Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun; Liu, Xuguang

    2018-03-01

    Carbon microspheres (CMSs) as a core material had been coated by two capsule walls: an inorganic material of magnesium hydroxide (MH) as inner shell layer and an organic material of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as outer shell layer. MH coating CMSs (MCMSs) were fabricated by liquid phase deposition method, then grafted 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to obtain the Si-MCMSs. Microencapsulated Si-MCMSs (PMCMSs) was prepared by in situ polymerization method. Morphology structure, dispersion, flame retardant and other properties of PMCMSs have been investigated. A series of PET blends were prepared by melt compounding. The results showed that MH and PET as two layers were coated on CMSs surface with the optimal thickness of about 70 nm. The PMCMSs owned better dispersion in PET matrix. Compared with MCMSs/PET composites, the mechanical property of PMCMSs/PET composites had significantly increased because of the strong interface binding force between PMCMSs and PET matrix. Moreover, PMCMSs was proved to be an effective flame retardant. For PMCMSs/PET with 2 wt% PMCMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value increased from 21.0% (pristine PET) to 27.2%, and the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR) decreased from 513.22 kW/m2 to 352.14 kW/m2. The decreased smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) values demonstrated PMCMSs suppressed the smoke production. The increased Fire performance index (FPI) value illustrated PMCMSs significantly reduced the fire risk of PET. Overall, the two capsular walls endowed the PMCMSs/PET composites with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties.

  8. The Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ligamentation and Biomechanical Property of Tendon in Repair of Achilles Tendon Defect with Polyethylene Terephthalate Artificial Ligament: A Rabbit Tendon Repair Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shengkun; Ma, Kui; Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common ruptured tendon of human body. Reconstruction with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament is recommended in some serious cases. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) is beneficial for the healing of tendon injuries. We aimed to determine the effect of sodium hyaluronate in repair of Achilles tendon defect with PET artificial ligament in an animal tendon repair model. Sixteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups. Eight rabbits repaired w...

  9. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminova, Anna; Vandrovcová, Marta; Shelemin, Artem; Kylián, Ondřej; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Bačáková, Lucie; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  10. PALS investigations of free volumes thermal expansion of J-PET plastic scintillator synthesized in polystyrene matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The polystyrene doped with 2,5-diphenyloxazole as a primary fluor and 2-(4-styrylphenylbenzoxazole as a wavelength shifter prepared as a plastic scintillator was investigated using positronium probe in wide range of temperatures from 123 to 423 K. Three structural transitions at 260, 283, and 370 K were found in the material. In the o-Ps intensity dependence on temperature, the significant hysteresis is observed. Heated to 370 K, the material exhibits the o-Ps intensity variations in time.

  11. Low-voltage electroosmotic pumping using polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ceming; Wang Lin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue Jianming, E-mail: jmxue@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental investigations of electroosmotic (EO) pumping using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track-etched membrane at a low applied voltage. An EO pump based on PET track-etched membrane has been designed and fabricated. Pumping performance of the device is experimentally studied in terms of flow rate as a function of applied voltage and KCl aqueous concentration. The PET track-etched membrane EO pump can generate flow rates on the order of 10 {mu}l min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at several applied volts. The measured flow rate tends to decrease with increasing KCl aqueous concentration. In addition, we study the EO flow in cylindrical nanopore with use of a continuum model, composed of Nernst Planck equations, Poisson equation and Navier Stokes equations.

  12. Effects of high energy (MeV) ion beam irradiation on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nandlal; Sharma, Anita; Avasthi, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion beams in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were studied with respect to their structural and electrical properties by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ac electrical measurement in the frequency range: 50-100 kHz at different temperatures of 30-150 deg. C. It is found that ac resistivity of PET decreases as frequency increases. The temperature dependencies of dielectric loss tangent exhibit a peak (T g ) at 60 deg. C. The capacitance value of irradiated PET is almost temperature independent and ones increases with an increasing of lithium fluence. FTIR spectra show various bands related to C-H, C-O, C-O-C molecular bonds and groups which get modified or break down due to ion beam irradiation

  13. High gamma dose response of the electrical properties of polyethylene terephthalate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), irradiated with gamma rays, have been investigated. The PET films were irradiated with high gamma dose levels in the range from 100 to 2000 kGy. The changes in the DC (σ DC ) and the ac (σ ac ) conductivities, with the dose, have been performed. The effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric constant (ε') and loss (ε'') has been determined. Also, the dose dependence of the frequency exponent index (S), the resonance frequency (Fc) and the hopping frequency (ω P ) have been obtained. The obtained results show that increasing gamma dose leads to slight increase in σ DC , σ ac and ε', while no change was observed in ε'' value. Meanwhile, S, Fc and ω P are inversely proportional to the dose. Accordingly, the study suggests the possibility of using PET films in electronic components (capacitors, resistors, etc.), especially that operate at high gamma dose environments for the frequency independent applications

  14. The use of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline) composite for trypsin immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramori, S.S. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: samanthabio@hotmail.com; Fernandes, K.F. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents trypsin immobilisation on strips of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline), activated with glutaraldehyde (PET-PANIG) composite. The photomicrography of the material showed changes corresponding to the chemical modifications produced in the steps of synthesis. The immobilisation process was very efficient under optimal conditions (18.6%). The immobilised and free enzyme presented the same pH and temperature optimum. PET-PANIG-trypsin was able to hydrolyse casein, albumin, gelatine, and skimmed milk. Km{sub app} value for PET-PANIG-trypsin was very close to Km of the free enzyme for casein. Immobilised trypsin showed higher stability than the free enzyme, with 100% activity after 14 days of storage at 4 deg. C and 100% operational stability after 4 cycles of use.

  15. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme onto woven and knitted crimped polyethylene terephthalate grafts to minimize the adhesion of broad spectrum pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M.; Mahmoud, Gihan F.; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Strehlow, Boris; Sommer, Frank O.; Lohoff, Michael D.; Bakowsky, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Graft-associated infections entirely determine the short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate PET cardiovascular graft. We attempted to enzymatically inhibit the initial bacterial adhesion to PET grafts using lysozyme. Lysozyme was covalently immobilized onto woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts by the end-point method. Our figures of merit revealed lysozyme immobilization yield of 15.7 μg/cm"2, as determined by the Bradford assay. The activity of immobilized lysozyme on woven and knitted PET manifested 58.4% and 55.87% using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, respectively. Noteworthy, the adhesion of vein catheter-isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased by 6- to 8-folds and of Staphylococcus aureus by 11- to 12-folds, while the Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed only a decrease by 3- to 4-folds. The anti-adhesion efficiency was specific for bacterial cells and no significant effect was observed on adhesion and growth of L929 cells. In conclusion, immobilization of lysozyme onto PET grafts can inhibit the graft-associated infection. - Highlights: • Lysozyme was covalently immobilized on crimped polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • The activity of immobilized lysozyme was meaningfully reduced. • The maintained activity significantly declined the adhesion of Gram-positive stains. • The enzymatic anti-adhesion efficiency reported lesser extent against Gram-negative. • The anti-bacterial activity displayed no significant effect on cells compatibility.

  16. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme onto woven and knitted crimped polyethylene terephthalate grafts to minimize the adhesion of broad spectrum pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M., E-mail: almeslmanib@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Mahmoud, Gihan F., E-mail: mahmoudg@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, 11795 Cairo (Egypt); Leichtweiß, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Leichtweiss@phys.Chemie.uni-giessen.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Strehlow, Boris, E-mail: strehlo4@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Sommer, Frank O., E-mail: sommerf@med.uni-marburg.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Marburg University, Hans Meerwein Str 2, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Lohoff, Michael D., E-mail: lohoff@med.uni-marburg.de [Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Marburg University, Hans Meerwein Str 2, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Bakowsky, Udo, E-mail: ubakowsky@aol.com [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Marburg University, Ketzerbach 63, 35037 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Graft-associated infections entirely determine the short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate PET cardiovascular graft. We attempted to enzymatically inhibit the initial bacterial adhesion to PET grafts using lysozyme. Lysozyme was covalently immobilized onto woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts by the end-point method. Our figures of merit revealed lysozyme immobilization yield of 15.7 μg/cm{sup 2}, as determined by the Bradford assay. The activity of immobilized lysozyme on woven and knitted PET manifested 58.4% and 55.87% using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells, respectively. Noteworthy, the adhesion of vein catheter-isolated Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased by 6- to 8-folds and of Staphylococcus aureus by 11- to 12-folds, while the Gram-negative Escherichia coli showed only a decrease by 3- to 4-folds. The anti-adhesion efficiency was specific for bacterial cells and no significant effect was observed on adhesion and growth of L929 cells. In conclusion, immobilization of lysozyme onto PET grafts can inhibit the graft-associated infection. - Highlights: • Lysozyme was covalently immobilized on crimped polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • The activity of immobilized lysozyme was meaningfully reduced. • The maintained activity significantly declined the adhesion of Gram-positive stains. • The enzymatic anti-adhesion efficiency reported lesser extent against Gram-negative. • The anti-bacterial activity displayed no significant effect on cells compatibility.

  17. The influence of ultraviolet radiation on poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.

    2004-11-01

    The thermals properties of the polyethylene terephthalate samples exposed to UV radiation were studied. The results show a slight decrease ofΔ Cp and glass transition temperature values with the increase of the exposed times. The kinetics study of the cooled anisothermal crystallization, shows a weak increase of the values of the apparent energy with the irradiation times. Results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis of the irradiated specimens indicate a stable thermal behavior. The results show that the PET material is a good resistant for the UV radiation, and the UV radiation affects only the exposed surface of the material and not the whole volume. The decrease of Tg is due to the changes in the molecular weight which occur at the surface of the irradiations samples. The decease of Δ Cp values is probably because of some degradation of the aromatic part of PET at the surface, which gives a double increase of the specific heat capacity. In addition, the changes of the surface properties obstruct the crystallization process at the surface. (Author)

  18. A discrimination model in waste plastics sorting using NIR hyperspectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Bai, Jiarui; Xu, Jingna; Li, Xiayang; Zhang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Classification of plastics is important in the recycling industry. A plastic identification model in the near infrared spectroscopy wavelength range 1000-2500 nm is proposed for the characterization and sorting of waste plastics using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The model is built by the feature wavelengths of standard samples applying the principle component analysis (PCA), and the accuracy, property and cross-validation of the model were analyzed. The model just contains a simple equation, center of mass coordinates, and radial distance, with which it is easy to develop classification and sorting software. A hyperspectral imaging system (HIS) with the identification model verified its practical application by using the unknown plastics. Results showed that the identification accuracy of unknown samples is 100%. All results suggested that the discrimination model was potential to an on-line characterization and sorting platform of waste plastics based on HIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of co-combustion of polyethylene plastics and wood in a small residential boiler on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, PAHs and 1,3,5- triphenylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsej, Tomas; Horak, Jiri; Tomsejova, Sarka; Krpec, Kamil; Klanova, Jana; Dej, Milan; Hopan, Frantisek

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate a banned but widely spread practice of co-combustion of plastic with wood in a small residential boiler and to quantify its impact on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (135TPB), a new tracer of polyethylene plastic combustion. Supermarket polyethylene shopping bags (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) were burnt as supplementary fuels with beech logs (BL) in an old-type 20 kW over-fire boiler both at a nominal and reduced heat output. An impact of co-combustion was more pronounced at the nominal heat output: an increase in emissions of PM, total organic carbon (TOC), toxic equivalent (TEQ) of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) and a higher ratio of c-PAHs TEQ in particulate phase was observed during co-combustion of both plastics. 135TPB was found in emissions from both plastics both at a nominal and reduced output. In contrast to findings reported in the literature, 135TPB was a dominant compound detected by mass spectrometry on m/z 306 exclusively in emissions from co-combustion of PE. Surprisingly, six other even more abundant compounds of unknown identity were found on this m/z in emissions from co-combustion of PET. One of these unknown compounds was identified as p-quaterphenyl (pQ). Principal component analysis revealed strong correlation among 135TPB, pQ and five unknown compounds. pQ seems to be suitable tracers of polyethylene terephthalate plastic co-combustion, while 135TPB proved its suitability to be an all-purpose tracer of polyethylene plastics combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  1. Properties of tribology for Si implanted PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Xu; Liu Andong; Xie Mengxia; Zhang Aimin; Chen Jianmin

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified with Si ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). After implantation, the surface structure has been greatly changed. The experimental results of infrared absorption indicated that the particles are referred to rich carbon and SiC particles. The PET has been strengthened by these dispersed particles. The measurement results using nanometer hardness tester reveal that both surface hardness and modulus increase obviously. Therefore the surface wear resistance improved extremely. Finally the modification mechanism of Si implanted PET was discussed

  2. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yun; Yang Yun; Wu Feng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  3. Rod like attapulgite/poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with chemical bonding between the polymer chain and the filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET nanocomposites containing rod-like silicate attapulgite (AT were prepared via in situ polymerization. It is presented that PET chains identical to the matrix have been successfully grafted onto simple organically pre-modified AT nanorods (MAT surface during the in situ polymerization process. The covalent bonding at the interface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The content of grafted PET polymer on the surface of MAT was about 26 wt%. This high grafting density greatly improved the dispersion of fillers, interfacial adhesion as well as the significant confinement of the segmental motion of PET, as compared to the nanocomposites of PET/pristine AT (PET/AT. Owing to the unique interfacial structure in PET/MAT composites, their thermal and mechanical properties have been greatly improved. Compared with neat PET, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of PET/MAT were significantly improved by about 39.5 and 36.8%, respectively, by incorporating only 2 wt % MAT. Our work provides a novel route to fabricate advanced PET nanocomposites using rod-like attapulgite as fillers, which has great potential for industrial applications.

  4. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... and demand conditions or business cycle for the Domestic Like Product that have occurred in the United... of business proprietary information (BPI) under an administrative protective order (APO) and APO..., a U.S. or foreign trade or business association, or another interested party (including an...

  5. Powder Production From Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    10 5. References 1. Van Brederode, R. A.; Steinkamp, R. A. Crosslinkable Polymer Powder and Laminate . U.S. Patent 42256560A, 1980, http...16. Parquette, B.; Giri, A.; Daniel, J.; O’Brien,D. J.; Brennan,S.; Cho, K.; Tzeng, J. Cryomilling of Thermoplastic Powder for Prepreg Applications

  6. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior and char morphology analysis during co-pyrolysis of paulownia wood blended with different plastics waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Wang, Shuzhong; Meng, Haiyu; Wu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Positive synergistic effect on volatiles yield during co-pyrolysis of PAW and PP. • Higher char yields than predicated value during PAW/PVC and PAW/PET blends pyrolysis. • Co-pyrolysis of PAW and plastics reduced the mean activation energy of the blends. • The plastics affected the surface morphology of co-pyrolysis chars significantly. - Abstract: Thermal behavior of Paulownia wood (PAW), model plastics (polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate, abbreviated as PP, PVC and PET) and their mixtures during pyrolysis process were studied through thermogravimetric analyzer. Scanning electron microscopy technology (SEM) and fractal theory were applied to evaluate the surface morphology of pyrolysis chars. This study found that PP showed synergistic effect on PAW pyrolysis with more volatiles release than predicated value, and the maximum volatiles yield exhibited with 25% PAW blending ratio. However, higher char yields were observed compared with the predicted values during co-pyrolysis process of PAW blends with PVC or PET, and the maximum char yields were obtained under the PAW blending ratio of 75% and 25% respectively. An evident decline in mean activation energy was found during co-pyrolysis of the PAW blending with plastics. The minimum values of mean activation energy for the PAW/PP, PAW/PVC and PAW/PET were gained when the PAW blending ratio were 75%, 50% and 75% respectively. Quantitative information about surface topography of pyrolysis chars were obtained by fractal analysis of the SEM microphotograph. The fractal dimension of residual chars from PAW/PP blends increased from 1.75 to 1.84 as increasing the ratio of PP from 25% to 75%, indicating that PP addition promoted the nonuniformity of the co-pyrolysis chars. The surface morphology of residual chars from PAW/PET and PAW/PVC blends showed a contrary tendency, and the minimum values of fractal dimension were respectively 1.62 and 1.61 under 25% PAW blending

  7. In-situ Polymerization-modification Process and Foaming of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲华; 奚桢浩; 刘涛; 赵玲

    2013-01-01

    Most of traditional linear poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resins of relatively low molecular mass and narrow molecular mass distribution have low melt strength at foaming temperatures, which are not enough to support and keep cells. An in-situ polymerization-modification process with esterification and polycondensation stages was performed in a 2 L batch stirred reactor using pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) or pentaerythritol (PENTA) as modifying monomers to obtain PETs with high melt strength. The influence of amounts of modifying monomers on the properties of modified PET was investigated. It was found that the selected modifying monomers could effectively introduce branched structures into the modified PETs and improve their melt strength. With in-creasing the amount of the modifying monomer, the melt strength of the modified PET increased. But when the amount of PENTA reached 0.35%or PMDA reached 0.9%, crosslinking phenomenon was observed in the modified PET. Supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) was employed as physical foaming agent to evaluate the foaming ability of modified PETs. The modified PETs had good foaming properties at 14 MPa of CO2 pressure with foaming tem-perature ranging from 265 °C to 280 °C. SEM micrographs demonstrated that both modified PET foams had ho-mogeneous cellular structures, with cell diameter ranging from 35 μm to 49 μm for PENTA modified PETs and 38μm to 57μm for PMDA modified ones. Correspondingly, the cell density had a range of 3.5×107 cells·cm-3 to 7×106 cells·cm-3 for the former and 2.8×107 cells·cm-3 to 5.8×106 cells·cm-3 for the latter.

