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Sample records for tercer molar mandibular

  1. Cicatrización periodontal del segundo molar mandibular tras la exodoncia del tercer molar mandibular incluido

    OpenAIRE

    Inocêncio Teixeira de Faria, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    La extracción quirúrgica del tercer molar (M3) puede provocar complicaciones periodontales en la cara distal del segundo molar (M2) adyacente. Se realizó un estudio clínico prospectivo a 12 meses en 25 pacientes jóvenes sanos (edad media 21 años) sometidos a 40 extracciones quirúrgicas de M3 mandibulares incluidos con elevado riesgo periodontal, con objeto de estudiar la cicatrización periodontal espontánea en la cara distal del M2. Prequirúrgicamente y a 3, 6 y 12 meses tras l...

  2. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

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    C. López Carriches; I. Leco Berrocal; R. Baca Pérez-Bryan

    2008-01-01

    La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia...

  3. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

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    C. López Carriches

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia del cordal semiincluido bajo anestesia local. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica al respecto.Dental fusion is the union of two tooth buds that normally are separated, while gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide. The fusion and gemination of molars is uncommon in permanent teeth. We report a clinical case of a right lower third molar fused to a supernumerary fourth molar in a 36-year-old male patient with repeated episodes of inflammation. After the radiologic study, the semi-impacted third molar was extracted under local anesthesia. The literature was reviewed.

  4. Eficacia del uso del plasma rico en factores de crecimiento en defectos periodontales distales de segundos molares inferiores, posterior a la extracción de un tercer molar mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Cepeda-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Fierro-Serna, Víctor Mario; García-García, Carlos Eduardo; Martínez-Rider, Ricardo; Noyola-Frías, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de la aplicación de plasma rico en factores de crecimiento (PRFC), dentro de un defecto periodontal distal, a los segundos molares inferiores después de la extracción de un tercer molar mandibular. Material y métodos: Se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado, doble ciego, aleatorizado en 20 pacientes sanos, con defectos óseos bilaterales posterior a la extracción de un tercer molar retenido. Los pacientes fueron dividos en grupo...

  5. Valoración de la presencia y estado de erupción del tercer molar inferior en las fracturas del ángulo mandibular

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    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de 176 pacientes con fractura de mandíbula en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Provincial Docente «Saturnino Lora» de Santiago de Cuba, durante los años 1990-1995, con la finalidad de analizar la posible interrelación entre las fracturas del ángulo y la presencia y estado de erupción del tercer molar inferior. Se pudo comprobar que la incidencia de dichas fracturas era de gran significación cuando los terceros molares inferiores no erupcionados se hallaban presentes, que había una predisposición más marcada a la fractura del ángulo cuando ésta se producía bilateralmente, así como también que el tercer molar inferior no erupcionado debilitaba el ángulo de la mandíbula, tanto cualitativa como cuantitativamente; o sea, se demostró una relación directa entre la cantidad de espacio óseo ocupado por el tercer molar inferior no erupcionado y la debilidad del área del hueso.A prospective study was performed in 176 patients presenting mandibular factures, treated in Maxillofacial Surgery Service of «Saturnino Lora» Teaching Provincial Hospital, Santiago de Cuba (1990-1995, to analyse possible interrelation between angle fractures and presence and state of eruption of inferior third molars. We check out that incidence of such fractures was significant when non-erupted inferior third molars were present, a remarkable predisposition against angle fracture when this one was bilateral, as well as that non-erupted inferior third molars weakened mandibular angle, both qualitatively as quantitatively; that is, a direct relationship between amount of bone space, occupied by non erupted inferior third molar and weakness of bone area was proved.

  6. Eficacia del uso del plasma rico en factores de crecimiento en defectos periodontales distales de segundos molares inferiores, posterior a la extracción de un tercer molar mandibular

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    Carlos Sánchez-Gutiérrez

    2017-07-01

    Conclusiones: No se encontró diferencia significativa con el uso de PRFC en cuanto a ganancia en el nivel clínico de inserción periodontal en el área distal de segundos molares después de la extracción de terceros molares inferiores retenidos.

  7. Mandibular lip bumper for molar torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Giuseppe; Longobardi, Annalisa; Cannavale, Rosangela; Perillo, Letizia

    2011-01-01

    Treatment effects of lip bumpers alone include flaring of the mandibular incisors, distalization and uprighting of the mandibular first molars, and buccal expansion of the canines, premolars, and molar. Lip forces are transmitted through this appliance onto the molars. Moreover the lip bumper is able to derotate, expand or constrict, upright and reinforce the anchorage whereas torque control is lacking. Aim of this paper is the presentation of a new type of lip bumper that allows the molar torque control. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Exodoncia del tercer molar: Factores que determinan complejidad

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    Ivan Manotas Arevalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los procedimientos más frecuentes en el campo de la Cirugía Oral es la exodoncia, o extracción dental. La prevención y la promoción de hábitos saludables dentro de los que se cuenta la práctica del cepillado dental, uso de dentífricos, hilo dental y enjuagatorios bucales, además de visitas periódicas de control a especialistas y odontólogos generales e higienistas bucales ha conllevado a una reducción en la perdida de estructuras dentarias por causa de la caries y las periodontopatìas. Sin embargo se mantiene alto el número de exodoncias indicadas por falta de espacio en la estructura de los maxilares para la erupción dental, así como alteraciones en la posición y angulacion de los órganos dentales sobre su eje que impide una adecuada ubicación logrando que se indique su extracción. Dentro de la serie dental los órganos dentarios más frecuentemente afectados por este tipo de alteraciones son los terceros molares. También se mencionan que son esos mismos dientes los que acusan mayor grado de complejidad para realizar el procedimiento de exodoncia, y los que causan mayor grado de morbilidad posquirúrgica en el paciente, con un número mayor de complicaciones y su severidad, descritas en la literatura. (Duazary 2008; 141-147. Este artículo pretende analizar los factores que determinan complejidad en la exodoncia del tercer molar a partir de una revisión bibliografía y comparación de ésta.AbstractOne of the most frequent procedure used in the field of Oral Surgery is extracted, or tooth extraction. The prevention and promoting healthy habits in mind that the practice of brushing teeth, use of toothpastes, mouthwashes and dental floss mouth, in addition to regular monitoring visits to specialists and general dentists and oral hygiene has led to a reduction in the loss of structures caused by tooth decay and periodontal pathology. However remains high number of extractions indicated by lack of space in the

  9. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

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    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  10. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and its association to caries in mandibular second molar: A clinical variant

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    V K Prajapati

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, pattern of mandibular third molar impaction is in association to caries in mandibular second molar. More future studies are needed. In addition, the results of the present study can be used to screen and inform the patients about the possibility of caries in relation to third molar mandibular impaction.

  11. Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

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    Dennis Flanagan DDS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

  12. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

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    Roopadevi Garlapati; Bhuvan Shome Venigalla; Shekhar Kamishetty; Jayaprakash Thumu

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodo...

  13. Absceso subperióstico y síndrome del vértice orbitario: Complicación posterior a la extracción del tercer molar mandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Salado R,Lupe; Alvarez S,Lupe; Brunetto M,Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: La diseminación de las infecciones que se extienden de dientes mandibulares y estructuras adyacentes hacia la órbita y tejido periorbitario son infrecuentes, pero graves ya que tienen el potencial de causar la pérdida de la visión. Objetivos: El propósito de este artículo es publicar un caso clínico muy interesante por lo infrecuente, y explicar a juicio de los autores las vías de diseminación de la infección, a su vez alertar a los diferentes especialistas involucrados sobre la...

  14. How will mandibular third molar surgery affect mandibular second molar periodontal parameters?

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    Tabrizi, Reza; Arabion, Hamidreza; Gholami, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Several conflicting findings have been published in the previous literature regarding the effects of impacted third molar surgery on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar; some authors have shown improvement of periodontal health distal to the adjacent second molar, whilst others have demonstrated loss of attachment level (AL) and reduction of alveolar bone height. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in periodontal health parameters distal to the adjacent second molar following extraction of an impacted third molar. Out of 50 patients participated in the study, 42 patients completed the study. The mean age of the sample was 20.9 (range, 18-25) years. All teeth were mesioangular impacted mandibular third molars categorized at C1 class based on the Pell and Gregory classification. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon and the same surgeon recorded the pre-operative and post-operative measurements of probing depth (PD) and AL on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars. Data analysis were carried out with the SPSS software (version 19), using the paired-samples t-test and one sample t-test. Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar resulted in a significant increase of PD on the distobuccal aspect of the second molars, whereas AL was decreased significantly after surgery (P molar after extraction of impacted third molar, our study showed a significant increase in PD at the distal aspect of the second molar. Further follow-up on clinical and radiological parameters are required for more profound understanding of the long-term effects of third molar extraction on the periodontal parameters of the adjacent second molar.

  15. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  16. Radiologic study of mandibular third molar of Korean youths

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    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-11-15

    The author has made a study on the classification of the mandibular 3rd molars of Korean youths through dental radiography by means of Pell and Gregory's classification and on the prevalence of the dental caries of distal surface of the mandibular 2nd molar adjacent to the mandibular 3rd molars turned anteriorly. The results are as follow; 1. It was found that the largest case number was class I (272 cases, 52.9%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar. 2. The mesio-angular position was the largest number (239 cases, 46.5%) in the relation of the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd molar to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 3. The mesio-angular position of class I was the largest number (140 cases, 27.2%) in the relation of the tooth to the ramus of the mandible and 2nd molar and the long axis of the impacted mandibular 3rd moral to the long axis of the 2nd molar. 4. The average angle of the long axis of mandibular 3rd molar in mesioangular position or horizontal position to the occlusal plane was 143 W 5. Mandibular 3rd molar with lesion such as dental cries or pericoronitis was 73 cases (14.2). 6. The caries incidence rate of the distal surface of the 2nd molar was about 3.1%.

  17. Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant root morphology of third mandibular molar in normal and impacted teeth. Isaac Kipyator Bokindo, Fawzia Butt, Francis Macigo. Abstract. The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its extraction. The root morphology ...

  18. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords like impaction, mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, complications, anatomy, inferior alveolar nerve injury, lingual nerve injury were used to search the databases. A total of 826 articles were screened, and 50 articles were included in the review which was obtained from 1980 to February 2015.

  19. Internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the internal root morphology and gender variations in mandibular first permanent molars in a Kenyan population. Design: In vitro descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi Results: The mesial root of mandibular first molars had two canals in 96.3% of ...

  20. [Clinical analysis of caries status of the mandibular second molar].

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    You, Chun-an; Zheng, Ping; Hu, Ning; Su, Qin

    2014-04-01

    To collect the cases which have caries on the mandibular second molar and analyze the caries status and correlative factors. Patients treated in the Department of Endodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology were randomly collected. The baseline information, primary sites and severity of dental caries on the mandibular second molar, and eruption pattern of the mandibular third molar were recorded. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Four hundred eighty-one patients including 227 males and 254 females were collected. Caries on the mandibular second molar starting from the occlusal, distal proximal and buccal surfaces accounted for 33.8%, 33.2% and 24.4%, respectively. Caries involving dental pulp (49.7%) were significantly more than deep and shallow to moderate caries (31.7% and 18.6%). Gender was not correlated with the site and severity of caries. However, impacted mandibular third molars and age were significantly related to both caries site and severity. Occlusal and distal proximal surfaces are the most predisposed sites to have caries on mandibular second molar. Impacted mandibular third molar and age are significantly related to caries of mandibular second molar.

  1. Autotransplantation of Mandibular Third Molar: A Case Report

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    Pabbati Ravi kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous transplantation is a feasible, fast, and economical option for the treatment of nonsalvageable teeth when a suitable donor tooth is available. This paper presents successful autotransplantation of a mature mandibular left third molar (38 without anatomical variances is used to replace a mandibular left second molar (37. The mandibular second molar was nonrestorable due to extensive root caries and resorption of distal root. After extraction of mandibular second and third molars, root canal therapy was done for the third molar extraorally, and the tooth was reimplanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. After one year, clinical and radiographic examination revealed satisfactory outcome with no signs or symptoms suggestive of pathology. In selected cases, autogenous tooth transplantation, even after complete root formation of the donor tooth, may be considered as a practical treatment alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation or implant treatment.

  2. Ceramic onlay for endodontically treated mandibular molar

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    Roopadevi Garlapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of endodontically treated teeth is important for the success of endodontic treatment. In full coverage restorations, maximum amount of tooth structure is compromised, so as to conserve the amount of tooth structure partial coverage restorations, can be preferred. This case report is on fabrication of a conservative tooth colored restoration for an endodontically treated posterior tooth. A 22-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular left first molar. After endodontic treatment, composite material was used as postendodontic restoration. The tooth was then prepared to receive a ceramic onlay and bonded with self-adhesive universal resin cement. Ceramic onlay restoration was periodically examined up to 2 years.

  3. Unusal canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular second molars

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    Ramachandran Ragunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical article describes three different case reports of maxillary and mandibular second molars with the unusual anatomy of single root with a single canal and their endodontic management. An unusual case of bilateralism is observed in the first two cases in the form of single-rooted second mandibular molars in both the quadrant of the same patient. The presence of maxillary second molar with single root and single canal in the third case is unusual.

  4. Positional relationship between mandibular third molar and mandibular canal in cone beam computed tomographs

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    Yu, Su Kyung; Lee, Ji Un; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National Univ. Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To provide diagnostic information by evaluation of the positional relationship between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal. Eighty-nine mandibular third molars were classified as mesioangular, horizontal, vertical, distoangular groups. The distances between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were measured in cone-beam computed tomographs. The height and width ratios of distances from the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal to the mandibular inferior border and to the lingual cortical plate were calculated. The vertical and buccolingual distances between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal were 0.03 mm, 2.96 mm in the mesioangular, 0.37 mm, 3.38 ,, in the horizontal, -1.50 mm, 1.38 mm in the vertical, -1.10 mm, 4.20 mm in the distoangular group. There were significant differences in vertical (P<0.05), but not in buccolingual (P>0.05). The height and width ratios of distances on the mandibular third molar were 47.1%, 36.1% in the mesioangular, 47.4%, 34.4% in the horizontal, 37.0%, 46.7% in the vertical, 40.9%, 37.4% in the distoangular group. There were significant differences between the mesioangular and the vertical group, and the horizontal and the vertical group in height ratio (P>0.05). The mesioangular group showed the nearest distance between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal vertically. The root apex of the mandibular third molar was positioned more buccally in the vertical group than in the mesioangular group.

  5. Surgical approach to impacted mandibular third molars--operative classification.

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    Abu-El Naaj, Imad; Braun, Refael; Leiser, Yoav; Peled, Micha

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to suggest a convenient way to classify the position of the impacted third mandibular molar relative to the mandibular canal and to suggest indications for the use of each surgical approach for mandibular third molar extraction. The presented new typing system, Third Molar Classification (TMC), is a simple and easy-to-apply method for the surgical management of mandibular third molars and can be extended for any ectopic or impacted mandibular tooth. There are 3 major types of third molar positions. The second type is subdivided further into 2 subtypes. In the present study, 9 patients with high-risk mandibular third molars were treated according to the present classification and are presented and discussed. Patients typed as TMC IIb were treated with a sagittal split osteotomy approach and patients typed as TMC III were treated with an extraoral approach. The operative classification was successfully implemented in very rare cases of deeply impacted mandibular third molars. In 3 of 9 cases (33%) minor complications included some degree of hypoesthesia using the extraoral approach; these complications resolved spontaneously without the need for any intervention. The present study describes the use of a new surgical classification system for treatment planning in all types of mandibular third molar extractions. We believe that the present classification could help the oral and maxillofacial surgeon in decision-making and limit the possible risks that are present when attempting to extract impacted mandibular third molars. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Combined ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  7. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery

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    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...

  8. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction and its association to caries in mandibular second molar: A clinical variant.

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    Prajapati, V K; Mitra, Ruchi; Vinayak, K M

    2017-01-01

    Caries in second molar is common and prophylactic removal of the impacted teeth may be considered appropriate. Caries detection and restoration can be difficult and a restored second molar can undergo recurrent caries if the third molar is not removed prophylactically. In this study, the clinical findings related to impaction and its association with angular position and depth of impacted third molar were evaluated. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out among the patients visiting the outpatient, department of Dentistry, RIMS, Ranchi. The clinical examination, periapical radiographs and Pre-op OPG were taken. Teeth positions were analyzed by Pell and Gregory and Winter classification. The angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction and caries in the second molar with the eruption status of the mandibular third molar was determined. A total of 200 patients were included in the study between age group 17-45 years. Majority of the Patients reported to the hospital with complaints of decayed tooth (66%) and pain (59%). The most common third molar impaction was mesioangular followed by distoangular. A statistically highly significant difference (P = 0.001) was obtained with the presence of caries in second molar adjacent to mesioangular third molar in class I and level B. According to this study, pattern of mandibular third molar impaction is in association to caries in mandibular second molar. More future studies are needed. In addition, the results of the present study can be used to screen and inform the patients about the possibility of caries in relation to third molar mandibular impaction.

  9. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impacted mandibular third molar surgery: 1‑year results. Int. J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1993;13:397. 43. Edwards MJ, Brickley MR, Goodey RD, Shepherd JP. The cost, effectiveness and cost effectiveness of removal and retention of asymptomatic, disease free third molars. Br Dent. J 1999;187:380‑4. 44. Smith WP.

  10. Impacted lower third molars and distal caries in the mandibular second molar. Is prophylactic removal of lower third molars justified?

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    Marques, José; Montserrat-Bosch, Marta; Vilchez-Pérez, Miguel-Angel; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of mandibular third molars and the occurrence of carious lesions in the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar. Material and Methods A retrospective cohort study comprising 327 lower third molars extracted in the Oral Surgery and Implantology Master’s Degree program of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain) was carried out. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was made. The diagnosis of caries in the second molar and the position of the mandibular third molar were evaluated through panoramic radiographies. Results The sample included 203 patients, 94 males (46.3%) and 109 females (53.7%), with a mean age of 26,8 years and 327 lower third molars. The prevalence of second molar distal caries was 25.4% (95% CI= 20.6% to 30.2%). This pathology was significantly more frequent when the third molar was in a horizontal position (27.7%), when the contact point was at (45,8%) or below (47.0%) the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), and when the distal CEJ of the mandibular second molar and the mesial CEJ of the third molar was 7 to 12 mm apart. Conclusions Horizontal lower third molars with contact points at or below the CEJ are more likely to produce distal caries in the mandibular second molars. Due to the high prevalence of this pathology (20.6% to 30.2%), a prophylactic removal of lower third molars with the above-mentioned features might be advisable. Key words:Second molar, caries, third molar, prophylactic removal. PMID:28638558

  11. Microbiology of the pericoronal pouch in mandibular third molar pericoronitis.

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    Leung, W K; Theilade, E; Comfort, M B; Lim, P L

    1993-10-01

    The microorganisms associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis were investigated using direct microscopy and anaerobic culture method. The pericoronal pouch was sampled with paper points in A) 8 patients without mandibular third molar pericoronitis and B) 6 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Under the microscope, the microflora was found to be a complex mixture comprising gram-positive and gram-negative cocci, rods and filaments (including fusiform and curved rods), motile rods and spirochetes. Significantly higher proportions of motile, gram-negative rods were found in group B than in group A. The predominant cultivable microflora of 9 samples: A (4) and B (5) comprised several species of facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria, namely Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, Veillonella, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Bacteriodes, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Stomatococcus, Lactobacillus, Neisseria, Capnocytophaga, Haemophilus, Selenomonas and Centipeda species. The microflora in pericoronitis appeared similar to that of diseased periodontal pockets.

  12. Relationship between mandibular angle fracture and state of eruption of mandibular third molar: A digital radiographic study

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    Mahesh Kumar Talkad Subbaiah; Indira Annamalai Ponnuswamy; Maria Priscilla David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between mandibular angle fracture and the status of eruption of the mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 mandibular angle fracture cases with or without the presence of mandibular third molars, inclusive of both genders in the age group 18 years and above. The mandibular angle fractures were assessed by taking an orthopantomograph for each case following strict radiation protection proto...

  13. Fusion or gemination? An unusual mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jordão Camargo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion and gemination is not an uncommon finding and affected most primary dentition and the permanent maxillary incisors. These changes can develop a series of complication. A 11-year-old male presented radiography finding: an unusual mandibular second molar. A well-documented case brings a challenge for radiologists classify between fusion and gemination. In conclusion, this alteration although common in other regions, there are no case in the literature involving “second and third” molar.

  14. Optimización de la antibioterapia en cirugía del tercer molar incluido

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Martin, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    OBJETIVOS. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar el uso de amoxicilina 1.000 mg frente a amoxicilina/clavulánico 875/125 mg tras la extracción de terceros molares mandibulares incluidos para la prevención de complicaciones infecciosas, estudiar qué pauta antibiótica de las propuestas es más efectiva en la prevención de las complicaciones inflamatorias postoperatorias (entendiendo como complicaciones inflamatorias el dolor, la inflamación, el trismo y la fiebre) y analizar...

  15. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2017. Vol 6 (3): 1052 - 1061. 1052. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and. Impacted Teeth. Isaac Kipyator Bokindo1, Fawzia Butt 2,3, Francis Macigo4. 1School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

  16. internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... and for disinfection. Subsequently, the teeth were ... (70%, 95%, 100%) of ethyl alcohol (Scharlab S.L.. Sentmenat, Spain) for three ... Number of canals in mandibular first molars. 100. 90. 80. 70. 60. 50. 40. 30. 20. 10. 0. 3.2%.

  17. Variant Root Morphology of Third Mandibular Molar in Normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isaac kipyator

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... The mandibular third molar poses a challenge to dental surgeons due to it's unpredictable morphology which leads to increased difficulty during its .... Regeneration within the canal will thus be unimpeded unless obstructed by ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. A descriptive study was carried out at the.

  18. Acute Pericoronitis And The Position Of The Mandibular Third Molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the relationship of acute pericoronitis to the position of the mandibular third molar in Nigerians. One hundred and thirty-two cases of acute pericoronitis seen over a period of 6 months at the state Dental Centre, Kaduna were studied. The tooth with the highest risk for acute pericoronitis was found to be ...

  19. Autotransplantation of a mandibular third molar: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Najafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tooth autotransplantation defines as transition of one tooth from one position to another, in same individual. It is a biological procedure in which teeth have the potential to induce alveolar bone growth. It can be applied in patients before adolescence growth is finished. It significantly reduces time and cost compared to implants. Healing rapidly occurs and function is regained almost immediately. Our case was a 15-year-old male that his left mandibular third molar transplanted to the second molar sight after extraction of second molar because of unrestorable crown. During 9 month follow up transplanted tooth was asymptomatic, functional and responsive to sensibility tests. (Cold test, EPT.

  20. Cone beam computed tomography findings of ectopic mandibular third molar in the mandibular condyle: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Impaction of third molar is a common developmental abnormality. However, ectopic impaction of the mandibular third molar in condylar region is an extremely rare condition. This report describes a case of impacted tooth in the mandibular condyle without any associated pathologic condition. Also, this report presents the spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar to the surrounding anatomic structures using cone beam computed tomography.

  1. Treatment of Ectopic Mandibular Second Permanent Molar with Elastic Separators

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    R. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a developmental disturbance in which the tooth fails to follow its normal eruption pathway. Ectopic eruption of the second molar is relatively rare. This paper presents the case of thirteen-year-old male with an ectopic mandibular second permanent molar. The condition was corrected with surgical exposure and placement of elastic separators. This case report lays emphasis on the practice of basic methods to obtain acceptable results rather than extensive surgical or orthodontic corrections. It is advised that ectopic teeth should not be neglected especially when it concerns developing caries and malocclusion.

  2. [The relation of pericoronitis to the position of the mandibular third molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D K; Kim, B J

    1989-02-01

    Pericoronitis is the most commonly encountered pathologic condition involving the mandibular third molar. Because of the dangers associated with mandibular third molar pericoronitis, prophylactic extraction of third molar at high risk has been recommended. We studied 411 patients with mandibular third molar pericoronitis by clinical symptoms and radiographic measurement of mandibular third molar height, wideth and angulation. The results were as follows: 1. Mandibular third molar pericoronitis is frequently seen in third decade and there are no sexual difference significantely. 2. In inflammatory type of mandibular third molar pericoronitis, chronic pericoronitis occured more frequently than acute type. 3. In relation to angulation and height, mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is vertical eruption at occlusal plane of the second molar. 4. In relation to angulation and width, it appears that the position of the mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is in a vertically erupted tooth of which the space between the ramus and the distal side of the second molar is less than the mesiodistal diameter of crown. (Class II). 5. In relation to height and width, it appears that the position of the mandibular third molar most likely to be afflicted with pericoronitis is class II width (described above)at occlusal plane of the second molar.

  3. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Methods: Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled...... for MTMS were included. Preoperative psychometric indicators of anxiety, depression, and vulnerability were evaluated by patient questionnaires. Thermal thresholds and heat pain perception (1 second phasic stimuli: 44 degrees C to 48 degrees C) were evaluated with quantitative sensory testing techniques...

  4. 3-D diagnosis-assisted management of anomalous mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the successful non-surgical endodontic management of carious exposed three-rooted mandibular molar with four root canals detected on the pre-operative radiograph taken with 20 degrees mesial angulation and confirmed with a 64-slice helical computed tomography scan-assisted 3-D-reconstructed images. Access cavity shape was modified to locate the extra canal with respect to the distolingual root in the left mandibular first molar. Copious irrigation was accomplished with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. Biomechanical preparation was done using protapers. Calcium hydroxide dressing was done for 1 week. The tooth was obturated using gutta percha and AH 26 root canal sealer, and it was permanently restored with composite. Clinical examination on follow-up visits revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in the left mandibular first molar. Thorough knowledge of root canal variations and use of advanced diagnostic modalities lead to successful non-surgical management of the complex cases.

  5. Relationship between mandibular angle fracture and state of eruption of mandibular third molar: A digital radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Talkad Subbaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between mandibular angle fracture and the status of eruption of the mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 mandibular angle fracture cases with or without the presence of mandibular third molars, inclusive of both genders in the age group 18 years and above. The mandibular angle fractures were assessed by taking an orthopantomograph for each case following strict radiation protection protocol after an informed consent was obtained. The captured image was assessed and traced for the presence of mandibular angle fracture, angulation, and status of mandibular third molar by using Windows Trophy DICOM and Master View 3.0 software. Pell and Gregory′s and Winter′s classifications were followed. Results: We observed the following: Increased incidence of angle fractures in the presence of mandibular third molar, male predominance, the mean average age being 29 years, and the most common cause of angle fractures was road traffic accident; the fractures were observed more on the left side. In the total sample, mandibular third molar was present in 90% of the cases with angle fracture; of this, 73% of the teeth were impacted. Increased incidence of mandibular angle fracture was observed in position A, class II, and mesioangular impaction of third molar, which were statistically significant. Conclusion: The presence of mandibular third molar was in strong association with mandibular angle fracture and there was an increased incidence of position A, class II, and mesioangular impaction, when compared with other positions. This study concludes that there is a direct relationship between the presence and status of impacted third molars with increased risk of mandibular angle fracture.

  6. Adjacent dentigerous cysts with the ectopic displacement of a third mandibular molar and supernumerary (forth) molar: a rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Shane

    2009-06-01

    Dentigerous cysts are the most common odontological cysts of the jaws, being associated with the crowns of permanent teeth, especially unerupted mandibular third molars. Multiple dentigerous cysts are rare and most often occur in association with a developmental syndrome. This article presents an unusual case of nonsyndromic adjacent dentigerous cysts associated with a mandibular third molar and a supernumerary molar. This occurrence has not been previously reported.

  7. Variable permanent mandibular first molar: Review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballullaya, Srinidhi V; Vemuri, Sayesh; Kumar, Pabbati Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The success of root canal therapy depends on the locations of all the canals, thourough debridement and proper sealing. At times the clinicians are challenged with variations in morphology of root canal. This review article attempts to list out all the variations of permanent mandibular first molar published so for in the literature. Materials and Methods: An exhaustive search was undertaken using PUBMED database to identify published literature from 1900 to 2010 relating to the root canal morphology of permanent first molar by using key words. The selected artcles were obtained and reviewed. Results: Total ninty seven articles were selected out of which 50 were original article and forty seven were case reports. The incidence of third canal in mesial root was 0.95% to 15%. The incidence of three rooted mandibular first molar was 3% to 33%. Only ninety cases reported with c-shape canal configuration. Incidence of Taurodintism without congenital disorder was very rare. Conclusion: The root canal treatment requires proper knowlegde of variations in root canal morphology in order to recognise, disinfect and seal all portal of exit. This can be accomplished with proper diagnosis using newer modes, modification in access preparation, use of operating microscope, enhanced methods of disinfecting and sealing of all canals. PMID:23716959

  8. Independent and Confluent Middle Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular First Molars: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanavelu Deepalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable variations with respect to number of roots and root canals. The possibility of additional root canals should be considered even in teeth with a low frequency of abnormal root canal anatomy. This paper discusses the endodontic management of the rare anatomical complexity middle mesial canals in mandibular first molar and also serves to remind the clinicians that such anatomical variations should be taken into account during the endodontic treatment of the mandibular molars.

  9. Irregular Periapical Radiopacity in Mandibular Premolars and Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aravind Warrier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased deposition of cementum is observed in a wide number of both benign and malignant conditions. Many cases are often diagnosed during routine examination as an incidental finding. Diagnosing correctly without confusing it with other similarly appearing lesions, thus avoiding subjecting the patient to unnecessary investigations and stress, is of prime importance. We report one such case, where the patient presented with the routine complaint of a painful tooth, during the investigation of which he was also diagnosed with hypercementosis affecting the mandibular second premolars and molars bilaterally. The literature review reveals that not many cases of hypercementosis are frequently reported.

  10. VALIDACIÓN DE LA RADIOGRAFÍA PANORÁMICA EN LA DETERMINACIÓN DE LA POSICIÓN DEL TERCER MOLAR INFERIOR RESPECTO AL CONDUCTO DENTARIO INFERIOR EN CRÁNEOS DE ADULTOS. AREQUIPA.2013

    OpenAIRE

    OCOLA TICONA, BERLIE CESAR

    2014-01-01

    RADIOGRAFÍA PANORÁMICA HISTORIA Y EVOLUCIÓN FUNDAMENTOS DE LA RADIOGRAFÍA PANORÁMICA TERCEROS MOLARES CRITERIOS GENERALES CASUÍSTICA ETIOLOGÍA ETIOPATOGENIA CONDICIONES ANATÓMICAS DIAGNOSTICO CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS IMPACTACIONES DEL TERCER MOLAR RELACIÓN DEL TERCER MOLAR INFERIOR CON EL CONDUCTO DENTARIO INFERIOR FORMAS DE PREVENCIÓN

  11. [The first permanent molars and palatal or mandibular variations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, E; Blocquel, H; Laude, M; Hurel, C

    1990-01-01

    101 children, each of them with two teleradiographies, were selected. The first X-ray was taken at the time of the mixed dentition, the second one, when the permanent dentition was established. The purpose of the research is to show the oscillations of the palatine and mandibular planes, and their link to the movements of the first permanent molars. The palatine plane is found to swing between -7 degrees and +5 degrees with an average of -0.97 degree. The posterior part of that plane rocks downwards in 51% of the children. The limits are -7 degrees and -1 degree, with an average of -3.2 degrees. In 22%, the plane rocks upwards between +1 degree and +5 degrees with an average of +3.1 degrees. In 27% it moves parallel to itself. The posterior part of the mandibular plane varies between -6 degrees and +5 degrees, with an average of -1.1 degrees. It rocks downwards in 48% of the cases, between -6 degrees and -1 degree with an average of -3.9 degrees. In 22% of the children, this plane rocks upwards between +1 degree and +5 degrees with an average of +2.5 degrees. In 30%, it moves parallel to itself. The overall result is that the more the posterior part of the palate, or of the mandible moves downwards, the more the first permanent molars get straight or move forwards.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLAR SURGERY TO PRESERVE PERIODONTAL HEALTH OF SECOND MOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of impacted third molar violates surrounding soft and bony tissues. Various surgical approaches and surgical technics have an important impact on the periodontal health of the adjacent second molar. Purpose: The aim of this review is to analyse the causes that can affect postoperative periodontal outcomes for the mandibular second molars (LM2 adjacent to the impacted/ semi impacted mandibular third molars (LM3. Material and Methods: Electronic searches were conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed, Scopus, etc. databases to screen all relevant articles published from inception to April 2017. Results: Different flap techniques had no significant impact on the probing depth reduction or on the clinical attachment level of LM2. Szmyd and paramarginal flap designs may be the most effective in reducing the probing depth after third molar surgery, and the envelope flap may be the least effective. Use of bone substitutes and guided tissue regeneration therapy has been proposed, to eliminate or prevent these periodontal defects, but there is still no consensus on their predictability or clinical benefit. Higher costs and the risk of postoperative inflammatory complications should also be taken into proper account, as with any surgical procedure. “Orthodontic extraction” is indicated for that impacted M3 that present a high risk of postoperative periodontal defects at the distal aspect of adjacent M2. Conclusion: Risk factors associated with bone loss following lower third molar extraction includes age, the direction of the eruption, preoperative bone defects, and resorbtion of the LM2 root surface. Prevention of such periodontal defects continues to challenge clinicians.

  13. [Germectomy. The germ of the third mandibular molar in children: remove or preserve?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorsmit, R A; van den Bergh, A W

    1992-11-01

    Third molars are often removed in order to prevent complications and various other problems associated with impacted third molars and their removal. Abortion of mandibular third molars is a procedure carried out at an early age in those subjects where there is insufficient room for the eruption of the third molars. On the other hand one can also decide to remove the second molars and to annexate orthodontically the third molars in the arch.

  14. Incidence of distal caries in mandibular second molars due to impacted third molars: Nonintervention strategy of asymptomatic third molars causes harm? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Shetty, Akshay; Goswami, Rahul Dev; Apparaju, Vijay; Bagga, Vivek; Kale, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Removal of impacted third molars is the most common oral surgical procedure. Many investigators have questioned the necessity of removal in patients who are free of symptoms or associated pathologies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of caries on distal aspect of mandibular second molars in patients referred for corresponding third molar assessment and to identify its association with angular position and depth of the impacted mandibular third molars based on the classification of Pell and Gregory. Records of 150 patients with impacted third molar presenting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, were assessed retrospectively. The radiographic angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction were determined and compared to determine the relationship with incidence of caries on the distal surface of the second molar. According to this study results, 37.5% cases show caries on the distal aspect of mandibular second molars. The incidence of caries with mesioangular impacted third molars was 55%. A majority of these mesioangular cases were Level B and Class I as per the Pell and Gregory classification. The prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molars is indicated if the angulation is between 30° and 70° and is justified by incidence of distal caries in the second molars.

  15. Prevalence of Three-rooted Primary Mandibular First Molars in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Gene Tu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The data presented here indicate that approximately 5% of Taiwanese subjects had a three-rooted mandibular primary first molar and 80% of such teeth occurred unilaterally. Dentists should take into account the prevalence of these three-rooted variants in primary mandibular first molars among Taiwanese patients during their daily endodontic and exodontic procedures.

  16. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies.Results: In total 73 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. Conclusions: The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation.

  17. Mandibular third molar impaction: review of literature and a proposal of a classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Daugela, Povilas

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, inferior alveolar nerve injury third molar, lingual nerve injury third molar. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1976 to April 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery journals and books was performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies. In total 75 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiographic examination, surgical extraction of and possible complications, classifications and risk factors were discussed. New mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was proposed. The classification proposed here based on anatomical and radiological impacted mandibular third molar features is promising to be a helpful tool for impacted tooth assessment as well as for planning for surgical operation. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation.

  18. Inter-relations between infraocclusion of primary mandibular molars, tipping of adjacent teeth, and alveolar bone height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Benjamin; Absawi-Huri, Mervat; Bercovich, Roly; Amir, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inter-relations between infraocclusion of primary mandibular molars, tipping of adjacent teeth, and alveolar bone height of infraoccluded teeth. A total of 402 periapical radiographs of infraoccluded primary mandibular molars were reviewed. Infraocclusion, alveolar bone height, and tipping of adjacent teeth were measured. Infraocclusion was most prevalent among primary mandibular first molars. The amount of infraocclusion was most profound among primary mandibular second molars (2.79±1.25). The shortest distal alveolar crest (reflected by the highest distance between the cementoenamel junction and bone crest) was observed among infraoccluded primary mandibular first molars (0.9±0.92). The permanent mandibular first molar and the primary mandibular first molar demonstrated the maximum tipping mesially and distally. Infraocclusion of primary mandibular molars, tipping of adjacent teeth, and alveolar bone height of the infraoccluded teeth are inter-related.

  19. Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron A; Kreiborg, Sven

    Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)......Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)...

  20. Periodontal Healing Distally to Second Mandibular Molar After Third Molar Coronectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignudelli, Elisabetta; Monaco, Giuseppe; Gatto, Maria Rosaria Antonella; Franco, Simonetta; Marchetti, Claudio; Corinaldesi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Coronectomy of mandibular third molars is a procedure that still raises a number of questions. The aim of the present study was to answer one unsolved question: the periodontal healing distal to the mandibular second molar after third molar coronectomy. A prospective cohort study was performed of 30 patients treated at the Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Science of the University of Bologna. The predictor variables were the probing pocket depth (PPD), the distance between the marginal crest (MC) and the bottom of the osseous defect (BOD), and the distance between the cementum enamel junction (CEJ) and the BOD. These clinical indexes were recorded on 3 points of the distal surface of second molar: the distobuccal (DB), distomedial (DM), and distolingual (DL) sites. The other variables evaluated included root migration and postoperative complications. The Wilcoxon test for paired data and Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient was used to evaluate all variables. The significance level was set at P = .05. The cohort was composed of 30 patients with 34 high-risk mandibular third molars (9 men and 21 women), with a mean age of 28 ± 7 years. At 9 months, a statistically significant reduction in the PPD of 2 ± 3, 1 ± 2, and 2 ± 2 mm and a statistically significant reduction in the MC-BOD distance of 4 ± 4, 4 ± 4, and 4 ± 5 mm for the DB, DM, and DL sites, respectively, was observed (P = .001). Also, the intraoperative CEJ-BOD distance showed a statistically significant reduction for the DB, DM, and DL sites. After coronectomy, restoration of a clinical healthy periodontium distal to the second molar was observed. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary clinical results and to compare periodontal healing between coronectomy and complete extraction. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthodontic uprighting of impacted mandibular permanent second molar: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular second molars can become impacted beneath the crown of the first molars due to various causes and fail to erupt normally. Presented herewith is a case report of orthodontic uprighting of a mesioangular impacted mandibular right permanent second molar. Though various treatment options were available, an uprighting push spring appliance was used as it is easy to fabricate and produces distal tipping and uprighting of the impacted tooth without the necessity of surgical assistance, bone removal, or splinting. The uprighting of the mandibular second molar was achieved within two months.

  2. Supplemental root in a mandibular first molar: a rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Mahajan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic variations are common in human dentition. A clear understanding of these variations is very important for success of endodontic treatment. A dentist should be aware of these anatomic variations as this can affect the treatment outcome. A case of endodontic therapy is presented in which inability to locate an anatomically rare supplemental canal of a three rooted mandibular first molar resulted in treatment failure. A 21-year-old female reported with pain and swelling in relation to lower right first molar. An intra oral periapical radiograph revealed 3 roots; the first canal of the mesial root and a canal of one of the distal roots were found to be treated endodontically, which were infraobturated but the canal of the 2nd distal root had not been treated. The radiograph revealed periapical radiolucency and widening of periodontal space. Prior to starting the endodontic treatment the clinician must be aware of the anatomic variations in tooth pulp morphology and also the importance of preoperative radiographs cannot be underscored.

  3. Mandibular lip bumper treatment and second molar eruption disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Fabrizia; Funiciello, Gloria; Perillo, Letizia; Chiodini, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Mandibular lip-bumper (LB) nonextraction treatment, usually started before complete second molar (M2) eruption, inevitably interacts with the development of the dentition. Yet, its effects on M2 eruption are still unknown. The first aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether LB therapy (260 patients) enhances the risk for M2 ectopic eruptions and impactions in comparison with 135 untreated subjects. The second aim was to assess, among treated patients (n = 197), the main potential determinants of M2 impaction and ectopic eruption. M2 eruption and impaction were determined on panoramic radiographs. To assess the predictive role of M2 inclination in relation to the first molar, a panoramic radiograph suitable for this measurement before treatment was required. The data were analyzed by using software (version 8.2, SAS, Cary, NC). LB treatment significantly enhanced M2 impaction and ectopic eruption. Negative prognostic factors were found. An initial inclination of the M2 greater than 30° was significantly associated with a higher impaction risk compared with an angulation less than 10°. LB treatment duration longer than 2 years increased the risk of ectopic eruptions. While gaining space in the anterior arch, unwanted effects might be produced in the posterior arch. To be informed about these unplanned events is necessary to better optimize treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mandibular second molar periodontal healing after impacted third molar extraction in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana Inocêncio; Gallas-Torreira, Mercedes; López-Ratón, Mónica

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of preoperative periodontal defects and analyze 12-month spontaneous healing on the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar (M2) after impacted mandibular third molar (M3) extraction. This prospective clinical study was conducted in 25 healthy young patients (21.03 ± 4.38 yr old) with 40 extractions of higher-risk periodontal impacted M3s. Plaque and gingival indexes, recession, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and attachment level were recorded before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery at 5 sites on the distal aspect of the M2. The initial mean PD was 5.70 ± 3.80 mm, with the deepest mean PD at the lingual side. At 12 months, a mean PD average of 3.77 ± 2.86 mm was recorded, with a total average recovery of 1.93 ± 2.46 mm (P periodontal defects that are deepest at the lingual side and almost recover at 12 months after extraction. The first 3 months is considered the cutoff for periodontal healing. Young adults with high-risk periodontal M3 impactions may benefit from early extraction, which increases spontaneous periodontal healing. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of taurodontism in primary mandibular first molars of ethnic Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, N B; Radhika, N B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of taurodontism in primary mandibular first molars in ethnic Indian children using periapical radiographs. Periapical radiographs of 274 children obtained from December 2008 to August 2010 were retrospectively screened and examined. Radiographs of 196 patients (99 boys and 97 girls; ages 2.5-10.5) with bilateral primary mandibular first molars were randomly selected and evaluated. The gender, symmetry, and frequencies of occurrence of taurodont primary mandibular first molars were compared and the obtained data were statistically analyzed using the x2 test. Eight (4.08%) taurodont primary mandibular first molars were found with a bilateral incidence of a symmetrical distribution of 38% (3/8). The prevalence of taurodontism in primary mandibular first molars did not differ significantly between right and left sides or with gender (P ≥ 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that approximately 4% of Indian children had taurodontism in primary mandibular first molars. Clinicians should be aware of the prevalence of this anatomic variant in primary mandibular first molars among the Indian population for early identification of taurodonts and for rendering the best care during dental treatment.

  6. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction: A cross-sectional study in northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghpour, M; Nezadi, A; Moradi, A; Shamsabadi, R Mahvelati; Rezaei, N M; Nejat, A

    2014-01-01

    Impacted teeth, if left untreated, have a potential to induce various complications. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibular third molar in the Iranian population. This cross-sectional study was performed in patients who were referred to the Department of Oral Radiology between July 2009 and October 2010 to obtain an orthopantomogram (OPG). Data were collected regarding age and gender, prevalence of impacted mandibular third molars, angulation of impacted teeth (Winter's classification), level of impaction (Pell and Gregory classification), and relationship of the mandibular third molar with the ramus (Pell and Gregory classification). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.0 with a confidence interval of 95%. Among the 1433 patients included in the study, 489 (34.12%) patients were male and 944 (65.88%) were female. Of the total OPGs performed, 871 (60.78%) OPGs demonstrated at least one impacted mandibular third molar. In addition, of the 2866 mandibular third molars investigated, 1397 (48.74%) were found to be impacted. A significant association was observed between gender and the number of impacted teeth or the presence of impaction of any mandibular tooth (or teeth) (P third molar (P > 0.05). The pattern of mandibular third molars in the Northeast region of Iran revealed a high prevalence of impaction, which was mostly mesioangular, level B, and Class II with a gender predilection for females.

  7. Immediate changes in the mandibular dentition after maxillary molar distalization using headgear

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Min

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate immediate changes in the mandibular dentition after maxillary molar distalization using headgear in non-growing patients. Sixteen patients (mean age, 18.9 ? 2.0 years) with Class II molar relationship and crowding were included in the present study. To correct the molar relationship, headgear was used for maxillary molar distalization. Cone-beam computed tomography-generated half-cephalograms (CG Cephs) and dental casts were used to evaluate dental...

  8. Mandibular second molar with 3 mesial canals and a radix paramolaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ragavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular first molar commonly has two roots, the mesial and the distal root. Surprisingly in some mandibular first molar has an unusual extra third root in between mesial and distal root. This extra root is the most commonly seen in lingual side and is called as radix entomolaris. If this extra root is seen on the buccal side, it is termed as radix paramolaris (RP, which is a very rare phenomenon. Recently, various case report studies has shown the presence of third canal in the mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars. They are named as middle mesial and middle distal canal, respectively. Here, we present a case report of mandibular second molar showing three canals in the mesial root and a RP.

  9. Management of periodontally compromised mandibular molar with Hemisectioning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandu Napte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemisection involves sectioning of a periodontally involved mandibular molar so as to remove the involved root and save the remaining tooth. This procedure helps in saving a tooth which otherwise would have been deemed for extraction. Hemisection refers to removal or separation of root with its accompanying crown portion of two-rooted teeth, most commonly mandibular molars. Method: In this case report, an advanced Endo-Perio lesion on a left mandibular first molar was successfully treated by root-canal treatment and hemisection. This procedure helps preserve the tooth structure, alveolar bone and promote cost savings over other treatment options. Conclusion: Hemisection is a treatment option for saving a mandibular molar which is in advanced stage of periodontal disease of one root. Removal of the affected root will help in retaining the remaining tooth structure.

  10. Iatrogenic mandibular fractures following removal of impacted third molars: an analysis of 130 cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ethunandan, M; Shanahan, D; Patel, M

    2012-01-01

    .... We analysed 130 cases of mandibular fractures following removal of impacted third molars reported in the literature, including four managed in the maxillofacial unit and identified potential risk factors...

  11. Management of middle mesial canal in mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to achieve a three-dimensional obturation of the root canal space after adequate preparation of the canal space to remove the tissue debris, microorganisms, and their byproducts. Anatomical variations have frequently been encountered in endodontic practice and have to be adequately managed by the clinician. Missed roots and canals are a major reason for failure of therapy. Technological advances have given the clinician ample opportunity to identify and treat these aberrations successfully. The present report describes a left mandibular second permanent molar requiring root canal treatment, found to have three separate canals in the mesial root. This case demonstrates a rare anatomical configuration and emphasizes the need for the clinician to be aware of and look out for such variations and use adequate diagnostic methodologies prior to and during therapy to detect such variations. The possibility of additional canals, whenever in doubt, should be explored with the assistance of technologies such as those of magnification and illumination and various diagnostic aids. Operator experience has also shown to be a key factor in negotiation and management of these aberrant canal configurations.

  12. Endodontic management of permanent mandibular left first molar with six root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. This case report presents the treatment of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, of which three canals were located in the mesial root and three in distal root. Third canals were found between the two main root canals. This case presents a rare anatomic configuration and points to the importance of expecting and searching for additional canals.

  13. Mandibular Third Molar Impaction: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Gintaras Juodzbalys; Povilas Daugela

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review impacted mandibular third molar aetiology, clinical anatomy, radiologic examination, surgical treatment and possible complications, as well as to create new mandibular third molar impaction and extraction difficulty degree classification based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The ...

  14. Prevalence of three rooted permanent mandibular first molars in Haryana (North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mandibular first molars typically have two roots but sometimes a supernumerary root presents distolingually called as radix entomolaris (RE. Aim: The present study evaluated the prevalence of permanent mandibular first molars featuring a distolingual root in Haryana (North India. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients possessing bilateral mandibular first molars were selected for this study. The intraoral periapical radiographs were taken. The radiographs of these patients were evaluated under optimal conditions. A total of 1000 mandibular first molars were screened, and the incidence of three-rooted mandibular first molars, RE and the correlation between left and right side occurrence and between either gender were recorded. Statistical Analysis: The binary logistic regression test and Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars was 13% of the patients examined and 8.3% of the teeth examined. There was no statistically significant difference between gender and side of occurrence (P ≥ 0.05. The bilateral incidence of a symmetric distribution was 27.6 (18/65 among the RE teeth examined. Conclusion: RE is considered as an Asiatic trait. The occurrence of this macrostructure in the Haryana (North India population was found to be 13%. The clinician must thoroughly examine the radiographs before the initiation of endodontic therapy.

  15. Association between third molar and mandibular angle fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovacchini, Francesco; Paradiso, Daniele; Bensi, Caterina; Belli, Stefano; Lomurno, Giuseppe; Tullio, Antonio

    2018-02-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of mandibular angle fracture associated with the presence of a mandibular third molar and its position when the mandibular fracture occurs. A systematic literary search was performed in Pubmed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for observational studies with at least 250 patients that included frequency of mandibular angle fracture, presence of third molar, and its position. A total of seven studies were included in the review, from an initial search of 622 titles. The relative risk of mandibular angle fracture with third molar was 1.90 (95% CI = 1.47-2.46). The relative risk of mandibular angle fracture related to third molar position (according to the Pell and Gregory classification) was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.62-2.25), 1.98 (95% CI = 0.95-4.10), 2.72 (95% CI = 1.78-4.16), 1.31 (95% CI = 0.80-2.14), 2.21 (95% CI = 1.69-2.87) and 2.99 (95% CI = 2.12-4.22) for Class A, Class B, Class C, Class I, Class II, and Class III, respectively. Our meta-analysis reported a two-fold increased risk of mandibular angle fracture with the presence of a third molar in patients who presented with mandibular fractures. Even the third molar position seemed to influence mandibular angle fracture, especially Class C, Class II, and Class III. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholia, Bhavik; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Dental identification has been used since long time for disaster victim identification protocol. There is a difference of opinion regarding whether ethnicity influences dental morphology or not. Few studies have shown the associations between these dental features and crown traits in humans using quantitative methods. The present study is an attempt to find correlation of occlusal morphology of Gujarati population with forensic Odontology. To study different occlusal morphology of permanent mandibular first and second molars in Gujarati Population. This study comprised of a total of 100 participants of Gujarati origin, selected by random sampling method. Total number of cusps and groove patterns of mandibular first and second molar were examined clinically and photographs of the same were taken. A descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Student t-test were used for analysis of data. Mandibular first molar with 5 cusps in 71%, 4 cusps in 18% and 6 cusps in 11% were noted in the study. Mandibular first molars with "+" groove pattern in 39.5% and "Y" groove pattern in 60.5% were recorded. Mandibular second molar with 5 cusps in 6.5% and 4 cusps in 93.5% were recorded in the study. Mandibular second molars with "+" groove pattern in 93.5% and "Y" groove pattern in 6.5% were recorded. The most common occlusal morphology in permanent mandibular first molar is "5 cusp" and "Y" groove pattern in about 47% and for second molar is "4 cusp" and "+" groove pattern in 88.5% of Gujarati population. It may be concluded that variation in degree of expression and frequency of teeth in dentitions of different populations is different, which may help in forensic identification.

  17. Unerupted mandibular third molars: symptoms, associated pathologies, and indications for removal in a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Necdet; Orhan, Kaan; Günaydin, Yilmaz; Köymen, Ramazan; Okçu, Kemal; Uçok, Ozlem

    2007-09-01

    To analyze the occurrence of symptoms of unerupted mandibular third molars, to investigate associated pathologies, and to determine indications for removal of unerupted mandibular third molars in a Turkish population. A retrospective study was performed by reviewing 832 patients referred to Gulhane Military Medical Academy Dentistry Center for evaluation of their mandibular third molars. The patients were clinically examined, and unerupted and partially erupted mandibular third molars were determined from radiographs. The symptoms and pathologies associated with these teeth were analyzed. The indications for removal were classified into 10 groups. Two-thirds of the patients were between 20 and 29 years of age. Of the 832 unerupted mandibular third molars found, 557 (66.9%) teeth were partially erupted and 275 (33.1%) were completely unerupted. A total of 521 (62.6%) of all unerupted third molars had no symptoms, while 311 (37.4%) were associated with symptoms. The most frequent complaints of the patients were pain and swelling. Pericoronitis was observed as the most frequent pathology, in 142 patients. Of 832 unerupted mandibular third molars, 582 (69.9%) had complete root formation, 177 (21.2%) had two-thirds root formation, and 73 (8.9%) had one-third root formation. Patients between 20 and 29 years of age had the highest prevalence of unerupted mandibular third molars (69.3%). However, this figure decreased with increasing age. Partially erupted teeth (n = 228) caused the occurrence of symptoms more than completely erupted teeth (n = 83) in a Turkish population.

  18. Forces produced by lip bumpers on mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J J; Nanda, R S; Ghosh, J; Smith, D

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the forces produced by a lip bumper on the mandibular permanent first molars. The forces in a sample of 38 patients were measured bilaterally with specially designed gauges at rest but with their lips lightly touching, speaking the words church, phone, and pop, and swallowing water. Forces were compared between two types of lip bumpers, i.e., wire or shield, and between various anteroposterior and vertical positions of the lip bumper. The resting forces produced by the wire lip bumper 2 mm anterior to the incisors and vertically positioned at the middle of the incisor crown were 5.93 +/- 4.84 gm for the left side and 4.66 +/- 4.8 gm for the right. The forces were found to be significantly higher when the wire lip bumper was placed 4 mm anterior to the incisors and at a more gingival position, measuring 16.68 +/- 8.7 gm for the left side and 13.88 +/- 8.28 gm for the right. The shield lip bumper had higher forces both at the center of the incisor as well as when it was positioned gingivally. A large individual variation was observed. There were no statistically significant differences in force levels between male and female subjects. Speaking the words church, pop, and phone, produced forces between 11 and 23 gm, using a wire lip bumper. Swallowing produced the highest forces, between 32 and 36 gm. Lip thickness and height did not appear to affect the force levels.

  19. Mandibular impacted third molar Surgery and Drains: a review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral surgeons have used drains after the surgical removal of mandibular impacted third molars to minimize postoperative morbidity with varying degrees of success. The use of a drain in association with primary suture after the surgical removal of the impacted lower third molars allows the patient to experience a more ...

  20. Effect of lower third molars on the incidence of mandibular angle and condylar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Joon; Park, Soong; Lee, Deok-Won; Ohe, Joo-Young; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2011-07-01

    Numerous previous studies already have proven that mandibles with a third molar are significantly more susceptible to angle fracture by external force. Similarly, other data suggest that the absence of a third molar increases the risk of condylar fracture, while concurrently decreasing the risk of angular fracture. We attempt to characterize the effect of a third molar on the incidence of mandibular angle and condylar fractures. This retrospective study reviews data from 385 patients, all of whom were seen in our clinics between February 2006 and November 2009. All data were collected from clinical examination notes and panoramic radiographs, with third-molar state evaluated by the Pell and Gregory classification system. Our results mirror those of previous studies. The incidence of mandibular angle fracture was significantly greater on sides with a third molar, whereas the condylar fracture rate significantly increased in mandibles lacking a third molar or without a fully erupted third molar. The rate of symphysis and mandibular angle fracture was also high in cases of multiple comorbid fractures. Both the presence and the state of the lower third molar affect the risk of future mandibular angle and condylar fracture.

  1. Correlation of acute pericoronitis and the position of the mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, S A; Edenfield, M J; Cohen, M E

    1986-09-01

    Acute pericoronitis is a painful, debilitating infection that is most commonly found among young adults with erupting mandibular third molars. Prophylactic removal of third molars to prevent this disease has been advocated, but this procedure requires an accurate description of the third molar at highest risk for this infection. Clinical and radiographic measurements were compared in 25 diseased subjects and 109 normal subjects. Of 10 variables significantly related to the presence of acute pericoronitis, stepwise discriminant analysis selected 4 variables that produced a canonical correlation coefficient of 0.71. In clinical terms, these variables described the tooth at highest risk for acute pericoronitis as a fully erupted, vertical mandibular third molar that is in contact with the adjacent second molar, at or above the occlusal plane, and partially encapsulated by soft or hard tissues. Prophylactic treatment of these third molars is highly recommended.

  2. Angulation of mandibular third molars as a predictive factor for pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza'a, Abdalla M; Bataineh, Anwar Barakat; Odat, Abd-Albaset

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the association between pericoronitis and the angular position, state of eruption, and the depth of impaction of mandibular third molars as well as to compare these findings with similar studies. A total of 242 patients ranging in age from 18 to 41 years of age suffering from pericoronitis were examined. Subjective and objective observations were recorded on a checklist that included the name, age, gender, type of pericoronitis and state of eruption, position of the affected tooth for each patient as well as any radiographic changes in the mandibular third molars. The peak age for the occurrence of pericoronitis was in the 21-25 year-old age group. The soft tissues adjacent to vertically inclined, partially erupted mandibular third molars at the level of or above the occlusal plane were the most commonly affected. There was a statistically significant association between radiographic changes and the mesioangular position of the tooth (ppericoronitis, state of eruption, and depth of impaction. The soft tissues adjacent to vertically inclined, partially erupted mandibular third molars were more frequently affected by pericoronitis than teeth that are soft tissue impacted or erupted. Mesioangular erupted third molars were the teeth most frequently associated with bone loss. The soft tissues at highest risk of developing pericoronitis are those adjacent to mandibular third molars that are partially erupted, in a vertical position, and erupted to the level of or above the occlusal plane.

  3. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  4. Photoelastic stress analysis of mandibular molars moved distally with the skeletal anchorage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Atsushi; Teratani, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Hidemi; Sugawara, Junji; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze photoelastically the stress distribution around teeth in the simulated distal movement of mandibular molars with the skeletal anchorage system. Two types of the photoelastic mandibular dentition models were used, 1 before and 1 after distal movement of the second molar. The experiment was performed with 3 forms of traction--first-molar single traction, second-molar single traction, and simultaneous first- and second-molar traction. The direction of traction was set parallel to the occlusal plane and at an angle of 30 degrees downward to the occlusal plane. In the first-molar single traction model, extremely high stress was generated around the first molar with traction parallel to the occlusal plane. With the traction 30 degrees downward to the occlusal plane, all models showed the stress around the molars extended distally and downward. Simultaneous traction of the first and second molars might be preferable to the sequential traction of each molar to prevent the unfavorable distal tipping of the first molar. Regardless of whether simultaneous or sequential traction is used, the downward traction to the occlusal plane seems to induce intrusion of the molars as well as their distal movement.

  5. Fate of third molar in line of mandibular angle fracture - Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study fails to identify any concrete factors that would predict the failure of the retained third molar that were involved in the line of mandibular fractures. The proof presented here, especially with low complication rates indicate that all impacted third molar along the line of fracture be removed and unless necessary, the partially erupted teeth would also be extracted. In such a situation, the rate of infection and survival of the third molar would have been entirely different.

  6. Tercer molar ectópico a nivel de región infraorbitaria-seno maxilar Ectopic third molar of the maxillary sinus-infraorbital region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moreno García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los cordales ectópicos son aquellos incluidos en posiciones inusuales o desplazados a distancia de su normal localización anatómica. La erupción ectópica de un diente dentro de la cavidad oral es común pero en otros lugares es raro. La erupción ectópica puede ir asociada con alteraciones en el desarrollo, procesos patológicos o yatrogenia. Caso Clínico. Mujer de 56 años de edad con tercer molar superior derecho ectópico a nivel de región infraorbitaria-seno maxilar. Presentaba dolor e inflamación hemifacial derecha de larga evolución y resistente a tratamiento médico. Se realizó exéresis quirúrgica de dicho cordal mediante abordaje de Caldwell-Luc. Discusión. En muchos casos la etiología de un cordal ectópico no puede ser identificada. La mayor parte de las veces son asintomáticos y diagnosticados mediante estudios radiológicos. Conclusión. La indicación de la exodoncia en el caso de un diente ectópico en general viene determinada por la presencia de sintomatología o en prevención de futuras complicaciones.Introduction. Ectopic third molar teeth are those that are impacted in unusual positions, or that have been displaced and are at a distance from their normal anatomic location. Ectopic eruption of a tooth within the oral cavity is common, but rare in other sites. Ectopic eruption can be associated with developmental disturbances, pathologic processes or iatrogenic activity. Case Report. Female, fifty-six years old, with an upper right ectopic third molar located in the maxillary sinus-infraorbital region. She presented with pain and inflammation of the right side of her face that she had been experiencing for along time and which had been resistant to treatment. Surgical excision was carried out of the third molar tooth using the Caldwell-Luc approach. Discussion. In many cases the etiology of ectopic third molars cannot be identified. Generally they are asymptomatic and diagnosed by radiology

  7. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  8. The anatomical relationship between the roots of mandibular second molars and the inferior alveolar nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, B S; Quinn, A; Pawar, R R; Makdissi, J; Sidhu, S K

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the anatomical relationship between the roots of mandibular second molars and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in relation to the risk of potential nerve injury during root canal treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images from the patient record database at a dental hospital were selected. The anonymized CBCT images were reconstructed and examined in three planes (coronal, axial and sagittal) using 3D viewing software. The relationship between each root apex of mandibular second molars and the IAN was evaluated by measuring the horizontal and vertical distances from coronal CBCT sections, and the actual distance was then calculated mathematically using Pythagoras' theorem. In 55% of the 272 mandibular second molar roots evaluated, from a total of 134 scans, the distance between the anatomical root apex and the IAN was ≤3 mm. In over 50% of the cases evaluated, there was an intimate relationship between the roots of mandibular second molars and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). Therefore, root canal treatment of mandibular second molars may pose a more significant potential risk of IAN injury; necessary precautions should be exercised, and the prudent use of CBCT should be considered if an intimate relationship is suspected. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Incidence of impacted mandibular third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a retrospective radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeta Šečić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction may be defined as the failure of complete eruption into a normal functional position of one tooth within normal time due to lack of space in the dental arch, caused by obstruction byanother tooth or development in an abnormal position. The mandibular third molar is the most frequently impacted tooth. The incidence varies from 9.5% to 68% in different populations.Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University in Sarajevo. Study represents retrospective analysis of panoramic radiographs (orthopantomograms of patientsreferred to Department of Oral Surgery from January 2010 to February 2013 with indication for surgical removal of impacted third molars.Results: Of the 2000 radiographs, 761 presented with at least one impacted third molar (38%. A total of 1034 impacted mandibular third molars were present (51.7%. The most common age group was thirddecade (61.2%. Signifi cant statistical difference in incidence of third molar impaction was found between females and males (ppopulation (p=0.374. Vertical angulation was the most common pattern of impaction (65%. Frequency of third molars erupted into their normal position (class IA was 42%. Impacted mandibular molars wereassociated with periodontal pockets in 134 (6.5% cases and with dentigerous cysts in 5 cases (0.2%.Conclusion: The present study provides useful data regarding the clinical status of third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Incidence of impacted mandibular third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a retrospective radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeta Šečić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction may be defined as the failure of complete eruption into a normal functional position of one tooth within normal time due to lack of space in the dental arch, caused by obstruction byanother tooth or development in an abnormal position. The mandibular third molar is the most frequently impacted tooth. The incidence varies from 9.5% to 68% in different populations.Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University in Sarajevo. Study represents retrospective analysis of panoramic radiographs (orthopantomograms of patientsreferred to Department of Oral Surgery from January 2010 to February 2013 with indication for surgical removal of impacted third molars.Results: Of the 2000 radiographs, 761 presented with at least one impacted third molar (38%. A total of 1034 impacted mandibular third molars were present (51.7%. The most common age group was thirddecade (61.2%. Signifi cant statistical difference in incidence of third molar impaction was found between females and males (p<0.05, but there was no statistical difference in incidence in urban and suburbanpopulation (p=0.374. Vertical angulation was the most common pattern of impaction (65%. Frequency of third molars erupted into their normal position (class IA was 42%. Impacted mandibular molars wereassociated with periodontal pockets in 134 (6.5% cases and with dentigerous cysts in 5 cases (0.2%.Conclusion: The present study provides useful data regarding the clinical status of third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  11. Radiographic assessment of distribution of mandibular third molar impaction: A retrospective study

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    Tejavathi Nagaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Third molars are the most common teeth that may follow an abortive eruption path and become impacted as a result of pathology, anatomical structures or insufficient osseous space posterior to the second molars. Aims and Objectives: The present study evaluated (1 the distribution of the impaction of mandibular third molar; (2 the distribution of the patterns of impaction radiographically; and (3 the gender distribution for pattern of impaction. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based retrospective study was conducted over a course of 6 months in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and presents the analysis of 122 panoramic radiographs of patients between the age group of 18-30 years. They were interpreted and assessed for the impaction of mandibular third molars. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test. Results: Bilateral impaction of mandibular third molar is more common than unilateral in both the sexes, with mesioangular being the most common pattern. In males, mesioangular pattern was followed by horizontal, whereas in females it was followed by vertical. Conclusion: The present study provides useful data regarding the radiographic status of impacted mandibular third molars in patients.

  12. Removal of a severely impacted mandibular third molar minimizing the risks of compromised periodontium, nerve injury, and mandibular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Christos; Rodiou, Stylianos; Stratos, Athanasios; Gkantidis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    A technique is presented for severely impacted and dentigerous-cyst-related mandibular third molar removal, avoiding any associated risks. A healthy patient complained about unpleasant smell and taste in the mouth and unilateral extraoral palpation of a protuberance, at the right corner of the mandible. Restricted field CBCT showed a severely impacted third molar, which penetrated the inferior cortical bone of the mandibular corner and was associated with a dentigerous cyst that had resorbed considerable bone in the region. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and cyst marsupialization procedures under local anesthesia were combined with orthodontic extrusion of the impacted tooth to facilitate third molar removal. Treatment resulted in successful bone formation and safe tooth removal. The symptoms gradually improved after the first surgery and were eliminated by 14 months later, when the third molar was removed. Follow-up examination 1 year after removal showed favorable periodontal conditions. Although it is not normally the first treatment of choice, orthodontically assisted impacted tooth removal is an alternative that can minimize the risk of compromised periodontium or injury to the adjacent tooth and the inferior alveolar nerve, as well as the risk of mandibular fracture, in complicated cases.

  13. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Combined Clinical and Radiological Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh, P.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth impaction is a pathological situation where a tooth fails to attain its normal functional position. Impacted third molars are commonly encountered in routine dental practice. The impaction rate is higher for third molars when compared with other teeth. The mandibular third molar impaction is said to be due to the inadequate space between the distal of the second mandibular molar and the anterior border of the ascending ramus of the mandible. Impacted teeth may remain asymptomatic or may...

  14. Endodontic management of mandibular first molar with seven canals using cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Mahesh Banode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with aberrant canal configuration can be diagnostically and clinically challenging. Successful endodontic therapy thus depends on the clinician's ability to anticipate and look for these aberrant variations. A mandibular first molar with seven canals represents a rare anatomical variant, particularly when four canals are found in distal root. Based on in vitro studies, its incidence is reported to be between 0.2% and 3%. With the advent of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid, the determination of root canal anatomy in teeth with complex canal configurations has become more precise. The present case report discusses successful nonsurgical management of radix entomolaris along with middle mesial canal and middle distal canal in mandibular first molar with seven canals (four canals in distal and three in mesial employing CBCT as an adjunctive diagnostic aid to conventional radiography.

  15. Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars in Indian Population: A Review and Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Attam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present cases of mandibular first molars with an additional distolingual root and their management using appropriate instruments and techniques. Basic Procedures and Main Findings. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. This paper reviews the prevalence of such cases in Indian population and reports the management of 6 such teeth. Principal Conclusions. (1 It is crucial to be familiar with variations in tooth/canal anatomy and characteristic features since such knowledge can aid location and negotiation of canals, as well as their subsequent management. (2 Accurate diagnosis and careful application of clinical endodontic skill can favorably alter the prognosis of mandibular molars with this root morphology.

  16. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  17. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J; Zaror, C; Monardes, H; Hermosilla, V; Muñoz, C; Cantin, M

    2014-06-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3-5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24-0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25-0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully.

  18. An audit of impacted mandibular third molar surgery | Obimakinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: We carried out a descriptive clinical study involving patients who presented for management of impacted third molar between January 2010 and December 2011. Demography of the patients including third molar spatial relationship, indications for surgery and pre- and post-operative visual analogue score for ...

  19. Management of Grossly Decayed Mandibular Molar with Different Designs of Split Cast Post and Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular molar with extensive loss of tooth structure, especially where no cavity wall is remaining, and insertion of posts in both the roots appear necessary so as to achieve proper retention for the core material. A single unit metal casting with two posts, one in the mesial root and the other in the distal divergent root, is difficult to fabricate due to difference in the path of insertion of the two posts. Multisection post and core or single cast post and core with auxiliary post can be an effective design to manage grossly decayed mandibular molars.

  20. Dispositivo de seguridad para controlar mejor el tercer molar impactado durante exodoncia: Una nueva técnica Security device for a better control of impacted third molars during exodontia: A new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hernández Altemir

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento accidental del tercer molar impactado es una complicación que ocurre de vez en cuando durante la exodoncia. La recuperación de estos dientes accidentalmente desplazados puede ser compleja debido a la mala visibilidad y el espacio limitado. Describimos una técnica fácil basada en un sistema de anclaje para controlar mejor los terceros molares impactados durante la exodoncia.Accidental displacement of impacted third molars is a complication that occasionally occurs during exodontia. The retrieval of these accidentally displaced third molars may be complex due to poor visibility and limited space. We describe an easy technique for a better control of impacted third molars during exodontia based on an anchoring system.

  1. Probabilidad de retención de segundos molares permanentes mandibulares (Estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sandoval Vidal

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia del segundo molar mandibular permanente (MM2 con probabilidad de impactación, en un grupo de pacientes de Ortodoncia de Temuco, Chile. Método: Estudio de corte transversal, con muestra por conveniencia. Se revisaron 2095 fichas de individuos de ambos sexos, con ausencia de patología sindrómica. Los datos recolectados se obtuvieron de radiografías panorámicas. Se midió el ángulo del segundo molar con respecto al plano oclusal, la invasión distal del primer molar y la distancia entre distal del primer molar y el borde anterior de la rama mandibular. Resultados: El promedio de edad de los pacientes relevados fue de 10 años. Se observó un 1,43% de probabilidad de retención de MM2 (n=30; en promedio y el plano el ángulo MM2 resultó de 27° el izquierdo y 26° el derecho; la invasión de MM2 en distal del primer molar resultó de 1,5 mm; el ángulo entre MM2 y el planos oclusal es de 123°; la distancia entre la cara distal del primer molar y el borde anterior de la rama mandibular fue 13 mm. Conclusiones: Existe una baja prevalencia de segundos molares mandibulares permanentes con probabilidad de impactación. La invasión a la cara distal del primer molar fue mayor en pacientes con riesgo de impactación

  2. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute pericoronitis (AP) arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal...

  3. An Audit of Mandibular Third Molar Surgery | Saheeb | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this audit was to identify areas where there could be improvement in patient management as well as evaluating our methods of treatment and effective utilisation of resources. Methods: A retrospective study of mandibular third surgery at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City in ...

  4. [Establish Assessment Model of 18 Years of Age in Chinese Han Population by Mandibular Third Molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fei; Dai, Xin-hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Kui; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2016-02-01

    To explore the value of estimating chronologic age based on the grades of mandibular third molar development. To evaluate whether mandibular third molar could be used as an indicator for estimating the age under or over 18 years. The mineralization status of mandibular third molar of 1 845 individuals aged 10 - 30 was graded and marked based on Demirjian's classification of grades reformed by Orhan. Gender difference was examined by t-test. A cubic regression model was established to analyze the correlation between third molar and chronologic age. Each grade of age cumulative distribution diagram and ROC curve was respectively performed to evaluate the relationship between third molar and the age of 18. Using Bayes discriminant analysis, an equation was established for estimating the age of 18. The inner-rater reliability was 0.903. Statistical analysis showed a moderate correlation between age and grade. Significant differences of both genders were found only in grade D and H (P Third molar development shows a high correlation with age, and combined with other indicators, it can be used to estimate the age of 18.

  5. Immediate changes in the mandibular dentition after maxillary molar distalization using headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Min

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate immediate changes in the mandibular dentition after maxillary molar distalization using headgear in non-growing patients. Sixteen patients (mean age, 18.9 ± 2.0 years) with Class II molar relationship and crowding were included in the present study. To correct the molar relationship, headgear was used for maxillary molar distalization. Cone-beam computed tomography-generated half-cephalograms (CG Cephs) and dental casts were used to evaluate dental changes for each subject before and immediately after molar distalization using headgear. The mean duration that subjects wore the headgear was 6.3 months. CG Cephs showed that the first maxillary molars were distalized 4.2 ± 1.6 mm with 9.7° ± 6.1° of distal angulation. The intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar widths of the mandible increased after maxillary molar distalization. The present study's results suggest that maxillary molar distalization using headgear induces a spontaneous response in the untreated mandibular dentition of non-growing patients.

  6. Classification of impacted mandibular third molars on cone-beam CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Michele; Costantinides, Fulvia; Bazzocchi, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Neurological involvement is a serious complication associated to the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars and the radiological investigation is the first mandatory step to assess the risk of a possible post-operative injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The aim of this study was to introduce a new radiological classification that could be normally used in clinical practice to assess the relationship between an impacted third molar and mandibular canal on cone beam CT (CBCT) images. CBCT images of 80 patients (133 mandibular third molars) were independently studied by three members of the surgical team to draw a classification that could describe all the possible relationships between third molar and IAN on the cross-sectional images. Subsequently, the study population was subdivided according to this classification. The SPSS software, version 15.0 (SPSS® Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Eight different classes were proposed (classes 0-7) and six of them (classes 1-6) were subdivided in two subtypes (subtypes A-B). The distribution of classes showed a prevalence of buccal or apical course of the mandibular canal followed by lingual position and inter-radicular one. No differences have resulted in terms of anatomic relationship between males and females apart from a higher risk of real contact without corticalization of the canal when the IAN had a lingual course for female group. Younger patients showed an increased rate of direct contact with a reduced calibre of the canal and/or without corticalization. The use of this classification could be a valid support in clinical practice to obtain a common language among operators in order to define the possible relationships between an impacted third molar and the mandibular canal on CBCT images. Key words:CBCT, classification, inferior alveolar nerve, third molars.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of distalization of mandibular molars by placing a mini-plate: A finite element study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myungsoon; Na, Yonghyun; Park, Minbong; Ahn, Janghoon

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the patterns of tooth movements when distalization of mandibular molars using a mini-plate took place. A finite element analysis was applied to analyze patterns of tooth movements. Methods The model of the mandible and teeth were used to build a finite element analysis model, and a mini-plate was inserted in the mandibular ramus. Two different orthodontic forces were established for displacement of mandibular molars. Orthodontic forces were...

  8. A Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Study on Mandibular First Molars in a Chinese Subpopulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Han, Ting; Chen, Xinyu; Wan, Fang; Lu, Yating; Yan, Songhe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) investigation on the root and canal configuration of the mandibular first molars, especially the morphology of the disto-lingual (DL) root, in a Chinese subpopulation. A total of 910 CBCT images of the mandibular first molars were collected from 455 patients who underwent CBCT examinations as a preoperative assessment for implants or orthodontic treatment. The following information was analyzed and evaluated: tooth position, gender, root and root canal number per tooth, root canal type of the mesial root(s) and distal root(s), angle of the DL root canal curvature, distance between two distal canal orifices in the teeth with DL root, and angle of disto-buccal canal orifice–disto-lingual canal orifice–mesio-lingual canal orifice (DB-DL-ML). Most of the mandibular first molars (64.9%, n = 591) had two roots with three root canals, and most of the mesial root canals (87.7%, n = 798) were type VI. The prevalence of the DL root was 22.1% (n = 201). The right side had a higher prevalence of DL root than the left side (pcanal were greater in the bucco-lingual (BL) orientation (30.10°±14.02°) than in the mesio-distal (MD) orientation (14.03°± 8.56°) (pcanal morphology of the mandibular first molars in a Chinese subpopulation. PMID:26241480

  9. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction: A cross‑sectional study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Impacted teeth, if left untreated, have a potential to induce various complications. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibular third molar in the Iranian population. Study Design: This cross‑sectional study was performed in patients who were referred to the ...

  10. Hypohyperdontia: Agenesis of three third molars and mandibular centrals associated with midline supernumerary tooth in mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was shown to be associated with other missing permanent teeth. A review of literature on hypodontia including third molar agenesis, hyperdontia and a concomitant presence of these two conditions which is termed as hypohyperdontia is presented along with a case showing agenesis of three third molars, both mandibular central incisors and a midline supernumerary tooth.

  11. Primary mandibular first molar with single root and single canal: a case report of a rare morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single rooted primary mandibular first molar is a rare developmental anomaly. Literatures reveal that failure of invagination of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath leads to this unusual root form. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and anatomical variations of primary teeth can help a pediatric dentist in successful root canal treatment. Hereby, we describe two cases of primary mandibular first molars with an unusual morphology as a single root called pyramidal molar.