  8. Poly-crystallinity of indium-tin-oxide films improved by using simultaneous ion beam and heat treatment of the plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Tae Hyung; Choi, Suk Won; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-01-01

    The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indium tinoxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 .deg. C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.

  9. Poly-crystallinity of indium-tin-oxide films improved by using simultaneous ion beam and heat treatment of the plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Taehyung; Choi, Suk-Won; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-08-01

    The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indiumtin-oxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 °C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.

  10. Study of electron beam irradiation effects on morphologic properties of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, Edvaldo L.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e; Wiebeck, Helio

    2009-01-01

    Amidst the pollutants, plastics and especially the 'PET bottles' packaging type, which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) have been causing big damage to the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by mechanical recycling 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective of finding a solution for this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation dose effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The morphologic properties of the non-irradiated and irradiated polymeric blend were evaluated by the Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the results appeared to be a not mixing and compatible blend. The use of the ionizing radiation improved the homogeneity of the blend. These modifications have been randomized and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation. (author)

  11. Highly conductive and low cost Ni-PET flexible substrate for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haijun; Zhang, Mingyang; Chang, Ya-Huei; Zhai, Peng; Hau, Nga Yu; Huang, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chang; Soh, Ai Kah; Feng, Shien-Ping

    2014-04-23

    The highly conductive and flexible nickel-polyethylene terephthalate (Ni-PET) substrate was prepared by a facile way including electrodeposition and hot-press transferring. The effectiveness was demonstrated in the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The Ni film electrodeposition mechanism, microstructure, and DSSC performance for the Ni-PET flexible substrate were investigated. The uniform and continuous Ni film was first fabricated by electroplating metallic Ni on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and then intactly transferred onto PET via hot-pressing using Surlyn as the joint adhesive. The obtained flexible Ni-PET substrate shows low sheet resistance of 0.18Ω/□ and good chemical stability for the I(-)/I(3-) electrolyte. A high light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 7.89% was demonstrated in DSSCs system based on this flexible electrode substrate due to its high conductivity, which presents an improvement of 10.4% as compared with the general ITO-PEN flexible substrate. This method paves a facile and cost-effective way to manufacture various metals on a plastic nonconducive substrate beneficial for the devices toward flexible and rollable.

  12. Study of electron beam irradiation effects on morphologic properties of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Edvaldo L.; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e, E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wiebeck, Helio, E-mail: hwiebeck@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2009-07-01

    Amidst the pollutants, plastics and especially the 'PET bottles' packaging type, which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) have been causing big damage to the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by mechanical recycling 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective of finding a solution for this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation dose effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The morphologic properties of the non-irradiated and irradiated polymeric blend were evaluated by the Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the results appeared to be a not mixing and compatible blend. The use of the ionizing radiation improved the homogeneity of the blend. These modifications have been randomized and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation. (author)

  13. Determination of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate containers designated for water conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžepović Azra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET has in the last several years become the main packaging material for many food products, particularly carbonated beverages and bottled water, as well as for products of chemical industry (packaging of various hygiene maintenance agents, pesticides, solvents, etc.. The strength and permeability properties of PET are very good for packaging of beverages, its resistance to chemicals is high and it has a high degree of transparency. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde are formed during the thermoforming of PET containers. After cooling, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde remain trapped in the walls of a PET bottle and may migrate into the water after filling and storage. Since there are no migration tests in Serbia prescribed for the determination of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, the purpose of the paper is to test the quantitative contents of carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in PET containers of different volumes, made by various manufacturers of bottled mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water, and exposed to different temperatures. In this study, the migration of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from PET bottles into mineral carbonated and noncarbonated water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Taking into consideration that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have no UV active or fluorescent group, the chromatography shall be preceded by derivatization in a closed system (due to a low boiling point of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which shall transform carbonyl compounds into UV active compounds.

  14. Three-dimensional culture of human mesenchymal stem cells in a polyethylene terephthalate matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanfen; Li Ding; Shang Chunhua; Wang Jufang; Wang Xiaoning; Yang Shangtian

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was used as the scaffold material to support the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The cells were cultured either statically in multi-wells or in a spinner flask agitated at 80 rpm for up to 20 days. To optimize the cell expansion condition, effects of the initial cell density and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined. During culture, cell growth and metabolism were tested. After 20 days, cells were harvested and surface markers were identified and quantified with flow cytometry. The results showed that hMSCs seeded at the lowest density gave the highest expansion fold. hMSCs grown in porous three-dimensional (3D) matrices displayed significantly different characteristics in terms of their proliferation and metabolism. PET matrices with 3D space could sustain cell proliferation for a long time. In addition, a low concentration (5 ng mL -1 ) of bFGF significantly enhanced the expansion of hMSCs in PET. Cell attachment and distribution in PET matrices were studied with confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which also confirmed cell proliferation. Furthermore, most of the cells in PET matrices were CD29, CD44 and CD105 positive, and CD34, CD45 and CD14 negative, confirming that hMSCs cultured in 3D PET matrices can be expanded and maintained in their undifferentiated state for at least 20 days without subculturing.

  15. Diffusion of CO2 Molecules in Polyethylene Terephthalate/Polylactide Blends Estimated by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Liqiong; Fu, Yizheng; Liang, Ziaoyan; Mei, Linyu; Liu, Yaqing

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to study the diffusion behavior of small gas molecules (CO 2 ) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/polylactide (PLA) blends. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) determined from the cohesive energy densities are smaller than the critical value of Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ critical ), and that indicates the good compatibility of PET/PLA blends. The diffusion coefficients of CO 2 are determined via MD simulations at 298 K. That the order of diffusion coefficients is correlated with the availably fractional free volume (FFV) of CO 2 in the PET/PLA blends means that the FFV plays a vital role in the diffusion behavior of CO 2 molecules in PET/PLA blends. The slopes of the log (MSD) as a function of log (t) are close to unity over the entire composition range of PET/PLA blends, which confirms the feasibility of MD approach reaches the normal diffusion regime of CO 2 in PET/PLA blends

  16. Improved damp heat stability of Ga-Doped ZnO thin film by pretreatment of the polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. B.; Seo, S. G.; Lim, Y. S.; Choi, H.-S.; Seo, W.-S.; Park, H.-H.

    2013-09-01

    A study on the damp heat stability of transparent conducting ZnO thin film grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate (PET) is reported. By thermal annealing of the PET substrate at 100°C with Ar flow in a vacuum chamber prior to the sputtering growth of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin film, significantly enhanced damp heat stability was achieved at 60°C with a 90% relative humidity. Electrical and structural characterizations of the GZO thin films were carried out and the effects of the pretreatment on the improved damp heat stability are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. In dosimetry, solid phantoms are often used for convenience. These materials should ideally be equivalent to water. In this study, the authors evaluated dosimetric water equivalence of four common plastics, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyoxymethylene (POM). Methods: Using the Bethe formula for energy loss, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, the authors calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. The authors experimentally measured variation of the Bragg peak of carbon-ion beams by insertion of HDPE, PMMA, and POM, which were compared with analytical model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculation resulted in slightly reduced multiple scattering and severely increased nuclear interactions for HDPE, compared to water and the other plastics. The increase in attenuation of carbon ions for 20-cm range shift was experimentally measured to be 8.9% for HDPE, 2.5% for PMMA, and 0.0% for POM while PET was theoretically estimated to be in between PMMA and POM. The agreement between the measurements and the calculations was about 1% or better. Conclusions: For carbon-ion beams, POM was dosimetrically indistinguishable from water and the best of the plastics examined in this study. The poorest was HDPE, which would reduce the Bragg peak by 0.45% per cm range shift, although with marginal superiority for reduced multiple scattering. Between the two clear plastics, PET would be superior to PMMA in dosimetric water equivalence.

  18. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl

  19. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminova, Anna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Shelemin, Artem [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Effect of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma on PET foils was investigated. • DBD treatment causes increase in surface density of O-containing functional groups. • DBD plasma causes increase of wettability, roughness and complex modulus of PET. • DBD treatment positively influences cells growth on PET. • Enhancement of cell growth on treated PET depends on the cell type. - Abstract: In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation (60Co) on the main physical and chemical properties of health care packaging and their compounds paper and multilayer plastic film, used for health products sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Karina Meschini Batista Geribello

    2013-01-01

    Gamma radiation is one of the technologies applied for the sterilization of packaging systems containing products for health. During sterilization process it is critical that the properties of packages are maintained. In this study two samples of commercial pouch packaging comprised of surgical grade paper on one side and the other side multilayer plastic film were irradiated with gamma rays. The following doses were applied 25 kGy (1,57 kGy/h) and 50 kGy (1,48 kGy/h). One packaging sample was paper formed by softwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyethylene (PE). The second type of paper sample was made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene) (PET)/polypropylene (PP). The effects of radiation on the physical and chemical properties of papers and multilayer plastic films, as well as the properties of the package were studied. The paper was the more radiation sensitive among the studied materials and radiation effects were more pronounced at brightness, pH, tearing resistance, bursting strength and tensile strength. Nonetheless, worst comparatively effects were noted on the sample made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers. The porosity of paper was enhanced by 50 kGy. In the case of plastic films, radiation effects on tensile strength was the most pronounced property for both samples. In the case of the packaging the sealing resistance decreased with radiation. The effects observed for the treatment at 50 kGy were more pronounced when compared to 25 kGy. This last is the dose which is usually applied to sterilize health products. A dosimetry study was performed during irradiation at 25 kGy, 40 kGy and 50 kGy and its importance may be reported by the average dose variation 20 %. (author)

  1. Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Jung, Ho Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Polymer films are widely used as a substrate for displays and for solar cells since they are cheap, transparent and flexible, and their material properties are easy to design. Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) is especially useful for various applications requiring transparency, flexibility and good thermal and chemical resistance. In this study, nano-sized metal patterns were fabricated on flexible PET film by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) resin was used as a planarization and sacrificial layer for the lift-off process, as it does not damage the PET films and can easily be etched off by using oxygen plasma. NIL was used to fabricate the nano-sized patterns on the non-planar or flexible substrate. Finally, a nano-sized metal pattern was successfully formed by depositing the metal layer over the imprinted resist patterns and applying the lift-off process, which is economic and environmentally friendly, to the PET films.

  2. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  3. Recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbo, Helena; Poliakova, Valeria; Mylläri, Ville; Sahimaa, Olli; Anderson, Reetta

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is urged by the need for closing material loops to maintain our natural resources when striving towards circular economy, but also by the concern raced by observations of plastic scrap in oceans and lakes. Packaging industry is the sector using the largest share of plastics, hence packaging dominates in the plastic waste flow. The aim of this paper was to sum up the recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland. This potential was evaluated based on the quantity, composition and mechanical quality of the plastic packaging waste generated by consumers and collected as a source-separated fraction, within the mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) or within energy waste. Based on the assessment 86,000-117,000 tons (18 kg/person/a) of post-consumer plastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. The majority, 84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. Due to the launching of new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumer plastic packaging in 2016, almost 40% of the post-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. However, a 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plastic packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. The share of monotype plastics in the overall MSW plastics fraction was 80%, hence by volume the recycling potential of MSW plastics is high. Polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were the most common plastic types present in mixed MSW, followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). If all the Finnish plastic packaging waste collected through the three collection types would be available for recycling, then 19,000-25,000 tons of recycled PP and 6000-8000 tons of recycled HDPE would be available on the local market. However, this assessment includes uncertainties due to performing the

  4. Manufacturing of multilayer graphene oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with tunable crystallinity, chain orientations and thermal transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Monfared Zanjani, Jamal [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Saner Okan, Burcu, E-mail: bsanerokan@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Nanografen Nanotechnological Products Limited Company, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze 41430, Kocaeli (Turkey); Menceloglu, Yusuf [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Nanografen Nanotechnological Products Limited Company, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze 41430, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Thermally exfoliated graphene oxide (TEGO) reinforced polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposites with controlled crystallinity, chain conformations and thermo-mechanical properties were produced with very low TEGO weight fractions by a twin-screw compounding extruder. Tensile modulus was found to increase by 52% by the addition of 1 wt% TEGO. This significant increase in mechanical properties of PET nanocomposites was explained by well intercalation of PET chains through multi-layer graphene sheets and complete coverage of graphene surface by electrostatic interactions. An increase in the ratio of gauche and trans conformations in PET chains indicated that PET nanocomposites became more crystalline by increasing TEGO amount. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the favorable interaction between TEGO sheets and PET matrix facilitating the dispersion and flattening of graphene sheets into polymeric matrix during elongation. The integration of 1 wt% TEGO sheets into PET matrix enhanced heat distortion temperature from 71 °C for neat specimen upto 91.6 °C at the constant stress of 0.45 MPa, and increased Vicat softening point from 76 °C upto 95 °C. Therefore, the failures of PET considerably reduced by improving short-term heat resistance and its softening properties between glass transition temperature and melting temperature by the incorporation of TEGO sheets. - Highlights: • 52% modulus improvement by the addition of 1 wt% graphene in PET. • Well-intercalation of PET chains through graphene sheets during compounding process. • Homogeneous graphene dispersion by favorable interactions between graphene and PET. • Enhancement in Heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point of PET composite. • Considerable reduction in failures of PET by improving short-term heat resistance.

  5. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemljic, Lidija Fras, E-mail: lidija.fras@uni-mb.si [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Tkavc, Tina [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sauperl, Olivera [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  6. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258 ± 291) > Gorsozan (122 ± 23) > Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26 ± 6) > Suru (14 ± 4) > Khor-e-Azini (2 ± 1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a ‘snapshot’ of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. - Highlights: • MP pollution determined in the sediments along the Strait of Hormuz. • Sites included industrial and urban areas, and a marine protected area. • MPs found at all sites. Abundance related to proximity of anthropogenic activities. • Fibers were the dominant MP type (83%). PE, nylon and PET were identified by FT-IR. • Sources may include discarded fishing gear and outflows containing clothing fibers.