  12. Changes in the Position of Mandibular Third Molars Following Extraction and Non-Extraction Orthodontic Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poosti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction of third molars can be associated with a number of sequelae, each requiring a different type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in the position of lower third molars following extraction and non-extraction orthodontic treatments. Methods: Pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs of 26 class I malocclusion patients (4 male and 22 female who were treated on a non-extraction basis were compared with those of 30 class I malocclusion patients (5 male and 25 female who received orthodontic treatment following the extraction of all first premolars. In each group, the lower third molar angulations and their distance from the lower border of the mandible were assessed. Results: Paired t-tests and independent t-tests detected significant changes in the position of the lower third molars in the extraction group. Both the left and right molars became more upright and their distance from the lower border of the mandible increased. Similar changes were only seen in the position of the right mandibular third molars in the non-extraction group. Conclusion: Tooth extractions can bring about favorable changes in the position of mandibular third molars and possibly reduce their incidence of impaction

  13. A Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Study on Mandibular First Molars in a Chinese Subpopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT investigation on the root and canal configuration of the mandibular first molars, especially the morphology of the disto-lingual (DL root, in a Chinese subpopulation. A total of 910 CBCT images of the mandibular first molars were collected from 455 patients who underwent CBCT examinations as a preoperative assessment for implants or orthodontic treatment. The following information was analyzed and evaluated: tooth position, gender, root and root canal number per tooth, root canal type of the mesial root(s and distal root(s, angle of the DL root canal curvature, distance between two distal canal orifices in the teeth with DL root, and angle of disto-buccal canal orifice-disto-lingual canal orifice-mesio-lingual canal orifice (DB-DL-ML. Most of the mandibular first molars (64.9%, n = 591 had two roots with three root canals, and most of the mesial root canals (87.7%, n = 798 were type VI. The prevalence of the DL root was 22.1% (n = 201. The right side had a higher prevalence of DL root than the left side (p<0.05. Additionally, the curvature of the DL root canal were greater in the bucco-lingual (BL orientation (30.10°±14.02° than in the mesio-distal (MD orientation (14.03°± 8.56° (p<0.05. Overall there was a high prevalence of DL root in the mandibular first molars, and most of the DL roots were curved in different degrees. This study provided detailed information about the root canal morphology of the mandibular first molars in a Chinese subpopulation.

  14. The predictivity of mandibular third molar position as a risk indicator for pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamalik, Kemal; Bozkaya, Süleyman

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the mandibular third molar at highest risk for acute pericoronitis using clinical and radiographic analysis. A total of 102 volunteers, including 40 (39%) male and 62 (60%) female patients presenting with acute pericoronitis, participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 23.4 years (range 17-30 years). The variables tested included the percentage of soft tissue coverage, availability of impinging maxillary dentition, and the angulation and eruption level of the mandibular third molar. While vertical impaction was the most frequent angulation (51%), horizontal impaction was quite rare (3%). Mesioangular impaction (25%) was slightly higher than distoangular impaction (21%). Difference between type of angulation was statistically significant for all groups (p pericoronitis was associated with the third molars that erupted at the same level of the adjacent tooth occlusal plane. The difference among the three levels of eruption was significant (p pericoronitis (41%). Evidence of impinging maxillary dentition did not have a statistically significant impact on presence of pericoronitis (p = 0.075). Mandibular third molars at or near to the same level of the occlusal plane of the arch and exhibiting vertical inclination were considered at highest risk for developing pericoronitis. Such third molars can be given high priority for prophylactic care due to the possibility of severe consequences of acute pericoronitis.

  15. Three-rooted mandibular first molar: A consideration in periodontal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Sachdeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A deep understanding of the relationship between root morphology and periodontal destruction is crucial to successful periodontal care. Most mandibular molars have two roots (one mesial and the other distal and three canals. The major variant of this tooth type is the presence of an additional third root distally or mesially or a supernumerary lingual root. This article presents a case report of a 14-year-old girl with mandibular first molar having three roots bilaterally which is contributing to the periodontal destruction. There were three walled defect distal to first molar with Grade II furcation involvement distally. Regenerative surgeries were performed and patient was kept under maintenance. The relationship between additional third root and periodontal destruction seldom has been described clearly. This paper has been presented in 34 th national conference at Dharwad.

  16. A conservative management of iatrogenically damaged distal root of the mandibular second molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma to the adjacent hard and soft tissue is the most common iatrogenic injury during extraction of the mandibular third molar. As every functional component of the dental arch is of prime importance in contemporary dental practice, the major concern must be in conserving the tooth and its structure as much as possible. The present case discusses the application of this conservative approach for management of iatrogenically damaged distal root of the mandibular second molar during extraction of impacted third molar, in which excessive guttering of alveolar bone and fractured apical third of distal root of 37 was observed radiographically. A conservative and noninvasive approach was successfully achieved to restore the damaged root by the bioactive material. Sealing of the remaining root with mineral trioxide aggregate allowed regeneration of soft and hard tissue around it.

  17. Association between third mandibular molar impaction and degree of root development in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren Rødsgaard; Andreasen, Jens O; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2013-01-01

    3 inf were erupted. The more mature a tooth was at age 15, the higher was the probability of eruption (odds ratio: 3.89, P development stage was statistically significantly associated with the probability of eruption (odds ratio: 10.50, P ¿=¿ .041). Conclusions......Abstract Objective: To compare the root development and the growth rate of the mandibular third molar (M3 inf) in individuals where the M3 inf erupted vs individuals exhibiting M3 inf impaction. Materials and Methods: Serial standardized intraoral radiographs (Eggen technique) were taken annually...... of the mandibular third molar region from 132 subjects (71 male and 61 female) from 15 to 20 years of age. Based on the films, 264 lower third molars were classified into an eruption and an impaction group. Root development was recorded according to a quantitative method described by Haavikko (1970...

  18. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted tooth is a tooth which is completely or partially unerupted and is positioned against another tooth, bone or soft tissue so that its further eruption is unlikely, described according to its anatomic position.[1] The third molar impaction is occurring in about 73% of the young adults in Europe,[2] these teeth generally erupt ...

  19. Association between the presence of a partially erupted mandibular third molar and the existence of caries in the distal of the second molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falci, S G M; de Castro, C R; Santos, R C; de Souza Lima, L D; Ramos-Jorge, M L; Botelho, A M; Dos Santos, C R R

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to verify, using periapical radiographs, whether a partially erupted mandibular third molar is a factor in the presence of dental caries on the distal surface of the adjacent second molar. Two-forty six high quality periapical radiographs were selected, each showing a partially erupted mandibular third molar. The variables analyzed were: tooth number; gender; age; radiographic presence of caries on the distal surface of the adjacent molar; Pell and Gregory classification; Winter classification; angulation and distance between the second and mandibular third molar. The examiners were previously calibrated to collect data (kappa statistics from 0.87 to 1.0). The prevalence rate of caries on the distal surface of the second molar was 13.4%. In the logistical multivariate regression analysis, the angulation (OR=8.5; IC95%: 1.7-43.8; p=0.011) and the gender (OR=3.3; IC95%: 1.4-7.7; p=0.005) remained statistically significant after an age adjustment was made. The results indicate that the presence of a partially erupted mandibular third molar with an angulation of 31 degrees or more, is a risk factor for caries on the distal surface of the mandibular second molars. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and Pattern of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction in Eritrean Population: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Raj; Yadav, Priya; Kahsu, Efrem; Girkar, Farhana; Chakraborty, Rajnish

    2017-02-01

    The most commonly impacted tooth in the oral cavity is the mandibular third molar. Various etiologic factors have been suggested for impacted mandibular third molars. The pattern and prevalence of impacted mandibular third molars vary with different population and region. This study throws light on the prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibular third molars in Eritrea, East Africa. This is the first reported study regarding the same from Eritrea. To assess the prevalence and pattern of impacted mandibu-lar third molars in the population of Eritrea, East Africa by conducting a retrospective study from January 2009 to January 2014. This study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Orotta School of Medicine and Dental Medicine and the Orotta Referral Medical and Surgical Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. A total of 1,813 clinical and radiographic records [orthopantomograms] were assessed and 276 cases were selected for the study as per the inclusion criteria. They were evaluated for the frequency among the various age groups, gender and region along with the sides affected, angulation and level of impaction. The presence of systemic conditions and associated pathologies was also assessed according to the type of impaction. The average age of these patients in the study was found to be 30 years, with the 20 to 30 years age group being the most affected (67.4%). Females (53.3%) were affected more than the males (46.7%). People from the Asmara region showed significantly more prevalence (79.7%) than the adjoining areas (20.3%). Mesioangular impaction was the most common angulation with a definite relationship to the age groups (p = 0.032). The level of impaction had no significant relationship to the age groups, gender, or region, although class I position A was found to be the most common type. Mesioangular class I position A impac-tion showed an apparent relationship with underlying systemic conditions, but it was statistically insignificant

  1. Eruption status of third molar and its possible influence on the location of mandibular angle fracture: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen Satish; Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Kumar, G B Ananth

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of eruption status of mandibular third molars on the location of mandibular angle fracture. We also aimed to evaluate the incidence of damage to mandibular third molar teeth (M3) and its roots. Medical records and panoramic radiographs of 142 patient cohorts with mandibular angle fractures with third molars present were retrospectively reviewed. Revealed that incidence of angle fracture were high in patients with fully erupted M3 when compared to unerupted group. Out of 142 patients, 108 fractures were found involving the M3 socket and 14.1 % had damage to M3. The presence of erupted mandibular third molar increases the chances of angle fracture when compared to impacted M3. Involvement of the M3 socket often resulted in increased operative time and complexity of the surgical procedure with possible removal of the damaged M3.

  2. Endodontic treatment of a mandibular second molar with four roots – A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge N.R. Martins

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: A configuration with four roots is rare for the mandibular molars. This configuration has an incidence of 0.04% in the first lower molar with only three in vivo case reports available. For the second lower molar, no incidence ratio was found.

  3. Mandibular third molar development after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1987-05-01

    Sequential panoramic radiographs were assessed for mandibular third molar development in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease after treatment with 37 Gy mantle field radiation. To make a comparison, panoramic radiographs of 149 healthy, nonirradiated children were reviewed for the presence of mandibular third molars. In children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars was more frequent in patients who had been treated with mantle radiation than in nonirradiated patients. Unilateral agenesis, crown hypoplasia, and root growth impairment of mandibular third molars were also found. Similar, apparent, radiation-induced developmental anomalies were noted in maxillary third molars of the irradiated patients.

  4. Estimation of age by measuring the Root Length of Mandibular Premolars & Permanent Mandibular Molar - A Digital Radiographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vishwanath

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing teeth have been considered as a good indicator for determination of age of an individual with unknown birth data. The common methods employed have been radiographic subjective assessment of tooth development and subsequent comparisons with dental charts. The accuracy of these methods has been questioned since the distribution around an estimated age has been more than ±2 years between 10th and 90th percentile. In an attempt to avoid the short coming associated with the subjective methods, a study of objective measurement of root length of mandibular 2nd premolar and permanent 1st molar by intraoral digital radiographic technique was conducted in the age group of 10-14 years and analyzed statistically using stepwise multiple regression models. It is found that the mandibular premolars can be used for age estimation with fair degree of accuracy between the age of 10-14 years.

  5. Sharp mandibular bone irregularities after lower third molar extraction: Incidence, clinical features and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Daniela; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Laskin, Daniel M.; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical symptoms associated with sharp mandibular bone irregularities (SMBI) after lower third molar extraction and to identify possible risk factors for this complication. Study Design: A mixed study design was used. A retrospective cohort study of 1432 lower third molar extractions was done to determine the incidence of SMBI and a retrospective case-control study was done to determine potential demographic and etiologic factors by comparing those patients with postoperative SMBI with controls. Results: Twelve SMBI were found (0.84%). Age was the most important risk factor for this complication. The operated side and the presence of an associated radiolucent image were also significantly related to the development of mandibular bone irregularities. The depth of impaction of the tooth might also be an important factor since erupted or nearly erupted third molars were more frequent in the SMBI group. Conclusions: SMBI are a rare postoperative complication after lower third molar removal. Older patients having left side lower third molars removed are more likely to develop this problem. The treatment should be the removal of the irregularity when the patient is symptomatic. Key words:Third molar, postoperative complication, bone irregularities, age. PMID:23524429

  6. X-RAY MEASUREMENTS OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS

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    Petya G. Kanazirska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray diagnostics is essential in case of retention of teeth. An important condition for proper treatment plan for impacted third molars of the mandible is the determination of the type of retention in the jaw in accordance with their medio-distal inclination and the space available for eruption (retromolar space. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an objective method for determination of the medio-distal inclination and the space for eruption of the third molars of the mandible. Materials and methods: The studied patients with impacted third molars of the mandible are 127, aged 17 through 60. They were examined with Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT. On the orthopantomography, obtained after the scanning as a reconstructed image, we defined the medio-distal inclination and space for eruption of the third molars of the mandible. For this purpose, we summarized several methods. Results: The most common inclination of the third molars of the mandible with retained eruption is the medial one at 120 teeth (61.5% ± 3.5. Second in frequency is the vertical one-34 teeth (17.4% ± 2.7, followed by the distal inclination– 21 teeth (10.8% ± 2.2. With the lowest frequency are the teeth which are positioned horizontally –20 teeth (10.3% ± 2.2. Shortage of retromolar space is established for173 teeth (88.7% ± 2.3. In 22 teeth (11.3% ± 2.3 there is enough space in the jaw for eruption. Conclusion: An objective method for determination of the medio-distal inclination of the teeth and the space available for eruption is introduced for the first time in Bulgaria. By determining the inclination of impacted wisdom teeth under this methodology one can avoid the subjective factor–the seventh tooth. It is not a reference plane, because it can also be tilted or missing. With the help of the developed method the retromolar point can be determined more objectively.

  7. Three distal root canals in mandibular first molar with different canal configurations: Report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of reports of aberrant root canal morphology, the clinician needs to be aware of the variable anatomy. Various case reports have been published with the finding of middle mesial canal in mandibular first molar, however finding of three distal canals in distal roots of mandibular first molar is rare. This article reports endodontic management of two mandibular first molars presented with three distal canals present in a single distal root (Sert and Bayirli type XVIII and distal and distolingual root.

  8. Root Canal Treatment of a Hypertaurodont Mandibular Second Molar: A Case Report

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    Davood Jamshidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurodontism is a morphologic feature of generally multi-rooted teeth with large pulp chambers and shortened roots. A case of endodontic treatment in a 24-year-old male with the chief complaint of swelling and pain in the right mandibular region is described. Periapical lesion was present in the radiographic examination of hypertaurodont second mandibular molar.Four root canals were detected with an endodontic microscope. The canals were prepared and obturated with lateral conden-sation technique in the second appointment. The patient was asymptomatic in the 18-month follow-up.

  9. Root Canal Treatment of a Hypertaurodont Mandibular Second Molar: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Davood; Adl, Alireza; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte; Bolurian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Taurodontism is a morphologic feature of generally multi-rooted teeth with large pulp chambers and shortened roots. A case of endodontic treatment in a 24-year-old male with the chief complaint of swelling and pain in the right mandibular region is described. Periapical lesion was present in the radiographic examination of hypertaurodont second mandibular molar.Four root canals were detected with an endodontic microscope. The canals were prepared and obturated with lateral condensation technique in the second appointment. The patient was asymptomatic in the 18-month follow-up. PMID:25973157

  10. Comparison of periodontal inflammatory disease in young adults with and without pericoronitis involving mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelesko, Savannah; Blakey, George H; Partrick, Maura; Hill, David L; White, Raymond P; Offenbacher, Steven; Phillips, Ceib; Haug, Richard H

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence and severity of periodontal inflammatory disease in subjects with pericoronitis involving a mandibular third molar and those without pericoronitis. Data obtained from healthy adults consecutively enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial with pericoronitis affecting at least 1 mandibular third molar (study group) were compared with data obtained during the same time frame from subjects without pericoronitis enrolled in a longitudinal third molar monitoring study (comparison group). The periodontal status of each subject was classified based on periodontal probing depths (PD): all PD or=4 mm, incipient disease; at least 4 PD >or=4 mm, early disease. Full mouth periodontal probing data were obtained as clinical measures of periodontal status. Data were aggregated to the subject level for the third molar region, the 6 third molar probing sites and the 2 second molar distal probing sites, the non-third molar region, and all remaining probing sites. The prevalence of disease in the study and comparison groups were compared with the Fisher's exact test. As an indicator of disease severity, the number of PD >or=4 mm in the 2 groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Level of significance was set at P values less than .05. Median age of the 56 subjects with pericoronitis was 23.3 years (IQR 21.3-26.0 years). Fifty-five percent were Caucasian, 16% African American, and 22% Asian. Males and females were almost equally represented in the study group and in the comparison group. The 194 subjects enrolled without pericoronitis were significantly older (32.8 years; IQR 27.2-40.0 years; P pericoronitis had incipient and 55% early disease in the third molar region compared with 25% with incipient and 38% with early disease among subjects without pericoronitis (P = .003). The pattern was similar, but the proportion of subjects was not significantly different between the groups for the non-third molar region. In the study group, 32

  11. Prevention of Localized Osteitis in Mandibular Third-Molar Sites Using Platelet-Rich Fibrin

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    Donald R. Hoaglin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review our experience utilizing platelet rich fibrin (PRF, which is reported to aid in wound healing of extraction sites, for the prevention of localized osteitis following lower third-molar removal. Materials and Methods. PRF was placed in the mandibular third-molar extraction sites, 200 sites total, on 100 consecutive patients treated in our practice, by the authors. The patients were managed with standard surgical techniques, intraoperative IV antibiotic/steroid coverage, and routine postoperative narcotic analgesics/short-term steroid coverage. All patients were reevaluated for localized osteitis within 7–10 days of the surgery. A comparison group consisted of 100 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral removal of indicated mandibular wisdom teeth and did not receive PRF placement within the lower third molar surgical sites. Results. The incidence of localized osteitis (LO following removal of 200 lower third molars with simultaneous PRF placement within the extraction site was 1% (2 sites out of 200. The group of patients whose mandibular 3rd molar sockets were not treated with PRF demonstrated a 9.5% (19 sites out of 200 incidence of localized osteitis. The latter group also required 6.5 hours of additional clinical time to manage LO than the study group who received PRF. Conclusions. This retrospective review demonstrated that preventative treatment of localized osteitis can be accomplished using a low cost, autogenous, soluble, biologic material, PRF, that PRF enhanced third-molar socket healing/clot retention and greatly decreased the clinical time required for postoperative management of LO.

  12. Rare courses of the mandibular canal in the molar regions of the human mandible: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Iwao; Ueno, Ryuji; Kawai, Taisuke; Yosue, Takashi

    2005-11-01

    The inferior alveolar artery, vein and nerve send some branches to the molar teeth via the mandibular canal to the mental foramen. The present study attempted to define the presence and course of the mandibular canal in the mandible with the alveolar process by macroscopic cadaveric dissection and computerized tomography (CT) in order to provide information that might prevent injuries to vessels and nerves at risk during root canal treatment. We identified the position of the mandibular canal within a 30% ratio of the distance from inferior border of mandible to the apices of the root for 39 out of 131 sides (mesial root of first molar, 20%; distal root of first molar, 22.6%; mesial root of second molar, 27.8% and distal root of second molar, 47%) on panoramic X-ray observation. In one cadaver (male, 64 years old), the root apex of the second molar was in close proximity to the upper bony mandibular canal. Macroscopic dissection and computerized tomography showed that the main trunks of the inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve were in tight contact with the apex of the second molar. These observations of the anatomic course of the mandibular canal will be important to consider during root canal treatment of mandibular teeth.

  13. Anatomical Relationship of Lingual Nerve to the Region of Mandibular Third Molar

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    Marcelo Breno Meneses Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the relationship of the lingual nerve with the adjacent anatomical structures of the mandibular third molar region, influencing the dentist to be aware of the variability of these relationships. Material and Methods: Samples of 24 human corpse half-heads were selected and divided according with the presence or absence of the mandibular third molars. The lingual nerve (LN was explored, showing its run from the oblique line until its crossing with the submandibular gland duct. The measurements along the LN and the adjacent anatomical structures were taken at the retromolar, molar and sublingual region with the use of a digital caliper. Results: The distance from the LN and the third molar socket, which represents the horizontal distance of the lingual plate to the nerve, on average, was 4.4 mm (SD 2.4 mm. The distance from the LN and the lingual alveolar rim, which represents the vertical relationship between the nerve and the lingual alveolar rim of the third molar socket, on average, was 16.8 mm (SD 5.7 mm. The LN has a varied topography that leaves it very vulnerable during any procedure executed in this region. Conclusions: Unless adequate protection of the lingual nerve is acquired by following an adequate surgical technique, the lingual nerve will always be vulnerable to damage during surgical intervention or manipulation in this region.

  14. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis

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    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahiro Takahashi, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaMatsumoto Dental University, School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute pericoronitis (AP arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A, the proximal surface (B, and distal surface (C in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.Keywords: bone resorption, pericoronitis, mandible, acute inflammation, elderly

  15. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Doto, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pericoronitis (AP) arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A), the proximal surface (B), and distal surface (C) in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.

  16. The influence of mandibular third molar germectomy on the treatment time of impacted mandibular second molars using brass wire: a prospective clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, M; Altieri, F

    2017-07-01

    The brass wire ligature is an efficient method to correct a moderately mesially impacted mandibular second molar (MM2). The aim of this prospective clinical pilot study was to evaluate the influence of mandibular third molar (MM3) germectomy on the treatment time for this procedure and to determine its impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The STROBE guidelines were followed. Impacted MM2 were assigned randomly to receive brass wire ligature treatment either with germectomy (group A) or without germectomy (group B). Descriptive statistics and the Student t-test were used in the statistical analysis; significance was set at P≤0.05. One thousand and thirty patients were assessed. Fourteen subjects with 20 mesially angulated (range 25-40°) impacted MM2 were identified. Paired comparisons of groups A and B showed no statistically significant difference in treatment time (171days for group A and 174days for group B; P=0.440), but a statistically significant difference in OHIP-14 values at the 3- (P=0.017) and 7-day (P=0.002) follow-up. The brass wire technique can be used effectively in moderately impacted MM2, but the combined use of MM3 germectomy does not influence the treatment time and shows a negative impact on OHRQoL. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical management of an endodontic retreatment failure of a mandibular first molar

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    Kinjal M Gathani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the common endodontic iatrogenic mishaps is the extrusion of obturation material which has a negative effect on the long-term prognosis of the tooth. Surgical endodontics has enabled us to save teeth with persistent infections and extrusions when orthograde treatment has been unsuccessful. Apicoectomy of the molars is not frequently performed even though its success rate can reach that of anteriors and premolars. This case report describes the orthograde and surgical management of a mandibular first molar with external root resorption, instrument separation in the canal, and extruded obturation material, which had been unresponsive to endodontic retreatment.

  18. Manual reduction of articular disc after traumatic extraction of mandibular third molar: a case report

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    Rubens Camino Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening is an intracapsular biomechanical disorder involving the condyle-disc complex. With the mouth closed, the disc is in an anterior position in relation to the condylar head and does not reduce with mouth opening. This disorder is associated with persistent limited mandibular opening.Case report:The patient presented severe limitation to fully open the mouth, interfering in her ability to eat. Clinical examination also revealed maximum assisted jaw opening (passive stretch with less than 40 mm of maximum interincisal opening. Magnetic resonance imaging was the method of choice to identify the temporomandibular disorders.Conclusion: By means of reporting this rare case of anterior disc displacement without reduction with limited opening, after traumatic extraction of a mandibular third molar, in which manual reduction of temporomandibular joint articular disc was performed, it was possible to prove that this technique is effective in the prompt restoration of mandibular movements.

  19. Relationship between mandibular second molar calcification stages and cervical vertebrae maturity in Italian children and young adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cossellu, G; Biagi, R; Pisani, L; Barbieri, V; Farronato, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the stages of calcification of the mandibular second molar and the stages of skeletal maturity among Italian children and young adults...

  20. Endodontic Treatment of Hypertaurodontic Mandibular Molar Using Reciprocating Single-file System: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C do Nascimento, Adriano; A F Marques, André; C Sponchiado-Júnior, Emílio; F R Garcia, Lucas; M A de Carvalho, Fredson

    2016-01-01

    Taurodontism is a developmental tooth disorder characterized by lack of constriction in the cementoenamel junction and consequent vertical stretch of the pulp chamber, accompanied by apical displacement of the pulpal floor. The endodontic treatment of teeth with this type of morpho-anatomical anomaly is challenging. The purpose of this article is to report the successful endodontic treatment of a hypertaurodontic mandibular molar using a reciprocating single-file system.

  1. Bilateral fusion of mandibular second molars with supernumerary teeth: case report

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    Nunes Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a developmental anomaly characterized by the union of two adjacent teeth. In this article we report a rare case of bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular second molars with supernumerary teeth. The rarity with which this entity appears, along with its complex characteristics, often make it difficult to treat. The endodontic management of one tooth is described, as well as the successful treatment of a periradicular lesion.

  2. Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with three distal canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mubashir; Farooq, Riyaz; Rashid, Aamir; Robbani, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    The use of spiral computed tomography serves as a boon in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. The present case demonstrates the spiral tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with 5 canals (2 mesial and 3 distal canals), which is a very rare anatomic variant. Such anatomic variations should be taken into account in day to day endodontic practice to ensure a high degree of clinical success. PMID:21814366

  3. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Combined Clinical and Radiological Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, P

    2015-01-01

    Tooth impaction is a pathological situation where a tooth fails to attain its normal functional position. Impacted third molars are commonly encountered in routine dental practice. The impaction rate is higher for third molars when compared with other teeth. The mandibular third molar impaction is said to be due to the inadequate space between the distal of the second mandibular molar and the anterior border of the ascending ramus of the mandible. Impacted teeth may remain asymptomatic or may be associated with various pathologies such as caries, pericoronitis, cysts, tumors, and also root resorption of the adjacent tooth. Even though various classifications exist in the literature, none of those address the combined clinical and radiologic assessment of the impacted third molar. Literature search using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals and Cochrane electronic databases was carried out. Keywords like impaction, mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, complications, anatomy, inferior alveolar nerve injury, lingual nerve injury were used to search the databases. A total of 826 articles were screened, and 50 articles were included in the review which was obtained from 1980 to February 2015. In the present paper, the authors have proposed a classification based on clinical and radiological assessment of the impacted mandibular third molar.

  4. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: Review of Literature and a Proposal of a Combined Clinical and Radiological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, P

    2015-01-01

    Tooth impaction is a pathological situation where a tooth fails to attain its normal functional position. Impacted third molars are commonly encountered in routine dental practice. The impaction rate is higher for third molars when compared with other teeth. The mandibular third molar impaction is said to be due to the inadequate space between the distal of the second mandibular molar and the anterior border of the ascending ramus of the mandible. Impacted teeth may remain asymptomatic or may be associated with various pathologies such as caries, pericoronitis, cysts, tumors, and also root resorption of the adjacent tooth. Even though various classifications exist in the literature, none of those address the combined clinical and radiologic assessment of the impacted third molar. Literature search using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals and Cochrane electronic databases was carried out. Keywords like impaction, mandibular third molar, impacted mandibular third molar, complications, anatomy, inferior alveolar nerve injury, lingual nerve injury were used to search the databases. A total of 826 articles were screened, and 50 articles were included in the review which was obtained from 1980 to February 2015. In the present paper, the authors have proposed a classification based on clinical and radiological assessment of the impacted mandibular third molar. PMID:26229709

  5. Spiral Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Endodontic Management of a Mandibular Second Molar with Four Roots. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purra, Aamir Rashid; Mushtaq, Mubashir; Robbani, Irfan; Farooq, Riyaz

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of mandibular second molars have two roots with three root canals; however, variations in molar root canal anatomy are not uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, four rooted mandibular second molar with three mesial roots and one distal root has never been reported. Herein, we present the endodontic management of a four rooted mandibular second molar tooth, diagnosed with the assistance of spiral computed tomography (SCT) with a brief review of literature. PMID:23717333

  6. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Ishizuka, Masahide; YASUDA, KOUICHI; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95%...

  7. Una rara complicación en la extracción del tercer molar inferior incluido: Caso clínico A rare complication during the extraction of the included inferior third molar: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    S. Aboul-Hosn Centenero; R. Sieira Gil; A. Monner Diéguez

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos una rara complicación ocurrida tras el intento de extracción del tercer molar incluido en una consulta odontológica bajo anestesia local. El paciente requirió ingreso en el servicio de urgencias para la extracción, de forma urgente, de la pieza a través de un abordaje cervical bajo anestesia general e intubación nasaotraqueal por desplazamiento de la pieza hacia la fosa submandibular durante el intento de extracción ambulatoria. El paciente presentó signos evidentes de inflamación...

  8. Biomechanical analysis of distalization of mandibular molars by placing a mini-plate: A finite element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myungsoon; Na, Yonghyun; Park, Minbong

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the patterns of tooth movements when distalization of mandibular molars using a mini-plate took place. A finite element analysis was applied to analyze patterns of tooth movements. Methods The model of the mandible and teeth were used to build a finite element analysis model, and a mini-plate was inserted in the mandibular ramus. Two different orthodontic forces were established for displacement of mandibular molars. Orthodontic forces were applied at the level of the bracket and at the level of the cemento-enamel junction in the mandibular canine respectively. Results orthodontic forces at the level of the cemento-enamel junction resulted in a greater biomechanical bodily movement in distalization of the mandibular molars compared to when the orthodontic forces were applied at the level of the bracket. Applying orthodontic forces to the cemento-enamel junction also resulted in unwanted greater extrusive movements in distalization of the mandibular molars compared to the bracket level. Conclusions With considering the mode of orthodontic teeth movement, applying different vertical orthodontic forces for distalization of mandibular molars can lead to more effective distalization of teeth. PMID:28861390

  9. Clinical evaluation of the effects of radiographic distortion on the position and classification of mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, L F M; Giglio, F P M; Ferreira, O; Sant'ana, E; Capelozza, A L A

    2005-03-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely employed for surgical planning of unerupted third molars. The objective of this study was to evaluate distortions in the position of mandibular third molars on panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs of 14 patients with indication for extraction of the mandibular third molars were used. Transurgical impressions of the crowns of the teeth to be extracted and adjacent second molars (n=19) were achieved with addition silicone and poured with type IV plaster for comparison of the inclinations of the third molars on the radiographs and study casts. There was a mean difference of -5.37 degrees between the position of the third molar on the panoramic radiograph and on the study cast (standard deviation 1.46, Pthird molars.

  10. Una rara complicación en la extracción del tercer molar inferior incluido: Caso clínico A rare complication during the extraction of the included inferior third molar: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aboul-Hosn Centenero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una rara complicación ocurrida tras el intento de extracción del tercer molar incluido en una consulta odontológica bajo anestesia local. El paciente requirió ingreso en el servicio de urgencias para la extracción, de forma urgente, de la pieza a través de un abordaje cervical bajo anestesia general e intubación nasaotraqueal por desplazamiento de la pieza hacia la fosa submandibular durante el intento de extracción ambulatoria. El paciente presentó signos evidentes de inflamación en la región submandibular con desplazamiento de la vía aérea hacia el lado opuesto. Las complicaciones derivadas de la cirugía del tercer molar son, en algunos casos, mortales y pueden aparecer tras un acto quirúrgico aparentemente de bajo riesgo. Estas complicaciones han sido ampliamente descritas en la literatura. Aún así consideramos importante el presentar complicaciones poco frecuentes en la cirugía del tercer molar ya que esto nos permitirá conocerlas y ofrecer la mejor solución en cada caso.We present a rare complication that appeared after an attempt to extract the included third molar with local anaesthesia at the odontologist office. The patient was admitted to the emergency room to have the tooth removed cervically under general anaesthesia and nasotracheal tubation because of its movement towards the submandibular fossa during the ambulatory extraction attempt. The patient showed evident signs of swelling in submandibular region and the airway was displaced towards the opposite side. The resulting complications from the third molar surgery are, in some cases, mortal and can occur after an apparently low risk surgery. These complications have been thoroughly described in literature. Still, we consider it important to describe infrequent complications of third molar surgery because it will allow us to know more about them and offer the best solution in every case.

  11. Miniscrew-assisted mandibular molar distalization in a patient with skeletal class-III malocclusion: A clinical case report

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    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nongrowing patients with mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion, premolar extraction or molar distalization in the lower arch can be done as a part of camouflage treatment. Temporary anchorage devices are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient′s cooperation. However, most reported cases in this regard have used interradicular miniscrews in the mandibular arch and these have a risk of failure as they can loosen due to collision with adjacent roots. This article showcases mandibular molar distalization utilizing miniscrews, inserted at the retromolar area to correct a Class-III problem. A 24-year-old girl with a mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion and dental Class-III molar and canine relationship bilaterally was referred for orthodontic treatment. The treatment plan included distalization of the lower molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy, after third molar extractions. For the lower molar distalization, the miniscrews were inserted at the retromolar pad. At the end of 21 months, a Class-I molar and canine relationship, normal overjet and overbite were obtained. The average amount of distalization of mandibular first molar was 3.2 mm at the crown level. In conclusion, placing miniscrews at the retromolar pad area for lower molar distalization was found to be a simple and effective method for correcting anterior cross bite and mandibular anterior crowding or protrusion, without the need for patient compliance.

  12. Tooth axis and skeletal structures in mandibular molar vertical sections in jaw deformity with facial asymmetry using MPR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Yokose, Taishi; Ishii, Takenobu; Kobayashi, Makoto; Nishii, Yasushi

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate frontal morphological asymmetry in the mandibular molar region in terms of tooth axis and skeletal structures using vertical MPR sections in jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry. Subjects consisted of 15 patients with jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry aged 17.4 years to 37.8 years. There were four men and eleven women. Based on X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, DICOM viewer software was used to prepare multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) sections. The mandible was then positioned on a reference plane based on the menton and left and right gonions, and a vertical MPR section passing through the mesial root of the first mandibular molar was prepared. The following measurements were made on both the shifted and non-shifted sides: maximum buccolingual width of the mandibular body; height of the mandibular body; inclination angle of the mandibular body; degree of buccal protrusion of the mandibular body; and inclination angle of the buccolingual tooth axis of the first molar. Furthermore, degree of median deviation in the menton was measured using frontal cephalograms. Differences in morphological parameters between the shifted and non-shifted sides were assessed. Furthermore, the relationship between median deviation and asymmetry were statistically analyzed. There was no significant asymmetry in the maximum buccolingual width of the mandibular body, the height of the mandibular body or the degree of buccal protrusion of the mandibular body. However, when compared to the shifted side, the inclination angle of the buccolingual tooth axis of the first molar for the non-shifted side was significantly greater. There was a relatively strong correlation between median deviation and inclination angle of the mandibular body. The above findings clarified that, in orthognathic surgery for jaw deformity accompanied by facial asymmetry, actively improving asymmetry in the buccolingual inclination of the

  13. The mandibular third molar position as a predictive criteria for risk for pericoronitis: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, B A; Anderson, W H

    1992-03-01

    During the 6-month period from mid February 1988 to mid August 1988, 148 patients presented with 154 diagnosed cases of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. All patients were members of the recruit population stationed at the Recruit Training Command, Great Lakes, Illinois. Selected clinical parameters relating to the orientation and eruption status of these third molars were collected and analyzed. The goal was to obtain a predictive clinical profile of the impacted mandibular third molar (MTM) at greatest risk for pericoronitis in the young naval and Marine Corps personnel. The majority of pericoronitis cases, 120 of 148 or 81.0%, involved vertically oriented MTMs; of this total, 79.1% were erupted to the approximate height of the occlusal plane of the arch. The remaining 20.9% were at or below the height of contour of the adjacent tooth. Mesioangular impacted MTMs accounted for only 11.2% of pericoronitis cases. The remaining cases comprised distoangular and horizontally impacted MTMs (3.4% and 3.8%, respectively). Involvement by impinging maxillary dentition was observed in 39.7% of the vertically oriented MTMs, 56.2% of the mesioangular oriented MTMs, 40.0% of the distoangular MTMs, and 14.0% of the horizontally impacted MTMs. The mean value for occlusal coverage by a soft tissue operculum observed for all MTMs in this study was 49%. In the population studied, risk for pericoronitis appears to increase with greater vertical orientation and height of eruption. The absence of impinging maxillary dentition did not eliminate the risk of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. These data have implications for targeting treatment needs of naval and Marine Corps personnel who may be without dental support for extended periods of time.

  14. Effect of Surgical Intervention for Removal of Mandibular Third Molar on Periodontal Healing of Adjacent Mandibular Second Molar: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Luigi; Kalemaj, Zamira; Buti, Jacopo; Baccini, Michela; La Marca, Michele; Duvina, Marco; Tonelli, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate and synthesize scientific evidence on the effect of surgical interventions for removal of mandibular third molar (M3M) on periodontal healing of adjacent mandibular second molar (M2M). The protocol was registered at PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) as CRD42012003059. Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were interrogated to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to December 22, 2014. Patients with M3Ms fully developed, unilaterally or bilaterally impacted, were considered. Outcomes were clinical attachment level gain (CALg) and probing depth reduction (PDr) with a follow-up ≥ 6 months. Patient-subjective outcomes, such as pain, discomfort, and complications, and financial aspects and chair time, were also explored. A Bayesian network meta-analysis model was used to estimate direct and indirect effects and to establish a ranking of treatments. Sixteen RCTs were included and categorized into four groups investigating the following: 1) regenerative/grafting procedures (10 RCTs); 2) flap design (three RCTs); 3) type of suturing (one RCT); and 4) periodontal care of M2M (two RCTs). Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) with resorbable (GTRr) and non-resorbable (GTRnr) membrane and GTRr with anorganic xenograft (GTRr + AX) showed the highest mean ranking for CALg (2.99, 90% credible interval [CrI] = 1 to 5; 2.80, 90% CrI = 1 to 6; and 2.29, 90% CrI = 1 to 6, respectively) and PDr (2.83, 90% CrI = 1 to 5; 2.52, 90% CrI = 1 to 5; and 2.77, 90% CrI = 1 to 6, respectively). GTRr + AX showed the highest probability (Pr) of being the best treatment for CALg (Pr = 45%) and PDr (Pr = 32%). Direct and network quality of evidence were rated from very low to moderate. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present review is the first one to evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the effect of different interventions on periodontal healing distal to the second molar after extraction

  15. Vertical bone growth following autotransplantation of the developing maxillary third molar to replace a retained mandibular permanent molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakwicz, Paweł; Czochrowska, Ewa Monika; Milczarek, Anna; Zadurska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    A retained permanent mandibular first molar caused arrested development and a defect of the alveolar bone in a 16-year-old girl. Extraction of the ankylosed tooth was immediately followed by autotransplantation of the developing maxillary third molar. At the 3-year follow-up examination the interproximal bone level at the autotransplanted molar was equal to that of the neighboring teeth. Cone beam computed tomography showed bone at the labial aspect of the transplant. The eruption of the autotransplanted tooth stimulated vertical alveolar bone development and repaired the bone defect. Additionally, there was closure of the posterior open bite that was initially present at the ankylosed molar site.