  7. Textural development and hydrogen adsorption of carbon materials from PET waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Palacios, J.M.; Pis, J.J

    2004-10-06

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) has become one of the major post-consumer plastic wastes. PET products present a problem of considerable concern due to the huge amount of solid waste produced. The disposal of this waste, together with its low bio- and photo-degradability represents a serious challenge for industrial countries all over the world. Pyrolysis could provide an alternative and economically viable route for processing PET waste due to the potential uses of different by-products: energy from the pyrolysis gases (58% yield in this work), recovery of terephthalic acid and other subproducts (20%), and a solid residue (22%), which has shown a high textural development after activation. The pyrolysis of PET waste was performed in a quartz reactor (i.d. 35 mm) under an inert atmosphere. Further activation was carried out at a temperature of 925 deg. C, with a flow rate of 10 ml min{sup -1} of CO{sub 2}. A series of carbon materials with different burn-off degrees was obtained. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. Changes in the morphological and structural properties of chars were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The carbons obtained were isotropic and highly microporous materials with apparent BET surface areas of up to 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The suitability of the samples for hydrogen storage was studied by performing H{sub 2} adsorption measurements in the 0-1 bar pressure range. Adsorption-desorption experiments showed that reversible physisorption takes place in all the samples. The hydrogen adsorption capacities of the activated PET waste compare favourably well with those attained with high-value carbon materials.

  8. Textural development and hydrogen adsorption of carbon materials from PET waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Palacios, J.M.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) has become one of the major post-consumer plastic wastes. PET products present a problem of considerable concern due to the huge amount of solid waste produced. The disposal of this waste, together with its low bio- and photo-degradability represents a serious challenge for industrial countries all over the world. Pyrolysis could provide an alternative and economically viable route for processing PET waste due to the potential uses of different by-products: energy from the pyrolysis gases (58% yield in this work), recovery of terephthalic acid and other subproducts (20%), and a solid residue (22%), which has shown a high textural development after activation. The pyrolysis of PET waste was performed in a quartz reactor (i.d. 35 mm) under an inert atmosphere. Further activation was carried out at a temperature of 925 deg. C, with a flow rate of 10 ml min -1 of CO 2 . A series of carbon materials with different burn-off degrees was obtained. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. Changes in the morphological and structural properties of chars were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The carbons obtained were isotropic and highly microporous materials with apparent BET surface areas of up to 2500 m 2 g -1 . The suitability of the samples for hydrogen storage was studied by performing H 2 adsorption measurements in the 0-1 bar pressure range. Adsorption-desorption experiments showed that reversible physisorption takes place in all the samples. The hydrogen adsorption capacities of the activated PET waste compare favourably well with those attained with high-value carbon materials

  9. Stiffness modulus of Polyethylene Terephthalate modified asphalt mixture: A statistical analysis of the laboratory testing results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghaee Moghaddam, Taher; Soltani, Mehrtash; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of PET modification on stiffness property of asphalt mixture was examined. • Different temperatures and loading amounts were designated. • Statistical analysis was used to find interactions between selected variables. • A good agreement between experimental results and predicted values was obtained. • Optimal amount of PET was calculated to achieve the highest mixture performance. - Abstract: Stiffness of asphalt mixture is a fundamental design parameter of flexible pavement. According to literature, stiffness value is very susceptible to environmental and loading conditions. In this paper, effects of applied stress and temperature on the stiffness modulus of unmodified and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) modified asphalt mixtures were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A quadratic model was successfully fitted to the experimental data. Based on the results achieved in this study, the temperature variation had the highest impact on the mixture’s stiffness. Besides, PET content and amount of stress showed to have almost the same effect on the stiffness of mixtures. The optimal amount of PET was found to be 0.41% by weight of aggregate particles to reach the highest stiffness value

  10. Preparation of High Modulus Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate: Influence of Molecular Weight, Extrusion, and Drawing Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Min Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET which is one of the most commercially important polymers, has for many years been an interesting candidate for the production of high performance fibres and tapes. In current study, we focus on investigating the effects of the various processing variables on the mechanical properties of PET produced by a distinctive process of melt spinning and uniaxial two-stage solid-state drawing (SSD. These processing variables include screw rotation speed during extrusion, fibre take-up speed, molecular weight, draw-ratio, and drawing temperature. As-spun PET production using a single-screw extrusion process was first optimized to induce an optimal polymer microstructure for subsequent drawing processes. It was found that less crystallization which occurred during this process would lead to better drawability, higher draw-ratio, and mechanical properties in the subsequent SSD process. Then the effect of drawing temperature (DT in uniaxial two-stage SSD process was studied to understand how DT (PET. The designed process in current work is simulated to an industrial production process for PET fibres; therefore, results and analysis in this paper have significant importance for industrial production.

  11. Ultrafiltration membranes from waste polyethylene terephthalate and additives: synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP is reported. PET is currently used in many applications, including the manufacture of bottles and tableware. Monomer extraction from waste PET is expensive, and this process has not yet been successfully demonstrated on a viable scale. Hence, any method to recycle or regenerate PET once it has been used is of significant importance from scientific and environmental research viewpoints. Such a process would be a green alternative due to reduced raw monomer consumption and the additional benefit of reduced manufacturing costs. The membranes described here were prepared by a phase-inversion process, which involved casting a solution containing PET, m-cresol as solvent, and polyethylene glycol (PEG of different molecular weights as additives. The membranes were characterized in terms of pure water permeability (PWP, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, and flux and membrane morphology. The results show that the addition of PEG with high molecular weights leads to membranes with higher PWP. The presence of additives affects surface roughness and membrane morphology.

  12. Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals contaminated kaolin by a CNT-covered polyethylene terephthalate yarn cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lizhu; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xingjian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Nana; Yu, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, carbon nanotube (CNT) covered polyethylene terephthalate yarns (PET-CNT) electrode has been investigated as a novel cathode material for the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of multi-metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) contaminated kaolin. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that CNT was successfully covered on the surface of PET. The results obtained from EK process showed that PET-CNT as a cathode obviously elevated electric current and electro-osmotic flow (EOF), significantly decreased kaolin pH, and enhanced heavy metals removal efficiencies. The removal efficiencies of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in PET-CNT treatment were 89.7%, 63.6%, 90.7%, 19.2%, and 88.7%, respectively. In comparison with the Pt/Ti and graphite treatments, the removal efficiencies of Cd, Ni, and Zn were improved at least about 30%, Cu and Pb were improved at least 16.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the PET-CNT was a good alternative cathode material for enhancing efficiency of EK remediation.

  13. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  14. Guiding of slow Ne7+ ions through nanocapillaries in insulating polyethylene terephthalate: Incident current dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Hellhammer, R.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Kanai, Y.; Kambara, T.; Ikeda, T.; Hoshino, M.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The transmission of highly charged ions through nanocapillaries in insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymers was investigated. In experiments at laboratories in RIKEN (Japan) and HMI (Germany) different detection methods were applied to study the ion current dependence in a wide range covering two orders of magnitude. At HMI an electrostatic ion spectrometer was used and at RIKEN a two-dimensional position sensitive detector was implemented. New PET samples with parallel capillaries and low density were manufactured. For tilted capillaries, the ions are guided along the capillary axis, since the majority of ions are deflected in a charge patch created in the capillary entrance. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of capillary guiding. The fraction of transmitted ions was found to be nearly independent on the incident ion current indicating a sudden increase in the discharge current depleting the entrance charge patch. The experimental results were well-reproduced by model calculations based on a nonlinear (exponential) expression for the discharge current

  15. The effect of hot multistage drawing on molecular structure and optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminoddin Haji

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mechanical and structural parameters related to the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers drawn at hot multistage have been investigated. The changes in optical parameters upon changing draw ratio are used to obtain the mechanical orientation factors and , various orientation functions f2(θ, f4(θ and f6(θ, and amorphous and crystalline orientation functions (f a and f c. Also, the numbers of random links between the network junction points (N1, the average optical orientation (Fav, and the distribution function of segment ω(cos θ were calculated. In addition, an empirical formula was suggested to correlate changes in the birefringence with the draw ratio and its constants were determined. The study demonstrated change on the molecular orientation functions and structural parameters upon hot multistage drawing. Significant variations in the characteristic properties of the drawn PET fibers were due to reorientation of the molecules caused by applied heat and external tension.

  16. Combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the infrared absorption spectra of polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, S.M.; ElBially, A.; Elshourbaguie, S.

    1991-01-01

    The combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the intensities of infrared absorption bands of polyethylene terephthalate, particularly the bands sensitive to conformational changes, were studied. The results revealed that solvent treatment of PET results in significant changes in the intensities of its infrared absorption bands and the exposure of PET to gamma radiation in the presence of solvents helps in the appearance of the two bands at 1550 and 1630 cm . Also, the combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the intensities of the absorption bands is greater than the effect of each agent alone. The extent of the induced changes depends on the nature of solvent and the applied dosage. Further more, for any given solvent or dosage, the rate of change of the intensities of the trans band is not equal to that of the gauche bands.3 fig

  17. Adsorption of anionic surfactant on porous and nonporous polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yu.; Apel, P.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We study the adsorption of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate (SDDD) on three types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates from aqueous solutions of SDDD of different concentrations. Neutral electrolyte (KCl) was added to the solutions to vary the ionic strength. Three types of substrates were used: 1) original PET film; 2) etched nonporous film, obtained from pristine film by chemical etching and bearing negative charge on the surface; 3) etched porous membranes, fabricated from pristine film by ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching. The membranes have negative charge on the flat surface and on the inner pore walls. The comparison shows that the negative charge on the flat surface has weak effect on adsorption of the anionic surfactant, and the SDDD adsorption on the inner walls of pores is much weaker than on flat surface, even if the pore radius is significantly larger than the Debye length. This «exclusion» effect strongly depends on ionic strength of solution. [ru

  18. A facile route for irreversible bonding of plastic-PDMS hybrid microdevices at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Linzhi; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2010-05-21

    Plastic materials do not generally form irreversible bonds with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) regardless of oxygen plasma treatment and a subsequent thermal process. In this paper, we perform plastic-PDMS bonding at room temperature, mediated by the formation of a chemically robust amine-epoxy bond at the interfaces. Various plastic materials, such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polyimide (PI), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were adopted as choices for plastic materials. Irrespective of the plastic materials used, the surfaces were successfully modified with amine and epoxy functionalities, confirmed by the surface characterizations such as water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemically robust and irreversible bonding was successfully achieved within 1 h at room temperature. The bonding strengths of PDMS with PMMA and PC sheets were measured to be 180 and 178 kPa, respectively, and their assemblies containing microchannel structures endured up to 74 and 84 psi (510 and 579 kPa) of introduced compressed air, respectively, without destroying the microdevices, representing a robust and highly stable interfacial bonding. In addition to microchannel-molded PDMS bonded with flat plastic substrates, microchannel-embossed plastics were also bonded with a flat PDMS sheet, and both types of bonded assemblies displayed sufficiently robust bonding, tolerating an intense influx of liquid whose per-minute injection volume was nearly 1000 to 2000 times higher than the total internal volume of the microchannel used. In addition to observing the bonding performance, we also investigated the potential of surface amine and epoxy functionalities as durable chemical adhesives by observing their storage-time-dependent bonding performances.

  19. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassouf, Amine, E-mail: amine.kassouf@agroparistech.fr [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France); Maalouly, Jacqueline, E-mail: j_maalouly@hotmail.com [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); Rutledge, Douglas N., E-mail: douglas.rutledge@agroparistech.fr [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France); Chebib, Hanna, E-mail: hchebib@hotmail.com [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); Ducruet, Violette, E-mail: violette.ducruet@agroparistech.fr [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  20. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N.; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  1. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin; Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  2. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Ding, Wanyu, E-mail: dwysd_2000@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116028 (China); Ju, Dongying [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan); Chai, Weiping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

    2013-10-31

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  3. The influence of the structures and compounds of DLC coatings on the barrier properties of PET bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Zhen-Duo, Wang; Shou-Ye, Zhang; Li-Zhen, Yang; Qiang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the oxygen transmission rate through a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle (an organic plastic) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the inner surface of the PET bottle were deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology with C 2 H 2 as the source of carbon and Ar as the diluted gas. As the barrier layer to humidity and gas permeation, this paper analyses the DLC film structure, composition, morphology and barrier properties by Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and oxygen transmission rate in detail. From the spectrum, it is found that the DLC film mainly consists of sp 3 bonds. The barrier property of the films is significantly relevant to the sp 3 bond concentration in the coating, the film thickness and morphology. Additionally, it is found that DLC film deposited in an inductively coupled plasma enhanced capacitively coupled plasma source shows a compact, homogeneous and crack-free surface, which is beneficial for a good gas barrier property in PET bottles. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) on the main physical and chemical properties of health care packaging and their compounds paper and multilayer plastic film, used for health products sterilization; Efeitos da radiacao gama (Cobalto-60) nas principais propriedades fisicas e quimicas da embalagens compostas por papel grau cirurgico e filme plastico laminado, destinadas a esterilizacao de produtos para saude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Karina Meschini Batista Geribello

    2013-07-01

    Gamma radiation is one of the technologies applied for the sterilization of packaging systems containing products for health. During sterilization process it is critical that the properties of packages are maintained. In this study two samples of commercial pouch packaging comprised of surgical grade paper on one side and the other side multilayer plastic film were irradiated with gamma rays. The following doses were applied 25 kGy (1,57 kGy/h) and 50 kGy (1,48 kGy/h). One packaging sample was paper formed by softwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyethylene (PE). The second type of paper sample was made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers and multilayer plastic film based on polyethylene terephthalate (ethylene) (PET)/polypropylene (PP). The effects of radiation on the physical and chemical properties of papers and multilayer plastic films, as well as the properties of the package were studied. The paper was the more radiation sensitive among the studied materials and radiation effects were more pronounced at brightness, pH, tearing resistance, bursting strength and tensile strength. Nonetheless, worst comparatively effects were noted on the sample made by a mixture of softwood and hardwood fibers. The porosity of paper was enhanced by 50 kGy. In the case of plastic films, radiation effects on tensile strength was the most pronounced property for both samples. In the case of the packaging the sealing resistance decreased with radiation. The effects observed for the treatment at 50 kGy were more pronounced when compared to 25 kGy. This last is the dose which is usually applied to sterilize health products. A dosimetry study was performed during irradiation at 25 kGy, 40 kGy and 50 kGy and its importance may be reported by the average dose variation 20 %. (author)

  5. Development of a new approach based on midwave infrared spectroscopy for post-consumer black plastic waste sorting in the recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Puckrin, Eldon; Adamowski, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Waste sorting is key to the process of waste recycling. Exact identification of plastic resin and wood products using Near Infrared (NIR, 1-1.7µm) sensing is currently in use. Yet, dark targets characterized by low reflectance, such as black plastics, are hard to identify by this method. Following the recent success of Midwave Infrared (MWIR, 3-12µm) measurements to identify coloured plastic polymers, the aim of this study was to assess whether this technique is applicable to sorting black plastic polymers and wood products. We performed infrared reflectance contact measurements of 234 plastic samples and 29 samples of wood and paper products. Plastic samples included black, coloured and transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene (PE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Polypropylene (PP), Polylactic acid (PLA) and Polystyrene (PS). The spectral signatures of the black and coloured plastic samples were compared with clear plastic samples and signatures documented in the literature to identify the polymer spectral features in the presence of coloured material. This information was used to determine the spectral bands that best suit the sorting of black plastic polymers. The main NIR-MWIR absorption features of wood, cardboard and paper were identified as well according to the spectral measurements. Good agreement was found between our measurements and the absorption features documented in the literature. The new approach using MWIR spectral features appears to be useful for black plastics as it overcomes some of the limitations in the NIR region to identify them. The main limitation of this technique for industrial applications is the trade-off between the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor operating in standoff mode and the speed at which waste is moved under the sensor. This limitation can be resolved by reducing the system's spectral resolution to 16cm -1 , which allows for faster spectra acquisition while maintaining a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio

  6. Silk fibroin immobilization on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: Comparison of two surface modification methods and their effect on mesenchymal stem cells culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Meini; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Huang, Lei; Shao, Zhengzhong, E-mail: zzshao@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has played a curial role for the surface modification of conventional materials to improve the biocompatibility, and SF modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials have potential applications on tissue engineering such as artificial ligament, artificial vessel, artificial heart valve sewing cuffs dacron and surgical mesh engineering. In this work, SF was immobilized onto PET film via two different methods: 1) plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating (PET-SF) and 2) plasma-induce acrylic acid graft polymerization and subsequent covalent immobilization of SF on PET film (PET-PAA-SF). It could be found that plasma treatment provided higher surface roughness which was suitable for further SF dip coating, while grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) promised the covalent bonding between SF and PAA. ATR-FTIR adsorption band at 3284 cm{sup −1}, 1623 cm{sup −1} and 1520 cm{sup −1} suggested the successful introduction of SF onto PET surface, while the amount of immobilized SF of PET-SF was higher than PET-PAA-SF according to XPS investigation (0.29 vs 0.23 for N/C ratio). Surface modified PET film was used as substrate for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture, the cells on PET-SF surface exhibited optimum density compared to PET-PAA-SF according to CCK-8 assays, which indicated that plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating was a simple and effective way to prepare biocompatible PET surface. Highlights: ► Silk fibroins were immobilized onto PET films with or without the linker of PAA. ► Various techniques were performed to characterize the modified surfaces ► Plasma treatment followed by SF dip coating introduced more SF onto PET films. ► Compare to PET-PAA-SF, PET-SF has better biocompatibility base on MSCs culture.

  7. Comparison between poly(ethylene naphthalate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) in terms of gamma-ray irradiation on their dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Maki; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    2017-06-01

    The effects of gamma-rays on the complex permittivity (\\varepsilon '\\text{r} and \\varepsilon ''\\text{r}) and electrical conductivity were compared between poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Although both \\varepsilon '\\text{r} and \\varepsilon ''\\text{r} increase in PET with an increase in the total dose of gamma irradiation, such increases are hardly observed in PEN. The conductivity is always smaller in PEN than in PET. Therefore, it has been confirmed that charge transport is less activated by gamma irradiation in PEN than in PET. Together with experimental results obtained by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, it can be concluded that PEN has a superior anti-gamma-ray dielectric property to PET.

  8. Alpha particle response for a prototype radiation survey meter based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with un-doping fluorescent guest molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Philip; Nakamura, Hidehito; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Maki, Daisuke; Kanayama, Masaya; Takahashi, Sentaro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is no radiation survey meter that can discriminate among alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma-rays with one material. Previously, undoped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been shown to be an effective material for beta particle and gamma-ray detection. Here, we demonstrate a prototype survey meter for alpha particles based on undoped PET. A 140 × 72 × 1-mm PET substrate was fabricated with mirrored surfaces. It was incorporated in a unique detection section of the survey meter that directly detects alpha particles. The prototype exhibited an unambiguous response to alpha particles from a 241 Am radioactive source. These results demonstrate that undoped PET can perform well in survey meters for alpha particle detection. Overall, the PET-based survey meter has the potential to detect multiple types of radiation, and will spawn an unprecedented type of radiation survey meter based on undoped aromatic ring polymers. (author)

  9. Experimental analysis of the material degradation of PET on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder for varying vacuum pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herken, T.; Fecke, N.; Schöppner, V., E-mail: Tobias.Herken@ktp.uni-paderborn.de, E-mail: Nikolas.Fecke@ktp.uni-paderborn.de, E-mail: Volker.Schoeppner@ktp.uni-paderborn.de [KTP, University of Paderborn (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Plastics, starting from inexpensive mass-produced articles to technical high-end applications, are being used in ever more areas of life. The main drivers are their flexible product properties and the resultant broad application possibilities. To be able to offer plastic products inexpensively and conserve the environment at the same time, more and more attention is being paid to plastics recycling. Polyethylene terephthalate – in short PET – is of particular significance here because of its frequent application in the film and packaging industry and its special material properties. The recycling of PET, however, can only be carried out a limited number of times because it’s processing necessarily results in both thermal and mechanical stresses on the material. This is the basis for the reactions at molecular level, which result in a shortening of the molecule chains (material degradation) and exert a negative effect on the product properties. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the material degradation of PET in twin-screw extrusion. To do this, various screw configurations and different speed and throughput conditions are examined in a series of experiments. Furthermore, material specimens are removed along the length of the screw in order to evaluate the influence of individual screw sections. By determining the intrinsic viscosity of the specimens, it is possible to measure the mean molecular weight and thus the material damage. Based on the test results, guidelines are drawn up for the compounding of PET so as to ensure as little damage as possible to the material.

  10. Experimental analysis of the material degradation of PET on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder for varying vacuum pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herken, T.; Fecke, N.; Schöppner, V.

    2015-01-01

    Plastics, starting from inexpensive mass-produced articles to technical high-end applications, are being used in ever more areas of life. The main drivers are their flexible product properties and the resultant broad application possibilities. To be able to offer plastic products inexpensively and conserve the environment at the same time, more and more attention is being paid to plastics recycling. Polyethylene terephthalate – in short PET – is of particular significance here because of its frequent application in the film and packaging industry and its special material properties. The recycling of PET, however, can only be carried out a limited number of times because it’s processing necessarily results in both thermal and mechanical stresses on the material. This is the basis for the reactions at molecular level, which result in a shortening of the molecule chains (material degradation) and exert a negative effect on the product properties. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the material degradation of PET in twin-screw extrusion. To do this, various screw configurations and different speed and throughput conditions are examined in a series of experiments. Furthermore, material specimens are removed along the length of the screw in order to evaluate the influence of individual screw sections. By determining the intrinsic viscosity of the specimens, it is possible to measure the mean molecular weight and thus the material damage. Based on the test results, guidelines are drawn up for the compounding of PET so as to ensure as little damage as possible to the material

  11. Experimental analysis of the material degradation of PET on a co-rotating twin-screw extruder for varying vacuum pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, T.; Fecke, N.; Schöppner, V.

    2015-05-01

    Plastics, starting from inexpensive mass-produced articles to technical high-end applications, are being used in ever more areas of life. The main drivers are their flexible product properties and the resultant broad application possibilities. To be able to offer plastic products inexpensively and conserve the environment at the same time, more and more attention is being paid to plastics recycling. Polyethylene terephthalate - in short PET - is of particular significance here because of its frequent application in the film and packaging industry and its special material properties. The recycling of PET, however, can only be carried out a limited number of times because it's processing necessarily results in both thermal and mechanical stresses on the material. This is the basis for the reactions at molecular level, which result in a shortening of the molecule chains (material degradation) and exert a negative effect on the product properties. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the material degradation of PET in twin-screw extrusion. To do this, various screw configurations and different speed and throughput conditions are examined in a series of experiments. Furthermore, material specimens are removed along the length of the screw in order to evaluate the influence of individual screw sections. By determining the intrinsic viscosity of the specimens, it is possible to measure the mean molecular weight and thus the material damage. Based on the test results, guidelines are drawn up for the compounding of PET so as to ensure as little damage as possible to the material.

  12. Rheological, mechanical and morphological properties of poly(methyl methacrylate/poly(ethylene terephthalate blend with dual reactive interfacial compatibilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciklécia da Silva Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the rheological, mechanical and morphological behavior of immiscible blend poly (methyl methacrylate with elastomeric particles (PMMAelast and post-consumer poly (ethylene terephthalate (PET with and without the use of the interfacial compatibilizer poly (methyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate (MGE was studied. The significant increase in torque presented in rheological analyses has shown a indication of chemical reactions between the epoxy group of MGE with end groups of PET chains and also with the elastomeric phase of PMMAelast. The increased concentration of PET yielded an increase in maximum strength and elasticity modulus and a decrease in elongation at break. The PMMAelast/PET binary blend (50/50 wt% and PMMAelast/PET/MGE compatibilized blend (65/30/5 wt% showed pronounced results in elongation at break compared to PMMAelast, whereas, in the first results were due to the evidence of a co-continuous morphological structure and in the second, due to the efficiency of the dual reactive interfacial compatibilization of PMMAelast/PET blends. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses showed that PMMAelast/PET/MGE blends exhibit complex phase morphology due to the presence of elastomeric particles in the PMMAelast copolymer and in the use of MGE terpolymer.

  13. Effect of short fiber reinforcement on the properties of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsli, Nevin Gamze; Yesil, Sertan; Aytac, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved to the tensile strength. ► Fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of r-PET/PEN blend. ► CF reinforced composite has the highest storage modulus value. - Abstract: In this study, short carbon (CF), glass (GF) and hybrid carbon/glass fiber reinforced recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate) (r-PET/PEN) blends were prepared by melt mixing method. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composites were investigated by using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimeter, dynamic mechanical analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis showed that there is a better interfacial interaction between fiber and polymer matrix for CF reinforced composite. It was found that addition of short fiber reinforcement to the r-PET/PEN blend improved the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values more than the addition of PEN into r-PET. According to DMA analysis, fiber reinforcement increased the storage modulus of composites when compared with r-PET/PEN blend and among them storage modulus of CF reinforced composite was the highest. It was concluded that mechanical properties of r-PET can be enhanced with addition of PEN and more efficiently with short fiber reinforcement

  14. Effect of Nanodisperse Carbon Fillers and Isocyanate Chain Extender on Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Agabekov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diisocyanate chain extender (CE on the mechanical, rheological, and relaxation properties, as well as on molecular weight and crystallizability, of starting poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET and its composites containing carbon nanomaterials (CNM such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs and commercial carbon (CC has been studied. The composites were compounded in molten PET using twin-screw extruder (screw diameter 35 mm; L/D=40. To improve the distribution of CNM in the polymeric matrix (before introduction into the melt, they were blended with PET powder and subjected to an ultrasonic treatment in methylene chloride. The salient features of the materials structure were estimated based on DSC and relaxation spectrometry (dynamic mechanical analysis data. It has been found that CNM additives partly suppress the PET-chain extension reactions which take place during interaction between macromolecular end groups and CE. Besides, both CNT and CC favour crystallizability of the modified PET owing to nucleation of the crystallization process. The influence of CNT appears to be more effective than that of CC. Enhancements in true mechanical strength and deformability of PET/CE/CNM composites, as against PET/CE materials, were found to be most clearly exhibited by the CNT-containing composites.

  15. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  16. Macro and micro plastics sorb and desorb metals and act as a point source of trace metals to coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, B; Bendell, L I

    2018-01-01

    Nine urban intertidal regions in Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, were sampled for plastic debris. Debris included macro and micro plastics and originated from a wide diversity of uses ranging from personal hygiene to solar cells. Debris was characterized for its polymer through standard physiochemical characteristics, then subject to a weak acid extraction to remove the metals, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead from the polymer. Recently manufactured low density polyethylene (LDPE), nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were subject to the same extraction. Data was statistically analyzed by appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests when needed with significance set at P Plastic debris will affect metals within coastal ecosystems by; 1) providing a sorption site (copper and lead), notably for PVC 2) desorption from the plastic i.e., the "inherent" load (cadmium and zinc) and 3) serving as a point source of acute trace metal exposure to coastal ecosystems. All three mechanisms will put coastal ecosystems at risk to the toxic effects of these metals.

  17. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters in the thermal decomposition of plastic waste-waste lube oil compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Thermal decomposition properties of plastic waste-waste lube oil compounds were investigated under nonisothermal conditions. Polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were selected as representative household plastic wastes. A plastic waste mixture (PWM) and waste lube oil (WLO) were mixed with mixing ratios of 33, 50, and 67 (w/w) % on a PWM weight basis, and thermogravimetric (TG) experiments were performed from 25 to 600 degrees C. The Flynn-Wall method and the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method were used for analyses of thermodynamic parameters. In this study, activation energies of PWM/WLO compounds ranged from 73.4 to 229.6 kJ/mol between 0.2 and 0.8 of normalized mass conversions, and the 50% PWM/WLO compound had lower activation energies and enthalpies among the PWM/WLO samples at each mass conversion. At the point of maximum differential mass conversion, the analyzed activation energies, enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies indicated that mixing PWM and WLO has advantages in reducing energy to decrease the degree of disorder. However, no difference in overall energy that would require overcoming both thermal decomposition reactions and degree of disorder was observed among PWM/WLO compounds under these experimental conditions.

  18. Grafting of copolymer styrene maleic anhydride on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by chemical reaction and by plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigan, Muriel; Bigot, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire (UMR 8009), Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mutel, Brigitte [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interactions Fluides reactifs-Materiaux (UPRES-EA 3751), Batiment C5, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: Brigitte.mutel@univ-lille1.fr; Coqueret, Xavier [Laboratoire Reactions Selectives et Applications (UMR-CNRS 6519) Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, B.P. 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-02-15

    This work deals with the chemical grafting of a styrene maleic anhydride copolymer on the surface of a previously hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film 12 {mu}m thick via covalent bond. Two different ways are studied. The first one involves an activation of the hydrolyzed PET by the triethylamine before the grafting step. In the second one, the copolymer reacts with the 4-dimethylaminopyridine in order to form maleinyl pyridinium salt which reacts with alcohol function of the hydrolyzed PET. Characterization and quantification of the grafting are performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Factorial experiment designs are used to optimize the process and to estimate experimental parameters effects. The opportunity to associate the chemical process to a cold remote nitrogen plasma one is also examined.

  19. UTILIZATION OF CANDEIA (Eremanthus erythropappus WOOD RESIDUES IN THE PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOAD WITH ADDITION OF PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate, through the physical and mechanical properties, the panels production viability with inclusion of candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus wood residues and the influence of different percentages of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, as well as the presence and absence of paraffin on the properties of particleboard. There were used candeia wood residues, after oil extraction, in association with eucalypt wood in the proportion of 25:75 and urea-formaldehyde adhesive (12% for panels production; besides the PET incorporation in particle form, which were originated from soft drink bottles and included in three percentages (0%, 25% e 50% in treatments in the presence (1% and absence of paraffin emulsion. The panels pressing cycle occurred under electric heating at 160°C, 0.4 MPa of pressure, during 8 minutes. The experimental design was entirely randomized with three repetitions. The properties evaluated, according to DIN (1971, ASTM D 1037-93 (1995 and CS 236-66 (1968 standards, were: internal bonding; static bending (modulus of elasticity – MOE and rupture – MOR; compression parallel to the panel surface; water absorption and thickness swelling, after 2 and 24 hours water immersion. The panel mechanical properties decreased with increasing in PET level; in general, paraffin addition did not improve the wood/plastic panels resistance and higroscopicity; the utilization of candeia wood residues is viable, in association with eucalypt wood, for the wood/plastic panel production, since the properties attended the minimum demands of the standards, except static bending.

  20. Influence of UV-Irradiation on Latent Tracks in Polyethylene Terephthalate Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qi; Wang Peng-Fei; Ling Yun; Wang Mao; Yan Dong-Xiao; Wang Yu-Gang; Cao Xing-Zhong; Wang Bao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films in thickness of 12 μm are irradiated by Xe and Au ions at the energies of 9.5 and 11.4MeV/u and with the ion fluence from 5 × 10"9 cm"−"2 to 1 × 10"1"1 cm"−"2. After irradiation, ultra-violet lights are used to illuminate the samples with latent tracks at the wavelength of 365 nm with flux density of 4.2 mW/cm"−"2. UV-irradiation effects on tracked PET are investigated by the UV-vis spectrum and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is found that carbonaceous clusters in PET films are generated by ion irradiation and decomposed with UV illumination by calculating the optical energy band gap E_g in the UV-vis spectrum. The free volumes behave differently in track and bulk after UV illumination. In our experiment, the PALS results show an increase in radius and density of free volume in tracked PET films after UV treatment, which indicates an expansion in radius of latent tracks. (paper)

  1. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  2. Fabrication and mechanical properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites prepared by using a modified film-stacking technique were examined in this study. The starting materials included a high tenacity PET yarn (reinforcement and a low melting temperature biodegradable polyester resin (matrix, both of which differ in their melting temperatures with a value of 56°C. This experiment produced composite sheets at three consolidation temperatures (Tc: 215, 225, and 235°C at a constant holding time (th: 6.5 min, and three holding times (3, 6.5 and 10 min at a constant consolidation temperature of 225°C. This study observed a significant improvement in the mechanical properties obtained in self-reinforced PET composites compared to the pure polyester resin. The results of tensile, flexural, and Izod impact tests proved that optimal conditions are low consolidation temperature and short holding time. The absorbed impact energy of the best self-reinforced PET composite material was 854.0 J/m, which is 63 times that of pure polyester resin.