  16. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Eruption Status of the Mandibular Third Molar on Distal Caries in the Adjacent Second Molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Feiwu; Huang, Cheng; Sah, Manoj Kumar; Jiang, Beizhan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the effect of the eruption status of the mandibular third molar (MTM) on distal caries in the mandibular second molar (MSM) by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Five hundred CBCT images of MTMs from 469 patients were evaluated. Presence of distal caries in MSMs, impaction depths and angulations of MTMs, cementoenamel junction (CEJ) distances between distal MSMs and mesial MTMs, presence of pericoronitis in MTMs, and patient characteristics (age and gender) were assessed. Data were analyzed by χ(2) test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and Spearman correlation analysis. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed and the P value was set at .05. The overall prevalence of distal caries in the MSM was 52.0%. According to the classification of Pell and Gregory, position A was the impaction depth at which most distal caries in MSMs were present (P = .036). For angulation of the MTM, when mesial angulations were 43° to 73°, MSMs developed more distal caries (P < .0001). For the CEJ distance between the distal MSM and the mesial MTM, when distances ranged from 6 to 15 mm, distal caries in MSMs occurred more frequently (6 to 8 mm, P < .0001; 8 to 15 mm, P = .037). Furthermore, there was a linear correlation between angulation of the MTM and the CEJ distance between the distal MSM and the mesial MTM (P < .0001). Impaction depth and angulation of the MTM are associated with distal caries in the MSM. Angulation of the MTM is more stable and reliable than the CEJ distance between the distal MSM and the mesial MTM for the estimation of risk factors related to the MTM. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical Uprighting Is a Successful Procedure for Management of Impacted Mandibular Second Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwa, Bonnie L; Dang, Rushil R; Resnick, Cory M

    2017-08-01

    Impacted mandibular second molars can cause caries and root resorption on adjacent molars and can lengthen orthodontic treatment. Surgical uprighting is one management option. The purposes of this study were to 1) evaluate radiographic outcomes for surgical uprighting of impacted mandibular second molars and 2) propose an etiology for impaction. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who had surgical uprighting of mandibular second molars and had preoperative and at least 12-month postoperative panoramic images and an age- and gender-matched control group of patients undergoing routine orthodontic treatment. Predictor variables included age, gender, impaction type, preoperative angle of impaction, preoperative periodontal bone level distal to an adjacent first molar, posterior eruption space, pathology, and concomitant extraction of the adjacent third molar. Outcome variables were change in impaction type, postoperative periodontal bone levels around the first and second molars, postoperative tooth angle and posterior eruption space, periapical radiolucency, pulpal obliteration, root resorption, and need for extraction. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The sample and control groups each had 16 patients. The mean ages at the first radiographs were 13 ± 1.1 and 13.19 ± 0.61 years for the treatment and control groups, respectively, and the mean follow-up radiographs were obtained 2.4 ± 1.4 and 2.3 ± 0.82 years later. No preoperative images showed pathologic lesions obstructing eruption. Postoperatively, all uprighted molars were Pell and Gregory type IA. The mean change in the angles of the uprighted teeth was 23.5 ± 16.1° (P < .001). The mean distal bone levels of the adjacent first molar were 3.41 ± 1.52 mm preoperatively and 1.45 ± 0.54 mm postoperatively (improvement, 42.5%; P < .001). The preoperative posterior eruption space was 53.6% longer in the control than in the treatment group (P < .001), and the

  19. Visibility of the mandibular canal on cross-sectional CBCT images at impacted mandibular third molar sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alkhader

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess visibility of the mandibular canal (MC on cross-sectional cone beam CT (CBCT images at impacted mandibular third molar (IMTM sites. CBCT images for 150 IMTMs were selected for the study. The type of tooth impaction (horizontal, vertical, mesial and distal and location of the MC (inferior in contact and superimposed were evaluated on pseudo-panoramic images. Cross-sectional images were generated and two observers evaluated the location of the MC (buccal, lingual, inter-radicular and inferior and its visibility using 3-point scoring scale: (1–3, good–excellent. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to examine the differences in the visibility of the MC according to its location and the type of tooth impaction. The visibility scores of the MC were good, very good and excellent at 3, 25 and 122 IMTM sites, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the visibility scores of the MC according to its location or the type of tooth impaction (P < 0.05. Therefore, despite the different locations of the MC and different types of tooth impaction at IMTM sites, the visibility of the MC was excellent on most of the cross-sectional CBCT images. CBCT is considered a valuable diagnostic tool for achieving these results.

  20. Chronology of mineralization of the permanent mandibular second molar teeth and forensic age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Pedro; Pereira, Maria Lurdes; Afonso, Américo; Pérez-Mongiovi, Daniel; Caldas, Inês Morais

    2017-09-01

    Forensic age estimation frequently relies upon the chronology of mineralization of the third molar teeth. However, even when present, third molar teeth cannot always be used for estimating age in people who are classified as minors. Seconds molars develop earlier and in a more predictable way, and therefore are often more reliable for age estimation in this age group. This study aims to contribute to forensic age estimation using an age threshold of 14-years, studying the stages of development of permanent mandibular second molar teeth mineralization. 367 orthopantograms of a Portuguese population group, aged between 3 and 19 years, were studied. The stages of mineralization of mandibular permanent second molar teeth were studied following the classification stages proposed by Demirjian et al. Stage descriptive analysis was performed, and associations between age and stage were studied. A logistic regression to determine age over 14 years, using maturation stages and sex as a predictive variables, was made. A second sample was used for testing the model. The significance level was set at 5%. The model correctly classified 92.0% of cases overall. The equation was tested in the second sample, and the results showed that there were no statistical significant differences between the binary real age (i.e. age age ≥ 14 years) and the estimated age (p = 0.109). The developed model is useful for age estimation using 14-years as a threshold. However, stage maturation analyses showed that stage F, in males, and stages G and H, in both sexes, lead to an estimated age with significant statistical differences from chronological age.

  1. Does an Association Exist Between the Presence of Lower Third Molar and Mandibular Angle Fractures?: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruela, Wagner de Sousa; de Almeida, Vinícius Lima; Lima-Rivera, Luciana Monti; Santos, Pâmela Letícia; Porporatti, André Luís; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2018-01-01

    The current data suggest that the presence of lower third molars predisposes the patient to a greater risk of mandibular angle fracture. Thus, the present review sought to determine whether an association exists between the presence of a lower third molar and the occurrence of a mandibular angle fracture in adults and to assess the influence of third molar position according to the Pell and Gregory classification. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of analytical observational studies. The present review included all reports of the relationship between mandibular angle fractures and lower third molars. No restriction regarding year, language, or publication status was used. The review protocol was registered at the PROSPERO database (registration no. CRD42016047057). Electronic searches unrestricted for publication period and language were performed in the PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences databases. Google Scholar and OpenGrey databases were used to search the "gray literature," avoiding selection and publication biases. The entire search was performed by 2 eligibility reviewers. Association and proportion meta-analyses were planned for the studies with sufficient data. The primary predictor variable was the relationship between the presence of a lower third molar and the development of mandibular angle fractures. The secondary outcome variables were the vertical and horizontal positions of the lower third molar, according to the Pell and Gregory classification and their relationship to the susceptibility to developing a mandibular angle fracture. The search strategies resulted in 411 studies, from which 16 were selected for qualitative and quantitative review. The association meta-analysis included all the selected studies and showed that patients with lower third molars are 3.16 times more likely to develop mandibular angle fractures. The proportion meta-analysis included 5 studies and showed that

  2. ANALYSIS OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN AFTER EXTRACTION OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS AND ADMINISTRATION OF PREEMPTIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Neychev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available patients because of the effect of pain symptoms on the healing process and quality of life. The objective of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the postoperative pain in patients to whom preemptive analgesia was administered. Material and Methods: This is a randomised, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients who underwent surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. The patients were divided into three groups – with the preemptive administration of placebo, metamizole sodium and nimesulide. The short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS were used for assessment and analysis of postoperative pain. Results: For the first 24 hours after molar extraction the comparison of the values of the various pain components showed a superior effect of the preemptive analgesia with nimesulide for the alleviation of sensory and total pain compared to metamizole sodium and placebo. In all three groups, pain intensity was highest at postoperative hour 6. Conclusion: Preemptive use of NSAIDs in the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars reduces the perception of postoperative pain and its intensity.

  3. A ray of hope for the hopeless: Hemisection of mandibular molar with socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The management, treatment and long-term retention of mandibular molar teeth with furcation involvement have always been a challenge in periodontal therapy. Hemisection has been used successfully to retain teeth with furcation involvement. The term hemisection refers to the sectioning of a molar tooth, with the removal of an unrestorable root which may be affected by periodontal, endodontic, structural (cracked roots, or caries. Case Report : This case report describes a simple procedure of hemisection in a mandibular molar with socket preservation with help of an alloplastic bone graft and subsequent restoration of the tooth with fixed prothesis. Discussion: Hemisection represents a form of conservative procedure, which aims at retaining as much of the original tooth structure as possible. It may be a suitable alternative to extraction. Hemisection of the affected tooth allows the preservation of tooth structure, alveolar bone and cost savings (time and money over other treatment options. The preservation of posterior abutment teeth permits oral rehabilitation with fixed bridges instead of removable prosthesis. Conclusion: The keys to long term success appear to be thorough diagnosis followed by interdisciplinary approach with endodontic, surgical and prosthetic procedures. Preservation of a hopeless tooth is possible by selecting patients with good oral hygiene, and careful surgical and restorative management.

  4. Correlation of panoramic radiographs and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Nah, Kyung-Soo; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the association between cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographs in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars. Materials and Methods The study samples consisted of 175 impacted third molars from 131 patients who showed a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and third molars on panoramic radiographs and were referred for the examination of the mandibular canal with CB...

  5. Effect of Audiovisual Treatment Information on Relieving Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Won, Ji-Hoon; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2015-11-01

    The authors hypothesized that an audiovisual slide presentation that provided treatment information regarding the removal of an impacted mandibular third molar could improve patient knowledge of postoperative complications and decrease anxiety in young adults before and after surgery. A group that received an audiovisual description was compared with a group that received the conventional written description of the procedure. This randomized clinical trial included young adult patients who required surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar and fulfilled the predetermined criteria. The predictor variable was the presentation of an audiovisual slideshow. The audiovisual informed group provided informed consent after viewing an audiovisual slideshow. The control group provided informed consent after reading a written description of the procedure. The outcome variables were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dental Anxiety Scale, a self-reported anxiety questionnaire, completed immediately before and 1 week after surgery, and a postoperative questionnaire about the level of understanding of potential postoperative complications. The data were analyzed with χ(2) tests, independent t tests, Mann-Whitney U  tests, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Fifty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The audiovisual informed group was comprised of 20 men and 5 women; the written informed group was comprised of 21 men and 5 women. The audiovisual informed group remembered significantly more information than the control group about a potential allergic reaction to local anesthesia or medication and potential trismus (P informed group had lower self-reported anxiety scores than the control group 1 week after surgery (P informing patients of the treatment with an audiovisual slide presentation could improve patient knowledge about postoperative complications and aid in alleviating anxiety after the surgical removal of an impacted mandibular

  6. The effectiveness of computerized anesthesia in primary mandibular molar pulpotomy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Baghlaf, Khlood K; Elashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; El Derwi, Douaa A; Bayoumi, Amr M

    2016-03-01

    The technique of local anesthetic administration is an important consideration in the behavior guidance of a pediatric patient. The study hypothesized that there is no difference in the pain effectiveness in the experimental subjects with the use of single tooth anesthesia and the controls with the use of conventional technique (traditional inferior alveolar nerve block [IANB]).The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthesia effectiveness of traditional IANB; IANB using a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD); and intraligamental anesthesia (ILA) using CCLAD in pulpotomy of the primary mandibular second molars. Ninety-one healthy 5- to 9-year-old children underwent pulpotomy of the mandibular second molars. They were randomly assigned into Group A (traditional IANB), Group B (IANB using CCLAD), or Group C (ILA injection using CCLAD). The effectiveness of anesthesia was measured during different steps of pulpotomy using the sounds, eyes, and motor (SEM) scale. The postoperative complications were recorded after 24 hours. For all five pulpotomy steps, the anesthesia effectiveness was similar among the three anesthesia techniques. Anesthesia effectiveness was not significantly different (based on SEM scores) between the three groups during clamp application, drilling of the tooth, entering the pulp, pulp extirpation, and removal of the clamp (P = .635, P = .996, P = .630, P = .945, and P = .101, respectively). There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the three groups. The IANB anesthesia using CCLAD and periodontal ligament anesthesia using CCLAD were as effective as traditional IANB in anesthetizing the primary mandibular molars during pulpotomy.

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a mandibular root amputated molar using single crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sadat Mostafavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In teeth with furcation involvement, root amputation is one of the treatment choices. A challenge which a dentist may encounter with is the prosthetic treatment of such teeth when their adjacent teeth are intact. According to the current goal of operative dentistry based on conservative treatment, it would be desirable to do in a manner resulting in minimal damage to the adjacent sound teeth. In the following case report, a step-by-step conservative treatment sequences of a mandibular molar with distal root amputation which not involving surrounding teeth is described. During 18 months follow-up, the results were satisfactory.

  8. Evaluation of periodontal pathogens of the mandibular third molar pericoronitis by using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencimen, Metin; Saygun, Isil; Gulses, Aydin; Bal, Vehbi; Acikel, Cengiz H; Kubar, Ayhan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mandibular third molar pericoronitis flora by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The quantitative values of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Campylobacter rectus (Cr), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) were evaluated in comparison with the healthy third molar flora by using real time PCR. Aa, Cr, Pg, and Pi were not statistically significant but numerically higher than the pericoronitis group. In contrast to samples from control subjects, statistically significant higher numbers of Tf were detected in samples from pericoronitis patients. The study revealed the strong relation between risk of pericoronitis and the presence of Tf. Individuals who have Tf in their samples present with an almost eight times relative risk of pericoronitis as the individuals with an absence of Tf in their samples. Tf plays an important role in the development of clinical symptoms related to pericoronitis. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. A retrospective overview of treatment choice and outcome in 126 cases with arrested eruption of mandibular second molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenrad, Jacob; Vedtofte, Henriette; Andreasen, Jens Ove

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present retrospective study was to analyze treatment choice and outcome in patients with retention/impaction of the mandibular second molar. Radiographic material, from three large clinics, from 106 patients (60 males and 46 females) with 126 retained/impacted permanent...... mandibular second molars treated during the years 1985-2005 was evaluated for treatment choice and treatment outcome. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to dentists in cases where treatment outcome could not be determined from the radiographic material. Clinical evaluation was not possible as the patients...... were no longer associated with the clinic where they were treated. The cases were categorized into six groups: (A) no treatment; (B) orthodontic treatment; (C) surgical exposure of the second molar; (D) removal of the third molar; (E) removal of the second molar; and (F) other treatments. The various...

  10. New models for age estimation and assessment of their accuracy using developing mandibular third molar teeth in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangto, P; Iamaroon, A; Prasitwattanaseree, S; Mahakkanukrauh, P; Janhom, A

    2017-03-01

    Age estimation using developing third molar teeth is considered an important and accurate technique for both clinical and forensic practices. The aims of this study were to establish population-specific reference data, to develop age prediction models using mandibular third molar development, to test the accuracy of the resulting models, and to find the probability of persons being at the age thresholds of legal relevance in a Thai population. A total of 1867 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals aged between 8 and 23 years was selected to assess dental age. The mandibular third molar development was divided into nine stages. The stages were evaluated and each stage was transformed into a development score. Quadratic regression was employed to develop age prediction models. Our results show that males reached mandibular third molar root formation stages earlier than females. The models revealed a high correlation coefficient for both left and right mandibular third molar teeth in both sexes (R = 0.945 and 0.944 in males, R = 0.922 and 0.923 in females, respectively). Furthermore, the accuracy of the resulting models was tested in randomly selected 374 cases and showed low error values between the predicted dental age and the chronological age for both left and right mandibular third molar teeth in both sexes (-0.13 and -0.17 years in males, 0.01 and 0.03 years in females, respectively). In Thai samples, when the mandibular third molar teeth reached stage H, the probability of the person being over 18 years was 100 % in both sexes.

  11. Assessment of the associated symptoms, pathologies, positions and angulations of bilateral occurring mandibular third molars: is there any similarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarslan, Zühre Zafersoy; Kocabay, Ceyda

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and establish any similarity between the associated symptoms, pathologies, positions, and angulation types of bilateral occurring mandibular third molars among a group of young adult patients. A total of 342 patients (167 females, 175 males), aged between 20 and 25 years (mean: 22.2, SD: 1.8) participated in the study. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed. Eruption status, mucosal and bony coverage type, presence of pain, pericoronitis, suppuration, ulceration, caries in third molar, distal caries in second molar, bone loss, root resorption, or cyst or tumor formation was investigated in addition to the position and the angulation of each tooth. Patients having at least one completely or partially erupted mandibular third molar were classified as group 1 and patients having bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were classified as group 2. No significant difference was found between the symptoms and pathologies related with the mandibular right third molar (RM) and the left third molar (LM) among both groups and genders (P > .05). In the total sample, no significant difference was found between the RM and the LM in terms of mucosal coverage type, bony coverage type, and position both in group 1 and group 2 (P > .05); but gender had an influence on the bony coverage type and ramus distance of the RM and the LM in group 2 (P < .05). In the total the sample, symmetry was present for horizontal or distoangular and vertical or distoangular angulations in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Gender was found to also have an impact on angulation symmetry. In most cases, a similarity was present between the symptoms and pathologies related with the bilateral mandibular third molars; but symmetry in position and angulation differed according to eruption status, angulation type, and gender.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of relationship between mandibular third molar and angle fracture on North Indian population: A clinico-radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suresh; Tyagi, Shallu; Puri, Naveen; Kumar, Prince; Kumar, Puneet

    2013-04-01

    To assess the relationship between impacted mandibular third molar presence and the risk for mandibular angle fracture with the effect of various positions of mandibular third molar and the risk of mandibular angle fracture. In the North Indian territory, a total of 289 patients with mandibular angle fractures were studied and evaluated for the possible relationship with impacted third molar on the basis of clinical and panoramic radiographical findings. Results that confirmed the highest risk for mandibular angle fracture was associated with mesioangular angulations (45.42%) followed by vertical (26.34%), distoangular in sequence and least risk was found with bucco-version angulations (2.67%) according to Winter's classification. Additionally, the highest risk of mandibular angle fracture was reported with partially erupted third molar (47.75%), followed by erupted (23.53%) and unerupted third molar (19.38%). The risk for mandibular angle fracture is not only affected by status of eruption, angulations, position, number of roots present in third molar but also by the distance of mandibular third molar from inferior border of mandible and the percentage of remaining amount of bone at the mandibular angle region.

  13. Efficacy of the technique of piezoelectric corticotomy for orthodontic traction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhigui; Xu, Guangzhou; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Zhang, Shanyong

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy of piezoelectric corticotomy for orthodontic traction of mandibular third molars close to the inferior alveolar nerve. Thirty patients with impacted third molars close to the nerve were included in the study, 15 of whom were treated with conventional orthodontic traction and 15 with piezoelectric corticotomy. We recorded duration of treatment including exposure and orthodontic traction, and time to the final extraction. Postoperative complications including trismus, swelling, and pain were also noted. Alveolar bone levels mesial and distal to the second molars were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) images. Student's t test was used to assess the significance of differences between the groups. After orthodontic treatments all impacted third molars were successfully removed from the inferior alveolar nerve without neurological damage. The mean (SD) duration of surgical exposure in the piezoelectric corticotomy group was significantly longer than that in the conventional group (p=0.01). The mean (SD) duration of traction was 4 (2.3) months after piezoelectric corticotomy, much shorter than the 7.5 (1.3) months in the conventional group (p=0.03). There were no significant differences in postoperative complications between the groups. There was a significant increase in the distal alveolar height of second molars after treatment in both groups (ppiezoelectric corticotomy allows more efficient and faster traction of third molars with a close relation between the root and the inferior alveolar nerve, although it took longer than the traditional technique. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlating the clinical assessment of impacted mandibular third molars with panoramic radiograph and intraoral periapical radiograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P. Vani; Nasyam, Fazil A.; Ramprasad, M.; Penumatsa, Narendra V.; Akifuddin, Syed; Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aims And Objectives: This study was conducted to compare the clinical assessment of impacted third molars of mandible with panaromic radiograph (OPG) and intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) and to assess the efficacy of IOPA and. Moreover, we corroborated the OPG and IOPA findings of impacted mandiblar third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with pericoronitis were examined who were indicated for surgical extraction, among which 50 patients were selected for the study. All the patients underwent a radiographic survey with a digital OPG and IOPA of impacted mandibular third molars, along with clinical survey for anatomic relationship, type of impaction, space available, position in relation to second molar, number of roots, root curvature, and proximity of nerve canal. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 4.0.1 software was used for analyzing the collected data. Results: The study revealed that IOPA was more accurate in determining a majority of the factors affecting the third molar surgery, including relationship of the external oblique ridge (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%), anteroposterior relation with ramus (IOPA vs OPG = 70%:66%), vertical depth of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 72%:68%), number of roots (P = 0.013), morphology of roots (IOPA vs OPG = 96%:90%); however, OPG was found to be accurate in evaluating the type of impaction (IOPA vs OPG = 88%:94%), canal relation, along with root of impacted molar (IOPA vs OPG = 74%:86%). Conclusion: To conclude, although IOPA has a marginal angle over OPG in assessing various parameters, only the number of roots have a greater accuracy (P < 0.0013) in IOPA than with OPG. However, the OPG is the better choice to be considered when the patient is associated with trismus. PMID:28217540

  15. Survival analysis of metal crowns versus restorations in primary mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Yepes, Juan F; Galloway, Madison; Tang, Qing; Eckert, George J; Downey, Timothy; Vinson, LaQuia

    2017-10-01

    The effectiveness of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) versus direct restorations when placed in primary mandibular molars (teeth nos. L and S) is uncertain. The authors evaluated effectiveness by gauging longevity of treatment. The authors obtained private dental insurance claims (2004-2016) from a national dental data warehouse. Paid insurance claims records (n = 1,323,489) included type of treating dentist, treatment placed, and patient age. Dentist specialty, type of treatment, and patient age were significant in predicting failure after the first restoration. The authors found high survival rates for all treatments (> 90%) after 5 years; however, as soon as within 3 years after treatment, SCCs had approximately 6% better survival. Teeth nos. L and S first treated with SSCs lasted longer without new treatment compared with teeth first treated with direct restorations; the difference was small. Teeth treated by pediatric dentists had better survival rates. Primary mandibular first molars initially treated with SSCs lasted longer without new treatment compared with direct restorations. Overall dental care costs of the former were considerably higher. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical Management of Accidentally Displaced Mandibular Third Molar into the Pterygomandibular Space: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Yueh Huang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical removal of the mandibular third molar is a regular surgical procedure in dental clinics, and like all operations, it may have some complications, such as infection, bleeding, nerve injuries, trismus and so on. An accidentally displaced lower third molar is a relatively rare complication, but may cause severe tissue injury and medicolegal problems. As few papers and cases have been published on this topic, we report this case to remind dentists on ways to prevent and manage this complication. The patient, a 28-year-old male, had his right lower mandibular third molar extraction in January 2006. The dentist resected the crown and attempted to remove the root but found that it had suddenly disappeared from the socket. Assuming that the root had been suctioned out he closed the wound. The patient was not followed up regularly because he studied abroad. About 3 months later, the patient felt a foreign body sensation over his right throat, and visited a local hospital in Australia. He was told after a computed tomography (CT scan that there was a root-like radio-opaque image in the pterygomandibular space. The patient came to our hospital for further examination and management in June 2006. We rechecked with both Panorex and CT and confirmed the location of the displaced root. Surgery for retrieving the displaced root was performed under general anesthesia by conventional method without difficulty, and the wound healed uneventfully except for a temporary numbness of the right tongue. This case reminds us that the best way to prevent a displaced mandibular third molar is to evaluate the condition of the tooth carefully preoperatively, select adequate instruments and technique, and take good care during extraction. If an accident does occur, dentists should decide whether to retrieve it immediately by themselves or refer the case to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and should not try to remove the displaced root without proper assurance

  17. Effect of Tooth Preparation on Microleakage of Stainless Steel Crowns Placed on Primary Mandibular First Molars with Reduced Mesiodistal Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Ranjbar, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Incomplete adaptation of stainless steel crown margins leads to microleakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation on microleakage of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) placed on mesiodistally reduced primary mandibular first molars. Materials and Methods: In this In vitro study, 60 primary mandibular first molars with reduced mesiodistal dimension were selected. Pulp cavities were filled with amalgam and occlusal surfaces were reduced. The samples were randomly divided into two groups (groups P and BLP). Standard preparation was done in group P with only proximal reduction. In group BLP, after reducing the proximal undercuts, buccal and lingual surfaces were slightly reduced. Occlusal one-third of the buccal surfaces was beveled in both groups. Then, the SSCs of the primary maxillary and mandibular first molars were fitted and cemented in P and BLP groups, respectively. After immersing the samples into deionized water, thermo-cycling, and immersion in 2% basic fuchsin, the samples were sectioned buccolingually. The mesial halves were evaluated microscopically for microleakage in both buccal and lingual margins. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS 19 at the significant level of 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in microleakage of the buccal margin (P=0.003); whereas, the difference observed in the lingual margin was not significant (P=0.54). Conclusion: We suggest reduction of buccal and lingual surfaces of mesiodistally reduced primary mandibular first molars and placing lower (mandibular) crowns. PMID:26005450

  18. Effect of tooth preparation on microleakage of stainless steel crowns placed on primary mandibular first molars with reduced mesiodistal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid; Ranjbar, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Incomplete adaptation of stainless steel crown margins leads to microleakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation on microleakage of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) placed on mesiodistally reduced primary mandibular first molars. In this In vitro study, 60 primary mandibular first molars with reduced mesiodistal dimension were selected. Pulp cavities were filled with amalgam and occlusal surfaces were reduced. The samples were randomly divided into two groups (groups P and BLP). Standard preparation was done in group P with only proximal reduction. In group BLP, after reducing the proximal undercuts, buccal and lingual surfaces were slightly reduced. Occlusal one-third of the buccal surfaces was beveled in both groups. Then, the SSCs of the primary maxillary and mandibular first molars were fitted and cemented in P and BLP groups, respectively. After immersing the samples into deionized water, thermo-cycling, and immersion in 2% basic fuchsin, the samples were sectioned buccolingually. The mesial halves were evaluated microscopically for microleakage in both buccal and lingual margins. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS 19 at the significant level of 0.05. There was a significant difference in microleakage of the buccal margin (P=0.003); whereas, the difference observed in the lingual margin was not significant (P=0.54). We suggest reduction of buccal and lingual surfaces of mesiodistally reduced primary mandibular first molars and placing lower (mandibular) crowns.

  19. Effect of tooth preparation on microleakage of stainless steel crowns placed on primary mandibular first molars with reduced mesiodistal dimension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete adaptation of stainless steel crown margins leads to microleakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation on microleakage of stainless steel crowns (SSCs placed on mesiodistally reduced primary mandibular first molars.In this In vitro study, 60 primary mandibular first molars with reduced mesiodistal dimension were selected. Pulp cavities were filled with amalgam and occlusal surfaces were reduced. The samples were randomly divided into two groups (groups P and BLP. Standard preparation was done in group P with only proximal reduction. In group BLP, after reducing the proximal undercuts, buccal and lingual surfaces were slightly reduced. Occlusal one-third of the buccal surfaces was beveled in both groups. Then, the SSCs of the primary maxillary and mandibular first molars were fitted and cemented in P and BLP groups, respectively. After immersing the samples into deionized water, thermo-cycling, and immersion in 2% basic fuchsin, the samples were sectioned buccolingually. The mesial halves were evaluated microscopically for microleakage in both buccal and lingual margins. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test in SPSS 19 at the significant level of 0.05.There was a significant difference in microleakage of the buccal margin (P=0.003; whereas, the difference observed in the lingual margin was not significant (P=0.54.We suggest reduction of buccal and lingual surfaces of mesiodistally reduced primary mandibular first molars and placing lower (mandibular crowns.

  20. Three Independent Mesial Canals in a Mandibular Molar: Four-Year Followup of a Case Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne Freire de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment of mandibular molars is challenging because of variable root canal morphology. The nonsurgical endodontic management of a mandibular first molar presenting an independent middle mesial canal is reported. After coronal access, additional clinical inspection of the mesial canals’ orifices and their interconnecting groove using an endodontic explorer and 4.5× loupes enabled the identification of the middle mesial canal orifice. All root canals were chemomechanically prepared and filled. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional after 4 years of followup. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images revealed normal periapical status and three-dimensional (3D anatomical aspects of the root canal system.

  1. Taurodontism of the mandibular first permanent molar distinguishes between the tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K

    1993-05-01

    The diagnosis of tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome is often confused with that of a variant of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) which shows similar dental features of hypomaturation-hypoplastic enamel defects and putative taurodontism. In this controlled study, an objective, biometric measurement technique was used to determine the prevalence and severity of taurodontism of the mandibular first permanent molar in 23 patients with AI and one patient with TDO syndrome compared with age- and sex-matched controls. The published radiographs of previous cases of TDO and hypomaturation-hypoplastic AI were also reviewed with regard to the presence and severity of taurodontism. The results indicate that in all cases of TDO, taurodontism of the molars including mandibular first permanent molars was consistently present and in a severe form. By contrast, the taurodontic defects present in all cases of AI, including the hypomaturation-hypoplastic variant were not significantly different from matched, healthy controls. Of significance is the fact that in all the AI cases, none of the taurodontic defects were present on the mandibular first permanent molars. The results indicate that true taurodontism as indicated by a change in the mandibular first permanent molars occurs only in the TDO syndrome. This feature may be used to differentiate clearly between TDO and AI.

  2. Nonsyndromic Bilateral Multiple Impacted Supernumerary Mandibular Third Molars: A Rare and Unusual Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siva Prasad Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary tooth is that which is present additionally to the normal series and can be found in any region of the dental arch. An impacted tooth is defined as the one which is embedded in the alveolus, so that its eruption is prevented, or the tooth is locked in position by bone or the adjacent teeth. The occurrence of multiple supernumerary teeth in only one patient in the absence of an associated systemic condition or syndrome is considered as a rare phenomenon. The occurrence of supernumerary teeth in the lower molar region is rare. A prevalence of less than 2% of cases occurring in this region has been estimated. Their occurrence presents a clinical problem for orthodontists and oral surgeons. The cause, frequency, complications, and surgical operation of impacted teeth are always interesting subjects for study and research. An impacted tooth can result in caries, pulp disease, periapical and periodontal disease, temporomandibular joint disorder, infection of the fascial space, root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and even oral and maxillofacial tumours. The management of impacted wisdom teeth has changed over the past 20 years from removal of nonsymptomatic third molars to simple observation. The aim of this paper is to present a rare case of bilateral multiple impacted supernumerary mandibular third molars.

  3. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-pleistocene hominids. I. Mandibular molars: crown area measurements and morphological traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, B A; Abbott, S A

    1983-01-01

    This study has used accurate measurements of crown area and precise assessments of the morphological traits of mandibular molars in an attempt to define the metrical and morphological characteristics of early hominid taxa. A total of 196 Plio-Pleistocene hominid molars were either allocated to one of six informal taxonomic groups or considered as individual cases. Accurate measurements of crown base area made from occlusal photographs have enabled us to estimate the effects of interproximal w...

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of two anesthetic techniques of mandibular primary first molar: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ghasemi Tudeshchoie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common technique to anesthetize mandibular primary teeth is inferior alveolar (I.A nerve block injection which induces a relatively sustained anesthesia and in turn may potentially traumatize soft-tissues. Therefore, the need of having an alternative technique of anesthesia with a shorter term but the same efficacy is reasonable. The aim of this study was a comparison of the efficacy of two anesthetic techniques of mandibular primary first molar. Materials and Methods: In this randomized crossover clinical trial, 40 children with ages ranged from 5 years to 8 years whose mandibular primary first molars were eligible for pulpotomy, were selected and divided randomly into two groups. The right and left mandibular first molars of group A were anesthetized with infiltration and I. A nerve block techniques in the first and second sessions respectively. The left and right mandibular first molars of group B were anesthetized with I.A nerve block and infiltration techniques in the first and second sessions respectively. The severity of pain were measured and recorded according to sound-eye-motor scale by a certain person. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney U tests (P < 0.05. Results: The severity of pain was lower in infiltration technique versus I.A nerve block. There were no significant differences between the severities of pain on pulpal exposure of two techniques. Conclusion: It seems that infiltration technique is more favorable to anesthetize the mandibular primary first molar compared to I.A nerve block.

  5. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-13

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>-1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤-1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type.

  6. Detecting the apical constriction in curved mandibular molar roots--preflared versus nonflared canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sobhi, Muhammad Baksh

    2003-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining correct working length is critical to success in endodontic therapy. This involves placing the file in to the canal to feel the apical constriction, preparing the canal upto that extent and then filling the entire canal upto the apical constriction with gutta percha points. Detection of the apical constriction is affected if the coronal part of the canal is narrow or obstructed due to dentine deposition. This usually happens in curved canals and gives the operator a false feeling of the apical constriction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect on tactile detection of apical constriction in mandibular molars with curved roots, between the preflared and non-flared root canals. This study was carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from February to April 2002. Seventy patients coming for the endodontic treatment of their mandibular first molars were selected. The study included only mandibular molars with curved mesial canals. The total no of patients were divided equally into the preflared and non-flared groups. In both groups a No. 15 K file was used to detect or feel the apical constriction but in the preflared group the coronal portion of the canal was flared/prepared using Hedstrom files (No. 25-55) and Gates Glidden Drills No. 02 to No. 05 before inserting the No. 15 file. The tooth was radiographed at this moment and the distance between the tip of the file and the radiographic apex was measured. The location of the tip was classified as: a) Within 1 mm of the radiographic apex, b) Under extended, more than 1 mm of radiographic apex, and c) Over extended, beyond the radiographic apex. In the non-flared group 31.4% belonged to group 'a', 40% to group 'b', and 28.57% to group 'c'. In the flared group 80% belonged to group 'a', 5.7% to group 'b', and 14.28% to group 'c'. Results of this study suggest that preflaring greatly improves the tactile sense to feel the apical constriction in curved

  7. Radicular anatomy of permanent mandibular second molars in an Iranian population: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Nahid M.; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashadi; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Shamloo, Mohammad Reza Karami; Radmehr, Orkideh; Kaviani, Ramin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Root morphology is of utmost importance to endodontic sciences. Since there are a few studies on the morphology of mandibular second molars' roots, and some anatomical variables are not evaluated before, the aim of this study was to investigate thoroughly radicular anatomy of this tooth. Materials and Methods: This ex vivo study was performed on 150 intact mandibular second molars. After access cavity preparation and ensuring canal patency, Indian ink was injected into root canals from the orifices. The teeth became transparent using methyl salicylate storage. Then, they were inspected by an endodontist under a ×10 stereomicroscope regarding numerous root morphological variables. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and analysis of variance (α = 0.05). Results: About 86.7% of teeth had two roots and 13.3% were single-rooted (P = 0.0001), of which, 50% were C-shaped (6.7% of all teeth, P = 0.0001). 86.7% of mesial roots were double canalled, whereas 75.3% of distal roots were single canalled (P = 0.0001). 71.45% and 95.3% of the mesial and distal roots had one apical foramen, respectively (P = 0.0001). Apical foramens were mostly central followed by lingual in most cases. Distances between apical foramen and apical constriction ranged between 0.27 and 0.40 mm (P = 0.0545). Distances between apical foramen and root apices ranged between 0.30 and 0.47 mm (P = 0.0001). Vertucci classifications of mesial canals were Type II in 62.6% and Type IV in 37.4%. 86.2% of single-canal distal roots were Type I. 66.7% of double-canal distal roots were Type II and 33.3% were Type IV (P = 0.0001). The mean root lengths from cervical to apex of mesial, distal, and single roots were 14.02 ± 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.87–14.17), 13.35 ± 0.91 (95% CI = 13.19–13.50), and 14.25 ± 0.72 mm (95% CI = 13.91–14.58), respectively. The extents of canal curvatures varied between 20° and 31° buccolingually (P = 0.0000), and between 19° and 27

  8. [Observation of bone morphology in furcation defects of mandibular molars using cone beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Ouyang, X Y

    2017-02-18

    To observe mesial-distal bone morphology in classes II and III furcation involvements (FI) of mandibular molars using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), to develop a classification system of mesial-distal bone morphology of furcation defects and to observe the intrabony defects on CBCT images. Based on the existing CBCT data, the mandibular molars with horizontal bone defects in furcation area were observed. One hundred and seventeen sites of 81 mandibular molars with class II or class III FIclassified on CBCT images were included. The classification system of mesial-distal bone morphology of furcation defects was developed. According to the location of the line drawn from mesial to distal alveolar bone crest (AC-line) of the tooth and bone level under furcation fornix, the bone morphology was classified into three types, including concave type, flat type and protruding type. The concave type was divided into two subtypes according to the location of AC-line and furcation fornix (Fx), which were subtype 1(AC-line coronal or equal to Fx)and subtype 2 (AC-line apical to Fx).The frequency of each type was calculated and analyzed. The intrabony defects was observed on sagittal CBCT images. In the 117 sites with FI, the flat type appeared with the highest rate (64.10%) and the protruding type appeared with the lowest rate (6.84%). The rates of subtype 1 and subtype 2 of concave type were 13.68% and 15.38%, respectively. The rate of subtype1 which was supposed to be beneficial for bone regeneration was 8.96% in class II FI and 20.00% in class III FI. Thirtyone intrabony defects were found among the 117 FI, 29 of which appeared in proximal aspect of the tooth and the left 2 appeared in furcation area. The highest frequency of the intrabony defects was found in subtype 1 of concave type. The classification of mesial-distal bone morphology on CBCT images may be helpful for clinicians to make accurate treatment plan before surgery and could be used in future studies to

  9. [Investigation of root and canal morphology of human primary mandibular second molar by cone-beam CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan; Yang, Ran; Zou, Jing

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the root and canal morphology of primary mandibular second molars in a Chinese population by cone-beam CT(CBCT). A total of 305 CBCT images of 305 children aged 4-8 years were collected, who came to West China Dental Hospital from October, 2011 to March, 2012 due to supernumerary teeth, dental trauma, orthodontic treatment or oral maxillofacial tumor. Primary mandibular second molars which roots were full developed, without periapical infection or apical root resorption were enrolled. All the images were analyzed by two researchers. The data were statistically analyzed by software SPSS 19.0. Four hundred and thirty-seven primary mandibular second molars(PMSM) showed single mesial root except one which had two. Three hundred and twenty-five (74.4%) teeth had one distal root, 111(25.4%) teeth had two and one had three. There were 424(97.0%) teeth which had two mesial canals and 13(3.0%) had one.One hundred and three(23.6%) teeth had one distal root with one canal, 222(50.8%) had one distal root with two canals, 106(24.3%) had two distal roots with two canals, 5(1.1%) had two roots with three canals and 1(0.2%) had three roots with three canals. The root canal system of PMSM had ten variants in this study. The prevalence of three-rooted PMSM had significant differences from different genders (P = 0.000) and different sides (P = 0.028). Majority of primary mandibular second molars had two roots, and the minority had three roots. The prevalence of three-rooted molars in males were higher than that in females. Mesial and distal roots of primary mandibular second molars often had two canals.