  3. One-step surface modification for irreversible bonding of various plastics with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2014-05-07

    Here, we introduce a simple and facile method for bonding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to various plastics irreversibly via a one-step chemical treatment at room temperature. This was mediated by poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(3-aminopropyl)methylsiloxane] (amine-PDMS linker), a chemical composed of a PDMS backbone incorporating an amine side group. Room temperature anchoring of the linker was achieved via a reaction between the amine functionality of the linker and the carbon backbone of the plastics, thereby producing urethane bonds. This resulted in the PDMS functionality being exposed on the plastic surface, mimicking the surface properties of bulk PDMS. Following corona treatment of the PDMS-modified plastic and a sheet of PDMS, the two surfaces were placed in contact with each other and heated at 80 °C for 1 h. This resulted in permanent bonding between PDMS and the plastic. To examine the effectiveness of the amine-PDMS linker coating procedure, the surfaces were characterized by measuring water contact angles and by employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(vinylchloride) (PVC), and polyimide (PI) were bonded successfully to PDMS using this method, with bond strengths of PC, PET, and PVC with PDMS measured to be approximately 428.5 ± 17.9, 361.7 ± 31.2, and 430.0 ± 14.9 kPa, respectively. The bond strength of a PC-PC homogeneous assembly, also realized using the proposed method, was measured to be approximately 343.9 ± 7.4 kPa. Delamination tests revealed that the PC-PC assembly was able to withstand intense introduction of a liquid whose per-minute injection volume was approximately 278 times greater than the total internal volume of the microchannel fabricated in PC. This demonstrated the robustness of the seal formed using the proposed technique.

  4. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinaga, Hironobu; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability

  5. Surface modification of PET film by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Mizutani, D.; Ohmura, Y.; Endo, H.; Yoneda, R.; Ikenaga, N.; Takikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that thin diamond like carbon (DLC) coating is very Amsterdam, Theenhancing the barrier characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) against CO 2 and O 2 gases. However, coating technique has a problem of DLC-deposit peeling. In this research, we develop a new technique to change the PET surface into DLC by ion implantation instead of coating the surface with the DLC deposit. The surface of PET film is modified by plasma-based ion implantation using pulse voltages of 10 kV in height and 5 μs in width. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy shows that the specific absorption peaks for PET decrease with dose, that is, the molecules of ethylene terephthalate are destroyed by ion bombardment. Then, laser Raman spectroscopy shows that thin DLC layer is formed in the PET surface area

  6. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  7. Preparation of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend from PET bottles and modification studies induced by ionizing radiation; Obtencao da blenda polimerica PET/PP/PE/EVA a partir de garrafas PET e estudo das modificacoes provocadas pela radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Edvaldo Luis

    2005-07-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems nowadays. Amidst the pollutants, plastic and especially the packings type {sup P}ET bottles{sup ,} which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are causing big damage in the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by a process of simplified mechanical recycling from 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective to find solution to this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation doses effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 e 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness), thermal (Vicat softening temperature, differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric) and microscopic (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) properties of the blend were studied. The analysis of the results showed to be a not mixing and compatible blend, with mechanical and thermal properties (which appeared to be similar to the properties of the component material used in the blend in separate) satisfactory, resulting in a resistant material and of low cost, being able to be used in the production of parts that do not demand specifications techniques. The use of the ionizing radiation improved some of the mechanical and thermal properties of the blend (these modifications had been random and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation and the type of property) making possible more specific applications for this material. (author)

  8. Hemocompatibility improvement of poly(ethylene terephthalate) via self-polymerization of dopamine and covalent graft of zwitterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xianmei; Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: bioalchem@yahoo.com; Chen, Shuangchun; Li, Pengfei; Li, Li, E-mail: lili3@njnu.edu.cn; Shen, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been widely adopted as a scaffold biomaterial, but further hemocompatibility improvement is still needed for wide biomedical applications. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we propose to use self-polymerized dopamine to form a surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET sheet, followed by Michael addition with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMDA) to build tertiary amine, and final zwitterions(sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine) construction through ring-opening reaction. Physicochemical properties of substrates were demonstrated by water contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hemocompatibility was evaluated by platelet adhesion, hemolytic, and protein adsorption. The results showed that the zwitterions immobilized PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion as well as nonhemolytic. The zwitterions with desirable hemocompatibility can be readily tailored to catheter for various biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We first used self-polymerized dopamine to form a thin and surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET film. • Then, DMDA was attached to the PET surface by Michael addition. • Sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine were finally constructed through ring-opening reaction. • The modify PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  9. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  10. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET

  11. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities.

  12. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  13. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (<3 µ m) in the barrier coating. The defects were visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities. (paper)

  14. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of clay structure and type of organomodifier on the thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, George Z.; Karandrea, Eva; Giliopoulos, Dimitrios [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G. [Solid State Physics Department, School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki AUTH, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ladavos, Athanasios; Katerinopoulou, Aikaterini [University of Patras, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Achilias, Dimitris S.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bikiaris, Dimitrios N., E-mail: dbic@chem.auth.gr [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-01-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites were prepared using 4 different clay types. • Nanomer I30E clay was exfoliated into PET, as it was found from XRD. • The intercalation of Kunipia-CTAB resulted in less pronounced effect on PET crystallization. • The immobilized amorphous fraction, activation energy and nucleation activity were calculated. • Nanomer I30E clay facilitated the crystallization process. - Abstract: In the current investigation, nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with different types of organo-clays were produced using the melt mixing technique. Two types of commercial inorganic clays (Laponite-synthetic hectorite and Kunipia-montmorillonite) were studied after cation-exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) while two commercial organo-modified montmorillonite clays (Nanomer I.30E modified with primary octadecylammonium ions and Cloisite 10A modified with quaternary dimethyl benzyl hydrogenated-tallow ammonium ions) were also investigated. The structure of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction measurements. A detailed crystallization analysis was carried out by means of both isothermal and non-isothermal (melt and cold) measurements. All data were analyzed using the simple Avrami equation along with advanced isoconversional methods. The nucleation activity of the filler was investigated in every case. Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis was employed to isothermal data to estimate the nucleation parameters. From all these measurements it was found that the organo-clay I.30E induces the higher crystallization rates and lower activation energy and is more effective regarding the PET crystallization compared to the other types of organo-clays. The I.30E organo-clay nanocomposite exhibited also the higher immobilized amorphous fraction and the higher nucleation parameter K{sub g} in the Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis. This is due to its better dispersion and

  16. Effect of clay structure and type of organomodifier on the thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, George Z.; Karandrea, Eva; Giliopoulos, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G.; Ladavos, Athanasios; Katerinopoulou, Aikaterini; Achilias, Dimitris S.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites were prepared using 4 different clay types. • Nanomer I30E clay was exfoliated into PET, as it was found from XRD. • The intercalation of Kunipia-CTAB resulted in less pronounced effect on PET crystallization. • The immobilized amorphous fraction, activation energy and nucleation activity were calculated. • Nanomer I30E clay facilitated the crystallization process. - Abstract: In the current investigation, nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with different types of organo-clays were produced using the melt mixing technique. Two types of commercial inorganic clays (Laponite-synthetic hectorite and Kunipia-montmorillonite) were studied after cation-exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) while two commercial organo-modified montmorillonite clays (Nanomer I.30E modified with primary octadecylammonium ions and Cloisite 10A modified with quaternary dimethyl benzyl hydrogenated-tallow ammonium ions) were also investigated. The structure of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction measurements. A detailed crystallization analysis was carried out by means of both isothermal and non-isothermal (melt and cold) measurements. All data were analyzed using the simple Avrami equation along with advanced isoconversional methods. The nucleation activity of the filler was investigated in every case. Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis was employed to isothermal data to estimate the nucleation parameters. From all these measurements it was found that the organo-clay I.30E induces the higher crystallization rates and lower activation energy and is more effective regarding the PET crystallization compared to the other types of organo-clays. The I.30E organo-clay nanocomposite exhibited also the higher immobilized amorphous fraction and the higher nucleation parameter K g in the Lauritzen–Hoffman analysis. This is due to its better dispersion and exfoliation

  17. Series-Interconnected Plastic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Prepared by Low- Temperature Binder-Free Titania Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. This was implemented on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a mixture of transparent and scattered mesoporous anatase-titania as the electron transport layer for the photoelectrode. This mixture of anatase titania performed a dual function of light scattering and efficient dye absorption. In this study, a porous nano-TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET by using a binder-free titania paste; on it, a DSSC was fabricated. The paste which contained a mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles, acid chloride, and ethanol was printed on two patterns of 1x6 cm2 active areas followed by sintered at 120 ºC to form TiO2 films. A commercial dye, N719, was adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 films and assembled to two platinized conductive plastic patterns to form a counter electrode and thus a sandwich-type dye cell. Finally, a solution of KI/I2 electrolytes was injected into the cell in which a couple of sandwich-type dye cells with an active area of 6 cm2 for each cell were series interconnected with a z-type interconnection between the photoelectrode of one cell and the counter electrode of another cell. The cell performance was characterized by employing simulated solar light at an intensity of 50 mW/cm2. The results showed interconnected cells generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 2.34 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.10 volt, and overall 0.172% power conversion efficiency.

  18. Compatibilization of recycled polypropylene and recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate blends with SEBS-g-MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Guadagnini Araujo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The compatibilization of recycled PP/PET blend with high and low concentration (20 and 5 phr of elastomer functionalized by maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MA was achieved. Recycled polypropylene from plastic industry and recycled PET from post-consumer bottles was used. PP/PET blends: 80:20 w/w, 50:50 w/w and 20:80 w/w were prepared in an internal mixer for mechanical properties, thermal properties, morphology and rheological properties. SEBS-g-MA promoted compatibilization of the PP/PET blends and improved their properties. With an increasing compatibilization level, the refinement of morphology was observed in the PET rich blend. Compatibilized blends showed negative deviation in the PET glass transition temperature related to neat PET, demonstrating that compatibilization was very successful. PET crystallization was accelerated in the blends due to PP presence that enhanced nucleation. It was found that the 50/50/20 blend showed huge potential for textile fiber application and that of 80/20/20 showed more intermediary properties than neat polymers.

  19. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide: From green plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgio eKfoury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide (PLA is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET, high impact poly(styrene (HIPS and poly(propylene (PP, PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application.This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive blending PLA-based systems.

  20. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): From ``green'' plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity (high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)), PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems.

  1. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  2. Wearable supercapacitors on polyethylene terephthalate fabrics with good wash fastness and high flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixia; Babaahmadi, Vahid; He, Nanfei; Liu, Yixin; Pan, Qin; Montazer, Majid; Gao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    All solid-state micro-supercapacitors (MSC) have emerged as attractive energy-storage units for portable and wearable electronics. Here, we describe a textile-based solid-state MSC via laser scribing of graphene oxide (GO) coatings on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. The laser-scribed graphene oxide layers (LGO) possess three-dimensionally porous structure suitable for electrochemical-double-layer formation. To improve the wash fastness and the flexibility of the as-prepared MSCs, glutaraldehyde (GA) was employed to crosslink the GO layers and PVA-gel electrolyte onto the PET fabric. The resultant all solid-state MSCs exhibited excellent flexibility, high areal specific capacitance (756 μF·cm-2 at 20 mV·s-1), and good rate capability when subject to bending and laundering. Furthermore, the MSC device showed a high power density of about 1.4 W·cm-3 and an energy density of 5.3 × 10-5 Wh·cm-3, and retained 98.3% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA·cm-2. This work is the first demonstration of in-plane MSCs on PET fabric surfaces with enhanced durability and flexibility.

  3. Stress-corrosion cracking of indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate for flexible optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierros, Konstantinos A.; Morris, Nicholas J.; Ramji, Karpagavalli; Cairns, Darran R.

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of transparent conductive layers of indium tin oxide (ITO), sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, is an issue of paramount importance in flexible optoelectronic devices. These components, when used in flexible device stacks, can be in contact with acid containing pressure-sensitive adhesives or with conductive polymers doped in acids. Acids can corrode the brittle ITO layer, stress can cause cracking and delamination, and stress-corrosion cracking can cause more rapid failure than corrosion alone. The combined effect of an externally-applied mechanical stress to bend the device and the corrosive environment provided by the acid is investigated in this work. We show that acrylic acid which is contained in many pressure-sensitive adhesives can cause corrosion of ITO coatings on PET. We also investigate and report on the combined effect of external mechanical stress and corrosion on ITO-coated PET composite films. Also, it is shown that the combination of stress and corrosion by acrylic acid can cause ITO cracking to occur at stresses less than a quarter of those needed for failure with no corrosion. In addition, the time to failure, under ∼ 1% tensile strain can reduce the total time to failure by as much as a third

  4. Electron beam induced modifications in flexible biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate sheets: Improved mechanical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, N. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Koiry, S.P. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Singh, A., E-mail: asb_barc@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Tillu, A.R. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Debnath, A.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Aswal, D.K., E-mail: dkaswal@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Mondal, R.K. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effects of electron beam irradiation (with dose ranging from 2 to 32 kGy) on mechanical and electrical properties of biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) sheets. The sol-gel analysis, Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations of the irradiated BOPET sheets suggest partial cross-linking of PET chains through the diethylene glycol (DEG). The mechanical properties of BOPET, such as, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical resistivity shows improvement with increasing dose and saturate for doses >10 kGy. The improved mechanical properties and high electrical resistivity of electron beam modified BOPET sheets may have additional advantages in applications, such as, packaging materials for food irradiation, medical product sterilization and electronic industries. - Graphical abstract: Irradiation of BOPET by electron beam leads to the formation of diethylene glycol that crosslink's the PET chains, resulting in improved mechanical properties and enhanced electrical resistivity. - Highlights: • BOPET exhibit improved tensile strength/Young's modulus after e-beam exposure. • Electrical resistivity of BOPET increases after e-beam exposure. • Cross-linking of PET chains through diethylene glycol was observed after e-beam exposure.

  5. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jin-Seo, E-mail: jinseonoh@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  6. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  7. Thermal conductivity of plasma modified polyethylene terephthalate and polyamide-6 layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalacska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribological performance of the materials greatly depends on the temperature of the contacting zones and surfaces and hence on the heat conducting behaviour of the materials. Heat conduction of polymers is, however, greatly affected even by a very narrow (few tens of nm modified layer formed on the surface after subjecting the polymer to plasma treatment. In this article the heat flow inhibiting properties of plasma modified surface layers were investigated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyamide-6 (PA6 engineering polymers. Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation gave rise to compositional and structural changes of the polymers in a depth of 110 nm. It was found that even this thin layer exhibited significant heat flow inhibiting effect. The modified layer considerably decreased the thermal conductivity coefficient of the treated polymer and resulted in a reduced heat transmission for PET and PA6 by 33 and 28%, respectively. This new information supports and is in accordance with the former tribological results about extra friction heat generation experienced under NPIII surface layer of PA6 and PET during dry sliding.

  8. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property

  9. Screen-Printed Flexible Bandstop Filter on Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate Based on Ag Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a low-power, cost-effective, highly reproducible, and disposable bandstop filter by employing high-throughput screen-printing technology. We apply large-scale printing strategies using silver-nanoparticle-based ink for the metallization of conductive wires to fabricate a bandstop filter on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. The filter exhibits an attenuation pole at 4.35 GHz with excellent in-and-out band characteristics. These characteristics reflect a rejection depth that is better than −25 dB with a return loss of −0.75 dB at the normal orientation of the PET substrate. In addition, the filter characteristics are observed at various bending angles (0°, 10°, and 20° of the PET substrate with an excellent relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. These results confirm the accuracy, reproducibility, and independence of the resonance frequency. This screen-printing technology for well-defined nanostructures is more favorable than other complex photolithographic processes because it overcomes signal losses due to uneven surface distributions and thereby reveals a homogeneous distribution. Moreover, the proposed methodology enables incremental steps in the process of producing highly flexible and cost-effective printed-electronic radio devices.

  10. Scanning-probe-microscopy of polyethylene terephthalate surface treatment by argon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Beltran, Francisco [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Sanchez, Isaac C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); España-Sánchez, Beatriz L.; Mota-Morales, Josué D.; Carrillo, Salvador; Enríquez-Flores, C.I. [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne, E-mail: epaill@univ-lemans.fr [Institute for Molecules and Materials, UMR CNRS 6283, Av. O. Messiaen, Universitè du Maine, Le Mans 72085 (France); Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel, E-mail: gluna@qro.cinvestav.mx [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Kelvin-probe-force microscopy helps study of PET surface treated by Ar ion beam. • Ar ion beam surface treatment promotes chain scission and N insertion. • Surface roughness and work function increases as intensity of ion energy increases. • Adhesive force of PET decrease due to the surface changes by ion bombardment. - Abstract: The effect of argon (Ar{sup +}) ion beam treatment on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples was studied by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and the changes in surface topography were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) sheds light of adhesion force between treated polymer films and a Pt/Cr probe under dry conditions, obtaining the contact potential difference of material. As a result of Ar{sup +} ion bombardment, important surface chemical changes were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements such as chains scission and incorporation of nitrogen species. Ion beam treatment increases the surface roughness from 0.49 ± 0.1 nm to 7.2 ± 0.1 nm and modify the surface potential of PET samples, decreasing the adhesive forces from 12.041 ± 2.1 nN to 5.782 ± 0.06 nN, and producing a slight increase in the electronic work function (Φ{sub e}) from 5.1 V (untreated) to 5.2 V (treated). Ar{sup +} ion beam treatment allows to potentially changing the surface properties of PET, modifying surface adhesion, improving surface chemical changes, wetting properties and surface potential of polymers.

  11. Bubble column and CFD simulation for chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzuhairi, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an important simulation tool, which uses powerful computer to get optimal design in industrial processes. New approach technique of bubble column for three phases has been used with respect to chemical recycling of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). The porous ceramic has been used in thin plate (5 mm) with a narrow pore size distribution. Excellent agreement between CFD has been predicted and experimental profiles of hold-up and velocity close to wall have been observed for a column diameter 0.08 m, column height 0.15 m (HD), and superficial gas velocity (VG) 0.05 m/s. The main purpose of the current study is to highlight depolymerization of PET chemically by using the close system of Ethylene Glycol, PET-Catalyzed, and Nitrogen glycolysis process in bubble column of three phases technique by using Nano catalyst, SiO2 with various weight percent (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5) based on PET weight and preheated Nitrogen up to 100° C by extra heater in bubble column reactor. The depolymerization time could be reduced in order to improve heat and mass transfer in comparison with the traditional methods. Little amount not exceeding 0.01% of Nano SiO2 is enough for completing depolymerization. The final product of PET depolymerization has full characterization by FTIR, AFM, CHN tests and has been used as a vital additive for Bitumen, it has been investigated as a moisture-proof, water seepage-proof material, and as a tough resistant to environmental conditions.

  12. The thermal analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ziyu [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hay, J.N., E-mail: j.n.hay@bham.ac.uk [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Jenkins, M.J. [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    Graphical abstract: Changes to infra-red spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on heating and cooling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microgram samples have been analysed to determine glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbance of cis/trans bands have been followed with temperature on heating and cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractional crystallinity was determined directly without calibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR absorption bands are characterized as type I or type II according to their behaviour with temperature. - Abstract: Thermal analysis-FTIR spectroscopy, TA-FTIR, has been used to characterize the phase transitions in thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and it has been shown to have distinct advantages over other TA techniques in particular it was not so limited in sensitivity. Since the technique measured property, such as amorphous content or fractional crystallinity directly rather than the rate of change of the properties with time or temperature, it was not so restricted in the time scale over which measurements were made. It also had the advantage of measuring the change in concentration of different functional groups with temperature and determining the temperature range over which chain mobility set in and defining the type of molecular groups involved in the configurational changes. The change in absorbance and shift in peak position with temperature are discussed in terms of the separation of crystalline and amorphous bands as well as defining the cis/trans ratio as a function of temperature. Depending on the change in absorbance or peak position with temperature of the IR bands, they have been characterized as type I or type II behaviour. Measurements on both have been used to characterize the glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET.

  13. The thermal analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ziyu; Hay, J.N.; Jenkins, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Changes to infra-red spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on heating and cooling. Highlights: ► Microgram samples have been analysed to determine glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET. ► The absorbance of cis/trans bands have been followed with temperature on heating and cooling. ► Fractional crystallinity was determined directly without calibration. ► The IR absorption bands are characterized as type I or type II according to their behaviour with temperature. - Abstract: Thermal analysis-FTIR spectroscopy, TA-FTIR, has been used to characterize the phase transitions in thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and it has been shown to have distinct advantages over other TA techniques in particular it was not so limited in sensitivity. Since the technique measured property, such as amorphous content or fractional crystallinity directly rather than the rate of change of the properties with time or temperature, it was not so restricted in the time scale over which measurements were made. It also had the advantage of measuring the change in concentration of different functional groups with temperature and determining the temperature range over which chain mobility set in and defining the type of molecular groups involved in the configurational changes. The change in absorbance and shift in peak position with temperature are discussed in terms of the separation of crystalline and amorphous bands as well as defining the cis/trans ratio as a function of temperature. Depending on the change in absorbance or peak position with temperature of the IR bands, they have been characterized as type I or type II behaviour. Measurements on both have been used to characterize the glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET.

  14. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-30

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a 'snapshot' of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile preparation of super-hydrophilic poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric using dilute sulfuric acid under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fang [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Yuansong [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A durable super-hydrophilic PET fabric was prepared using dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation. • Dilute sulfuric acid was gradually concentrated enough to sulfonate PET fabric. • Microwave irradiation made PET fabric modification highly efficient. • The mechanical properties of modified PET fibers were kept well. • The method was novel, rapid, and eco-friendly. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was greatly modified by using dilute sulfuric acid, which gradually became concentrated enough to sulfonate the fabric when microwave irradiation (MW) was applied. The modified PET fabric was super-hydrophilic. Modifying the fabric caused the water contact angle to decrease from 132.46 (for the unmodified fabric) to 0°, the water absorption rate to increase from 36.45 to 119.78%, and the capillary rise height to increase from 0.4 to 14.4 cm. The hydrophilicity of the modified PET fabric was not affected by washing it many times. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that there were sulfonic acid groups on the modified fibers. Almost no difference between the surfaces of the unmodified and modified PET fibers was found using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that the unmodified and modified fabrics had similar thermostabilities. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline structures of the unmodified and modified fibers showed that they were almost the same. The strength, elasticity, and rigidity of the unmodified fabric were retained by the modified fabric. The modified fabric had better dyeing properties than the unmodified fabric.

  16. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  17. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahre, H; Böke, M; Winter, J; Bahroun, K; Behm, H; Hopmann, Ch; Steves, S; Awakowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered. (paper)

  18. Surface characterization and free thyroid hormones response of chemically modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) blood collection tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali Dil, Ebrahim; Kim, Samuel C.; Saffar, Amir; Ajji, Abdellah; Zare, Richard N.; Sattayapiwat, Annie; Esguerra, Vanessa; Bowen, Raffick A. R.

    2018-06-01

    The surface chemistry and surface energy of chemically modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blood collection tubes (BCTs) were studied and the results showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity and polarity of modified PET surface. The surface modification created nanometer-sized, needle-like asperities through molecular segregation at the surface. The surface dynamics of the modified PET was examined by tracking its surface properties over a 280-day period. The results showed surface rearrangement toward a surface with lower surface energy and fewer nanometer-sized asperities. Thromboelastography (TEG) was used to evaluate and compare the thrombogenicity of the inner walls of various types of BCTs. The TEG tracings and data from various types of BCTs demonstrated differences in the reactionand coagulation times but not in clot strength. The performance of the modified tubes in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) hormone tests was examined, and it was found that the interference of modified PET tubes was negligible compared to that of commercially available PET BCTs.

  19. Pros and cons of analytical methods to quantify surrogate contaminants from the challenge test in recycled polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Juliana S., E-mail: jfelix@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Alfaro, Pilar, E-mail: palfarot@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Nerin, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS, University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-14

    Different analytical methods were optimized and applied to quantify certain surrogate contaminants (toluene, chlorobenzene, phenol, limonene and benzophenone) in samples of contaminated and recycled flakes and virgin pellets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coming from the industrial challenge test. A screening analysis of the PET samples was carried out by direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). The methods developed and used for quantitative analysis were a) total dissolution of PET samples in dichloroacetic acid and analysis by HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, b) dichloromethane extraction and analysis by GC-MS. The concentration of all surrogates in the contaminated PET flakes analyzed by HS-SPME method was lower than expected according to information provided by the supplier. Dichloroacetic acid interacted with the surrogates, resulting in a tremendous decrease of limonene concentration. The degradation compounds from limonene were identified. Dichloromethane extraction and GC-MS analysis evidenced the highest values of analytes in these PET samples. Based on the foregoing data, the efficiency of the recycling process was evaluated, whereby the removal of 99.9% of the surrogates proceeding from the contaminated flakes was confirmed.

  20. Characterization and Properties of Electroless Nickel Plated Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Nonwoven Fabric Enhanced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yamin; Lu Canhui; Liang Mei; Zhang Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a more economical pretreatment method for electroless nickel plating, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure was used to improve the hydrophilicity and adhesion of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric. The properties of the PET nonwoven fabric including its liquid absorptive capacity (W A ), aging behavior, surface chemical composition, morphology of the surface, adhesion strength, surface electrical resistivity and electromagnetic interference (EMI)- shielding effectiveness (SE) were studied. The liquid absorptive capacity (W A ) increased due to the incorporation of oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing functional groups on the surface of PET nonwoven fabric after DBD air-plasma treatment. The surface morphology of the nonwoven fibers became rougher after plasma treatment. Therefore, the surface was more prone to absorb tin sensitizer and palladium catalyst to form an active layer for the deposition of electroless nickel. SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that a uniform coating of nickel was formed on the PET nonwoven fabric. The average EMI-SE of Ni-plating of PET nonwoven fabric maintained a relatively stable value (38.2 dB to 37.3 dB) in a frequency range of 50 MHz to 1500 MHz. It is concluded that DBD is feasible for pretreatment of nonwoven fabric for electroless nickel plating to prepare functional material with good EMI-SE properties.

  1. Pros and cons of analytical methods to quantify surrogate contaminants from the challenge test in recycled polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Juliana S.; Alfaro, Pilar; Nerin, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Different analytical methods were optimized and applied to quantify certain surrogate contaminants (toluene, chlorobenzene, phenol, limonene and benzophenone) in samples of contaminated and recycled flakes and virgin pellets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coming from the industrial challenge test. A screening analysis of the PET samples was carried out by direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in headspace mode (HS). The methods developed and used for quantitative analysis were a) total dissolution of PET samples in dichloroacetic acid and analysis by HS-SPME coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, b) dichloromethane extraction and analysis by GC-MS. The concentration of all surrogates in the contaminated PET flakes analyzed by HS-SPME method was lower than expected according to information provided by the supplier. Dichloroacetic acid interacted with the surrogates, resulting in a tremendous decrease of limonene concentration. The degradation compounds from limonene were identified. Dichloromethane extraction and GC-MS analysis evidenced the highest values of analytes in these PET samples. Based on the foregoing data, the efficiency of the recycling process was evaluated, whereby the removal of 99.9% of the surrogates proceeding from the contaminated flakes was confirmed.

  2. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 . The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  3. Improved adhesion of Ag NPs to the polyethylene terephthalate surface via atmospheric plasma treatment and surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward

    2017-07-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied, as important antibacterial materials, on textile and polymer surfaces. However, their adhesion to nonreactive polymer surfaces is generally too weak for many applications. Here, we propose a two-step process, atmospheric plasma treatment followed by a surface chemical modification process, which enhances their adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. We found that, compared to either plasma treatments or surface chemical functionalizations, alone, this combination greatly enhanced their adhesion. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase of active sites (sbnd OH, sbnd CHdbnd O and COOH) at the PET surface, permitting increased bonding to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), whose sbnd NH2 groups were then able to form a bonding complex with the Ag NPs.

  4. Prediction models of mechanical properties for pet-mortar composite in sodium sulphateaggressive mediums

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tani Nabil; Benosman A.S.; Senhadji Y.; Taïbi H.; Mouli M.; Belbachir M.

    2018-01-01

    In this research, an investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulphate attack on the durability of composites produced with waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced by various volume fractions of waste PET particles (6%, 12% and 17%). The test solutions used to supply the sulphate ions and cations were 5%sodium sulphate solution. Compressive strengths measure...

  5. Influence of expanded graphite (EG) and graphene oxide (GO) on physical properties of PET based nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkiewicz Sandra; Nachman Małgorzata; Szymczyk Anna; Špitalský Zdeno; Mosnáček Jaroslav; Rosłaniec Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    This work is the continuation and refinement of already published communications based on PET/EG nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization1, 2. In this study, nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) with expanded graphite were compared to those with functionalized graphite sheets (GO). The results suggest that the degree of dispersion of nanoparticles in the PET matrix has important effect on the structure and physical properties of the nanocomposites. The existence of gr...

  6. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  7. The Action of Chain Extenders in Nylon-6, PET, and Model Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loontjens, T.; Pauwels, K.; Derks, F.; Neilen, M.; Sham, C.K.; Serné, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of two complementary chain extenders is studied in model systems as well as in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon–6. Chain extenders are low molecular weight compounds that can be used to increase the molecular weight of polymers in a short time. The reaction must preferably be

  8. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  9. Improvement of PET surface hydrophilicity and roughness through blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, Ahmad Rezaei; Ajji, Abdellah; Carreau, Pierre J. [CREPEC, Chemical Engineering Department, Polytechnique Montreal, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Quebec, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    Controlling the adhesion of the polymer surface is a key issue in surface science, since polymers have been a commonly used material for many years. The surface modification in this study includes two different aspects. One is to enhance the hydrophilicity and the other is to create the roughness on the PET film surface. In this study we developed a novel and simple approach to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface through polymer blending in twin-screw extruder. One example described in the study uses polyethylene glycol (PEG) in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) host to modify a PET film surface. Low content of polystyrene (PS) as a third component was used in the system to increase the rate of migration of PEG to the surface of the film. Surface enrichment of PEG was observed at the polymer/air interface of the polymer film containing PET-PEG-PS whereas for the PET-PEG binary blend more PEG was distributed within the bulk of the sample. Furthermore, a novel method to create roughness at the PET film surface was proposed. In order to roughen the surface of PET film, a small amount of PKHH phenoxy resin to change PS/PET interfacial tension was used. The compatibility effect of PKHH causes the formation of smaller PS droplets, which were able to migrate more easily through PET matrix. Consequently, resulting in a locally elevated concentration of PS near the surface of the film. The local concentration of PS eventually reached a level where a co-continuous morphology occurred, resulting in theinstabilities on the surface of the film.