  10. Anatomical considerations for the spread of odontogenic infection originating from the pericoronitis of impacted mandibular third molar: computed tomographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Aya; Ariji, Yoshiko; Goto, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Kurita, Kenichi; Shimozato, Kazuo; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2004-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify the anatomy of impacted mandibular third molars in relation to surrounding structures and to investigate the pathway of infection originating from pericoronitis of this tooth. Computed tomography (CT) images were evaluated in 87 patients with uninfected mandibular third molar impaction and in 12 patients with infection originating from an impacted mandibular third molar. In uninfected patients, bony features around the impacted crown were investigated together with the relationship between the crown and surrounding muscles. In infected patients, involvements of bony and soft tissue structures were evaluated according to the disappearance of cortices and lateral asymmetry of density and shape in the spaces and muscles. In uninfected patients, the disappearance of the lingual cortical plate was observed in 48 (35.3%) impacted molars, while only in 11 (8.1%) teeth for buccal cortices. The cortical thickness was thinner on the lingual side than the buccal side. Sixty-five percent of the masseter muscle horizontally overlapped the crown, while almost all of the medial pterygoid muscle was posteriorly situated apart from the crown. The mylohyoid muscle horizontally overlapped the crown at below or intermediate vertical positions. In infected patients, the involvement of lingual structures was more frequently observed than that of buccal structures. The mylohyoid muscle was involved in 10 (83.3%) of 12 patients. Among them, 8 showed submandibular space involvement. CT findings supported the clinical observations of infection spread in patients with pericoronitis of the impacted mandibular third molar. CT appeared to be an effective tool for investigating the pathway of infection originating from the pericoronitis of impacted mandibular third molars.

  11. Fate of third molar in line of mandibular angle fracture - Retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Preetha; Balaji, S M

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to answer for the question whether a tooth in line of fracture predispose to complications such as infection and thereby warranting removal of the plates. Surgically rehabilitated patients for unilateral angle of mandible fractures at author's center from 2000 to 2013 were considered in this study. During the study period, about 116 cases fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and hence included in this study. All patients were treated by open, rigid fixation. During the fracture reduction and immobilization, 52.6% (n = 61) cases, the third molar was extracted and in 47.4% (n = 55) cases, the tooth was preserved. Only two cases of infection that required the plate removal occurred by 3 months and another one case within the next 6 months. When the tooth in question was removed, infection did not occur. In all, 52.72% (n = 29) of the 55 cases preserved were needs to be extracted for various reasons. The most common being periodontal causes followed by periapical pathology. Statistically the relationship between demographic data and outcome measures were analyzed using Chi-square test bivariate statistics. A P concrete factors that would predict the failure of the retained third molar that were involved in the line of mandibular fractures. The proof presented here, especially with low complication rates indicate that all impacted third molar along the line of fracture be removed and unless necessary, the partially erupted teeth would also be extracted. In such a situation, the rate of infection and survival of the third molar would have been entirely different.

  12. Image and surgery-related costs comparing cone beam CT and panoramic imaging before removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Bo; Olsen, Kim Rose; Christensen, Jennifer Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to derive the absolute and relative costs of cone beam CT (CBCT) and panoramic imaging before removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the study aimed to analyse the influence of different cost-setting scenarios on the ...

  13. Effect of ice compression on pain after mandibular third molar surgery: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouzanfar, T.; Sabelis, A.; Ausems, S.; Baart, J.A.; van der Waal, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of compression with ice and compression alone on pain and quality of life after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. A prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study design was chosen. Participants in group A applied 45 min of

  14. Clinical relevance of cone beam computed tomography in mandibular third molar removal: A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaeminia, H.; Gerlach, N.L.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.; Kicken, M.; Dings, J.P.; Borstlap, W.A.; Haan, T. de; Berge, S.J.; Meijer, G.J.; Maal, T.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) compared to panoramic radiography (PR), prior to mandibular third molar removal, in reducing patient morbidity, and to identify risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve (IAN)

  15. Endodontic Treatment of the Mandibular First Molar with Six Roots Canals – Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The most common configuration of the mandibular first molar is the presence of two roots and three root canals. The objective of this work is to present two rare anatomic configurations with six root canals on two mandibular left first molars diagnosed during endodontic therapy. Root canal therapy was performed using a dental operating microscope. Ultrasonic troughing in the grooves in between the mesial root canals and in between the distal root canals was able to show the middle root canals. Large samples population characterization researches and systematic reviews were unable to detect a single case of six root canals configuration in a mandibular first molar in their investigations. Although it is a rare configuration, a six root canal configuration is possible to be found in the mandibular first molar. Three different pulp chamber configurations are possible to be found. Two or three roots may be present and the root configuration more common in the mesial root is the Type 8 and Type 12 for the distal root. Some concepts about the required technique to approach these cases are also debated. PMID:26023651

  16. Comparison of periodontal ligament injection and inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular primary molars pulpotomy: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Roza; Taleghani, Ferial

    2015-05-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block is a common technique for anesthesia of the primary mandibular molars. A number of disadvantages have been shown to be associated with this technique. Periodontal ligament (PDL) injection could be considered as an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PDL injection in the anesthesia of primary molar pulpotomy with mandibular block. This study was performed using a sequential double-blind randomized trial design. 80 children aged 3-7 years old who required pulpotomy in symmetrical mandibular primary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection on one side of the mandible and block on the other. Pulpotomy was performed on each patient during the same appointment. Signs of discomfort, including hand and body tension and eye movement, the verbal complaint and crying (SEM scale), were evaluated by a dental assistant who was blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Finally, the data were analyzed using the exact Fisher test and Pearson Chi-squared exact test. Success rate was 88/75 and 91/25 in the PDL injection and nerve block groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (P = 0.250). Results showed that PDL injection can be used as an alternative to nerve block in pulpotomy of the mandibular primary molars.

  17. Economic and health implications of routine CBCT examination before surgical removal of the mandibular third molar in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L B; Rose Olsen, Kim; Matzen, L H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This epidemiological study aimed to analyse economical and societal consequences in Denmark if CBCT is used routinely as a diagnostic method before removal of the mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the aim was to calculate the excess cancer incidence from this practice. METHODS: 17 ...

  18. Evaluation of the mandibular third molar pericoronitis flora and its susceptibility to different antibiotics prescribed in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-12-01

    This work assessed the polymicrobial flora of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Obligate anaerobes were found in almost all cases (32 of 35). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most effective against the flora, particularly aerobic organisms. Metronidazole alone or combined with spiramycin was the most effective drug against obligate anaerobes.

  19. Evaluation of the Mandibular Third Molar Pericoronitis Flora and Its Susceptibility to Different Antibiotics Prescribed in France

    OpenAIRE

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-01-01

    This work assessed the polymicrobial flora of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Obligate anaerobes were found in almost all cases (32 of 35). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most effective against the flora, particularly aerobic organisms. Metronidazole alone or combined with spiramycin was the most effective drug against obligate anaerobes.

  20. Lower third molar displaced to lateral pharyngeal space after mandibular angle fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Pereira, Rodrigo; da Silva, Jonathan Ribeiro; Bonardi, João Paulo; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo

    2018-02-18

    The removal of displaced dental elements from deep anatomical spaces is a condition that requires the knowledge of the region and skills to perform the procedure. The lateral pharyngeal space contains important structures such as the internal carotid artery and close proximity with the cranium basis. The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case of a lower third molar displaced to the lateral pharyngeal space after a mandibular angle fracture and its treatment by surgical intervention. The tooth was removed under general anesthesia by direct approach and the fracture was reduced and fixed with a plate and screws. This case report illustrates the importance of an immediate procedure to avoiding severe complications and further damage to important anatomical structures.

  1. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Shiraz; Chaitanya, Bathula Vimala; Somisetty, Kusum Valli

    2016-01-01

    Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  2. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  3. Prevention of trismus with different pharmacological therapies after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimović, Edin; Ibrahimagić-Šeper, Lejla; Šišić, Ibrahim; Sivić, Suad; Huseinagić, Senad

    2017-02-01

    Aim To assess prevention and reduction of trismus after surgically extracted impacted mandibular third molars with individual and combined therapy with corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory analgesics. Methods The research included 60 randomly selected patients (3 groups) attended to the Dental Oral Surgery of the Public Institution Healthcare Center Zenica during the period January-December 2008. Patients of both genders, 18-45 years of age, were presented without pain and other inflammatory symptoms at the time of surgery. According to a scheme established in the research protocol, two medications were administered orally: methylprednisolone(corticosteroid) 32 mg and meloxicam (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic, NSAID) 15 mg as a single drug, or a combination of both drugs. The level of trismus is assessed on the basis of differences of preoperative and postoperative values of interincisal spaces when fully opening the mouth on the second and the seventh post-operative day. The differences between groups of patients were evaluated by means of Tukey's HSD test. Results On the second and on the seventh post-operative day significantly better results were registered in the group that received only corticosteroids and in the group that received both, corticosteroids and NSAIDs compared to the group that received only NSAIDs. A tendency of trismus reduction was present in all patient groups for the second and seventh day after surgery. Conclusion Prevention and control of postoperative trismus after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars with combined therapy is effective and superior comparing to individual therapy with meloxicam-or methylprednisolone alone. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  4. Multimodular assessment of a calcified extraradicular deposit on the root surfaces of a mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, E; Mavridou, A; Li, X; Hauben, E; Cotti, E; Lambrechts, P

    2017-09-02

    To achieve a better understanding of a calcified extraradicular deposit on the apical root surfaces of a mandibular first molar associated with a radicular cyst and a sinus tract. A multimodular approach was applied using a combination of multiple investigation methods. This case report presents a mandibular first molar with a calcified extraradicular deposit on the apical root surfaces of both roots. An apical periodontitis lesion was present and a sinus tract served as the only communication with the oral cavity. Diagnosis and treatment planning were based on clinical, radiographic (two- and three-dimensional) and ultrasound examination. The tooth was further analysed after extraction using microscopic imaging, nano-computed tomography (nano-CT), hard- and soft tissue histology and electron probe microanalysis. This multimodular approach revealed the calculus-like appearance and mineral composition of the extraradicular deposit. Multiple hypotheses about its aetiology are discussed. Calcified extraradicular deposits can develop on the apical root surfaces of teeth with apical periodontitis in association with a radicular cyst and sinus tract. A sinus tract can serve as the only communication between the apical lesion and the oral cavity whilst no periodontal defects are present. The interplay of intra-oral radiography, high resolution CBCT, nano-CT, hard tissue histology and EPMA can reveal the calculus-like appearance and composition of the extraradicular deposit. Calcified extraradicular deposits appear hyperechoic on ultrasound imaging and can lead to the occurrence of twinkling artefacts due to their rough mineralized surface. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-03-20

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment.

  6. Pulp/tooth ratio of mandibular first and second molars on panoramic radiographs: An aid for forensic age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Palak H; Venkatesh, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    To determine and compare the accuracy of pulp/tooth ratio method in mandibular first and second molar teeth in forensic age estimation. A total 300 panoramic radiographs of the Gujarati population (187 males and 113 females) were studied. The measurements of Pulp Chamber Height (PCH) and Crown Root Trunk Height (CRTH) were performed on the mandibular first and second molar teeth. The acquired data was subjected to correlation and regression. The pulp chamber crown root trunk height ratios (PCTHR) of both the first (r = -0.609) and second molars (r = -0.422) were significantly correlated with the age of the individual. Individual regression formulae were derived for both the teeth which were then used separately to calculate the age. The standard errors estimate (SEE) for the first and second molars were 8.84 years and 10.11 years, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between chronological and calculated age by both the teeth (P = 1.000). The mandibular first and second molar is a potential tool for age estimation in forensic dentistry. The pulp/tooth ratio of both the teeth is a useful method for forensic age prediction with reasonable accuracy in the Gujarati population.

  7. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy in autotransplanted immature mandibular third molar with a 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Umesh; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Kaur Dharmani, Charan Kamal; Devi, Takhellambam Premlata

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation is the surgical transposition of a tooth from its original site to another, replacing a lost or a compromised tooth by another tooth, usually the third molar in the same individual. This technique is considered a viable method due to its high success rate, well-grounded treatment option, provided the case selection and the procedure followed is within the acceptable limits. Autotransplantation is considered as an alternative approach of oral rehabilitations in a conservative manner mainly in young patients with compromised financial conditions to perform a high cost treatment. It is a fast way to recover function and aesthetic properties without interfering with the orofacial growth. This report describes a successful 4-year follow-up of a case of immediately performed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy in autotransplantated mandibular left immature third molar to replace the mandibular left first molar that was extracted due to extensive carious lesion.

  8. Various anchorage approaches in unilateral mandibular molar distalization using a fixed lingual arch appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Fritz, Ulrike; Diedrich, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Mean unilateral mandibular molar distalization of 3.33 +/- 1.28 mm was achieved in 20 patients (average age: 13 years, 1 month) by fitting an asymmetrically activated lingual arch appliance for an average treatment period of 4 months. Three different anchorage techniques were used: Anchorage was provided in seven patients by the lingual arm of the appliance alone, while another seven patients received additional sectional archwires, and another six patients sectional archwires and lip bumpers. Anchorage by means of the lingual arm alone proved to be insufficient to prevent labial tipping of the incisors. The mean protrusion and labial tipping recorded at the lower incisors was 7.67 degrees +/- 1.53 degrees and 2.64 +/- 0.48 mm respectively. The anchorage quality was enhanced and satisfactory stabilization achieved by additionally inserting a sectional archwire. In these cases the mean incisor protrusion and labial tipping was 1.75 degrees +/- 0.96 degree and 0.71 +/- 0.76 mm respectively and thus significantly lower (p lip bumper provided no further increase in anchorage quality (incisor protrusion 1.75 degrees +/- 2.87 degrees and 0.67 +/- 1.21 mm respectively). Fitting additional anchorage aids appears to have no direct impact on the extent and quality of molar distalization.

  9. Wntless Regulates Dentin Apposition and Root Elongation in the Mandibular Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, C.H.; Kim, T.H.; Ko, S.O.; Lee, J.C.; Yang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays an essential role in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if Wnt ligands, produced from dental mesenchyme, are necessary for odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Here, we show that odontoblast-specific disruption of Wntless (Wls), a chaperon protein that regulates Wnt sorting and secretion, leads to severe defects in dentin formation and root elongation. Dentin thickness decreased remarkably and pulp chambers enlarged in the mandibular molars of OC-Cre;WlsCO/CO mice. Although the initial odontoblast differentiation was normal in the mutant crown, odontoblasts became cuboidal and dentin thickness was reduced. In immunohistochemistry, Wnt10a, β-catenin, type I collagen, and dentin sialoprotein were significantly down-regulated in the odontoblasts of mutant crown. In addition, roots were short and root canals were widened. Cell proliferation was reduced in the developing root apex of mutant molars. Furthermore, Wnt10a and Axin2 expression was remarkably decreased in the odontoblasts of mutant roots. Deletion of the Wls gene in odontoblasts appears to reduce canonical Wnt activity, leading to inhibition of odontoblast maturation and root elongation. PMID:25595365

  10. Reliability of CBCT as an assessment tool for mandibular molars furcation defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Adrian George; Boariu, Marius; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Ogodescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In numerous clinical situations it is not possible to have an exact clinical evaluation of the furcation defects. Recently the use of CBCT in periodontology has led to an increased precision in diagnostic. Aim. To determine the accuracy of CBCT as diagnostic tool of the furcation defects. Material and method. 19 patients with generalised advanced chronic periodontitis were included in this study, presenting a total of 25 lower molars with different degrees of furcation defects. Clinical and digital measurements (in mm) were performed on all the molars involved. The data obtained has been compared and statistically analysed. Results. The analysis of primary data has demonstrated that all the furcation grade II and III defects were revealed using the CBCT technique. Regarding the incipient defects (grade I Hamp Conclusions. The use of CBCT technique in evaluation and diagnosis of human mandibular furcation defects can provide many important information regarding the size and aspect of the interradicular defect, efficiently and noninvasively. CBCT technique is used more effectively in detection of advanced furcation degree compared to incipient ones. However, the CBCT examination cannot replace, at least in this stage of development, the clinical measurements, especially the intraoperative ones, which are considered to represent the „golden standard" in this domain.

  11. Pulpectomies in primary mandibular molars: a comparison of outcomes using three root filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramila, R; Muthu, M S; Deepa, G; Farzan, J M; Rodrigues, S J L

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the outcome of root canal treatment in primary teeth using three root canal filling materials - RC Fill, Vitapex and Pulpdent root canal sealer. The study was a single-centre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial carried out on 129 primary mandibular molars with necrotic pulps or irreversible pulpitis in 4- to 9-year-old children. Participants were selected based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Group I - RC Fill [zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) with iodoform]; Group II - Vitapex (calcium hydroxide with iodoform); and Group III - Pulpdent root canal sealer (ZOE). The outcome measures were evaluated both clinically and radiographically at 6, 12 and 30 months according to modified American Association of Endodontists (AAE) criteria. The radiographic outcomes were assessed by two blinded and calibrated evaluators. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed for both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol population. The success rates of RC Fill, Vitapex and Pulpdent were 94%, 90% and 97%, respectively, at 30 months and the differences were not significant (P = 0.137). All three materials were found to be equally effective root filling materials for primary molars with necrotic pulps and irreversible pulpitis at 30 months. However, long-term follow-up until the eruption of the permanent successor teeth is needed for more definitive assessments. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Investigation of infectious organisms causing pericoronitis of the mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltroche-Llacsahuanga, H; Reichhart, E; Schmitt, W; Lütticken, R; Haase, G

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the most frequently encountered pyogenic organisms involved in pericoronitis to permit more targeted antibiotic therapy. Pericoronal pockets of mandibular third molars from 37 patients showing symptoms of acute, severe pericoronitis were sampled and subjected to microbiologic analysis, including primary evaluation by phase-contrast microscopy. To avoid overgrowth with faster-growing, less fastidious organisms, specimens were cultured on a wide variety of selective media (supporting growth of fastidious bacteria, protozoa, and fungi). Microscopic examination indicated spirochetes in 55% and fusiform bacteria in 84% of the samples. A total of 441 microorganisms were isolated and identified from the 37 cultured samples. Besides obligate anaerobic bacteria, including various Actinomyces and Prevotella species, a predominantly facultative anaerobic microflora was cultivated, that is, Streptococcus milleri group (78% of samples), Stomatococcus mucilaginosus (71%), and Rothia dentocariosa (57%). It was concluded that the Streptococci milleri group bacteria, well-known for their ability to cause suppurative infections, are most likely involved in the pathogenesis of acute severe pericoronitis of the lower third molar.

  13. Reliability of permanent mandibular first molars and incisors widths as predictor for the width of permanent mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mittar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Preventive measures are necessary to prevent a potential irregularity from progressing into a more severe malocclusion. The determination of the tooth size-arch length discrepancy in mixed dentition requires an accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: For the study, 200 subjects in the age group of 16-25 years were selected from various colleges of M. M. University. The mesiodistal width of permanent mandibular incisors, first molars, canines and premolars of both arches were measured on the subject cast using an electronic digital caliper. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between mesiodistal tooth widths of males and females. Linear regression equation was determined to predict the sum of mandibular and maxillary permanent canines and premolars using mandibular first molars plus the four mandibular incisors as predictors. Results: There was no significant difference between the actual and predicted width of sum of permanent canines and premolars using regression equations. The predicted widths of both arches using Tanaka and Johnston equations showed significant differences. Determined regression equations for males were accurate in male samples and determined regression equation for females were accurate in female samples for both arches.

  14. Comparison of the inclination of unerupted mandibular third molars on panoramic radiography and casts made after surgical incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Yazdani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Panoramic radiographs are used for surgical planning of unerupted third molars. The major problems associated with panoramic radiography include unequal magnification and geometric distortion of the image. The purpose of this study was the clinical evaluation of the effect of radiographic distortion on the position and classification of unerpted mandibular third molars. Materials and methods. Panoramic radiographs of 20 patients with indication for extraction of lower third molars were included in this study. On the day of surgery, a silicon impression was taken from the second and third molar region and poured with type IV gypsum to provide a study cast. The inclination of the lower third molar to the second molar on panoramic radiography was compared with this angulation on the study casts. Results. There was a mean difference of 5.75° ± 1.65 between the position of the lower third molar on panoramic radiographs and on study casts. Student’s t-test indicated a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Panoramic radiography tends to exhibit a more mesial position of the third molars; however, panoramic radiography can still be used as the main tool for surgical planning of lower third molars.

  15. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Andres; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, Maria Eugenia [Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-15

    This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning.

  16. Preliminary results of a study comparing conventional radiography with phase-contrast radiography for assessing root morphology of mandibular third molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Nakamoto, N; Abe, T; Fukushima, Y; Tomaru, Y; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, M; Nakamoto, A; Kawasaki, H; Wada, Y; Ohara, H; Araki, R; Tanaka, J; Yoda, T

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of phase-contrast radiography for assessing root morphology of mandibular third molars in comparison with conventional radiography. Methods We studied 37 extracted mandibular third molars. One oral surgeon compared the number of roots and root curvature of the extracted teeth on conventional radiographs with those on phase-contrast images. Results The number of roots and root curvature on conventional images differed significantly from those on phase-contrast images. Conclusions Our results suggest the possibility that phase-contrast radiography is more useful than conventional radiography for assessing the root morphology of mandibular third molars. PMID:21239571

  17. Objectivity and reliability of panoramic radiographic signs and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the impacted mandibular third molars and mandibular nerve: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy Kundoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the relationship between panoramic radiographic signs and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT in the assessment of a superimposed relationship of the impacted mandibular third molars and mandibular canal. Materials and Methods: Panoramic and CBCT images were evaluated independently to assess the relationship between the mandibular canal and the impacted mandibular third molar roots by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The results were tabulated and the association of panoramic radiographic and CBCT findings was analyzed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. All of the analyses were carried out with PASW Statistics 18.0. Results: Panoramic radiographic findings were statistically significant with CBCT findings (P < 0.01. Cases of darkening roots without interruption and lingual cortical perforation suggested more frequent buccal placement of mandibular canals. Cases of darkening roots with interruption and complete lingual cortex perforation suggested more frequent lingual placement of mandibular canals. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that, although panoramic radiography is an effective method for preoperative evaluation prior to mandibular third molar extraction, its predictability is low with regards to the emergence of nerve lesions. Therefore, it is mandatory to know the true three-dimensional imaging relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted mandibular third molars. Thus, CBCT is the best method for risk assessment and planning prior to surgical procedures to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury.

  18. Can autologous platelet-rich plasma gel enhance healing after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundipe, Olufemi K; Ugboko, Vincent I; Owotade, Folusho J

    2011-09-01

    This investigation assesses the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel on postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus as well as healing and bone regeneration potential on mandibular third molar extraction sockets. A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was undertaken over a 2-year period. Patients requiring surgical extraction of a single impacted third molar and who fell within the inclusion criteria and indicated willingness to return for recall visits were recruited. The predictor variable was application of PRP gel to the socket of the third molar in the test group, whereas the control group had no PRP. The outcome variables were pain, swelling, and maximum mouth opening, which were measured using a 10-point visual analog scale, tape, and millimeter caliper, respectively. Socket healing was assessed radiographically by allocating scores for lamina dura, overall density, and trabecular pattern. Quantitative data were presented as mean. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare means between groups for continuous variables, whereas Fischer exact test was used for categorical variables. Statistical significance was inferred at P < .05. Sixty patients aged 19 to 35 years (mean: 24.7 ± 3.6 years) were divided into both test and control groups of 30 patients each. The mean postoperative pain score (visual analog scale) was lower for the PRP group at all time points and this was statistically significant (P < .05). Although the figures for swelling and interincisal mouth opening were lower in the test group, this difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the scores for lamina dura, trabecular pattern, and bone density were better among patients in the PRP group. This difference was also not statistically significant. The PRP group recorded reduced pain, swelling, and trismus as well as enhanced and faster bone healing compared with those in the control. Hence the study showed that topical application of PRP gel has a beneficial effect in

  19. Correlation of panoramic radiographs and cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study evaluated the association between cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographs in the assessment of a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars. The study samples consisted of 175 impacted third molars from 131 patients who showed a superimposed relationship between the mandibular canal and third molars on panoramic radiographs and were referred for the examination of the mandibular canal with CBCT. Panoramic images were evaluated for the darkening of the root and the interruption of the mandibular canal wall. CBCT images were used to assess the buccolingual position of the mandibular canal relative to the third molar, the proximity of the roots to the canal, and lingual cortical bone loss. The association of the panoramic and CBCT findings was examined using a Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Panoramic radiographic signs were statistically associated with CBCT findings (P<0.01). In cases of darkening roots, lingual cortical bone loss or buccally positioned canals were more frequent. In cases in which the mandibular canal wall was interrupted on panoramic radiographs, contact or lingually positioned canals were more frequent. The results of this study suggest that contact between the mandibular third molar and canal and a lingually positioned canal could be more frequently observed in cases of the interruption of the white line of the mandibular canal and that there could be more lingual cortical loss in cases of darkening roots.

  20. CONVENIENCIA DE LA CIRUGÍA PROFILÁCTICA DEL TERCER MOLAR RETENIDO: UN ANÁLISIS DE DECISIONES Prophylactic removal of the third molars: a clinical making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes . La proporción de cirugías de terceros molares que se realizan de manera profiláctica es difícil de estimar de manera precisa y depende en muchos casos de la definición que se dé para éste término. Objetivo . Determinar entre pacientes y cirujanos cuál es la alternativa más útil para plantear la cirugía profiláctica de los terceros molares retenidos asintomáticos. Material y métodos. Un análisis de decisiones clínicas (modelo de árbol de decisiones se utilizó para definir el tratamiento del tercer molar retenido asintomático. Las probabilidades para los desenlaces fueron obtenidos de la literatura. Las utilidades o preferencia fueron asignadas independientemente por pacientes y cirujanos. Resultados. La alternativa más conveniente para los pacientes fue la No extracción , mientras que para los cirujanos, la Si extracción . La decisión de los cirujanos resultó inestable al efectuar el análisis de sensibilidad bivariado al modificarse algunos valores asignados en el modelo, mientras que se mantuvo entre los pacientes. Conclusión. Las diferencias en las utilidades asignadas por pacientes y cirujanos, podrían deberse a la falta de información ofrecida al grupo de pacientes y a la diferencia de intereses entre unos y otros, si esto se corrige, la discrepancia entre los dos grupos logrará cerrarse, y a lo mejor podrían llegar a encontrar que la misma decisión es verdaderamente la más conveniente para ambos.Background. The proportion of third party surgeries molars that are carried out in a prophylactic way is difficult to reckon in a precise way and depends in many cases of the definition that be given for this term. Objective. To determinate between patients and surgeons the best choice for third molar surgery. Materials and methods. In order to define the treatment of third molar retained an analysis of decisions was used The probability for events was obtained from literature. The utility was designed

  1. A novel approach for restoration of hemisected mandibular first molar with immediately loaded single piece BCS implant: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahender; Batra, Ranmeet; Das, Debdutta; Verma, Shweta; Goel, Munish

    2017-01-01

    Mandibular first molars are the major standpoint for occlusion, and also have a wide peri-cemental area. Under specific conditions, hemisection of the tooth is indicated after an endodontic treatment. The following case report presents the hemisection of grossly carious, endodontically treated mandibular first molar, in a 23 year old female, followed by replacement of the mesial root with a single piece immediate loaded BCS (Bi-Cortical Screw) implant and a single unit porcelain fused to metal crown for the prosthetic rehabilitation of the remaining tooth structure, with the BCS implant providing strength and support to the weakened tooth structure. This procedure is an innovation in prosthetic rehabilitation of tooth structure left after hemisection and enhances the predictability of success rate of hemisection.

  2. Technological advances in endodontics: treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption using a reciprocating single-file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Samir Noronha; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Sponchiado-Júnior, EmÍlio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; da Frota, Matheus Franco; de Carvalho, Fredson Márcio Acris

    2017-01-01

    The field of endodontics has become increasingly successful due to technological advances that allow clinicians to solve clinical cases that would have been problematic a few years ago. Despite such advances, endodontic treatment of teeth with internal root resorption remains challenging. This article presents a clinical case in which a reciprocating single-file system was used for endodontic treatment of a mandibular molar with internal root resorption. Radiographic examination revealed the presence of internal root resorption in the distobuccal root canal of the mandibular right first molar. A reciprocating single-file system was used for root canal instrumentation and final preparation, and filling was obtained through a thermal compaction technique. No painful symptoms or periapical lesions were observed in 12 months of follow-up. The results indicate that a reciprocating single-file system is an adequate alternative for root canal instrumentation, particularly in teeth with internal root resorption.

  3. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Ishizuka, Masahide; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95% CI: 1.13–10.16, p pericoronitis in diabetes. The frequency of radiolucency below the crown and below the root in diabetics was similar to that in nondiabetics. However, the odds ratio of exhibiting both radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation under the diabetic condition was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.60–14.73, p pericoronitis, whereas the periodontium shows a protective effect against acute pericoronitis. PMID:23674902

  4. Identification and Endodontic Management of Middle Mesial Canal in Mandibular Second Molar Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Paul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatments are routinely done with the help of radiographs. However, radiographs represent only a two-dimensional image of an object. Failure to identify aberrant anatomy can lead to endodontic failure. This case report presents the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT as an adjunct to digital radiography in identification and management of mandibular second molar with three mesial canals.

  5. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, JapanAbstract: Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in m...

  6. Endodontic treatment of mandibular molar with root dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniely Amorin Meireles

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical preparation of root canals with accentuated curvature is challenging. New rotatory systems, such as Reciproc, require a shorter period of time to prepare curved canals, and became a viable alternative for endodontic treatment of teeth with root dilaceration. Thus, this study aimed to report a clinical case of endodontic therapy of root with accentuated dilaceration using Reciproc single-file system. Mandibular right second molar was diagnosed as asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Pulp chamber access was performed, and glide path was created with #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer and PathFile #13, #16 and #19 (Dentsply Maillefer up to the temporary working length. The working length measured corresponded to 20 mm in the mesio-buccal and mesio-lingual canals, and 22 mm in the distal canal. The R25 file (VDW GmbH was used in all the canals for instrumentation and final preparation, followed by filling with Reciproc gutta-percha cones (VDW GmbH and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, using thermal compaction technique. The case has been receiving follow-up for 6 mon and no painful symptomatology or periapical lesions have been found. Despite the difficulties, the treatment could be performed in a shorter period of time than the conventional methods.

  7. Endodontic Management of the Three-Rooted Mandibular First Permanent Molar: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The distal root of the mandibular first permanent molar (MFPM) contains one or two canals. More rarely, the second/third distal canal is found in a separate root in a distolingual (DL) position – a radix entomolaris (RE). In Caucasians, this occurs in less than 4% of cases, but it is equally important to be aware of this possibility. Careful examination of the preoperative periapical radiographs (orthoradial and mesially angled) and inspection of the pulp chamber floor during endodontic management may indicate that this radicular variant is present. RE’s lingual inclination and buccolingual curvature must be taken into account during cleaning and shaping of the canal within this root to avoid procedural errors, such as straightening and ledging of the root canal, perforation or instrument fracture. The aim of the present paper was to discuss a case report of a young patient, referred to an endodontic office after a ledge was created by inappropriate instrumentation of a buccolingually curved RE canal. PMID:27688369

  8. Adjacent tooth trauma in complicated mandibular third molar surgery: Risk degree classification and digital surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Ge, Jing

    2016-12-15

    Analysis of adjacent tooth resistance is essential in wisdom teeth extraction to prevent adjacent tooth trauma, however it lacks adequate attention nowadays. This study aims at suggesting special extraction methods based on adjacent tooth resistance analysis for prevention of adjacent tooth damage. In this study, 136 complicated mandibular third molars extracted using piezosurgery were reviewed and classified based on the adjacent teeth resistances shown in orthopantomogram (OPG) during their mesio-distal rotations: degree I refers to teeth with no adjacent teeth resistance; degree II refers to teeth with resistance released after mesial-half crown sectioning; degree III refers to teeth which still had resistance after mesial-half crown sectioning. With the use of surgical simulations using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) reconstruction, all teeth in degree I were designed to rotate mesio-distally; 86.36%(38/44) teeth in degree II were designed to rotate mesio-distally after mesio-half crown sectioning; 69.09%(36/55) teeth in degree III were designed to rotate bucco-lingually. All teeth were extracted successfully, and only one adjacent tooth was subluxated due to the incomplete bone removal. Our study suggested that in order to prevent adjacent teeth trauma, complete bone removal is of importance, and impacted teeth with higher adjacent teeth trauma risks should consider bucco-lingual rotations.

  9. Evaluation of danger zone in mesial root of mandibular first molar by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoo Rhee; Choi, Yong Suk; Choi, Gi Woon; Park, Sang Hyuk [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To examine the danger zone of medial root of mandibular first molar of patient without extraction using CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography) to avoid the risk of root perforation. 20 mandibular first molars without caries and restorations were collected. CT images were obtained by CBCT (PSR9000N {sup T}M, Asahi Roentgen Co., Japan), reformed and analyzed by V-work 5.0 (CyberMed Inc., Korea). Distance between canal orifice and furcation was measured. In cross sectional images at 3, 4 and 5 mm below the canal office, distal wall thickness of central part (C-D), medial wall thickness of mesiobuccal canal (MB-M) and mesial wall thickness of mesiolongual canal (ML-M) were measured. The mean distance between the canal orifice and the furcation of the roots is 2.40 mm. Distal wall is found to be thinner than medial wall. Mean dentinal wall thickness of distal wall is about 1 mm. The wall thickness is thinner as the distance from the canal orifice is farther. But significant differences and not noted between 4 mm and 5 mm in MB-D and C-D. MB-D is thinner than ML-D although the differences is not significant. The present study confirmed the anatomical weakness of distal surface of the coronol part of the medial roots of mandibular first molar by CBCT and provided an anatomical guide line of wall thickness during endodontic treatment.

  10. Comparing primary and secondary wound healing discomfort after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refo'a, Youshiaho; Ouatik, Nabil; Golchin, Foroogh; Mahboobi, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of impacted mandibular third molars is one of the most common procedures in the oral cavity and often is followed by pain, swelling, and postextraction alveolitis and trismus. It has been suggested that postoperative discomfort is in relation to the type of surgical wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare pain, swelling, and maximum mouth opening in two groups of patients with primary and secondary wound healing after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Thirty-two patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two equal groups, quantitatively and by gender. After the surgical procedures, 16 patients received primary wound closure, while the other 16 participants received secondary wound closure. A visual analog scale was used to collect pain data three days after the surgeries. A checklist was used to record data regarding swelling size and maximum mouth opening before, immediately following, three days after, and one week after surgery. Frequency tests and a t-test were used for statistical analysis and a P value of healing group showed statistically significant lower discomfort regarding pain, swelling size, and maximal mouth opening compared to the primary wound healing group. The authors suggest the use of secondary wound healing closure to reduce postoperative complications such as pain, maximal mouth opening, and swelling size after impacted mandibular third molar extractions.

  11. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Samir; Mujeeb, Abdul; Hussain, Seema Abid; Hussain, Mohammed Abid Zahir

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship betweendifferent types of impactions with postoperativeinflammatory tissue reaction. Consecutive patients with only mandibular third molar impactions were included in our study. They were classified by winter's classification. The disimpactions were performed under local anaesthesia. Time for surgery was noted for each surgical procedure. Postoperative inflammatory complication in terms of pain, swelling and trismus were noted. 150 male patients in the age groupof 18-40 years were studied. Inflammatory tissue reactions were increasing with more operative time. Distoangular and Horizontal impactions were associated with more pain on first 3 days of surgery along with more swelling and trismus. Vertically impacted teeth were associated with least complications. Post operative morbidity was increasing along with moreoperating time and increase in the depth of mandibular third molar impaction. How to cite the article: Mansuri S, Mujeeb A, Hussain SA, Hussain MA. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):9-15.

  12. Movimentação de molares inferiores ancorados em mini-parafusos Mandibular molar uprighting, using mini-screw as anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Canteras Di Matteo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Freqüentemente a movimentação ortodôntica exige recursos adicionais de ancoragem. Os mini-parafusos têm-se apresentado como uma possível solução. O propósito deste trabalho foi estabelecer um método para a verticalização de molares inferiores inclinados para mesial, utilizando ancoragem em mini-parafusos colocados na região de linha oblíqüa externa da mandíbula. Foram selecionados três pacientes entre 40 a 48 anos (dois do gênero feminino, um do gênero masculino, com molares inferiores inclinados para mesial e distalmente posicionados às áreas edêntulas. Os pacientes foram tratados ortodonticamente durante um período de 6 a 12 meses, com técnica ortodôntica MD3. Mini-parafusos de titânio foram colocados bilateralmente com anestesia local. Uma incisão sobre a linha oblíqüa externa da mandíbula, medindo aproximadamente 1 cm foi realizada em cada lado, distalmente aos molares inclinados. Após descolamento muco-periosteal, mini-parafusos foram implantados e foram realizadas suturas deixando suas cabeças exteriorizadas. Uma semana após a remoção das suturas, cargas ortodônticas (entre 150 a 200 gramas/força foram aplicadas através de forças elásticas. Verificamos que alguma inflamação foi observada ao redor dos mini-parafusos, mas foi controlada com procedimentos de higienização. O procedimento cirúrgico é simples, podendo ser realizado pelo ortodontista; as formas dimensionais dos mini-parafusos são adequadas e estes são de fácil remoção após uso. Concluímos que o uso de mini-parafusos representa uma alternativa efetiva de ancoragem ortodôntica na verticalização de molares inferiores.Tooth movement frequently requires additional anchorage resources. Mini-screws have been used as a possible solution to this matter. The purpose of this study was to establish a method of mandibular molar uprighting, using mini-screw as anchorage, positioned on the mandibular external oblique line, behind and

  13. Relationship between inferior alveolar nerve canal position at mandibular second molar in patients with prognathism and possible occurrence of neurosensory disturbance after sagittal split ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Izumi; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Khanal, Amit; Habu, Manabu; Kito, Shinji; Kodama, Masaaki; Oda, Masafumi; Wakasugi-Sato, Nao; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Fukai, Yasuhiro; Tokitsu, Takatoshi; Tomikawa, Megumi; Seta, Yuji; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2010-12-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the anatomic position of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) at the mandibular second molar and the occurrence of neurosensory disturbances of the IAN after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) in patients with mandibular prognathism. Also, the present study evaluated the difference in anatomic position of the IAN between patients with and without mandibular prognathism. Computed tomography images were taken of 28 patients with mandibular prognathism and 30 without prognathism. On these scans, the IANs from the mandibular second molar region to the mandibular foramen in the mandibular ramus were identified. The present study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The distance from the buccal aspect of the IAN canal to the outer buccal cortical margin of the mandible in the mandibular second molar regions was measured on the computed tomography images. Also, the linear distance between the superior aspect of the IAN canal and the alveolar crest in these regions was calculated. In addition, we investigated the presence or absence of contact between the IAN canal and the inner buccal cortical margin of the mandible from the mandibular second molar to the mandibular foramen in the mandibular ramus. Next, we examined whether neurosensory disturbances occurring after SSRO were related to the position of the IAN at the mandibular second molar. A significant difference was found in the occurrence of neurosensory disturbances of the IAN after SSRO between men and women (χ(2) test, P mandibular second molar region, a significant difference was found between groups with and without neurosensory disturbances (Student's t test, P position of the IAN canal at the mandibular second molar are significantly related to the occurrence of neurosensory disturbances of the IAN after SSRO. Therefore, surgeons should clearly inform patients of the increased possibility of neurosensory disturbances after SSRO when the patients are female and are

  14. C-shaped mandibular primary first molar diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography: A novel case report and literature review of primary molars' root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Kocoglu, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the different anatomical variations in root canal system of dedicious dentition will improve the practice of the pediatric dentists. The teeth with C-shaped root canal configurations are definitely a problem in endodontic treatment. Dentists who are specialists of endodontics must have adequate knowledge about various root canal morphologies of primary tooth that have a tendency for rapid progression of dental caries to achieve a technically satisfactory outcome. This report presents an extraordinary case of unusual tooth morphology involving the mandibular first primary molar with a C-shaped configuration which has not yet been reported.