  10. Prospects for application of post-consumer used plastics in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltz, J; Ram, A; Nir, M M

    1997-01-01

    The two most widely used polymers in packaging in recent years are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene (PE). The biggest fractions of these polymers are not re-utilized, in spite of the fact that they possess excellent properties even after their first application. The ban on using recycled polymers in food packaging applications and the lack of good value outlets for these materials causes them to end up in landfills. The high cost nylon, used in packaging primarily as high gas barrier laminates with PE, also finds its way to landfills. In this case, the reason is the difficulty of recycling different polymers that are incompatible. Thus, the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream transferred to landfills contains many plastic packages. These packages are being blamed as a major pollutant of the environment in spite of the fact that all plastics contribute only a small percentage to the weight of the garbage in landfills. If proper and cost effective applications for the recycled polymers could be developed, the waste related to their disposal could be limited. In addition, the contribution of plastic packages to the environmental problem could be diminished. In the present paper, the possibility of sandwiching a contaminated PET layer between two layers of the virgin material was studied. The aim of the study was to determine whether such an operation could lower the migration level of contaminants from a multilayer structure (containing a recycled layer of PET) to values below the limits required by regulatory agencies. The diffusion coefficients (required to determine migration) of four organic liquids in PET were determined. As a result of the sandwiching operation, the amount of pollutant (toluene) migrating into the food simulant was reduced by two orders of magnitude. The properties of PE/nylon blends were also studied. It was found that the high gas barrier properties of nylon are preserved in the blend when proper processing conditions are used

  11. Simultaneous recovery of benzene-rich oil and metals by steam pyrolysis of metal-poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2014-03-18

    The possibility of simultaneous recovery of benzene and metals from the hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-based materials such as X-ray films, magnetic tape, and prepaid cards under a steam atmosphere at a temperature of 450 °C was evaluated. The hydrolysis resulted in metal-containing carbonaceous residue and volatile terephthalic acid (TPA). The effects of metals and additives on the recovery process were also investigated. All metals were quantitatively recovered, and silver, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and anatase (TiO2) were recovered without any changes in their crystal structures or compositions. In a second step, TPA was decarboxylized in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) at 700 °C, producing benzene with an average yield of 34% and purity of 76%. Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) incorporated in magnetic tape and prepaid cards could decarboxylate TPA. Aluminum present in the prepaid cards produced hydrogen by the reaction with steam. However, the presence of metals had no adverse influence on the recovery of benzene-rich oil in the presence of CaO. Therefore, this method can be applied to PET-based materials containing inorganic substances, which cannot be recycled effectively otherwise.

  12. Non-isothermal crystallization of PET/PLA blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huipeng; Pyda, Marek; Cebe, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Binary blends of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with poly(lactic acid), PET/PLA, were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering. The PET/PLA blends, prepared by solution casting, were found to be miscible in the melt over the entire composition range. Both quenched amorphous and semicrystalline blends exhibit a single, composition dependent glass transition temperature. We report the non-isothermal crystallization of (a) PET, with and without the presence of PLA crystals and (b) PLA, with and without the presence of PET crystals. PET can crystallize in all blends, regardless of whether PLA is amorphous or crystalline, and degree of crystallinity of PET decreases as PLA content increases. In contrast, PLA crystallization is strongly affected by the mobility of the PET fraction. When PET is wholly amorphous, PLA can crystallize even in 70/30 blends, albeit weakly. But when PET is crystalline, PLA cannot crystallize when its own content drops below 0.90. These different behaviors may possibly be related to the tendency of each polymer to form constrained chains, i.e., to form the rigid amorphous fraction, or RAF. PET is capable of forming a large amount of RAF, whereas relatively smaller amount of RAF forms in PLA. Like the crystals, the rigid amorphous fraction of one polymer component may inhibit the growth of crystals of the other blend partner.

  13. Self-consolidating concretes containing waste PET bottles as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faisal Sheikh; Azmi, Nurul Bazilah; Mazenan, Puteri Natasya; Shahidan, Shahiron; Othman, Nor hazurina; Guntor, Nickholas Anting Anak

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) containing waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) granules on the fresh, mechanical and water absorption properties. Fine aggregates were replaced from 0% to 8% by PET granules. The fresh properties of SCC containing PET granules were determined using slump flow and V-funnel flow time tests. The compressive and splitting tensile strength were evaluated. The results indicated that utilization of waste PET granules in production of SCC could be an effective way for recycling purpose. The maximum amount of PET replacement should be limited to 5%. Exceeding 5% of PET content may result in an increase of V-funnel flow time to overpass the limiting value, decrease in strength. The production of high performance SCC containing 5% PET granules satisfies all the requirements for SCC with satisfactory outputs.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Productivity of a Wet Separation Process of Traditional and Bio-Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation process within a mechanical recycling plant plays a major role in the context of the production of high-quality secondary raw materials and the reduction of extensive waste disposal in landfills. Traditional plants for plastic separation employ dry or wet processes that rely on the different physical properties among the polymers. The hydraulic separator is a device employing a wet technology for particle separation. It allows the separation of two-polymer mixtures into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Apparatus performance were analyzed as a function of fluid and solid flow rates, flow patterns developing within the apparatus, in addition to the density, shape, and size of the polymers. For the hydraulic configurations tested, a two-way coupling takes place where the fluid exerts an influence on the plastic particles and the opposite occurs too. The interaction between the solid and liquid phases determines whether a certain polymer settles within the device or is expelled from the apparatus. Tests carried out with samples of increasing volumes of solid particles demonstrate that there are no significant differences in the apparatus effectiveness as far as a two-way interaction takes place. Almost pure concentrates of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC, and Polycarbonate (PC can be obtained from a mixture of traditional polymers. Tests conducted on Polylactic Acid (PLA and Mater-Bi® samples showed that the hydraulic separator can be effectively employed to separate bio-plastics from conventional plastics with remarkable grade and recovery.

  15. Development of biodegradable metaloxide/polymer nanocomposite films based on poly-ε-caprolactone and terephthalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Pariguana, Manuel; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation describes the development of metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films from biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone, disposed poly(ethylene terephthalate) oil bottles monomer and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles. The terephthalic acid and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using a temperature-dependent precipitation technique and double precipitation method, respectively. The terephthalic acid synthesized was confirmed by FTIR analysis and furthermore, it was characterized by thermal analysis. The as-prepared CuO-ZnO nanoparticles structure was confirmed by XRD analysis and its morphology was analyzed by SEM/EDS and TEM. Furthermore, the metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films have excellent mechanical properties, with tensile strength and modulus better than pure films. The metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films that were successfully developed show a relatively brighter colour when compared to CuO film. These new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films can replace many non-degradable plastics. The new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films developed are envisaged to be suitable for use in industrial and domestic packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-performance flexible thin-film transistors fabricated using print-transferrable polycrystalline silicon membranes on a plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yang, Hongjun; Zhou, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with large grain size is highly desirable for flexible electronics applications. However, it is very challenging to directly deposit high-quality poly-Si on plastic substrates due to processing constrictions, such as temperature tolerance and residual stress. In this paper, we present our study on poly-Si membranes that are stress free and most importantly, are transferrable to any substrate including a low-temperature polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. We formed poly-Si-on-insulator by first depositing small-grain size poly-Si on an oxidized Si wafer. We then performed high-temperature annealing for recrystallization to obtain larger grain size. After selective doping on the poly-Si-on-insulator, buried oxide was etched away. By properly patterning the poly-Si layer, residual stress in the released poly-Si membranes was completely relaxed. The flat membrane topology allows the membranes to be print transferred to any substrates. High-performance TFTs were demonstrated on the transferred poly-Si membranes on a PET substrate

  17. Comparison of solidification of floating drop and homogenous liquid-liquid microextractions for the extraction of two plasticizers from the water kept in PET-bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Khalili-Zanjani, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mohammad; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-09-01

    Two approaches based on solidification of floating drop microextraction (SFDME) and homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLE) were compared for the extraction and preconcentration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) from the mineral water samples. In SFDME, a floated drop of the mixture of acetophenone/1-undecanol (1:8) was exposed on the surface of the aqueous solution and extraction was permitted to occur. In HLLE, a homogenous ternary solvent system was used by water/methanol/chloroform and the phase separation phenomenon occurred by salt addition. Under the optimal conditions, the LODs for the two target plasticizers (DEHA and DEHP), obtained by SFDME-GC-FID and HLLE-GC-FID, were ranged from 0.03 to 0.01 microg/L and 0.02 to 0.01 microg/L, respectively. HLLE provided higher preconcentration factors (472.5- and 551.2-fold) within the shorter extraction time as well as better RSDs (4.5-6.9%). While, in SFDME, high preconcentration factors in the range of 162-198 and good RSDs in the range of 5.2-9.6% were obtained. Both methods were applied for the analysis of two plasticizers in different water samples and two target plasticizers were found in the bottled mineral water after the expiring time and the boiling water was exposed to a polyethylene vial.

  18. Effect of PET functionalization in composites of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cazan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET from tire rubber–PET–high density polyethylene (HDPE composites represents a key strategy for improving the composite properties. This is a practical and effective method to improve the interface between matrix (waste tire rubber and fillers (waste PET and HDPE. By PET functionalization, adherence and surface properties of composite materials can be controlled. PET functionalization was performed with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400, 1% and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS 1%. The characterization of the components and composite are discussed in terms of surface energy values (evaluated from water contact angle measurements and surface morphology by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The structural and conformational changes were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy while the crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The improved interfacial adhesion, thermal stability and mechanical properties (stress–strain, compression and impact resistance of the composites are correlated with the PET functionalization, with non-ionic (PEG and an anionic surfactant (SDS. The results proved that the interface properties are improved by functionalization of PET. The best mechanical properties were recorded at 30 min moulding. The samples with 45% PET–SDS showed the best combination of mechanical properties: tensile strength (1.56 N/mm2, impact strength (43.72 kJ/m2 and compression (158.78 N/mm2.

  19. Investigation on an innovative technology for wet separation of plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica; La Marca, Floriana; Fulco, Simone; Pinzi, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an original device for the separation of plastic polymers from mixtures. Due to the combination of a characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, this device allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the apparatus, using two geometric arrangements, nine hydraulic configurations and three selections of polymers at three stages of a material life cycle. Tests with samples composed of a single typology of polymer have been used to understand the interaction between the particles and the carrying fluid within the apparatus in different hydraulic configurations and geometric arrangements. Multi-material tests are essential to simulate the real conditions in an industrial recycling plant. The separation results have been evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of a useful material. Under the proper hydraulic configurations, the experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) from a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polycarbonate (PC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 99.5% and 95.1%) and a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 97.9% and 100.0%). It is further demonstrated that almost pure concentrates of PVC and PC can be produced from a mixture of 85% PVC and 15% PC (PVC grade and recovery equal to 99.9% and 99.7%) and a mixture of 85% PC and 15% PVC (PC grade and recovery equal to 99.0% and 99.5%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  1. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  2. Preliminary quantification of the permeability, solubility and diffusion coefficients of major aroma compounds present in herbs through various plastic packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Auras, Rafael A; Burgess, Gary J; Harte, Janice B; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2018-03-01

    Aroma permeation through packaging material is an important factor when designing a package for food products. The masses of aroma compounds permeating through films over time were measured at 25 °C using a quasi-isostatic system. A model was proposed for estimating the permeability coefficients (P) of key aroma compounds present in fresh herbs (i.e. eucalyptol, estragole, linalool and citral) through major plastic films used by the food industry [i.e. low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), nylon (Nylon), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), metalised-polyethylene terephthalate (MPET) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)]. Solubility coefficients (S) were estimated from the amount of aroma compound sorbed in the films. Diffusion coefficients (D) were estimated following from the relation P = D*S. P and D for all four aroma compounds were highest in LDPE, except for eucalyptol, which P was slightly higher in PLA. The solubility coefficients and contact angles were highest in PLA suggesting the highest affinity of PLA to these aroma compounds. The theoretical solubility parameters were correlated with the solubility coefficients for estragole and citral, but not for eucalyptol and linalool. The preliminary P, D and S of eucalyptol, estragole, linalool and citral through LDPE, PP, Nylon, PET, MPET and PLA can be useful in selecting the proper packaging material for preserving these specific aroma compounds in food products and can potentially be used for estimating the shelf life of food products based on aroma loss. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Utilização de resíduos da madeira de candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. Macleish na produção de painéis aglomerados com adição de pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate, through the physical and mechanical properties, the panels production viability with inclusion of candeia (Eremanthus  erythropappus wood residues and the influence of different percentages of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, as well as the presence and absence of paraffin on the properties of particleboard. There were used candeia wood residues, after oil extraction, in association with eucalypt wood in the proportion of 25:75 and urea-formaldehyde adhesive (12% for panels production; besides the PET incorporation in particle form, which were originated from soft drink bottles and included in three percentages (0%, 25% e 50% in treatments in the presence (1% and absence of paraffin emulsion. The panels pressing cycle occurred under electric heating at 160°C, 0.4 MPa of pressure, during 8 minutes. The experimental design was entirely randomized with three repetitions. The properties evaluated, according to DIN (1971, ASTM D 1037-93 (1995 and CS 236-66 (1968 standards, were: internal bonding; static bending (modulus of elasticity - MOE and rupture ¿ MOR; compression parallel to the panel surface; water absorption and thickness swelling, after 2 and 24 hours water soaking. The panel mechanical properties decreased with increasing in PETlevel; in general, paraffin addition did not improve the wood/plastic panels resistance and higroscopicity; the utilization of candeia wood residues is viable, in association with eucalypt wood, for the wood/plastic panel production, since the properties attended the minimum demands of the standards, except static bending.

  5. A one-step strategy for ultra-fast and low-cost mass production of plastic membrane microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chong; Lin, Sheng; Li, Wanbo; Sun, Han; Chen, Yangfan; Chan, Chiu-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wu, Hongkai; Ren, Kangning

    2016-10-05

    An ultra-fast, extremely cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method was developed for fabricating flexible microfluidic chips with plastic membranes. With this method, we could fabricate plastic microfluidic chips rapidly (within 12 seconds per piece) at an extremely low cost (less than $0.02 per piece). We used a heated perfluoropolymer perfluoroalkoxy (often called Teflon PFA) solid stamp to press a pile of two pieces of plastic membranes, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). During the short period of contact with the heated PFA stamp, the pressed area of the membranes permanently bonded, while the LDPE membrane spontaneously rose up at the area not pressed, forming microchannels automatically. These two regions were clearly distinguishable even at the micrometer scale so we were able to fabricate microchannels with widths down to 50 microns. This method combines the two steps in the conventional strategy for microchannel fabrication, generating microchannels and sealing channels, into a single step. The production is a green process without using any solvent or generating any waste. Also, the chips showed good resistance against the absorption of Rhodamine 6G, oligonucleotides, and green fluorescent protein (GFP). We demonstrated some typical microfluidic manipulations with the flexible plastic membrane chips, including droplet formation, on-chip capillary electrophoresis, and peristaltic pumping for quantitative injection of samples and reagents. In addition, we demonstrated convenient on-chip detection of lead ions in water samples by a peristaltic-pumping design, as an example of the application of the plastic membrane chips in a resource-limited environment. Due to the high speed and low cost of the fabrication process, this single-step method will facilitate the mass production of microfluidic chips and commercialization of microfluidic technologies.

  6. Effect of Different Manufacturing Methods on the Conflict between Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Spiral and Porous Polyethylene Terephthalate/Sodium Alginate Bone Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Lou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the incompatibility between high porosity and mechanical properties, this study fabricates bone scaffolds by combining braids and sodium alginate (SA membranes. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET plied yarns are braided into hollow, porous three dimensional (3D PET braids, which are then immersed in SA solution, followed by cross-linking with calcium chloride (CaCl2 and drying, to form PET bone scaffolds. Next, SA membranes are rolled and then inserted into the braids to form the spiral and porous PET/SA bone scaffolds. Samples are finally evaluated for surface observation, porosity, water contact angle, compressive strength, and MTT assay. The test results show that the PET bone scaffolds and PET/SA bone scaffolds both have good hydrophilicity. An increasing number of layers and an increasing CaCl2 concentration cause the messy, loose surface structure to become neat and compact, which, in turn, decreases the porosity and increases the compressive strength. The MTT assay results show that the cell viability of differing SA membranes is beyond 100%, indicating that the PET/SA bone scaffolds containing SA membranes are biocompatible for cell attachment and proliferation.