  15. Intrusion of an overerupted mandibular molar using mini-screws and mini-implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A; Ozdemir, D Nalbantgil; Gursoy-Mert, H; Malkondu, O; Sencift, K

    2010-12-01

    Overeruption of mandibular molars due to the loss of antagonist teeth causes occlusal functional disturbances. To restore proper occlusion, intrusion of the overerupted molars becomes essential before multidisciplinary reconstructive dental approaches can be initiated. Treatment protocols involving prosthodontic reduction, surgical impaction, and conventional orthodontic intrusion have been introduced. Orthodontic intrusion seems to be a favourable procedure which requires calibrated anchorage support. This case illustrates the management of a complex dental and functional problem with an interdisciplinary approach through the use of orthodontic, periodontal, restorative and implant therapy. In order to intrude the overerupted molar, a partial orthodontic appliance was used in conjunction with mini-implants and mini-screws. The results showed that the biological responses of the teeth and the surrounding bony structures to the intrusion appeared normal and acceptable. Periodontal health and vitality of the teeth were maintained throughout the treatment and even after one-year follow-up. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.

  16. The predisposing factors of pericoronitis of mandibular third molars in a Jordanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Anwar B; Al, Qudah Mansour A

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently encountered predisposing factors in relation to the etiology of pericoronitis in young adults and to compare these findings with similar studies. The patients included in this prospective study were those presenting for treatment of signs and symptoms of pericoronitis in the mandibular third molar area during an 8-year period from 1994 to 2001. A standard check sheet of subjective and objective observations was completed, and female patients were asked about menstruation or pregnancy. Each patient with a diagnosis of pericoronitis was interviewed and observations were recorded. Patients were asked about the symptoms relating to the pericoronitis. Patients were divided into five 5-year age groups ranging from 16 to 40 years. During the 8-year period, 2,151 patients presented diagnosed cases of pericoronitis; 932 (43.3%) patients were male and 1,219 (56.7%) were female. The peak age of occurrence of pericoronitis varied from 21 to 25 years (55.2% of the patients). The incidence of pericoronitis was highest in September (207 [9.6%]), followed by April (181 [8.4%]); for subacute pericoronitis, the highest was in February (128 [5.95%]) and April (112 [5.2%]), followed by October (97 [4.5%]). The most frequently seen predisposing factor was upper respiratory tract infection in 815 (37.9%) patients, followed by stress in 473 (22%) patients. It was concluded that the upper respiratory tract infection was the most frequently predisposing factor, which could precipitate pericoronitis.

  17. Frequency of middle mesial canals in mandibular first molars in North Indian population - An in vivo study

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    Osama Adeel Khan Sherwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary aim of the study was to determine the frequency of middle mesial (MM canals in mandibular first molars in North Indian population. The secondary aim was to analyze whether an association exists between the detection rate of MM canals and age, gender, and number of distal canals. Materials and Methods: All mature mandibular first molars endodontically treated between March 2013 and March 2015 were included in the study. After instrumenting the main canals, the clinician inspected the mesial developmental groove under dental operating microscope (DOM using ultrasonic tips and endodontic explorer to detect accessory mesial canals. The canal, if found, was negotiated, cleaned, shaped, and recorded. Results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: A total of 258 first molars from 243 patients were treated during the specified period, of which 28.3% had negotiable MM canals. The frequency of MM canals was 36.6% in patients 11-30 years old, 22.6% in patients 31-50 years old, and 18.4% in patients >50 years. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship of different age groups with the incidence of MM canals (P < 0.05. A significant relationship was also found between the detection rate of two canals in distal root and the presence of MM canals (P < 0.05 with gender having no influence. Conclusion: The presence of MM canals is quite high in North Indian population. Younger patients had a higher incidence of MM canals. Mandibular first molars with two separate distal canals showed a tendency to have MM canals.

  18. Evaluation of isthmus prevalence, location, and types in mesial roots of mandibular molars in the Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhlagi, Nahid Mohammadzade; Khodaei, Fatemeh; Shojaee, Golnaz; Shirazi, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Management of canal isthmus is considered as an important factor for successful endodontic treatment. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine the prevalence, location, and types of isthmus in mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars in a sample of Iranian population. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 60 extracted molars with two mesial canals were included. The samples were initially decoronated and then, roots were sectioned horizontally at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the apex via a low-speed handpiece with a thin metallic disk and finally prepared and stained with Indian ink. All sections were examined using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of ×30. Prevalence, location, and types of isthmus were evaluated based on the classifications by Kim and Teixeira and all data were statistically analyzed by the chi-squared test. The statistical significance level was established at 0.05. Eighty-three percent of extracted mandibular molars had an isthmus at the mesial root. This prevalence increased with distance from the apex, that is, 92% at 6 mm from the apex and 70% at 2 mm from the apex. A statistically significant difference was found between the sections at 2 and 6 mm from the apex (P 0.05). Isthmus is very common in the mesial roots of the mandibular permanent molars in the Iranian population, with the highest prevalence in the 6 mm distance from the root apex. Therefore, detection, cleaning, and filling of these apical 6 mm isthmuses are of great benefit in modern endodontics.

  19. Evaluation of isthmus prevalence, location, and types in mesial roots of mandibular molars in the Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Mehrvarzfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of canal isthmus is considered as an important factor for successful endodontic treatment. Accordingly, this study was designed to determine the prevalence, location, and types of isthmus in mesial root canals of extracted mandibular molars in a sample of Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 60 extracted molars with two mesial canals were included. The samples were initially decoronated and then, roots were sectioned horizontally at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the apex via a low-speed handpiece with a thin metallic disk and finally prepared and stained with Indian ink. All sections were examined using a stereomicroscope at a magnification of ×30. Prevalence, location, and types of isthmus were evaluated based on the classifications by Kim and Teixeira and all data were statistically analyzed by the chi-squared test. The statistical significance level was established at 0.05. Results: Eighty-three percent of extracted mandibular molars had an isthmus at the mesial root. This prevalence increased with distance from the apex, that is, 92% at 6 mm from the apex and 70% at 2 mm from the apex. A statistically significant difference was found between the sections at 2 and 6 mm from the apex (P 0.05. Conclusion: Isthmus is very common in the mesial roots of the mandibular permanent molars in the Iranian population, with the highest prevalence in the 6 mm distance from the root apex. Therefore, detection, cleaning, and filling of these apical 6 mm isthmuses are of great benefit in modern endodontics.

  20. Position of the impacted third molar in relation to the mandibular canal. Diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography compared with panoramic radiography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaeminia, H.; Meijer, G.J.; Soehardi, A.; Borstlap, W.A.; Mulder, J.; Berge, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) compared to panoramic radiography in determining the anatomical position of the impacted third molar in relation with the mandibular canal. The study sample comprised 53 third molars from 40 patients with an

  1. Regeneración tisular guiada mediante membranas reabsorbibles de colágeno tras la extracción quirúrgica del tercer molar inferior incluido. Ensayo clínico randomizado a doble ciego.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortell Ballester, Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    [spa] OBJETIVOS:
El uso de membranas de colágeno reabsorbibles (MBM) en el tratamiento de defectos intraóseos y bolsas periodontales profundas en la cara distal del segundo molar inferior (2MI) después de la extracción quirúrgica de un tercer molar inferior impactado (3MI) ha mostrado resultados contradictorios. Este estudio evaluó los efectos de la colocación de MBM en la curación de un defecto óseo distal al 2MI después de la extracción quirúrgica de los 3MI incluidos en posición hor...

  2. The detectability of bone loss in the bifurcation of mandibular molars on periapical radiographs and digital images : an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Ill [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Icksan (Korea, Republic of); You, Hyung Keun; Shin, Hyung Shik [Dept. of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang National University, Icksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluated clinician's detectability in the diagnosis of bone loss in the bifurcation of mandibular molars on periapical radiographs and Digital images. Periapical radiographs were obtained of the first molars in 2 dry mandibles after preparation of bony defects corresponding to degree I, degree II and degree III buccal furcation involvements. The radiographs were randomly presented to 39 clinicians (1 oral radiologist, 4 periodontist, 34 general dentists) who were asked to determine the presence or absence of bone loss. Periapical films were digitized with a TV camera. Digital images were assessed by 15 clinicians (1 oral radiologist, 4 periodontist, 10 general dentists). 1. the overall diagnostic accuracy of Digital images for detection of bone loss in the bifurcation of mandibular molars was higher than that of the periapical radiographs. 2. the largest increase in diagnostic accuracy was found between lesion grade II and III on both radiographs and Digital images (p<0.05). 3. there was no significant difference between the standard state and the controlled contrast state on Digital images. 4. the overall diagnostic accuracy of 1 radiologist and 4 periodontists was better than that of the general dentists for detecting bifurcation involvements

  3. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid spray on swelling, pain, and trismus after surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koray, M; Ofluoglu, D; Onal, E A; Ozgul, M; Ersev, H; Yaltirik, M; Tanyeri, H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was compare the efficacies of two oral sprays in reducing swelling, pain, and trismus after the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. This prospective double-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial included 34 patients with bilateral symmetrically impacted mandibular third molars of similar surgical difficulty. Hyaluronic acid or benzydamine hydrochloride spray was applied (two pumps) to the extraction area, three times daily for 7 days. Swelling was evaluated using a tape measure method, pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS), and trismus by measuring the maximum inter-incisal opening. Assessments were made on the day of surgery and on days 2 and 7 after surgery. Statistically significant differences were detected for the swelling and trismus values between the two treatment groups on the second postoperative day (P=0.002 and P=0.03, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS scores between the two groups. The administration of hyaluronic acid spray was more effective than benzydamine hydrochloride spray in reducing swelling and trismus. Although no evidence of a reduction in pain levels was detected, hyaluronic acid appears to offer a beneficial effect in the management of swelling and trismus during the immediate postoperative period following impacted third molar surgery. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Precise Method of Measuring Simultaneous Intrusion and Uprighting of Mandibular Molar Using Denta Scan – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaprabha, Biswas Palukunnu; Ponnambathayil, Shaji Aboobacker; Aynipully, Hariprasad; Reghunathan, Deepak Parambath

    2015-01-01

    A commonly encountered problem in prosthetic dentistry is the supra eruption of teeth due to absence of opposing teeth. Consequently, replacement of the missing teeth with prosthesis becomes difficult due to lack of vertical dimension of the edentulous area. This article describes the space regaining procedure in a 14-year-old female patient who wanted a fixed prosthesis for her missing maxillary 1st molar. On examination, it was observed that mandibular 1st molar had supraerupted and tipped lingually. After considering the various treatment modalities it was decided to simultaneously intrude and upright the mandibular molar using a mini-implant. The precise measurements of intrusion and uprighting were done using Dentascan software. Intrusion of 1.8mm and buccolingual uprighting of 2.3mm was achieved in 45 days. The mini-implant is an efficient non-compliance device to intrude and upright the tooth simultaneously. Dentascan is an accurate and very precise method of measuring the intrusion and uprighting of teeth. PMID:26393217

  5. Applicability of regression equation using widths of mandibular permanent first molars and incisors as a predictor of widths of mandibular canines and premolars in contemporary Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalin Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predicting the size of unerupted teeth during the mixed dentition period is a critical factor in managing the developing occlusion. Different studies found that the combined width of only the four mandibular permanent incisors is not a good predictor of the sum of unerupted mandibular permanent canines and premolars (SPCP. In 2007, Melgaço et al. developed a new method for SPCP by measuring the sum of the mandibular first permanent molars and four mandibular permanent incisors (SMI. Aim: It was aimed to evaluate the accuracy of this new method in comparison with Moyers′ mixed dentition analysis table in contemporary Indian population. Settings and Design: Sixty boys and 60 girls from Gandhinagar district (age ranged from 12 to 14 years were included. Materials and Methods: The mesiodistal crown widths of all fully erupted teeth were measured with digital vernier callipers and the odontometric values obtained were then subjected to statistical and linear regression analysis. Results: Student′s unpaired t-test gave statistically significant difference between the original values of teeth and the values obtained by Melgaço′s prediction equation as well as Moyers′ mixed dentition analysis table (P < 0.001. High values of correlation (r = 0.77 and determination coefficients (r2 = 0.59 were found while considering Melgaço′s method. Also, no statistically significant difference was found between the tooth sizes of males and females. Conclusion: From this study, it can be evaluated that Melgaço′s method gives better prediction and a simplified equation Y = 0.925X can be suggested for the present population.

  6. Germectomy or delayed removal of mandibular impacted third molars: the relationship between age and incidence of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapasco, M; Crescentini, M; Romanoni, G

    1995-04-01

    To analyze and compare complications and side effects after removal of 1,500 mandibular impacted third molar teeth in three age groups. The sample comprised 868 patients, 462 women and girls and 406 men and boys aged 9 to 67 years. The patients were divided according to age into the following three groups: group A, aged 9 to 16 years; group B, aged 17 to 24 years; group C, older than 24 years of age. The incidence of complications and side effects was 2.6% in group A, 2.8% in group B, and 7.4% in group C. All complications were temporary except in one instance of mandibular nerve paresthesia that occurred in a group C patient, in whom symptoms were still present 25 months after surgery. This study showed no significant difference in the complication rate between groups A and B, but complications significantly increased in group C.

  7. Evaluation of Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Molars: A Clearing Method in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkavand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Successful endodontic treatment is dependent on the knowledge of root canal anatomy. Objectives This study aims to investigate the root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods One hundred human mandibular first molars were collected and stored in 5.25% NaOCl. Radiographic images of the teeth were taken in mesial, distal, and buccal aspects using digital radiography. The root numbers were recorded, and the teeth were covered with lacquer. Access cavities were prepared, pulp tissue was dissolved, the apex was covered with liquid glue, and the root canals were injected with methylene blue. Decalcification of the teeth meant they were kept in 10% nitric acid, and final dehydration meant they were kept in 100% Isopropyl alcohol for 72 hours and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The number of root canals per tooth, the number of canals per root, and canal configuration in each tooth were recorded. Results Ninety-nine of the 100 teeth had two roots and the other had three roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals; there were 2% with two canals, 59% with three canals, and 39% with four canals. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configurations in the mesial root were types II and IV, and type I in the distal root. Conclusions The most common root morphology is the two rooted morphology with three canals. Both the mesial and distal roots show wide variations in canal anatomy with type IV and type I canal configuration predominating in the mesial and distal roots, respectively. Iranian mandibular first molar teeth exhibit features close to the average Caucasian, Jordanian, and Kuwaiti’s root and canal morphology.

  8. Immediate Versus Delayed Loading of Implant for Replacement of Missing Mandibular First Molar: A Randomized Prospective Six Years Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Vijaya Chandra; Yadlapalli, Sravanthi; Venkata, Ramani Yarlagadda; Kondaka, Sudheer; Chedalawada, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergence of dental implants made the replacement of missing tooth easy. During the early days of introduction, implants were loaded three to six months after implant insertion, but understanding of healing cascade and improved production technology has changed the phase of restoration from delayed to immediate loading. Aim To evaluate and compare the clinical outcome of immediate and delayed loaded implant supported prosthesis for missing mandibular first molar. The objectives were bleeding on probing, probing depth, implant mobility, marginal bone level and peri-implant radiolucency were evaluated during follow up period. Materials and Methods Twenty patients were included in this study who were in the need of fixed implant supported prosthesis for missing mandibular first molar. Single tooth implant with immediate loading done within two days of implant insertion in one group and another group were loaded after three months of implant insertion. These groups were evaluated clinically and radiographically over a period of 72 months after loading using Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results The study consists of 14 male and six female patients with the age range of 19 to 31 years. There was no bleeding on probing and probing depth remained well within the normal range even after 72 months of loading among both the groups. Minimal marginal bone loss observed with no mobility and peri-implant radiolucency. Conclusion Implant supported prosthesis for missing mandibular first molar with immediate loading can be used as a successful treatment modality. It reduces treatment time, provides early function and prevents undue migration of adjacent tooth. Immediate loading showed similar clinical and radiographic results as that of delayed loading, indicating it as an equally efficient technique for implant supported prosthesis. PMID:28571258

  9. Prevalence of middle mesial canals in mandibular molars after guided troughing under high magnification: an in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Adham A; Deutsch, Allan S; Solomon, Charles S

    2015-02-01

    A limited number of in vivo studies have discussed the prevalence of middle mesial canals in root canal systems of mandibular molars. The reported results have varied between 1% and 25%, with no detailed description of the depth and direction of troughing needed to identify such small canal orifices. The objective of the present study was to determine (1) the prevalence of a middle mesial canal before and after troughing by using a standardized troughing technique, (2) the pathway of the middle mesial canal in relation to the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals, and (3) its correlation with the patient's age. Ninety-one mandibular molars from 87 patients were included in this study. The patient's age and tooth number were recorded. After access cavity preparation, a standardized troughing technique was performed between MB and ML canals to search for a middle mesial canal by using a dental operating microscope. If a middle mesial canal was located, it was recorded as separate or as joining the MB or the ML canals. Results were statistically analyzed by using Z test and logistic regression. A middle mesial canal was found in 42 of 91 mandibular molars (46.2%). Six middle mesial canals were located after conventional access preparation (6.6%). The other 36 were located after standardized troughing (39.6%). The results were statistically significant (P magnification, troughing, and patient's age appeared to be determining factors in accessing the middle mesial canal. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of skeletal maturation with permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Giri,1 Basanta Kumar Shrestha,2 Rajiv Yadav,2 Tika Ram Ghimire21Department of Orthodontics, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, 2Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Assessment of growth status of a patient is a key component in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing patients with skeletal discrepancy. Skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiograph and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM are commonly used methods of growth assessment. Studies have shown that stages of dental calcification can also be used to assess skeletal maturation status of an individual, whereas other studies have suggested that the relationship between dental calcification and skeletal maturation should be interpreted with caution owing to racial variation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed by CVM among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-eight digital radiographs (84 orthopantomograms and 84 lateral cephalograms were obtained from the records of 84 patients who sought orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit, Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu. Two parameters were used in this study, namely, CVM stages from lateral cephalogram and Demirjian index (DI stages from orthopantomogram. The evaluation of digital radiographs was carried out on a computer screen with a resolution of 1,280×800 pixels. The association between DI stages of permanent mandibular second molar and CVM stages was assessed. Results: A statistically significant association was found between DI and CVM stages for both male and female subjects with Pearson's contingency coefficient value of 0.751 and 0.766 for male and female subjects, respectively. Conclusion: Skeletal maturation can be reliably assessed with dental calcification

  11. Diagnostic value of panoramic radiography in predicting inferior alveolar nerve injury after mandibular third molar extraction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Yin, W; Zhang, R; Li, J; Zheng, Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of panoramic radiography on inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury after extraction of the mandibular third molar. Relevant studies up to 1 June 2014 that discussed the association of panoramic radiography signs and post-mandibular third molar extraction IAN injury were systematically retrieved from the databases of PubMed, Embase, Springerlink, Web of Science and Cochrane library. The effect size of pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically analysed with Meta-disc 1.4 software. Nine articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 0.56 (95% CI: 0.50-0.61) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.84-0.87), respectively. The overall PLR was 3.46 (95% CI: 2.02-5.92) and overall NLR was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.45-0.73). The pooled estimate of DOR was 6.49 (95% CI: 2.92-14.44). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.7143 ± 0.0604. The meta-analysis indicated that interpretation of panoramic radiography based on darkening of the root had a high specificity in predicting IAN injury after mandibular third molar extraction. However, the ability of this panoramic radiography marker to detect true positive IAN injury was not satisfactory. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Distance of mandibular foramen from 3 rd molar tooth in dry adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the distance of MF from 3rd molar tooth in both genders. Seventy dry adult mandible were included in this study. Mandible having 3rd molar tooth was selected for the study. Distance of MF from mid point of 3rd molar tooth to anterior margin of MF was measured with Vernier caliper.

  13. Efficacy of orally administered prednisolone versus partial endodontic treatment on pain reduction in emergency care of acute irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kérourédan, Olivia; Jallon, Léonard; Perez, Paul; Germain, Christine; Péli, Jean-François; Oriez, Dominique; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Arrivé, Elise; Devillard, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    .... Recommended care is partial endodontic treatment. The dental literature reports major difficulties in achieving adequate analgesia to perform this emergency treatment, especially in the case of mandibular molars...

  14. Orthodontic treatment combined with tooth transplantation for an adult patient with a missing mandibular first molar: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Mohri, Tamaki; Yoshida, Rumi; Yamaki, Masaki; Saito, Isao

    2014-04-01

    A Japanese woman, age 29 years 8 months, had a missing mandibular left first molar, bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion, and crowding. She had a skeletal Class II relationship and a long face with a steep mandible. She had previously undergone root canal treatment for the mandibular right second premolar, and the mandibular left third molar was impacted. The maxillary left first premolar was extracted for autotransplantation to the mandibular left first molar region. After confirmation of a favorable prognosis for the transplanted tooth, the maxillary right first premolar, the mandibular right second premolar, and the impacted mandibular left third molar were extracted for orthodontic treatment. The active orthodontic treatment period was 32 months. The patient returned for follow-up records 12 years 7 months after the active treatment, and her facial profile and occlusion were well maintained. At 13 years 9 months after transplantation, no abnormalities were observed with the transplanted tooth in the radiographic and clinical evaluations. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An atypical presentation of mechanical failure of eruption of a mandibular permanent molar: diagnosis and treatment case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, C P

    2012-06-01

    Failure of eruption of mandibular permanent molars occurs infrequently but is a difficult clinical problem. It can be due to local or systemic factors or failure of the eruption process. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that can result in severe posterior open bite, requires complex treatment strategies and has unfavourable outcomes. Mechanical failure of eruption (MFE) is more unusual but can respond positively to treatment. Differentiating between the two is crucial in making the correct diagnosis and managing the case successfully.

  16. Cross-sectional morphology and minimum canal wall widths in C-shaped roots of mandibular molars

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, W. L.; Thong, Y. L.

    2017-01-01

    The cross-sectional canal morphology and minimum widths of buccal and lingual canal walls were studied in 20 mandibular molars with C-shaped roots and canal orifices. The roots were mounted in clear resin blocks and sectioned transversely at 1-mm intervals. A total of 154 cross-sections were evaluated with an image analyzer. Twelve different longitudinal canal configurations were identified. The most prevalent were types 1-2 and 1-2-1 with each type occurring in four roots. Evaluation of the ...

  17. Management of a mandibular molar with C-shape root canal using spiral computed tomography as a diagnostic aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the use of spiral computed tomography (CT in endodontic management of a mandibular molar with an unusual morphology of C-shape canal. An accurate assessment of this unusual morphology was made with the help of spiral CT. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with an abnormal number of roots and canals. This report also highlights the role of spiral CT, over conventional intra-oral periapical radiographs, as an objective method to confirm the three-dimensional anatomy of teeth.

  18. Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate (BCCLP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N.V., Hermann; T.A., Darvann; S., Kreiborg

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the develop-ment of the first permanent mandibular molar (M1inf.) is deviant in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCCLP) and in children with isolated cleft palate (CP). Also, a significant correlation between severity of CP and de...... of significance: 5%. Results: Intra-rater errors: FM kappa = 0.87 (excellent agreement); FW and CW coefficient of variation=1.8%; Dahlberg's s(i)=0.2 mm. FM was significantly delayed in BCCLP at both 2 (p...

  19. Comparing the incidence of trismus following mandibular third molar extraction after administration of chlorhexidine and normal saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafari

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   In this double blind clinical survey, 40 healthy candidates of mandibular thir molar surgery were selected and randomly allocated into two groups of 20. First group was asked to administer Chlorhexidine 0.2% mouth wash prior to the operation while the other group used normal saline for 60 seconds before the surgery. Mouth opening was measured before surgery and in 1st, 3rd, 7th days following the operation. Statistical analysis revealed significantly more mouth opening (lower level of trismus in patients utilizing chlorhexidine before surgery.

  20. Early post-natal development of the mandibular permanent first molar in infants with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Kreiborg, S.

    2017-01-01

    and crown of M1(inf) in children with combined cleft lip and palate. Design: Retrospective, longitudinal study. Cephalometric X-rays of 47 consecutive Danish children with UCCLP (37 males; 10 females) and 44 with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL) (29 males; 15 females) examined at 2 and 22 months......Objectives: Studies have shown that the mandibular permanent first molar (M1(inf)) in young children with isolated cleft palate is characterized by delay in maturation and has reduced crown width. Consequently, it is of interest to investigate the early maturation and width of the follicle...

  1. Musical intervention reduces patients' anxiety in surgical extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Soung-Min; Myoung, Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Patients undergoing impacted mandibular third molar (IMTM) extraction often have severe perioperative anxiety, which may lead to increased perceptions of pain and vital sign instability throughout surgery. Intraoperational musical interventions have been used during operations to decrease patient anxiety levels. We investigated the anxiolytic effects of musical intervention during surgical extraction of an IMTM. We tested the hypothesis that musical intervention would have positive effects on patients' vital signs, anxiety levels, and perceptions of pain. We recruited 219 patients with IMTM surgery to participate in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to a music-treated group (106 subjects) or a control group (113 subjects). In a preoperative meeting, patient demographic data were collected, and the patients' favorite songs were selected. For the music-treated group, their selected music was played from the time of arrival to the operating room until the end of the operation. Perioperative anxiety and perceptions of pain were assessed using the Dental Anxiety Scale and the Visual Analog Scale, respectively. Patients' vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate) were monitored throughout the surgery. One-way analysis of covariance using perioperative anxiety as a covariant was performed to compare intraoperative anxiety levels and perioperative perceptions of pain between the 2 groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare changes in vital signs across surgical stages between the 2 groups. Vital signs changed significantly throughout surgery according to the stage of the procedure. For both groups, vital signs increased from baseline and reached peak values at the time of the initial incision and then decreased quickly and plateaued within normal limits. There were no significant differences between groups in blood pressure; however, the music-treated group showed a significantly smaller change in heart rate than

  2. In vitro study of calcium hydroxide removal from mandibular molar root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingzhi; Shen, Ya; Yang, Yan; Gao, Yuan; Wan, Pan; Gan, Yan; Patel, Payal; Curtis, Allison; Khakpour, Mehrzad; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the difficulty in removing calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) paste from the root canals before root filling. Mesial and distal canals of 30 mandibular molars were prepared with the WaveOne Primary (25/.08) and Large file (40/.08) (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), respectively. All canals were then filled with Ca(OH)2. The teeth were divided into the following 3 treatment groups (each with n = 10): (1) instrumentation with needle irrigation, (2) instrumentation with irrigation and passive ultrasonic activation (PUI), and (3) the GentleWave system (Sonendo, Inc, Laguna Hills, CA) without instrumentation. The irrigation time in each group was 7.5 minutes. To further test the efficiency of the GentleWave system, shorter times of 90 seconds were tested using water alone. Reconstructed micro-computed tomographic scans were used to measure the volume of the canals and Ca(OH)2 after instrumentation, initial filling of Ca(OH)2, and after its removal. The percentage of Ca(OH)2 remaining in the canals was calculated. None of the 10 teeth (30 canals) in the conventional irrigation and PUI groups were completely cleaned of Ca(OH)2 in 7.5 minutes. In the apical third of mesial and distal canals, respectively, conventional irrigation removed 47.82% ± 16.36% and 77.68% ± 12.82%, PUI removed 61.66% ± 25.54% and 88.85 ± 12.06%, and the GentleWave system removed significantly more Ca(OH)2 (P < .05) with 100% and 98.78% ± 3.84%. Additional experiments in 10 teeth, using only water as the irrigant, revealed that the GentleWave system removed 99.85% and 99.97% of Ca(OH)2 within 90 seconds without the use of any instruments in the mesial and distal canals, respectively. The study confirms the difficulty to remove Ca(OH)2 from root canals using conventional methods. The GentleWave system removed the paste within 90 seconds using water irrigation alone. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Effect of restoration volume on stresses in a mandibular molar: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Jennifer S; Chande, Ruchi; Porter, H Christian; Janus, Charles

    2014-10-01

    There can be significant disagreement among dentists when planning treatment for a tooth with a failing medium-to-large--sized restoration. The clinician must determine whether the restoration should be replaced or treated with a crown, which covers and protects the remaining weakened tooth structure during function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stresses generated in different sized amalgam restorations via a computational modeling approach and reveal whether a predictable pattern emerges. A computer tomography scan was performed of an extracted mandibular first molar, and the resulting images were imported into a medical imaging software package for tissue segmentation. The software was used to separate the enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity through density thresholding and surface rendering. These tissue structures then were imported into 3-dimensional computer-aided design software in which material properties appropriate to the tissues in the model were assigned. A static finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the stresses that result from normal occlusal forces. Five models were analyzed, 1 with no restoration and 4 with increasingly larger restoration volume proportions: a normal-sized tooth, a small-sized restoration, 2 medium-sized restorations, and 1 large restoration as determined from bitewing radiographs and occlusal surface digital photographs. The resulting von Mises stresses for dentin-enamel of the loaded portion of the tooth grew progressively greater as the size of the restoration increased. The average stress in the normal, unrestored tooth was 4.13 MPa, whereas the smallest restoration size increased this stress to 5.52 MPa. The largest restoration had a dentin-enamel stress of 6.47 MPa. A linear correlation existed between restoration size and dentin-enamel stress, with an R(2) of 0.97. A larger restoration volume proportion resulted in higher dentin-enamel stresses under static loading. A comparison of the von Mises

  4. Unusual root morphology in second mandibular molar with a radix entomolaris, and comparison between cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, Elisardo; Castelo-Baz, Pablo; De Moor, Roland; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2015-09-22

    Radix entomolaris presents with an unusual morphology and is a rare occurrence. It is mainly observed in mandibular first molars. The incidence varies in different populations but it is far from common. This is especially true for mandibular second molars which possess the lowest prevalence. Some case reports have shown the presence of this finding in mandibular second molars; however, cases of patients of a white background have not been reported. The diagnosis and treatment of an infected radix entomolaris in a mandibular second molar in a 45-year-old white man is presented. The diagnosis was made with standard endodontic techniques. Conventional radiographic imaging was augmented with cone-beam computed tomography scans and three-dimensional images which were constructed with dedicated software. The endodontic treatment was done using accepted endodontic procedures. Clinical and radiographic evidence of healing was seen after a 14-month follow-up. The implications of complex and unpredictable root anatomy are discussed in this report. The clinician should consider the possibility of encountering a mandibular second molar with a radix entomolaris. Cone-beam computed tomography is a useful tool in the diagnosis and improvement of root canal therapy.

  5. Treatment of mandibular third molars and pericoronitis in British military personnel: influence of guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Thomas; Konarzewski, Thomas; Grimshaw, Paul; Combes, James

    2016-12-01

    We studied the dental records of British military personnel who were less than 20 years old on enlistment, and had at least five years' service with at least five recorded dental inspections, at three military dental centres in the UK. The median (IQR) period from first to last inspection in 720 subjects was 15 (10-19) years, and the median frequency of inspection was every 14 (13-16) months. A total of 288/1250 mandibular third molars were extracted (23%). There were significant increases in the proportion of extractions stating caries in the mandibular third molar or multi-episode pericoronitis as indications (n=13, 14%, p pericoronitis by 20 (9%, p =0.02). Extractions of mandibular third molars because of caries in the adjacent second molar increased by 4 (4%, p=0.045). The median age at the time of extraction before introduction of the guidelines was 23 years compared with 25 years afterwards (p<0.001). Twenty-five of 114 (22%) extractions of mandibular third molars were in patients over the age of 30 after the introduction of guidelines compared with 1/174 (<1%) before. The introduction of the NICE guidelines on the management of third molars has significantly changed our practice. Whether or not these changes have resulted in a net benefit to patients is still a matter for debate. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of oral antibiotics on health-related quality of life after mandibular third molar surgery: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimah, R O; Ndukwe, K C; Owotade, J F; Aregbesola, S B

    2017-09-01

    To compare the impact of antibiotics on health-related quality of life (QoL) outcomes following third molar surgery. The study population consisted of 135 subjects that required surgical extraction of mandibular third molar under local anesthesia and met the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomized into three study groups of 45 subjects each: Group A - extended amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (GlaxoSmithKline Beecham England), 1 gram pre-operatively and then 625 mg BD for 5 days Group B - prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (GlaxoSmithKline Beecham England) 1 gram pre-operatively only, and Group C - prophylactic levofloxacin 1 gram pre-operatively only. Patients were assessed pre- and post-operatively on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 using the United Kingdom oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) questionnaire. This study showed that surgical removal of impacted teeth exerted a negative influence on patient's QoL across various physical, social, and psychological aspects of life. Comparing the three groups, Group A showed a slightly better QoL score; although, there was no statistically significant difference among them. Studies have shown better clinical recovery following administration of antibiotics after third molar surgery. There was a significant deterioration in OHRQoL in the immediate postoperative period, particularly postoperative days 1 and 3 following third molar surgery. QoL was also observed to be slightly better in Group A than Groups B and C, although this was not statistically significant.

  7. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation and endodontic management of permanent mandibular second molar with four roots: A rare case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhara, Subhashini; Sharath Chandra, Sm; Parthasarathy, Late Bharath

    2014-07-01

    The morphological variation in the number of roots and root canals, especially in multi-rooted teeth is a constant challenge for diagnosis and successful endodontic therapy. Knowledge of the most common anatomic characteristics and their possible variations is fundamental. Although, endodontic management of four-rooted mandibular first molars have been observed on a few occasions in the literature, to the best of our knowledge four-rooted mandibular second molars having two mesial and two distal roots have not been reported. This paper highlights endodontic management of mandibular second molar with four roots (two mesial and two distal) with one canal in each root and its cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation which was primarily done for post treatment assessment for diagnosing post-endodontic complications, at the same time confirmed our radiographic diagnosis of this variation. This also helped us portraying the anatomy of this rare variation.

  8. CHANGES IN SERUM LEVELS OF IL-6 IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD AFTER PREEMPTIVE ANALGESIA WITH NIMESULIDE, METAMIZOLE SODIUM AND PLACEBO IN REMOVAL OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Zdravkov Neychev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the change in IL-6 serum levels in patients undergoing preemptive analgesia and surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Study Design: This is a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients who had an atypical extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. Results: After surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars, elevated levels of IL-6 in the early postoperative period were found, and the highest level was 14 pg/ml. Conclusion: Postoperative IL-6 levels rise regardless of the medication used for preemptive analgesia. In the group treated with nimesulide, a trend to reducing IL-6 levels was observed, but further study in a larger number of patients is needed.

  9. A comparative study to assess the effect of oral alprazolam as premedication on vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and monitor the changes in vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Methods: This was an in vivo study conducted in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Terna Dental College. Sixty patients were randomly selected. Thirty patients were given a preoperative single dose of oral tablet alprazolam 0.5 mg as premedication (test group, whereas the other thirty were treated without any premedication (control group. Results: It was found that the mean systolic blood pressure during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar was raised in the control group and exhibited minimal fluctuation in the test group. Conclusion: The use of tablet alprazolam as premedication before surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars resulted in stability of vital parameters, secondary to reduced patient anxiety.

  10. Comparative radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone healing associated with autologous platelet-rich plasma after impacted mandibular third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célio-Mariano, Ronaldo; de Melo, Willian Morais; Carneiro-Avelino, Cássia

    2012-01-01

    This study radiographically evaluated the performance of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applied in tooth sockets. Thirty extractions of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars were performed in 15 volunteers (7 men, 8 women; 18 to 22 years old). After extraction of right and left mandibular third molars, the socket at 1 side received the autologous PRP (PRP group) and the other was filled with blood clot (control group). Millimeter periapical radiographs were obtained 7 days, 1 month, and 2, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Radiographic bone density was quantified 3 times by the same examiner at different moments using HLImage 97 software, and data were statistically analyzed by Statgraf 7.0 software (analysis of variance and Tukey test). In general, there was significantly faster bone formation in sockets treated with PRP (P investigation, yet there were higher means of radiographic bone density in sockets treated with PRP. In the control group, men exhibited significant bone repair compared with women (P < .05). Autologous PRP was found to accelerate alveolar bone regeneration, and men presented better repair after tooth extraction. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

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    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  12. [Systematic review on control of swelling and trismus after extraction of impacted mandibular third molar by dexamethasone pericoronal injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Longjiang; Li, Shuangjun; Wu, Yuan; Liao, Xuejuan; Pan, Jian

    2013-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of Dexamethasone (DM) pericoronal injection for the control of swelling and trismus caused by impacted mandibular third molars extraction. Cochrane, PUBMED, EMBASE and CBM were searched for eligible studies. Hand-searching included references of the included studies and Chinese dental journals. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed by two reviewers independently using Cochrane Collaboration's tool, and data extraction was done by them. Meta-analysis was delivered with Revman 5.1. Seven randomized controlled trials, involving 684 participants, were included. Six of them had moderate risk of bias and one had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that DM pericoronal injection could relieve trismus by 6.77 mm (P=0.02) within 1-2 days after the surgery. It could also reduce 51% of the risk of moderate-severe trismus(P0.05). Periodontal injection of 4-5 mg DM could control facial swelling and trismus following impacted mandibular third molar extraction. But more randomized controlled trials are needed.

  13. Shortened of the crown and root lengths of the mandibular permanent molar in beta major thalassemia children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Primathena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beta major thalassemia is a genetically inherited blood disorder due to a genetic mutation on the polypeptide chains of hemoglobin which is manifested in the growth and development of the tooth. The objectives of the investigation were to obtain differences of the crown and root lengths of the mandibular first right side permanent molar between beta major thalassemia children and normal children group at the matching ages of 11 to 13 years old. The descriptive comparative method was used in the study and samples were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Sample numbers, which were obtained using the consecutive sampling technique, consists of 12 children of beta major thalassemia and 12 of normal children at the matching ages of 11 to 13 years. Periapical radiographs of both thalassemia and normal children were administered using the method of Seow and Lai. Data were analyzed using t-test method. The study revealed that the crown and root lengths of the mandibular first right side permanent molar of beta major thalassemia children were shorter than normal children at the ages of 11 to 13 years.

  14. Evaluation of occlusal groove patterns of mandibular first and second molars in an Indian population: A forensic anthropological study

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    Rashmi GS Phulari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study of dental morphological characteristics is important in anthropological research as it can provide information on the phylogenetic relationship between species, as well as variations and diversities within a population. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of six types of mandibular second molars in Gujarat state and the results can be used in both forensic anthropological researches and clinical aspects of dental sciences. Materials and Methods: This descriptive investigation was undertaken among 1000 students (13–25 years old in high schools and dental institutes of Gujarat state. The students were selected by cluster sampling method and screened for the number of cusps and groove patterns of mandibular first and second molars. Gender and religion of the students were recorded on prepared forms. Statistical Analysis: It was done with the help of STATAIC-13 software. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to check association between variables. Throughout the discussion, level of significance was set at 5%. Results and Conclusion: The high percentage of “+-”shaped groove pattern and low percentage of primitive “y-”shaped pattern in our study shows a tremendous evolutionary trend persisting in this population. The analysis of dental morphological traits is crucial in anthropological research as it can provide data on the phylogenetic relationship between species, as well as variations and diversities within a population.

  15. Co-relation of variables as determined from panoramic radiograph and evaluating their significance in eruption of permanent mandibular third molar

    OpenAIRE

    Kushal Amin; K Vasavi; Sonal Vahanwala; C D Nayak; S S Pagare; S S Ramdev

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variables associated with the permanent mandibular third molar (PMM3) and arch dimensions could be co-related and significantly differentiated between a fully erupted and mesially impacted PMM3 among a set of Indian population. Study Design: A standardized panoramic radiograph was taken of subjects of age 21 years and above. Patients with missing tooth from mandibular arch, subjects undergoing or having history of orthod...

  16. A modified device for intraoral radiography to assess the distal osseous defects of mandibular second molar after impacted third molar surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, Faria Inocencio; Mercedes, Gallas Torreira [Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    This article is to describe a modified device for intraoral radiography which was developed to obtain reproducible radiographic images for assessment of distal osseous defects of the mandibular second molar (2 Mm) after impacted third molar (3 Mm) surgery. A commercial available alignment system for posterior region was modified by adding a reference gauge pin (millimetric) and threading a hollow acrylic cylinder at the ring of the radiographic positioner to attach the X-ray collimator. The design included customized resin acrylic stent for the occlusal surface of the 2Mm in maximum intercuspal position, individualizing the biteblock positioner. Periapical radiographs were taken before and after surgical extraction of 3 Mm, employing the radiographic technique of parallelism described by Kugelberg (1986) with this modified film holder and inserting the gauge pin on the deepest bone probing depth point. This technique permitted to obtain standardized periapical radiographs with a moderate to high resolution, repeatability, and accuracy. There was no difference between the measurements on the pre- and post-operative radiographs. This technique allowed better maintenance of the same geometric position compared with conventional one. The insertion of the gauge pin provided the same reference point and localized the deepest osseous defect on the two-dimensional radiographs. This technique allowed better reproducibility in posterior radiographic records (distal surface of 2 Mm) and more accurate measurements of radiographic bone level by the use of a millimetric pin.

  17. Micro-computed tomographic analysis of the root canal morphology of the distal root of mandibular first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filpo-Perez, Carolina; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Villas-Boas, Marcelo Haas; Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antonio; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphologic aspects of the root canal anatomy of the distal root of a mandibular first molar using micro-computed tomographic analysis. One-hundred distal roots of mandibular first molars were scanned using a micro-computed tomographic device at an isotropic resolution of 19.6 μm. The percentage frequency distribution of the morphologic configuration of the root canal was performed according to the Vertucci classification system. Two-dimensional parameters (area, perimeter, roundness, aspect ratio, and major and minor diameters) and the cross-sectional shape of the root canal were analyzed in the apical third at every 1-mm interval from the main apical foramen in roots presenting Vertucci types I and II configurations (n = 79). Data were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests with a significance level set at 5%. Seventy-six percent of the distal roots had a single root canal. Two, three, and four canals were found in 13%, 8%, and 3% of the sample, respectively. In 13 specimens, the configuration of the root canal did not fit into Vertucci's classification. Overall, 2-dimensional parameter values significantly increased at the 3-mm level (P molars showed a high prevalence of single root canals. The prevalence of long oval and flattened canals increased in the coronal direction. In 13% of the samples, canal configurations that were not included in Vertucci's configuration system were found. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, JapanAbstract: Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95% CI: 1.13–10.16, p < 0.05 and that of exhibiting severe acute inflammation was 15.38 (95% CI: 3.56–66.49, p < 0.0001, indicating an association of acute pericoronitis in diabetes. The frequency of radiolucency below the crown and below the root in diabetics was similar to that in nondiabetics. However, the odds ratio of exhibiting both radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation under the diabetic condition was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.60–14.73, p < 0.01, whereas that of diabetics showing both radiolucency below the root and acute inflammation was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.06–3.74, p = 0.74. Radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation were associated with diabetes, but that below root and acute inflammation were not associated with diabetes, indicating that the region below the crown carries susceptibility to acute pericoronitis, whereas the periodontium shows a protective effect against acute pericoronitis.Keywords: radiolucency, acute inflammation, mandible, third molar, diabetes, periodontium

  19. Location of the Mandibular Canal and Thickness of the Occlusal Cortical Bone at Dental Implant Sites in the Lower Second Premolar and First Molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the location of the mandibular canal and the thickness of the occlusal cortical bone at dental implant sites in the lower second premolar and lower first molar by using dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Seventy-nine sites (47 second premolar and 32 first molar sites were identified in the dental CBCT examinations of 47 patients. In this study, 4 parameters were measured: (1 MC—the distance from the mandibular canal to the upper border of the mandible; (2 CD—the distance from the mandibular canal to the buccal border of the mandible; (3 MD—the distance from the mandibular canal to the lingual border of the mandible; (4 TC—the thickness of the cortical bone at the occlusal side. A statistical analysis was employed to compare the size and differences between these 4 parameters at the lower second premolar and lower first molar. Regarding the MC and MD, the experimental results showed no statistical difference between the first molar and second premolar. However, the TC for the second premolar was greater than that of the first molar. Thus, careful consideration is necessary in choosing the size of and operation type for dental implants.

  20. Does Topical Ozone Therapy Improve Patient Comfort After Surgical Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Varun P; Panneerselvam, Elavenil; Raja, Krishnakumar V B; Gopi, Gayathri

    2017-01-01

    To assess the influence of topical ozone administration on patient comfort after third molar surgery. A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was designed involving patients who required removal of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. The predictor variable was the postoperative medication used after third molar surgery. Using the split-mouth design, the study group received topical ozone without postoperative systemic antibiotics, whereas the control group did not receive ozone but only systemic antibiotics. The 2 groups were prescribed analgesics for 2 days. The assessing surgeon was blinded to treatment assignment. The primary outcome variables were postoperative mouth opening, pain, and swelling. The secondary outcome variable was the number of analgesic doses required by each group on postoperative days 3 to 5. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, paired t tests, and 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (P ozone gel were observed in any patient. Ozone gel was found to be an effective topical agent that considerably improves patient comfort postoperatively and can be considered a substitute of postoperative systemic antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Routine removal of the plate after surgical treatment for mandibular angle fracture with a third molar in relation to the fracture line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to analyze the clinical course of surgically treated mandibular angle fractures from the viewpoint of routine removal of the plate because these fractures are associated with high rates of complications and plate removal. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were 40 patients with unilateral mandibular angle fracture, which was intraorally reduced and principally fixed with a single miniplate on the external oblique ridge. The third molar in relation to the fracture line was extracted in seven patients during the surgery. Clinical course was evaluated in terms of removal of the plate, preservation of the third molar and complications. Results: One patient showed a wound infection postoperatively, and two patients developed pericoronitis during the follow-up. These were managed with medication and local irrigation. One patient with a preserved third molar did not make a required visit and was lost from the follow-up. Removal of the plates was performed in 39 patients after confirmation of good fracture healing, mostly within a year. Twenty-four of 32 preserved third molars were simultaneously extracted. These procedures were generally performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, and they did not cause any complications. Conclusions: Routine removal of the plate after surgical treatment for mandibular angle fractures, simultaneously with extraction of the third molar if indicated, may be beneficial to avoid complications related to the plate and the third molar later in life. PMID:26389039

  2. Effect of Autologous Platelet Rich Fibrin in Human Mandibular Molar Grade II Furcation Defects- A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimuddin, Syed; Koduganti, Rekha Rani; Panthula, Veerendra Nath Reddy; Jammula, Surya Prasanna; Dasari, Rajashree; Gireddy, Himabindu

    2017-04-01

    The Furcation of multirooted teeth is difficult region to gain access for treatment due to their complex anatomy. Modifications have been made in the periodontal instrument armamentarium to facilitate treatment of furcations. Moreover, many new materials have been introduced to attempt regeneration in the furcation defects. This study evaluated the role of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in comparison with allograft and Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) in the treatment of Grade II mandibular molar furcations. This was a parallel arm prospective randomized, interventional trial (NCT 02430519) conducted on 22 patients, with Grade II mandibular furcation defects. Patients were divided into two equal groups. Group A, were treated by the placement of PRF as a graft and as a membrane while in Group B, the defects were treated by the placement of allograft and Healiguide collagen membrane. Clinical parameters {Plaque Index (PI), Probing Depth (PD), Relative Vertical Clinical Attachment Level (RVCAL), Relative Horizontal Clinical Attachment Level (RHCAL), Gingival Marginal Level(GML), and amount of Bonefill using Radio-Visiography (RVGBF)}, were estimated at baseline and nine months postoperatively. Comparison between the groups was analysed by using independent sample t-test, whereas, paired t-test was used to assess the mean values within the groups. The intergroup comparison for PI, PD, RHCAL, GML, was statistically not significant. Pertaining to RVCAL, there was a statistically significant difference at nine months (p-value=0.04) in Group A. Also, there was a statistically significant difference related to RVGBF (p-value=0.006) in Group A at nine months. The efficacy of PRF should be ascertained by conducting more studies with a larger sample size, on a long term basis, in patients with molar Grade II furcation defects.

  3. Ex Vivo Evaluation of the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of the Mandibular First Molar Using CBCT Technology

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    Narges Farhad-Mollashahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the root canal system and its curvature and the relationship between the root concavity and the dentin thickness of danger zone in the mandibular first molar using the cone beam CT method. Materials and Methods: A sum of 101 fresh extracted mandibular first molar were gathered and scanned by CBCT (planmeca romexis 3D machine. The root canal configuration was evaluated according to Vertucci’s classification. Then, the canal curvature was evaluated according to schneider's method in clinical and proximal views. Finally, the relationship between the root concavity and the dentin thickness of danger zone was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The most common canal configuration of the mesial roots was vertucci type IV (49.5%, followed by type II (46.5%. Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I in 50.5% and type II in 29.7%. The average angles in proximal dimension for MB, ML, DB and DL canals were 18.80, 18.77, 8.22 and 16.86, respectively. These values in clinical dimension were 22.50, 21.90, 13.83 and 12.04, respectively. No meaningful relationship was found between the dentin thickness and the root concavity of danger zone. Conclusion: The clinician's awareness of the anatomy of the root canal system and the canal curvatures and the internal and external anatomy of the root is helpful and necessary in diagnosis and treatment of the endodontic cases.

  4. A comparative study of cone-beam computed tomography and digital periapical radiography in detecting mandibular molars root perforations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghanifar, Sina; Moudi, Ehsan; Mesgarani, Abbas; Abbaszadeh, Naghi [Dental Material Research Center, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bijani, Ali [Non-Communicable Pediatric Diseases Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography in the detection of mesial root perforations of mandibular molars. In this in vitro study, 48 mandibular molars were divided into 4 groups. First, the mesial canals of all the 48 teeth were endodontically prepared. In 2 groups (24 teeth each), the roots were axially perforated in the mesiolingual canal 1-3 mm below the furcation region, penetrating the root surface ({sup r}oot perforation{sup )}. Then, in one of these 2 groups, the mesial canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. Mesial canals in one of the other 2 groups without perforation (control groups) were filled with the same materials. The CBCT and periapical radiographs with 3 different angulations were evaluated by 2 oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The specificity and sensitivity of the two methods were calculated, and P<0.05 was considered significant. The sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in the detection of obturated root canal perforations were 79% and 96%, respectively, and in the case of three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 92% and 100%, respectively. In non-obturated root canals, the sensitivity and specificity of CBCT scans in perforation detection were 92% and 100%, respectively, and for three-angled periapical radiographs, they were 50% and 96%, respectively. For perforation detection in filled-root canals, periapical radiography with three different horizontal angulations would be trustworthy, but it is recommended that CBCT be used for perforation detection before obturating root canals.

  5. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy between bupivacaine and lidocaine in patients with irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Roberta Moura; Carnaval, Talita Girio; Lanfredi, Camila Bernardeli; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine with that of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine during pulpectomy in patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular posterior teeth. Seventy volunteers, patients with irreversible pulpitis admitted to the Emergency Center of the School of Dentistry at the University of São Paulo, randomly received a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block containing 3.6 mL of either 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. During the subsequent pulpectomy, we recorded the patients' subjective assessments of lip anesthesia, the absence/presence of pulpal anesthesia through electric pulp stimulation, and the absence/presence of pain through a verbal analog scale. All patients reported lip anesthesia after the application of either inferior alveolar nerve block. By measuring pulpal anesthesia success with the pulp tester, lidocaine had a higher success rate (42.9%) than bupivacaine (20%). For patients reporting none or mild pain during pulpectomy, the success rate of bupivacaine was 80% and lidocaine was 62.9%. There were only statistically significant differences to the success of pulpal anesthesia. Neither of the solutions resulted in an effective pain control during irreversible pulpitis treatments of mandibular molars. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomechanical Assessment of Restored Mandibular Molar by Endocrown in Comparison to a Glass Fiber Post-Retained Conventional Crown: 3D Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Mohammed Abu; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-10-25

    To compare equivalent and contact stresses in a mandibular molar restored by all-ceramic crowns through two methods: ceramic endocrowns and ceramic crowns supported by fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and core, by using 3D finite element analysis during normal masticatory load. Three 3D models of a mandibular first molar were made and labeled as such: intact molar with no restoration (A); ceramic endocrown-restored molar (B); ceramic crown supported by FRC posts and core restored molar (C). By using 3D FE analysis with contact components, normal masticatory load was simulated. The mvM stresses in all models were calculated. Maximal mvM stresses in the ceramic of restorations, dentin, and luting cement were contrasted among models and to values of materials' strength. Contact shear and tensile stresses in the restoration/tooth interface around restorations were also calculated. The highest mvM stress levels in the enamel and dentin for the tooth restored by ceramic endocrown were lower in the crown ceramic than in tooth restored with FRC posts and all-ceramic crowns; however, in the resin adhesive cement interface it was lower for ceramic crown supported by FRC posts than the in ceramic endocrown restoration. The maximum contact shear and tensile stress values along the restoration/tooth interface of ceramic endocrowns were lower than those with ceramic crowns supported by FRC posts. Ceramic endocrown restorations presented a lower mvM stress level in dentin than the conventional ceramic crowns supported by FRC posts and core. Ceramic endocrown restorations in molars are less susceptible to damage than those with conventional ceramic crowns retained by FRC posts. Ceramic endocrowns properly cemented in molars must not be fractured or loosen during normal masticatory load. Therefore, ceramic endocrowns are advised as practicable, minimally invasive, and esthetic restorations for root canal treated mandibular molars. © 2017 by the American College of

  7. Pattern of mandibular third molar impaction: A cross‑sectional study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... compared to males.[6,7,13]. Mashhad is the second populated city of Iran that is located in the northeast region of the country. There are no reports in the literature regarding prevalence and patterns of third molar impaction in the northeast region of Iran. Hence, the aim of the current study was to evaluate ...

  8. 3D finite element analysis of immediate loading of single wide versus double implants for replacing mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikar R Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stresses, strains, and displacements of double versus single implant in immediate loading for replacing mandibular molar. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM (finite element method models were made to simulate implant designs. The first model used 5-mm-wide diameter implant to support a single molar crown. The second model used 3.75-3.75 double implant design. Anisotropic properties were assigned to bone model. Each model was analyzed with single force magnitude (100 N in vertical axis. Results: This FEM study suggested that micromotion can be controlled better for double implants compared to single wide-diameter implants. The Von Mises stress for double implant showed 74.44% stress reduction compared to that of 5-mm implant. The Von Mises elastic strain was reduced by 61% for double implant compared to 5-mm implant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, when the mesiodistal space for artificial tooth is more than 12.5 mm, under immediate loading, the double implant support should be considered.

  9. 3D finite element analysis of immediate loading of single wide versus double implants for replacing mandibular molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shrikar R.; Karthikeyan, I.; Gaddale, Reetika

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stresses, strains, and displacements of double versus single implant in immediate loading for replacing mandibular molar. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM (finite element method) models were made to simulate implant designs. The first model used 5-mm-wide diameter implant to support a single molar crown. The second model used 3.75-3.75 double implant design. Anisotropic properties were assigned to bone model. Each model was analyzed with single force magnitude (100 N) in vertical axis. Results: This FEM study suggested that micromotion can be controlled better for double implants compared to single wide-diameter implants. The Von Mises stress for double implant showed 74.44% stress reduction compared to that of 5-mm implant. The Von Mises elastic strain was reduced by 61% for double implant compared to 5-mm implant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, when the mesiodistal space for artificial tooth is more than 12.5 mm, under immediate loading, the double implant support should be considered. PMID:24554890

  10. Pericoronal ostectomy: an alternative surgical technique for management of mandibular third molars in close proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstunov, Len; Javid, Bahram; Keyes, Lance; Nattestad, Anders

    2011-07-01

    Close proximity of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) to mandibular third molars (MTMs) may result in nerve injury during the extraction of third molars. Alternative surgical techniques, such as coronectomy, have been suggested to decrease this risk. This study examined a new alternative technique, the pericoronal ostectomy (PO), that is intended to decrease IAN injury in high-risk cases. This prospective clinical cohort study consisted of 14 patients with 17 MTMs in close relation to the IAN. All patients were subjected to 2- and 3-dimensional preoperative radiographic evaluations. Selected patients with mesioangular and vertical bone impactions were treated by the staged PO technique. An institutional review board approval from the University of the Pacific was given to this study. Because of the PO procedure, all 17 high-risk MTMs in the study erupted to a more occlusal position away from the danger zone of the IAN and were eventually removed (mean distance of eruption, 2.0 mm). Three patients reported a transient neurosensory deficit, 2 with the IAN and 1 with a lingual nerve. All 3 had a full resolution of symptoms within 3 months of the postoperative period. The PO technique appears to be an additional viable alternative technique to extraction of MTMs in intimate proximity to the IAN. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence of impacted mandibular and maxillary third molars: a radiographic study in a Southeast Iran population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Fahimi-Hanzaei, Farnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the position of impacted third molars based on the classifications of Pell & Gregory and Winter in a sample of Iranian patients. Study design: In this retrospective study, up to 1020 orthopantomograms (OPG) of the patients who were referred to the radiology clinics from October 2007 to January 2011 were evaluated. Data including the age, gender, the angulation type, width and depth of impaction were evaluated by statistical tests. Results: Among 1020 patients, 380(27.3%) were male and 640(62.7%) were female with the sex ratio was 1:1.7. Of the 1020 OPGs, 585 cases showed at least one impacted third molar, with significant difference between males (205; 35.1%) and females (380; 64.9%) (P = 0.0311). Data analysis showed that impacted third molars were 1.9 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla (P =0.000). The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was mesioangular impaction (48.3%) and the most common angulation of impaction in the maxilla was the vertical (45.3%). Impaction in the level IIA was the most common in both maxilla and mandible. There was no significant diffe-rence between the right and left sides in both the maxilla and the mandible. Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the southeast region of Iran is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction, especially in the mandible. Female more than male have teeth impaction. The most common angulation was the mesioangular in the mandible, and the vertical angulation in the maxilla. The most common level of impaction was the A and there was no any significant difference between the right and left sides in both jaws. Key words:Third molar, impaction, incidence, Iran. PMID:23229243

  12. Marginal quality and fracture strength of root-canal treated mandibular molars with overlay restorations after thermocycling and mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Mustafa; Ozcan, Mutlu; Göhring, Till N

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate marginal quality, fracture modes, and loads-to-failure of different overlay restorations in rootcanal treated molars in a laboratory setup. Thirty-two mandibular first molars were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): UTR= untreated (control), RCT-COM= root canal treated (RCT)+ lab-made composite overlay, RCT-FRC= RCT+composite resin overlay with two layers of multidirectional woven glass fibers; RCT-CER: RCT+ceramic overlay. The teeth in all groups were subjected to thermocycling and mechanical loading (TCML) in a computer-controlled masticator (1,200,000 loads, 49 N, 1.7 Hz, 3000 temperature cycles of 5°C to 50°C). Marginal adaptation was evaluated before and after TCML with scanning electron microscopy at 200X at the tooth-to-luting composite (IF1) and luting composite-to restoration (IF2) interfaces. After TCML, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. Marginal adaptation decreased from 93 ± 3.4 to 82 ± 6.5 % at IF1 after TCML (p > 0.001) but the decrease was not significant between the groups (p = 0.8130). At IF2, ceramic overlays showed about 10% lower marginal adaptation than composite overlays (p composite delamination from the glass-fiber weaver layer. As cusp-covering overlay restorations in root canal treated molars, composite resin overlays with and without fiber reinforcement performed similar to intact teeth with varying failure types. While intact teeth failed exclusively in reparable modes, all other restorations failed in a catastrophic manner, except half of the fiber reinforced composite group.

  13. Application of the functionally generated path technique to restore mandibular molars in bilateral group function occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVall, Nicholas B; Rogers, Paul M

    2013-04-01

    The functionally generated path (FGP) is a static representation of the opposing cusps' dynamic eccentric movements from a centric position to achieve optimal articulation and occlusal harmony. When understood and appreciated, use of the FGP technique is a straightforward and practical method to achieve harmonious occlusal anatomy of restorations with the anterior determinant/anterior guidance, the posterior determinant/condylar guidance, existing occlusal and cuspal anatomy, and the neuromuscular system. Although the FGP technique is normally used in the fabrication of maxillary posterior indirect restorations, it is described and applied here in the fabrication of mandibular posterior restorations that maintained the patient's bilateral group function occlusion while eliminating the nonworking side and protrusive interferences. This novel procedure involved the use of a stone crib to intraorally construct a stone core that captured the FGP recording while simultaneously indexing to the contralateral and ipsilateral mandibular dentition. This technique lends additional stability to the stone core to minimize error during the mounting process. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Incidence of impacted mandibular and maxillary third molars: a radiographic study in a Southeast Iran population

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Tahmasbi Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Fhimi Hanzaei, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the position of impacted third molars based on the classifications of Pell & Gregory and Winter in a sample of Iranian patients. Study design: In this retrospective study, up to 1020 orthopantomograms (OPG) of the patients who were referred to the radiology clinics from October 2007 to January 2011 were evaluated. Data including the age, gender, the angulation type, width and depth of impaction were evaluated by statistical tests. Results: Amon...

  15. Assessment of the number of root canals in the maxillary and mandibular molars: A radiographic study using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Beedubail, Siri Parvathi; Kini, Raghavendra; Rao, Prasanna Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The identification of root canals plays an important role in successful endodontic diagnosis and treatment. An inappropriate identification of canal resulting in incomplete removal of pulp tissue from the root canals is the main reason for the failure of endodontic treatment in molars. Radiographic imaging is an essential investigative tool in successful endodontics. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) the imaging is relatively a new method to visualize the roots in all the three planes. This is a study to assess number of root canals in maxillary and mandibular first and second molars on both the right and left sides using CBCT imaging. A total of 100 CBCT images, which were available as soft copies on the hard drive of the computer in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were considered for the study. The axial view sections of the maxillary and mandibular arch of 1 mm thickness were examined with a magnification of 250%. The Images were scrolled down from the cementoenamel junction till the apical foramen and the maximum number of canals in each root were recorded. The collected data were tabulated (Microsoft Excel 2013) and analyzed by independent t -test using statistical analysis software SPSS. Among the maxillary first molars, 72.5% had 4 canals with 76.5% of mesiobuccal root having 2 canals. 49% of maxillary second molar had 3 canals with 53.5% of mesiobuccal root having 1 canal. 67.5% of mandibular first molar had 3 canals with 96.5% of mesial root having 2 canals. According to this study, the variations in the number of canals were more with respect to maxillary first molars when compared to the other molars. CBCT can provide the clinician with supplemental information about the different root canal configurations for successful root canal treatment.

  16. Anesthetic success of supplemental infiltration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review the anesthetic success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection technique alone with that of combination of IANB and supplemental infiltration (SI) technique when used for pulpal anesthesia of mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment. Settings and Design: The study follows a longitudinal study design involving original research. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled clinical studies. Studies were selected by predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used and Result: The statistical analysis used was based on the results of the original research. All the included studies showed that there is the difference in the values comparing the two techniques, but the data are not statistically significantly different. Conclusion: Based on this review, the better anesthetic efficacy of the SI was observed. PMID:26069400

  17. The effect of Diazepam in pain reduction following mandibular impacted third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshvar M.E

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain control is of high importance in dentistry. Prescribing sedatives such a"nDiazepam, as an anti-depressant and pain threshold elevator drug is able to influence the patient's reaction to"npain and reduce it."nPurpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of Diazepam in pain reduction following"nmandibular impacted third molar surgery."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, which was conducted in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial"nsurgery Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical sciences. The patients were divided into two equal"ngroups (n=30. For controls, antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed after surgery. However, except the"naforementioned drugs, Diazepam (5mg, three times per day, was prescribed for the experimental group. The"namount of mouth opening was also measured as an auxiliary sign after one week. The data were compared by"nX2 test after one week."nResults: 60% of the experimental group and 13.8% of the control group felt a weak pain. Statistically"nsignificant differences were observed regarding pain feeling between two groups (P<0.001. Severe pain"nfeeling was 34.5% and 10%, for control and experimental groups, respectively."nConclusion: It is suggested that Diazepam is an effective pain reduction drug following third molar surgery."nThis drug has also a relative effect on temporary trismus resulting probably from muscle trauma or pain.

  18. Microbiology of mandibular third molar pericoronitis: incidence of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predominant flora associated with pericoronitis in third molars and to investigate the presence of beta-lactamase-producing strains. The third molars in 26 adults were evaluated by cultures with nonselective media and with selective media containing amoxicillin, pristinamycin, spiramycin, metronidazole, and spiramycin plus metronidazole. In the majority of cases (19/26), the flora found in an anaerobic atmosphere predominated. Obligate anaerobes were present in 21 of the 26 samples. The bacteria most commonly detected were alpha-hemolytic streptococci (26/26) and the genera Prevotella (15/26), Veillonella (15/26), Bacteroides (9/26), and Capnocytophaga (9/26). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most active in reducing the anaerobic cultivable counts. beta-Lactamase-producing strains were detected in 9 samples and were mostly bacteria of the genera Prevotella, Staphylococcus, and Bacteroides. These results highlight (1) the diversity of the microflora associated with pericoronitis and the importance of the anaerobic flora and (2) the existence of selection pressure related to the use of beta-lactams that may culminate in failure of prescribed penicillins.

  19. Co-relation of variables as determined from panoramic radiograph and evaluating their significance in eruption of permanent mandibular third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Study: Purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variables associated with the permanent mandibular third molar (PMM3 and arch dimensions could be co-related and significantly differentiated between a fully erupted and mesially impacted PMM3 among a set of Indian population. Study Design: A standardized panoramic radiograph was taken of subjects of age 21 years and above. Patients with missing tooth from mandibular arch, subjects undergoing or having history of orthodontic treatment, subjects having disto-angular, horizontal or vertical impacted PMM3 were excluded from the study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 mesially impacted PMM3 and (2 vertically erupted PMM3. Following measurements were taken from acetate paper tracing of standardized panoramic radiograph: (1 Angulation of long axis of PMM3 to permanent mandibular second molar (theta (2 Angulation of PMM 3 to base of mandible (theta 2 (3 Gonial angle (theta 3 (4 Mesio-distal width of PMM 3 (5 Retro molar space. From these measurements Ganss ratio (retro molar space /PMM3 crown width. was calculated. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that angle theta 1, angle theta 2, retro molar space and Ganss ratio were positively co-related and highly significant variables associated with the mesially and vertically erupted teeth as measured on panoramic radiograph. Using these variables a long-term study can be carried out to predict the ultimate position of lower third molar in the arch so that if there is a probability of the tooth being impacted at a later age, a prophylactic germectomy can be performed at an early age.

  20. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kanika; De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-11-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology.

  1. COMPARACIÓN DE LOS ÍNDICES WINTER -PELL Y GREGORY Y PRADA-REATEGUI EN EXTRACCIONES DE TERCERAS MOLARES MANDIBULARES IMPACTADAS

    OpenAIRE

    PRADA VIDARTE, OSKAR EDUARDO

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to compare indexes Gold Standard (Winter - Pell and Gregory) and the proposed new index (Prada - Reátegui) with the degree of difficulty of a real surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar. 42 patients were selected who were applied both indexes of surgical difficulty before surgery, this being done by a specialist in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The actual operating times and number of complications were noted during surgery to compare both...

  2. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. II. Mandibular molars--study of cusp areas, fissure pattern and cross sectional shape of the crown.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, B A; Abbott, S A; Graham, S H

    1983-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the absolute and relative size of individual cusps, the arrangement of the primary fissure system and the shape of coronal cross sections of the tooth crown have been used to investigate the pattern of variation in Plio-Pleistocene hominid mandibular molar teeth. Teeth were either grouped into one of six taxonomic categories or considered as individual cases. Univariate analysis of relative cusp areas shows that the two taxonomic categories of 'robust' hominids from E...

  3. Prevalence of the middle mesial canal in non surgical root canal treated mandibular first and second molars in a local military population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Vertucci F, Williams R. Root canal anatomy of the mandibular first molar. J NJ Dent Assoc. 1974; Spring:27-28. 3. Weine F. endodontic therapy...Kane AW, et al. Analysis of reasons for extraction of endodontically treated teeth: a prospective study. J Endod 2011;37:1512–5. 7. Selden H. The...after guided troughing under high magnification : an in vivo investigation. J Endod 2015; 41(2): 164-167. 10. Nosrat A, et al. Middle mesial canals

  4. Endodontic treatment of the permanent mandibular first molar with a radix entomolaris: A case report and literature review

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    Štamfelj Iztok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The success of endodontic treatment is based on correct determination of the number of roots and root canals. Therefore, variants in root number and root canal number are a constant therapeutic challenge. The permanent mandibular first molar (PMFM usually has a mesial root with two canals and a distal root with one or two canals, but may also have a supernumerary root located distolingually - a radix entomolaris (RE. Case report: Recent studies have shown that RE invariably contains a single root canal. Although RE occurs with a relatively low prevalence in Caucasian patients, it may be the cause of endodontic failure if not identified before or during the treatment. The knowledge about the location of the additional root canal orifice will result in a modified access cavity design. Moreover, morphological features of the RE in terms of root inclination and curvature must be taken into account during root canal preparation to avoid procedural errors, such as straightening and ledging of the root canal, perforation or instrument fracture. Conclusion: This paper presents the endodontic retreatment of a PMFM with RE in a Caucasian patient and highlights the importance of a thorough radiographic and clinical examination.

  5. Protostylid expression at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of mandibular molars of Paranthropus robustus and Australopithecus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Matthew M; Wood, Bernard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Distinctive expressions and incidences of discrete dental traits at the outer enamel surface (OES) contribute to the diagnoses of many early hominin taxa. Examination of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ), imaged non-destructively using micro-computed tomography, has elucidated the morphological development of dental traits and improved interpretations of their variability within and among taxa. The OES expressions of one of these dental traits, the protostylid, have been found to differ among African Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominin taxa. In this study protostylid expression is examined at the OES and at the EDJ of Paranthropus robustus (n=23) and Australopithecus africanus (n=28) mandibular molars, with the goals of incorporating EDJ morphology into the definition of the protostylid and assessing the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to its expression in these taxa. The results provide evidence (a) of statistically significant taxon-specific patterns of protostylid morphology at the EDJ that are not evident at the OES; (b) that in P. robustus, thick enamel reduces the morphological correspondence between the form of the protostylid seen at the EDJ and the OES, and (c) that if EDJ images can be obtained, then the protostylid retains its taxonomic value even in worn teeth.

  6. The characteristics of adjacent anatomy of mandibular third molar germs: a CBCT study to assess the risk of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Cai, Yu; Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Ji-Hong

    2017-10-26

    This study aims to investigate the characteristics of adjacent anatomy of mandibular third molar germs (MTMGs). Three hundred Chinese patients aged 12 to 17 years old who received cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were enrolled. The continuity of cortical outline of inferior alveolar canals (IACs) in the region of MTMGs, the integrity of lingual bone cortex and the relationship between hard tissue part of MTMGs and IACs were investigated by observing CBCT data via the NNT viewer software. The age, degree of dental development, gender and location were recorded as variables. The associations between different variables and the observed data were analysed. The possibilities of disrupted cortical outline of IACs or the hard tissue part of MTMGs contacting IACs were significantly lower in 12 or 13 age groups, lower in Nolla stage ≤ 6. Males were significantly less than females in the incidence of disrupted cortical outline of IACs. As to the perforation of lingual bone cortex, no significant differences were observed in gender, ages, location or development stages. According to the CBCT images, anatomical factors contributed the lest to the risk of inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve injury in the 12 to 13 age group during removing the MTMG removal.

  7. A digital volumetric tomography (DVT study in the mandibular molar region for miniscrew placement during mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur S. Bhattad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess bone thickness for miniscrew placement in the mandible during mixed dentition by using digital volumetric tomograph (DVT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 15 healthy patients aged 8-10 years old, with early exfoliated mandibular second deciduous molar, were included. DVT images of one quadrant of the mandible were obtained using Kodak extraoral imaging systems and analyzed by Kodak dental imaging software. The error of the method (EM was calculated using Dahlberg's formula. Mean and standard deviation were calculated at 6 and 8 mm from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ.Paired t-test was used to analyze the measurements. RESULTS: Buccal cortical bone thickness, mesiodistal width and buccolingual bone depth at 6 mm were found to be 1.73 + 0.41, 2.15 + 0.49 and 13.18 + 1.22 mm, respectively; while at 8 mm measurements were 2.42 + 0.34, 2.48 + 0.33 and 13.65 + 1.25 mm, respectively. EM for buccal cortical bone thickness, mesiodistal width and buccolingual bone depth was 0.58, 0.40 and 0.48, respectively. The difference in measurement at 6 and 8 mm for buccal cortical plate thickness (P 0.05. CONCLUSION: Bone thickness measurement has shown promising evidence for safe placement of miniscrews in the mandible during mixed dentition. The use of miniscrew is the best alternative, even in younger patients.

  8. Anaesthetic efficacy of intraligamentary injection techniques on mandibular molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Wigler, Ronald; Huber, Ronen; Kaufman, Arieh Y

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of intraligamentary injections (ILI) using a two- or four-site injection technique. One hundred and fifty-one mandibular molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received ILI at the mesiobuccal and distobuccal aspects of the roots. Patients who experienced pain when the access cavity was performed received additional supplemental ILI in the mesiolingual and distolingual aspects. Pulpal anaesthesia was considered successful when complete analgesia was achieved. The data were analysed by means of the Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-square tests. IL anaesthesia was successful for 92.1% of the teeth. Forty-eight teeth (31.8%) were sufficiently anaesthetised using the two-site ILI and 91 teeth (60.3%) following supplemental IL anaesthesia in two more sites. The results of this study indicate that the use of four-site IL injections as a primary anaesthetic technique may be considered a favourable alternative to the common IANB. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  9. Is The Late Mandibular Fracture From Third Molar Extraction a Risk Towards Malpractice? Case Report with the Analysis of Ethical and Legal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Silva, Weuler; Silveira, Rubens Jorge; de Araujo Andrade, Michelle Gouveia Benicio; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports a case of late mandibular fracture due to third molar extraction and highlights the inherent clinical, ethical and legal aspects related to this surgical complication. A female patient underwent surgical procedure for the extraction of the mandibular right third molar. Two days after the surgery the patient reported pain and altered occlusion in the right side of the mandible. After clinical and radiographic re-examination, the diagnosis of late mandibular fracture was established. A second surgery, under general anaesthesia, was performed for the fixation of the mandibular bone. The fractured parts were reduced and fixed with locking plate systems and 2 mm screws following load-sharing principles. The masticatory function showed optimal performance within 7 and 21 days after the surgery. Complete bone healing was observed within 1 year of follow-up. For satisfactory surgical outcomes, adequate surgical planning and techniques must be performed. Signed informed consents explaining the risks and benefits of the treatment must be used to avoid ethical and legal disputes in dentistry.

  10. Is The Late Mandibular Fracture From Third Molar Extraction a Risk Towards Malpractice? Case Report with the Analysis of Ethical and Legal Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weuler dos Santos Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study reports a case of late mandibular fracture due to third molar extraction and highlights the inherent clinical, ethical and legal aspects related to this surgical complication. Material and Methods: A female patient underwent surgical procedure for the extraction of the mandibular right third molar. Two days after the surgery the patient reported pain and altered occlusion in the right side of the mandible. After clinical and radiographic re-examination, the diagnosis of late mandibular fracture was established. A second surgery, under general anaesthesia, was performed for the fixation of the mandibular bone. Results: The fractured parts were reduced and fixed with locking plate systems and 2 mm screws following load-sharing principles. The masticatory function showed optimal performance within 7 and 21 days after the surgery. Complete bone healing was observed within 1 year of follow-up. Conclusions: For satisfactory surgical outcomes, adequate surgical planning and techniques must be performed. Signed informed consents explaining the risks and benefits of the treatment must be used to avoid ethical and legal disputes in dentistry.