  7. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  8. Recent advances in high performance poly(lactide): from “green” plasticization to super-tough materials via (reactive) compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Georgio; Raquez, Jean-Marie; Hassouna, Fatima; Odent, Jérémy; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Due to its origin from renewable resources, its biodegradability, and recently, its industrial implementation at low costs, poly(lactide) (PLA) is considered as one of the most promising ecological, bio-sourced and biodegradable plastic materials to potentially and increasingly replace traditional petroleum derived polymers in many commodity and engineering applications. Beside its relatively high rigidity [high tensile strength and modulus compared with many common thermoplastics such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), high impact poly(styrene) (HIPS) and poly(propylene) (PP)], PLA suffers from an inherent brittleness, which can limit its applications especially where mechanical toughness such as plastic deformation at high impact rates or elongation is required. Therefore, the curve plotting stiffness vs. impact resistance and ductility must be shifted to higher values for PLA-based materials, while being preferably fully bio-based and biodegradable upon the application. This review aims to establish a state of the art focused on the recent progresses and preferably economically viable strategies developed in the literature for significantly improve the mechanical performances of PLA. A particular attention is given to plasticization as well as to impact resistance modification of PLA in the case of (reactive) blending PLA-based systems. PMID:24790960

  9. Solvent-Induced Crystallization in Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) during Mass Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao

    2001-03-01

    The solvent transport in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and related phase transformation were investigated. The data of mass sorption were analyzed according to Harmon¡¦s model for Case I (Fickian), Case II (swelling) and anomalous transport. This transport process in PET is accompanied by the induced crystallization of the original amorphous state. The transformation was studied by wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), density gradient column, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). During this process, the matrix is under a compressive strain that causes different kinetic path of crystallization as compared to that by thermal annealing. This state of strain will assist the development of the solvent-induced crystallization. It also can be explained in terms of the principle of Le Chatelier if the local equilibrium is assumed. The model regarding the crystallization was proposed in terms of the study of long period L, the crystal thickness lc and the thickness of amorphous layer la, obtained from the linear correlation function and interface distribution function.

  10. Thermal Properties, Structure and Morphology of Graphene Reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate/ Polypropylene Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuwa, I.M.; Hassan, A.; Shamsudin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the thermal properties, structure and morphology of a blend of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) reinforced with graphene nano platelets (GNP) were investigated. A blend of PET/ PP (70/ 30 weight percent) compatibilized with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted maleic anhydride triblock copolymer (10 phr) were fabricated by melt extrusion process in a twin screw extruder. The effective thermal conductivity of the nano composites increased as a function of the GNP concentration. More than 80 % increase in effective thermal conductivity was observed for the 7 phr reinforced sample compared to the neat blend. This observation was attributed to the development interconnected GNP sheets which formed heat conductive bridges that are suitable for maximum heat transfer. However, in the case of thermal stability which is a function of dispersibility of GNP in polymer matrix, the maximum increase was observed at 3 phr GNP loading which could be attributed to the uniform dispersion of GNPs in the matrix. It is explained that the GNP nano fillers migrated to the surface of matrix forming an effective oxygen barrier due to char formation. Morphological studies revealed uniform dispersion graphene in the polymer matrix at 3 phr GNP loading along with isolated instances of exfoliation of the graphene layers. (author)

  11. Experimental study on tensile bifurcation of nanoscale Cu film bonded to polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Yutao; Wang, Shibin; Jia, Haikun; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Linan; Zhang, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    Cu films are widely used in flexible electronic products. Tensile mechanical properties of the film determine product performance. In this paper, tensile experiments of sputtered Cu films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate were carried out under an optical microscope. In the experiments, three changes took place under tension: uniform deformation, microcrack initiation and propagation, and microcrack saturation. The elastic modulus of the Cu film is 120 GPa and is independent of film thickness since the film is formed to be continuous in the nanoscale range. Film thickness is an important parameter to decide the tensile properties. The critical fracture strain, the interfacial bonding strength, and the crack spacing after saturation are related to film thickness. The critical strain and the interfacial bonding strength of the nanoscale Cu film tend to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. The microcrack spacing is in direct proportion to film thickness after the microcrack saturates. The optimum thickness of the sputtered Cu films on the PET substrate is about 500 nm. - Highlights: • The elastic modulus of the Cu films is 120 GPa and does not change with thickness. • The optimal thickness of the Cu films is about 500 nm. • The critical strain tends to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. • The interfacial strength changes in accordance with the critical strain. • Microcrack spacing is proportional to film thickness after the microcrack saturates

  12. Surface properties of beached plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K

    2015-07-01

    Studying plastic characteristics in the marine environment is important to better understand interaction between plastics and the environment. In the present study, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene terephalate (PET), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) samples were collected from the coastal environment in order to study their surface properties. Surface properties such as surface functional groups, surface topography, point of zero charge, and color change are important factors that change during degradation. Eroded HDPE demonstrated an altered surface topography and color and new functional groups. Eroded PET surface was uneven, yellow, and occasionally, colonized by microbes. A decrease in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) peaks was observed for eroded PET suggesting that degradation had occurred. For eroded PVC, its surface became more lamellar and a new FTIR peak was observed. These surface properties were obtained due to degradation and could be used to explain the interaction between plastics, microbes, and pollutants.

  13. Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-based carbons as electrode material in supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-García, M.; Fernández López, José Antonio; Almazán-Almazán, M.C.; López-Garzón, F.J.; Stoeckli, F.; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study by complementary techniques shows that PET-waste from plastic vessels is a competitive precursor of carbon electrodes for supercapacitors. PET derived-activated carbons follow the general trends observed for highly porous carbons and display specific capacitances at low current density as high as 197 F g−1 in 2 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte and 98 F g−1 in the aprotic medium 1 M (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile. Additionally, high performance has also been achieved at high current de...

  14. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  15. Improved adhesion of Ag NPs to the polyethylene terephthalate surface via atmospheric plasma treatment and surface functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tao [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Liu, Yong [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Solmont Technology Wuxi Co., Ltd. 228 Linghu Blvd. Tianan Tech Park, A1-602, Xinwu District, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214135 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Yang, De-Quan, E-mail: dequan.yang@gmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 253 Xuefu Rd, Kunming, Yunnan, 650093 (China); Solmont Technology Wuxi Co., Ltd. 228 Linghu Blvd. Tianan Tech Park, A1-602, Xinwu District, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214135 (China); Sacher, Edward [Regroupement Québécois de Matériaux de Pointe, Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Case Postale 6079, succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A two-step process has been developed to enhance the adhesion of immobilized Ag NPs to the PET surface. • The method is simple, easy to use and low-cost for mass production. • The increased density of active sites (−OH, −CH=O and COOH) at the PET surface, after plasma treatment, permits increased reaction with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). • The presence of APTES with high surface density permits −NH{sub 2}-Ag complex formation, increasing the adhesion of the Ag NPs. - Abstract: Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied, as important antibacterial materials, on textile and polymer surfaces. However, their adhesion to nonreactive polymer surfaces is generally too weak for many applications. Here, we propose a two-step process, atmospheric plasma treatment followed by a surface chemical modification process, which enhances their adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. We found that, compared to either plasma treatments or surface chemical functionalizations, alone, this combination greatly enhanced their adhesion. The plasma treatment resulted in an increase of active sites (−OH, −CH=O and COOH) at the PET surface, permitting increased bonding to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), whose −NH{sub 2} groups were then able to form a bonding complex with the Ag NPs.

  16. Parametric study on the steam reforming of phenol-PET solution to hydrogen production over Ni promoted on Al_2O_3-La_2O_3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabgan, Bahador; Nabgan, Walid; Tuan Abdullah, Tuan Amran; Tahir, Muhammad; Gambo, Yahya; Ibrahim, Maryam; Syie Luing, Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Parametric study of H_2 production from phenol-PET steam reforming was studied. • Optimised conditions were 800 °C, 0.10 ml/min feed flow rate, and 7% PET. • High amount of aliphatic branched-chains and cyclic compounds were produced. • PET was efficiently converted to hydrogen and valuable fuels at optimized condition. • Significant influence resulted for all the main independent factors. - Abstract: Production of hydrogen from plastic waste could be a prospective key to the ecological problems resulted from waste. To further explore the process, a 32-runs parametric study on the steam reforming of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dissolved in phenol was conducted in a fixed bed reactor using Ni over La_2O_3-Al_2O_3 support. The five factors studied were temperature (A), feed flow rate (B), mass flow (C), phenol concentration (D), and concentration of PET solution (E), whereas the responses were phenol conversion (Y_1) and hydrogen selectivity (Y_2). From the result, it was observed that significant influence resulted for all the main independent variables on the dependent variable of Y_1 and Y_2 with the range of 47.24–97.6% and 49–70.96%, respectively. Moreover, the Y_1 and Y_2 responses have influenced by some interaction variables like AC, CD, CE, ACE, and BCE. As evident from the design, initial variables such as 800 °C, 0.10 ml/min feed flow rate, 10 SCCM mass flow, 10 wt.% of phenol in the feed, and 7% PET concentration were the best preliminary conditions that formed maximum Y_1 (94%) and Y_2 (71%) responses. However, analyses on the product composition revealed that high amount of aliphatic branched-chains along with moderate amount of cyclic compounds were produced from steam reforming of PET-phenol. Due to the short retention time of the compounds on the catalysts bed, the aromatization of PET cracking products was small.

  17. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  18. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  19. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of osseointegration of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament by coating of silk fibroin and depositing of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia; Wan, Fang; Yang, Jianjun; Hao, Wei; Wang, Yaxian; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Application of artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is one of the research focuses of sports medicine but the biological tendon–bone healing still remains a problem. The preliminary study of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface could effectively induce the osteoblast differentiation, but the tendon–bone healing was still not stable. As a green synthesis process, the biomimetic mineralization can simulate the natural bone growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods HAP crystals were grown under the guide of silk fibroin (SF) PET surface by biomimetic route. Several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized for proving the introduction of both SF and HAP. The viability and osseointegration of bone marrow stromal cells on the surface of three kinds of ligament, including PET group (non-coating group), PET+SF group (SF-coating group), and PET+SF+HAP group (combined HAP- and SF-coating group), were analyzed by CCK-8 assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection. Seventy-two mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Among them, 36 rabbits were sacrificed for mechanical testing, and histological examination for the others. Results The SF and SF+HAP were successfully coated on the surface of PET fiber. The CCK-8 assay showed that the cell proliferation on PET+SF+HAP group was better than the other two groups from 24 to 120 hours. After 14 days of culture, the cells in the PET+SF+HAP group delivered higher levels of ALP than the other two groups. After 3 days of culture, the expression level of integrin β1 in the PET+SF+HAP group and PET+SF group were higher than in the PET group. The mean load to failure and the stiffness value of the PET+SF+HAP group were both higher than the other two groups. Hematoxylin and

  1. Enhancement of osseointegration of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament by coating of silk fibroin and depositing of hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jia Jiang,1,2 Fang Wan,1 Jianjun Yang,1 Wei Hao,3 Yaxian Wang,3 Jinrong Yao,3 Zhengzhong Shao,3 Peng Zhang,1 Jun Chen,1 Liang Zhou,4 Shiyi Chen11Fudan University Sports Medicine Center and Department of Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Surgery, Huashan Hospital, 2State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, 3Laboratory of Advanced Materials, National Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Forest Products, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei Anhui Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Application of artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is one of the research focuses of sports medicine but the biological tendon–bone healing still remains a problem. The preliminary study of hydroxyapatite (HAP coating on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET surface could effectively induce the osteoblast differentiation, but the tendon–bone healing was still not stable. As a green synthesis process, the biomimetic mineralization can simulate the natural bone growth in vitro and in vivo.Methods: HAP crystals were grown under the guide of silk fibroin (SF PET surface by biomimetic route. Several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized for proving the introduction of both SF and HAP. The viability and osseointegration of bone marrow stromal cells on the surface of three kinds of ligament, including PET group (non-coating group, PET+SF group (SF-coating group, and PET+SF+HAP group (combined HAP- and SF-coating group, were analyzed by CCK-8 assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP detection. Seventy-two mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Among them, 36 rabbits were sacrificed for mechanical testing, and

  2. Enhancement of osseointegration of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament by coating of silk fibroin and depositing of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia; Wan, Fang; Yang, Jianjun; Hao, Wei; Wang, Yaxian; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-01-01

    Application of artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is one of the research focuses of sports medicine but the biological tendon-bone healing still remains a problem. The preliminary study of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface could effectively induce the osteoblast differentiation, but the tendon-bone healing was still not stable. As a green synthesis process, the biomimetic mineralization can simulate the natural bone growth in vitro and in vivo. HAP crystals were grown under the guide of silk fibroin (SF) PET surface by biomimetic route. Several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized for proving the introduction of both SF and HAP. The viability and osseointegration of bone marrow stromal cells on the surface of three kinds of ligament, including PET group (non-coating group), PET+SF group (SF-coating group), and PET+SF+HAP group (combined HAP- and SF-coating group), were analyzed by CCK-8 assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection. Seventy-two mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Among them, 36 rabbits were sacrificed for mechanical testing, and histological examination for the others. The SF and SF+HAP were successfully coated on the surface of PET fiber. The CCK-8 assay showed that the cell proliferation on PET+SF+HAP group was better than the other two groups from 24 to 120 hours. After 14 days of culture, the cells in the PET+SF+HAP group delivered higher levels of ALP than the other two groups. After 3 days of culture, the expression level of integrin β1 in the PET+SF+HAP group and PET+SF group were higher than in the PET group. The mean load to failure and the stiffness value of the PET+SF+HAP group were both higher than the other two groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that new bone

  3. Measurement of low neutron-fluences using electrochemically etched PC and PET track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Dajko, G.; Turek, K.; Spurny, F.

    1979-01-01

    Systematic investigations have been carried out to study different properties of electrochemically etched (ECE) polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) foils. The dependence of the density of background discharge spots on surface-thickness removal, electrical field strength and frequency of voltage is given. The effect of these parameters on the neutron sensitivity of polycarbonate and polyethylene-terephthalate foils irradiated at right angles to 14.7 MeV, 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutrons is also studied. With knowledge of the background and sensitivity data, the etching and electrical parameters are optimized for low neutron-fluence measurements. (author)

  4. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikam, Pravin N., E-mail: pravinya26@gmail.com; Deshpande, Vineeta D., E-mail: drdeshpandevd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400019, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ{sub AC}) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ{sub AC} of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}), critical frequency (ω{sub c}), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  5. Characterization of polyester composites from recycled polyethylene terephthalate reinforced with empty fruit bunch fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chiachun; Ahmad, Ishak; Heng, Muichin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was synthesized from recycled PET. → Effect of surface treatment on EFB/UPR was studied. → Treatment on EFB improved the mechanical and thermal properties. → Treatment on EFB also improved fiber-matrix interaction. -- Abstract: Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was synthesized from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) which acted as a matrix for the preparation of UPR/empty fruit bunch fibers (EFB) composite. Chemical recycling on fine pieces of PET bottles were conducted through glycolysis process using ethylene glycol. The unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was then prepared by reacting the glycolysed product with maleic anhydride. FTIR analysis of glycolyzed product and prepared UPR showed that cross-links between unsaturated polyester chain and styrene monomer occurred at the unsaturated sites which resulted in the forming of cross-linking network. The preparation of UPR/EFB composite was carried out by adding EFB into prepared UPR matrix. The effects of surface treatment on EFB with sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), silane coupling agent and maleic anhydride (MA) were then studied. The experimental results showed that treated EFB have higher values of tensile and impact strength compared with untreated EFB. The best results were obtained for silane treatment followed by MA and NaOH treatments where the tensile strength was increased by about 21%, 18% and 13% respectively. SEM micrographs of the tensile fracture surfaces of UPR/EFB composite also proved that treatment on EFB has increased the interfacial adhesion between the fiber and UPR matrix compared to the untreated UPR/EFB composite.

  6. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  7. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  8. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al_2O_3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ_A_C) of