  11. Efficacy of supplementary buccal infiltrations and intraligamentary injections to inferior alveolar nerve blocks in mandibular first molars with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, M; Sadr, S; Nakhaee, N; Abbott, P V; Askarifard, S

    2014-10-01

    This randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) injection for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis with or without supplementary buccal infiltration and intraligamentary injection. Eighty-two patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received either a combination of intraligamentary injection + buccal infiltration+ IANB or with traditional IANB injection in mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Each patient recorded their pain score on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale before commencing treatment, in response to a cold test 15 min after the designated anaesthetic injection, during access cavity preparation and during root canal instrumentation. No or mild pain at any stage was considered a success. Data were analysed by chi-square test. At the final stage of treatment, 69 of the 82 patients were eligible to be included in the study. No significant difference was found between age (P = 0.569) and gender (P = 0.570) amongst the patients in the two groups. The success rate of anaesthesia in the IANB and the combination groups were 22% and 58%, respectively. The success rate of anaesthesia in the combination group was significantly higher than the traditional IANB injection (P = 0.003). A combination of anaesthetic techniques can improve the success rate of anaesthesia for mandibular first molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A rare case of impacted supernumerary premolar causing resorption of mandibular first molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Murali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with pain in today′s general practice has become a major concern and sometimes this pain is related to some rare causes. A male patient aged 26 years reported with pain in the lower left molar region (36 and then an intra-oral periapical radiograph (IOPA, and orthopantomograph was taken. IOPA revealed the presence of supernumerary premolar causing pressure and root resorption of 36. Also, there was missing 21 and proximal decay in 11. Eleven was treated endodontically, and then bridge was done in relation to 11, 21 and 22. Lower anterior crowding was also present. The treatment plan was to extract 36 followed by orthodontic extrusion of the supernumerary premolar and also the correction of lower anterior crowding. Hidden approach (lingual orthodontics was used as the patient was insisting upon the braces not being seen outside during the course of the treatment. Later all ceramic bridge was done in relation to 11, 21 and 22. Orthodontic tooth extrusion techniques offer excellent treatment options for Partially Impacted tooth. It is a well-documented clinical method for extruding sound tooth material from within the alveolar socket by light forces. The use of lingual technique for forced eruption enhance acceptance of orthodontic treatment by adults. The treatment of a young adult patient illustrates the importance of treatment planning from one discipline to another, communication among team members and the benefits of working together in an interdisciplinary approach

  13. Má oclusão de Classe I com biprotrusão e ausência dos primeiros molares inferiores Angle Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary dental protrusion and missing mandibular first molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldino Puppin Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato de caso descreve o tratamento ortodôntico de uma paciente de 24 anos de idade, portadora de má oclusão de Classe I de Angle, com protrusão dos incisivos superiores e inferiores, além de perda recente dos primeiros molares inferiores. O tratamento idealizado envolveu a exodontia dos primeiros pré-molares superiores, aliada ao fechamento dos espaços presentes na arcada inferior. O resultado obtido demonstra a necessidade de planos de tratamento individualizados e a importância dos conceitos biomecânicos para movimentar adequadamente os dentes. Esse caso clínico foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria livre escolha, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 24-year-old patient presenting with Angle Class I malocclusion, bimaxillary dental protrusion and recent loss of mandibular molars. Treatment involved extraction of the maxillary first premolars and closing of mandibular first molar spaces. Treatment outcomes demonstrate the need for individualized treatment planning and highlight the key role played by biomechanical concepts in achieving proper orthodontic tooth movement. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as representative of the free choice category in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma.

  14. AvaliaÃÃo da fragilidade mandibular ao trauma devido à presenÃa de terceiros molares: Uma anÃlise tridimensional com elementos finitos

    OpenAIRE

    TÃcio Pinheiro Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    O Ãngulo mandibular tem sido descrito como uma Ãrea frÃgil e, acredita-se que, com a presenÃa do terceiro molar, a mandÃbula perde parte de sua estrutura para abrigar tecidos que nÃo contribuem para sua resistÃncia estrutural. Neste contexto, o artigo produzido nessa tese teve como objetivo identificar Ãreas de concentraÃÃo e distribuiÃÃo de estresse na regiÃo do Ãngulo em uma mandÃbula portando os dois terceiros molares erupcionados, outra portando apenas um terceiro molar erupcionado e outr...

  15. Comparison of cone beam computed tomography and conventional panoramic radiography in assessing the topographic relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Soo; Kim, Gyu Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and value in an imaging technique field through the comparison of cone beam computed tomography and conventional panoramic radiography in assessing the topographic relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted third molars. Participants consisted of 100 patients offered the images through cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography. PSR-9000TM Dental CT system (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Japan) was used as the unit of cone beam computed tomography. CE-II (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Japan) and Pro Max (Planmeca Oy, Finland) were used as the unit of panoramic radiography. The images obtained through panoramic radiography were classified into 3 types according to the distance between mandibular canal and root of mandibular third molar. And they were classified into 4 types according to the proximity of radiographic feature. The images obtained through cone beam computed tomography based on the classification above were classified into 4 types according to the location between the mandibular canal and the root and were analyzed. And they were classified into buccal, inferior, lingual, and between roots, according to the location between mandibular canal and root. The data were statistically analyzed and estimated by x2-test. 1. There was no statistical significance according to 3 types (type I, type II, type III) through CBCT. 2. The results of 4 types (type A, type B, type C, type D) through CBCT were as high prevalence of CBCT 1 in type A, CBCT 2 in type B, CBCT 3 in type C, and CBCT1 in type D and those of which showed statistical significance (P value=0.03). 3. The results according to location between mandibular canal and root through CBCT recorded each 49, 25, 17, 9 as buccal, inferior, lingual, between roots. When estimating the mandibular canal and the roots through the panoramic radiography, it could be difficult to drive the views of which this estimation was considerable. Thus it is required to

  16. Evaluate root and canal morphology of primary mandibular second molars in Chinese individuals by using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ran; Yang, Chan; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Yong; Zou, Jing

    2013-07-01

    More detailed knowledge of root and canal morphology is important in order to improve the success in the endodontics of primary teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the root and canal morphology of primary mandibular second molars (PMSMs) in a Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images, which had been obtained previously in the West China Hospital of Stomatology at Sichuan University, Chengdu, China between May 2009 and December 2011, were screened retrospectively. Finally, 283 individuals-207 male and 76 female with a mean age of 7.2 years (range 3-10 years)-and 487 PMSMs with clear images of root and canal morphology were enrolled. The number of roots and morphology of canals were recorded. The patient's gender, and the symmetry and frequency of three roots in PMSMs were analyzed. The majority of PMSMs had two (72.28%) or three roots (27.52%). The symmetrical incidence of three-root PMSMs in this Chinese population was 50.65%. There is no difference between genders in the prevalence of an extra root and the incidence of symmetry (p > 0.05). Of the individuals enrolled, 25.26% of PMSMs had three canals and 73.31% had four canals. The root canal systems of the PMSMs in the present study were categorized into seven variants. This study indicated that three-rooted PMSMs occur frequently in the Chinese population. There was no difference between the two genders on incidence and symmetry. The majority of PMSMs have three to four canals and the diversity of the root canal variants should be considered when performing clinical procedures. CBCT is a good option for studying the root and canal morphology of primary teeth. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine as a supplemental buccal infiltration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brandon S; Botero, Tatiana M; McDonald, Neville J; Gardner, Richard J; Peters, Mathilde C

    2014-06-01

    Profound pulpal anesthesia in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis (IP) is often difficult to obtain and often requires supplemental injections after an ineffective inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the efficacy of 4% articaine with 2% lidocaine for supplemental buccal infiltrations (BIs) after an ineffective IANB in mandibular molars with IP. In addition, the use of articaine for IANB and intraosseous injections was investigated. One hundred emergency patients diagnosed with IP of a mandibular molar were selected and received an IANB with 4% articaine. All injections were 1.7 mL with 1:100,000 epinephrine. All patients reported profound lip numbness after IANB. Patients with ineffective IANB (positive pulpal response to cold or pain on access) randomly received 4% articaine or 2% lidocaine as a supplemental BI. Endodontic access was initiated 5 minutes after deposition of the infiltration solution. Success was defined as no pain or no more than mild pain during endodontic access and instrumentation as measured on a visual analogue scale. Seventy-four patients failed to achieve pulpal anesthesia after IANB with 4% articaine, resulting in IANB success rate of 26%. Success rates for supplemental BIs were 62% for articaine and 37% for lidocaine (P < .05). This effect was most pronounced in second molars (P < .05). Supplemental BI with articaine was significantly more effective than lidocaine. The IANB success rate of 4% articaine confirmed published data. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The horizontal inclination angle is associated with the risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury during the extraction of mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, S; Abe, S; Moro, A; Yokomizo, N; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-12-01

    The extraction of mandibular third molars can lead to injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. Hence, it is important to assess the proximity of the root to the inferior alveolar canal before extraction. The classification system of Pell and Gregory and the Winter classification are commonly used to evaluate the positional relationship of the third molar based on radiographs. This retrospective study involving 105 mandibular third molars was performed to assess whether these systems reflect the proximity of the root to the canal (based on computed tomography images), and to identify risk factors for nerve injury. Regarding the prediction of computed tomography-verified canal invasion, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were high for each Pell and Gregory category when there was radiographic evidence. The mean distance of invasion was significantly greater in class III than in class I. However, there were no significant differences between the Winter inclination categories. The mean distance differed significantly between a horizontal inclination angle to the buccal side of >5° and an angle of ≤5°. Thus, a horizontal inclination angle >5° represents a novel risk factor for nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of horizontal X-ray beam angulation on the detection of furcation defects of mandibular first molars in intraoral radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishikawa, T; Izumi, M; Naitoh, M; Furukawa, M; Yoshinari, N; Kawase, H; Matsuoka, M; Noguchi, T; Ariji, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of changes in horizontal X-ray beam angulation in intraoral radiography on the detection accuracy of furcation defects in the mandibular first molar, and to examine the anatomical relationship between the roots and furcation area as a possible cause of changes in detectability. Simulated furcation defects with various depths were created in five mandibular first molars. Intraoral radiographs were taken at various horizontal angulations of the projection beams. The diagnostic accuracies were determined based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. The geometric relationship that might influence the accuracy was investigated through use of a compact cone beam CT in 59 first molar areas. Although the horizontal angulations showing the highest accuracies were shifted mesially, no differences were found between the angles of -10 degrees and 20 degrees . The relationship between the roots and the furcation area was relevant to the range of angulations showing high detectabilities. The angulations traditionally used for detecting proximal caries are also suitable for detecting furcation defects.

  20. Comparison of Micro-Computed Tomography and Digital Intraoral Radiography to Determine the Accuracy of Digital Radiographic Measurements of Mandibular Molar Teeth in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marron, Louise; Rawlinson, Jennifer; McGilvray, Kirk; Prytherch, Ben

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare root and root canal width measurements between digital intraoral radiography (IOR) and micro-computed tomography (μCT). The accuracy of IOR measurements of canine mandibular molars was scrutinized to assess feasibility of developing a model to estimate animal age based on dentinal thickness. Thirty-nine canine mandibular first molars were imaged using μCT and IOR. For each tooth, the root and root canal width of the mesial and distal roots were measured by a single observer at 3 marked sites on μCT and IOR. Two different software programs were used to measure the radiographs. The radiograph measurements were compared to each other and to the μCT measurements. The μCT images were considered the anatomic reference standard for structural representation. The data collected demonstrated IOR bias and variability throughout all measurement sites, with some sites being more affected than others. Neither IOR system produced unbiased measurements that closely reflected the μCT measurements consistently. The overall lack of agreement between measurements demonstrated the difficulties in developing a standardized protocol for measuring root and root canal width for the first molar teeth in dogs. Developing a protocol to accurately measure and compare μCT and IOR measurements is challenging. Designing a measurement system that would allow for universal application to age dogs would require continued research utilizing a standardized approach to overcome the limitations identified in this article.

  1. Effect of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gel on Frequency of Dry Socket Following Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial Clinical Trial

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    Baratollah Shaban

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar osteitis (AO is one of the most common postoperative complications after third molar surgery. Various techniques have been used to reduce the risk of AO. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of Chlorhexidine (CHX bioadhesive gel in preventing the development of AO. Methods: Patients with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars underwent surgical extraction of both teeth. One socket was randomly received CHX gel and the contralateral socket served as the control. The outcome variable was development of AO and the CHX gel application was the predictor variable. Data were analyzed using chi-square test with the confidence interval of 95%. Results: 41 patients (27 females and 14 males with mean age of 24.15 ± 5.02 years underwent 82 surgeries. Total of 11 sockets (13.41% developed AO. The frequency of AO in CHX gel (2 cases, 4.87% side was significantly lower than control (9 cases, 21.95% side (P-value < 0.05. No side effects observed following CHX gel application. Conclusion: Application of CHX gel could be an effective approach to reduce the risk of developing AO following mandibular third molar surgery.

  2. Unilateral failure of development of mandibular premolars and molars in an Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and its effects on molar progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D; Campbell, J; Davey, J; Luke, T; Agren, E; Beveridge, I

    2008-01-01

    An adult male Eastern Grey kangaroo from a wildlife reserve near Melbourne was submitted for necropsy examination and was discovered to have abnormal dentition. There was no evidence that any premolars or molars had ever been present on the right mandible, whilst the incisors were normal. The age of the kangaroo was estimated to be 1 year 9 months using the right maxillary molars and 2 years 4 months old using the contralateral side, presumably due to the asymmetry of the dental arcades. 'Lumpy jaw', a common periodontal disease of kangaroos, from which Bacteroides sp was cultured, was present on the base of the vertical ramus of the left mandible. Complete unilateral absence of premolar and molar teeth in the mandible of a kangaroo has not been described. This condition affected molar progression in both sets of maxillary molars.

  3. Analysis of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molars using surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography: A clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sanjay; Yadav, Seema; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed to acquire better understanding of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molar teeth through a clinical approach using sophisticated techniques such as surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 42 extracted mandibular second molar teeth with fused roots and longitudinal grooves were collected randomly from native Indian population. Pulp chamber floors of all specimens were examined under surgical operating microscope and classified into four types (Min's method). Subsequently, samples were subjected to CBCT scan after insertion of K-files size #10 or 15 into each canal orifice and evaluated using the cross-sectional and 3-dimensional images in consultation with dental radiologist so as to obtain more accurate results. Minimum distance between the external root surface on the groove and initial file placed in the canal was also measured at different levels and statistically analyzed. Out of 42 teeth, maximum number of samples (15) belonged to Type-II category. A total of 100 files were inserted in 86 orifices of various types of specimens. Evaluation of the CBCT scan images of the teeth revealed that a total of 21 canals were missing completely or partially at different levels. The mean values for the minimum thickness were highest at coronal followed by middle and apical third levels in all the categories. Lowest values were obtained for teeth with Type-III category at all three levels. The present study revealed anatomical variations of C-shaped canal system in mandibular second molars. The prognosis of such complex canal anatomies can be improved by simultaneous employment of modern techniques such as surgical operating microscope and CBCT.

  4. Ex vivo evaluation of four final irrigation protocols on the removal of hard-tissue debris from the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; Silva-Sousa, Y T; Bruniera, J F B; Pécora, J D; Sousa-Neto, M D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of four final irrigation protocols on the reduction of hard-tissue debris accumulated within the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars using micro-CT analysis. Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with a single and continuous isthmus connecting the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals (Vertucci's Type I configuration) were selected and scanned at a resolution of 8.6 μm. Canals were enlarged sequentially using WaveOne Small and Primary instruments activated in reciprocating motion without intracanal irrigation to allow debris to accumulate within the mesial root canal system. Then, specimens were anatomically matched and distributed into four groups (n = 10), according to the final irrigation protocol: apical positive pressure (APP), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), Self-adjusting File (SAF) and XP-endo Finisher (XPF). The final irrigation procedures were performed over 2 min using a total of 5.5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl per canal. Reconstructed data sets were coregistered, and the mean percentage reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris after the final irrigation procedures was compared statistically between groups using the anovapost hoc Tukey test with a significance level set at 5%. Reduction of accumulated hard-tissue debris was observed in all groups after the final irrigation protocol. Overall, PUI and XPF groups had higher mean percentage reductions of accumulated hard-tissue debris (94.1% and 89.7%, respectively) than APP and SAF groups (45.7% and 41.3%, respectively) (P  0.05) or APP and SAF groups (P > 0.05). The PUI technique and XP-endo Finisher instrument were associated with significantly lower levels of AHTD compared with conventional irrigation and the modified SAF system protocol in mesial root canals of mandibular molars. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. C-shaped mandibular primary first molar diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography: A novel case report and literature review of primary molars′ root canal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the different anatomical variations in root canal system of dedicious dentition will improve the practice of the pediatric dentists. The teeth with C-shaped root canal configurations are definitely a problem in endodontic treatment. Dentists who are specialists of endodontics must have adequate knowledge about various root canal morphologies of primary tooth that have a tendency for rapid progression of dental caries to achieve a technically satisfactory outcome. This report presents an extraordinary case of unusual tooth morphology involving the mandibular first primary molar with a C-shaped configuration which has not yet been reported.

  6. Effectiveness of a personalized device in the evaluation of mandibular second molar periodontal healing after surgical extraction of adjacent third molar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pippi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to validate the effectiveness of a personalized device able to guide periodontal probing in evaluation of second molar periodontal healing after adjacent third...

  7. Two-dimensional patterns of human enamel thickness on deciduous (dm1, dm2) and permanent first (M1) mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    To characterise patterns of enamel thickness on deciduous (dm1, dm2) and permanent first (M1) mandibular molars and evaluate these against functional and morphological interpretative models. Histological sections of mesial and distal cusps from 69 unworn molars were produced and examined using transmitted light microscopy. Enamel cap area, dentine area, as well as average and linear measurements of enamel thickness were recorded from digital images of the sections using image analysis software. Comparisons were made along the molar row, and between the mesial and distal sections of each tooth, using univariate and multivariate inferential statistics. The enamel cap area, dentine area, and average enamel thickness increased from the anterior to the posterior molars. The greatest proportional increase in linear enamel thickness occurred between the outside surface of the lingual cusps when dm1 was compared to dm2, and between the outside surface of the buccal cusps when dm2 was compared to M1. The enamel cap area increased from the mesial to the distal sections in M1. Dentine area decreased from the mesial to distal sections in dm1. Enamel cap and dentine areas did not change across dm2. Results for the deciduous molars are interpreted within a functional model of mastication, in which the dm2 dissipates less laterally orientated loads compared to dm1. Differences in enamel thickness between dm2 and M1 support previous functional interpretations for this permanent molar. Some mesial-distal results are not easily explained from either a functional or a morphological perspective and suggest an underlying developmental constraint. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing-guided Endodontic Surgery: Guided Osteotomy and Apex Localization in a Mandibular Molar with a Thick Buccal Bone Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Sunil; Karabucak, Bekir; Kim, Euiseong

    2018-01-18

    A mandibular molar with a thick buccal bone plate is a challenging problem in endodontic surgery despite the increase in the success rate of endodontic surgery nowadays. This report describes the application of a surgical template to guide osteotomy and facilitate apex localization in a mandibular molar with a thick buccal bone plate. A 57-year-old woman visited the authors' clinic for pain in tooth 19 and was diagnosed with symptomatic apical periodontitis in this previously treated tooth. Nonsurgical retreatment was performed; however, 2 years later, the patient reported pain in the same tooth. A periapical lesion was confirmed using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging, and endodontic surgery on the mesial root of tooth 19 was planned. After CBCT imaging and cast scan data were transferred to implant surgical planning software, the data were superimposed. In the superimposed model, an anchor pin was designed to target the mesial root apex of tooth 19. The surgical template was then printed using a 3-dimensional printer. Endodontic microsurgery included application of this printed surgical template. A computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-guided surgical template minimized the extent of osteotomy and enabled precise targeting of the apex in this case. There were no postoperative complications. A CAD/CAM-guided surgical template is useful in endodontic surgery for complicated cases. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of panoramic radiography with cone beam CT in predicting the relationship of the mandibular third molar roots to the alveolar canal

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    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zamiri, Barbod; Bronoosh, Pegah [School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Preoperative radiographic assessment of the mandibular third molars is essential to prevent inferior alveolar nerve damage during extraction. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of panoramic signs of association between the roots of teeth and the canal, and to compare the panoramic signs with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings. CBCT images of 132 impacted mandibular third molars were evaluated to determine the association of the root to the canal. The CBCT findings were compared with the corresponding panoramic images. Logistic regression analysis was used to define the diagnostic criteria of the panoramic images. Among the panoramic signs, loss of the cortical line was the most frequent radiographic sign predicting association (sensitivity: 79.31). Contact of the tooth with the canal was observed in all cases in which the loss of cortical line of the canal or darkening of the roots was found on the panoramic radiographs. Darkening of the roots and loss of the cortical line on panoramic radiographs might be highly suggestive of the risk of nerve injury.

  10. In vivo efficacy of three different endodontic irrigation systems for irrigant delivery to working length of mesial canals of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Hugo Roberto; Camacho-Cuadra, Karla

    2012-04-01

    Many in vitro studies have debated over the ability of different irrigant delivery and/or agitation systems to reach the apical third of curved root canals; however, little is known about irrigant penetration in vivo. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the conventional endodontic irrigation needle, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and a negative pressure system for irrigant delivery to working length (WL) of mesial canals of mandibular molars. Thirty mesial canals of 30 vital mandibular first or second molars were randomly assigned into 3 groups (n = 10): (1) Monoject syringe with 27-gauge needle; (2) PUI with IrriSafe tip; and (3) EndoVac system. All canals were treated following the same preparation protocol to size 35/0.04 by using 5.25% NaOCl as irrigant during preparation procedure. Before obturation, canals were irrigated with 1 mL of a radiopaque solution by using the assigned irrigation system, and a digital radiograph was taken by using a parallel technique. With the aid of image editing software the distance between WL and maximum irrigant penetration was measured. Mean distances for Monoject, PUI, and EndoVac groups were 1.51 mm, 0.21 mm, and 0.42 mm, respectively. Analysis of variance test showed statistically significant differences between groups (P endodontic needle in delivering irrigant to WL of root canals. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anesthetic Efficacy of Gow-Gates Nerve Block, Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block, and Their Combination in Mandibular Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Shafiee, Maryam; Khademi, Abbasali; Memarzadeh, Bahareh

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the Gow-Gates nerve block (GGNB), the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB), and their combination for mandibular molars in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred fifty patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular molar were selected. The patients randomly received 2 GGNB injections, 2 IANB injections, or 1 GGNB injection plus 1 IANB injection of 1.8 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Access cavity preparation was initiated 15 minutes after injections. Lip numbness was a requisite for all of the patients. Success was specified as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings during access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed with the chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests. The success rates of anesthesia were 40%, 44%, and 70% for the GGNB, IANB, and GGNB + IANB groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rate of anesthesia between the GGNB and IANB groups (P > .05). The anesthesia success rate for the GGNB + IANB group was significantly different from those of the GGNB and IANB groups (P irreversible pulpitis, but it would still require supplemental anesthesia. Further research may be needed to confirm the results of this study. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-dravidian population based in Southern India: An In vitro study

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    J V Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci. The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. Results: The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%, rectangular (8.5%, C-shaped (3.0%, and two orifice pattern (0.6%. About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%, followed by type II (35%. Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5% and IV (12.4%. The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Conclusion: Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  13. The pain-related behavior and pain perception associated with computerized anesthesia in pulpotomies of mandibular primary molars: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghlaf, Khlood; Alamoudi, Najlaa; Elashiry, Eman; Farsi, Najat; El Derwi, Douaa A; Abdullah, Abeer M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the pain-related behavior and the pain perception associated with three anesthetic techniques in pulpotomies of primary mandibular second molars: traditional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB), IANB with computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD), and intraligamental anesthesia with CCLAD. The sample comprised 91 randomly selected healthy children aged 5 to 9 years, who were scheduled for pulpotomy in the mandibular second molar. Patients were divided into three groups according to the type of anesthesia received. Group A received traditional IANB, group B received IANB with CCLAD, and group C received intraligamental anesthesia with CCLAD. Pain-related behavior and pain perception levels were assessed using the established behavior code and the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale respectively. The mean of pain-related behavior was significantly lower (P < .001) in the intraligamental anesthesia with CCLAD group than in the other two groups. The pain perception scores were significantly higher in the traditional IANB group than in the IANB with CCLAD group, and the intraligamental anesthesia with CCLAD group (P = .044 and P < .001 respectively). The mean ± SD of the pain perception of IANB was 1.39 ± 0.200, IANB with CCLAD was 0.87 ± 0.133 and ILA with CCLAD was 0.13 ± 0.063. Intraligamental anaesthesia with CCLAD was clearly associated with less pain than the IANB with or without CCLAD.

  14. Piezoelectric compared with conventional rotary osteotomy for the prevention of postoperative sequelae and complications after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenoch-Jones, E K; David, M; Lincoln, T

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine if postoperative sequelae (facial swelling, trismus, pain) and neurological complications are reduced when mandibular third molars are surgically extracted using a piezoelectric device for osteotomy compared with conventional rotary burs, and to determine if there is a difference in operating time between the two techniques. Clinical trials were identified through a search (April 2015) on the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Google Scholar databases. Studies were assessed by study type, characteristics of participants, sample size, surgical technique, cointerventions, outcomes, risk of bias, and findings. We calculated a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) rating of confidence in the effect estimates. We identified 2515 citations and found 15 eligible clinical trials. Patients who had osteotomies with the piezoelectric device had less facial swelling (standard mean difference -1.15; 95% CI -2.02 to -0.27; ppiezoelectric device (standard mean difference 0.83; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.09; p=0.001). The confidence in the effect estimates was low or very low across all outcomes. The findings raise the possibility of an improved clinical healing response to osteotomy with the piezoelectric device compared with one done with conventional rotary burs for surgical extractions of mandibular third molars. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos Removal of mandibular third molars with endoscopic approach: Technical note of a new surgical procedure to avoid IAN damage and bone defect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fuentes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI o nervio lingual, riesgo de fractura y formación de defectos periodontales del segundo molar. La implementación de soportes rígidos en la óptica endoscópica ha permitido utilizar esta tecnología para realizar abordajes mínimamente invasivos para remover terceros molares mediante accesos flapless con una mínima osteotomía de la zona oclusal, conservando la pared bucal y lingual a través de la visualización directa y magnificada del sitio quirúrgico, adaptable a los movimientos del paciente durante la intervención. En este reporte se presenta un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico mínimamente invasivo a través de asistencia endoscópica para la conservación ósea en la remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con riesgo de lesión del nervio alveolar inferior.Anatomic variability of the position of mandibular third molars represents significant challenges associated with its depth and angulation. The most common complications of conventional surgical procedure are related to extensive osteotomy and poor visualization, which can cause postsurgical effects such as inflammation, pain, trismus, reversible and irreversible lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN or lingual nerve, fracture risk and formation of a deep periodontal defect on the distal aspect of the second molar. The implementation of rigid endoscopy in optics has allowed to use this technology via a minimally invasive approach to remove third molars by a minimally occlusal flapless ostectomy

  16. Comparison between cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography in the assessment of the relationship between the mandibular canal and impacted class C mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dalili

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: CBCT provides more precise diagnostic information to determine the relationship of impacted third molars to the canal. Deviation of the canal and darkening of the roots in panoramic view can be highly valuable to predict the risk of nerve injury.

  17. Is fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored with indirect onlay composite restorations influenced by fibre post insertion?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scotti, Nicola; Coero Borga, Francesco Andrea; Alovisi, Mario; Rota, Riccardo; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

    2012-01-01

    .... Endodontically treated human molars with two- and one-wall cavities either underwent or did not undergo fibre post insertion within composite build-up before cementation of indirect composite onlay restorations...

  18. [Prospective randomized study regarding the effect of the preoperative antibiotic and chlorhexidine rinse on wound healing after mandibular third molar surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvári, István; Körmöczi, Kinga; László, Zsuzsa Beáta; Oberna, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Joób-Fancsaly, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    The study compares the antibiotic prophylaxis combined with postoperative antibiotic therapy to preoperative chlorhexidine rinse combined with postoperative antibiotic therapy in preventing complications after surgical removal of a mandibular third molar. 71 healthy patients in four groups were enrolled in the study: I. prophylactic dose of 2000 mg of amoxicillin clavulanate, continued with amoxicillin clavulanate postoperatively; II. prophylactic dose of 600 mg of clindamycin, continued with clindamycin postoperatively; III. prophylactic chlorhexidin rinsing, continued randomized amoxicillin clavulanate or clindamycin postoperatively; IV. control, with clindamycin postoperatively. The pain was smaller in the prophylaxis groups. Alveolitis occurred only in the control group: 2 patients. Wound opening occurred in 22,2 % in group IV., 14,2 % in group II, 10 % in group I., 5 % in group III. We consider completing the indicated postoperative antibiotic prescription with antibiotic or antiseptic prophylaxis. Chlorhexidin prophylaxis could have the same positive effect. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 13-19.

  19. Clinical Comparison of Autogenous Bone Graft with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Grade II Furcation Involvement of Mandibular Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Lafzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF is a concentrated suspension of growth factors, which is used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this randomized, controlled, clinical trial was to evaluate of the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcation involvement using autogenous bone graft with and without PRGF. Materials and methods. In this double-blind clinical trial, thirty mandibular molars with grade II furcation involvement in 30 patients were selected. The test group received bone graft combined with PRGF, while the control group was treated with bone graft only. Clinical parameters included clinical probing depth (CPD, vertical clinical attachment level (V-CAL, horizontal clinical attachment level (H-CAL, location of gingival margin (LGM, surgically exposed horizontal probing depth of bony defect (E-HPD, vertical depth of bone crest (V-DBC, vertical depth of the base of bony defect (V-DBD, and length of the intrabony defect (LID. After six months, a re-entry surgery was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using Kolmogorov, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-test. Results. After 6 months, both treatment methods led to significant improvement in V-CAL and H-CAL and significant decreases in CPD, E-HPD, V-DBD and LID; there was no significant difference in LGM and V-DBC in any of the treated groups compared to the baseline values. Also, none of the parameters showed significant differences between the study groups. Conclusion. Although autogenous bone grafts, with or without PRGF, were successful in treating grade II furcation involvement, no differences between the study groups were observed.

  20. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

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    Mirela Sangoi BARRETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1. Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each, and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2. Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3. Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05. The volume of residual filling material was similar to that in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than that observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05. When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05. Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material.

  1. Anaesthetic efficacy of supplemental lingual infiltration of mandibular molars after inferior alveolar nerve block plus buccal infiltration in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

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    Dou, L; Luo, J; Yang, D

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of supplemental lingual infiltration (LI) of mandibular molars following an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) plus buccal infiltration (BI) in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Eighty adult patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis participated in this prospective study. All patients received standard IANB via injection of 4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. Ten minutes after the IANB, patients with numbness of the lower lip were randomly divided into two groups. In the BI group, 40 patients received supplemental BI of 0.9 mL of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. In the buccal plus lingual infiltration (BLI) group, 40 patients received supplemental BI of 0.9 mL of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and, subsequently, LIs with the same anaesthetic solution and dose. Endodontic access cavity preparation began 15 min after the IANB. Pain during treatment was recorded using a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale. Success was defined when pain was 'none' or 'mild' on endodontic access and initial instrumentation. The pain was estimated and statistically analysed by the chi-squared test (α = 0.05). The success rates for the BI and BLI groups were 70% and 62.5%, respectively. No statistical difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.478). Supplemental LIs are not recommended for administration in mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis, because they do not improve the anaesthetic success after IANB plus BI. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the stress distribution pattern in a mandibular first molar tooth restored with five different restorative materials.

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    D'souza, Kathleen Manuela; Aras, Meena Ajay

    2017-01-01

    Badly broken or structurally compromised posterior teeth are frequently associated with crown/root fracture. Numerous restorative materials have been used to fabricate indirect full-coverage restorations for such teeth. This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of restorative materials on the stress distribution pattern in a mandibular first molar tooth, under varying loading conditions and to compare the stress distribution pattern in five commonly used indirect restorative materials. Five three-dimensional finite element models representing a mandibular first molar tooth restored with crowns of gold, porcelain fused to metal, composite (Artglass), alumina-based zirconia (In-Ceram Zirconia [ICZ]), and double-layered zirconia-based materials (zirconia core veneered with porcelain, Lava) were constructed, using a Finite Element Analysis Software (ANSYS version 10; ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Two loading conditions were applied, simulating maximum bite force of 600 N axially and normal masticatory bite force of 225 N axially and nonaxially. Both all-ceramic crowns allowed the least amount of stress distribution to the surrounding tooth structure. In maximum bite force-simulation test, alumina-based all-ceramic crown displayed the highest von Mises stresses (123.745 MPa). In the masticatory bite force-simulation test, both all-ceramic crowns (122.503-133.13 MPa) displayed the highest von Mises stresses. ICZ crown displayed the highest peak von Mises stress values under maximum and masticatory bite forces. ICZ and Lava crowns also allowed the least amount of stress distribution to the surrounding tooth structure, which is indicative of a favorable response of the underlying tooth structure to the overlying full-coverage indirect restorative material. These results suggest that ICZ and Lava crowns can be recommended for clinical use in cases of badly damaged teeth.

  3. Effects of Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin Alone and Combined With Hyaluronic Acid on Pain, Edema, and Trismus After Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars.

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    Afat, İbrahim Murat; Akdoğan, Emine Tuna; Gönül, Onur

    2017-12-13

    In this prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study, we evaluated the effects of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) alone and combined with a hyaluronic acid (HA) sponge on pain, edema, and trismus after mandibular third molar surgery. In total, 60 patients were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: L-PRF group (L-PRF was applied to the socket), L-PRF-plus-HA group (L-PRF combined with HA was applied to the socket), and control group (nothing was applied). The primary outcome variables were edema (tragus to pogonion, tragus to labial commissure, and angulus mandibulae to lateral canthus), trismus on postoperative days 2 and 7, and postoperative pain scores on a visual analog scale from hour 6 to day 7. After extraction, the tragus-to-pogonion values were significantly higher in the control group both on day 2 (higher than L-PRF-plus-HA group) and on day 7 (higher than both groups). The mean increase in tragus-to-labial commissure values on day 2 was significantly higher in the control group than in the L-PRF-plus-HA group. The mean increase in angulus mandibulae-to-lateral canthus values on days 2 and 7 was significantly higher in the control group than in the L-PRF and L-PRF-plus-HA groups. There was no significant difference among groups in trismus and visual analog scale pain scores. Analgesic intake on the day of surgery in the L-PRF-plus-HA group was significantly lower. Our results imply that L-PRF, particularly when combined with HA, can be used to minimize postoperative edema after mandibular third molar surgery. However, further studies with larger samples are required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Crown preservation of the mandibular first molar tooth impacts the strength and stiffness of three noninvasive jaw fracture repair constructs in dogs

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    Charles eLothamer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Repairing mandibular body fractures present unique challenges not encountered when repairing long bones. Large tooth roots and the presence of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle limit safe placement for many types of orthopedic implants. Use of noninvasive fracture repair methods have increasingly become popular and have proven safe and effective at achieving bone healing. Noninvasive fixation constructs have not been tested in dogs using cantilevered bending. Furthermore noninvasive fracture repair constructs have not been tested at the location of a common fracture location- the mandibular first molar tooth (M1. The objectives of this study were to test the strength and stiffness of three noninvasive mandibular fracture repair constructs and to characterize the impact that tooth crown preservation has on fixation strength for fractures occurring at the M1 location. Specimens were assigned to three treatment groups: (1 composite only, (2 interdental wiring and composite and (3 transmucosal fixation screw and composite. For each pair of mandibles, one mandible received crown amputation at the alveolar margin to simulate the effect of crown loss on fixation strength and stiffness. Regardless of the status of crown presence, interdental wiring and composite demonstrated the greatest bending stiffness and load to failure. With the crown removed, interdental wiring and composite was significantly stronger compared to other treatments. All fixation constructs were stiffer when the tooth crown was preserved. In fractures at this location, retaining the tooth crown of M1 significantly increases stiffness of interdental wiring with composite and transmucosal screw with composite constructs. If the crown of M1 was removed, interdental wiring and composite was significantly stronger than the other two forms of fixation.

  5. Crown Preservation of the Mandibular First Molar Tooth Impacts the Strength and Stiffness of Three Non-Invasive Jaw Fracture Repair Constructs in Dogs.

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    Lothamer, Charles; Snyder, Christopher John; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Kloke, John; McCabe, Ronald P; Vanderby, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Repairing mandibular body fractures presents unique challenges not encountered when repairing long bones. Large tooth roots and the presence of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle limit safe placement for many types of orthopedic implants. Use of non-invasive fracture repair methods have increasingly become popular and have proven safe and effective at achieving bone healing. Non-invasive fixation constructs have not been tested in dogs using cantilevered bending. Furthermore, non-invasive fracture repair constructs have not been tested at the location of a common fracture location - the mandibular first molar tooth (M1). The objectives of this study were to test the strength and stiffness of three non-invasive mandibular fracture repair constructs and to characterize the impact that tooth crown preservation has on fixation strength for fractures occurring at the M1 location. Specimens were assigned to three treatment groups: (1) composite only, (2) interdental wiring and composite (IWC), and (3) transmucosal fixation screw and composite. For each pair of mandibles, one mandible received crown amputation at the alveolar margin to simulate the effect of crown loss on fixation strength and stiffness. Regardless of the status of crown presence, IWC demonstrated the greatest bending stiffness and load to failure. With the crown removed, IWC was significantly stronger compared to other treatments. All fixation constructs were stiffer when the tooth crown was preserved. In fractures at this location, retaining the tooth crown of M1 significantly increases stiffness of interdental wiring with composite and transmucosal screw with composite constructs. If the crown of M1 was removed, IWC was significantly stronger than the other two forms of fixation.

  6. The Role of Mandibular Third Molars on Lower Anterior Teeth Crowding and Relapse after Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review

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    Khalid H. Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the role of third molars in the development of crowding or relapse after orthodontic treatment in the anterior segment of the dental arch. Methods. PubMed search of the literature was performed selecting all the articles relevant to the topic and limiting the studies to controlled trials on humans and written in English language. Systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Results. A total of 12 clinical studies were included in the review. A high risk of bias was found in most of the articles, either because the relative items assessed were inadequate or because they were unclearly described. The third molars were not correlated with more severe anterior tooth crowding in most of the studies. However, four of them described a different outcome. Conclusion. Definitive conclusions on the role of the third molars in the development of anterior tooth crowding cannot be drawn. A high risk of bias was found in most of the trials, and the outcomes were not consistent. However, most of the studies do not support a cause-and-effect relationship; therefore, third molar extraction to prevent anterior tooth crowding or postorthodontic relapse is not justified.

  7. Clinical comparative study of the effectiveness of two dosages of Dexamethasone to control postoperative swelling, trismus and pain after the surgical extraction of mandibular impacted third molars.

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    Laureano Filho, Jose Rodrigues; Maurette, Paul Edward; Allais, Marvis; Cotinho, Milane; Fernandes, Caio

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different concentrations (4 and 8 mg) of dexamethasone to decrease the swelling and trismus after the surgical extraction of mandibular impacted third molars. This randomized clinical trial comprised thirty (30) adult patients of both genders with no local or systemic problems, with bilateral impacted lower third molars in similar position, where surgical extraction had been indicated. They were given 4 mg and 8 mg of dexamethasone 1 hour before the surgical procedure at the first or second surgery. The choice of which side to operate first and the amount of concentration of medication to use was made randomly and double-blindly. Postoperative pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the degree of swelling was evaluated through facial reference points' variation. The presence of trismus was analyzed through measurement of the interincisal distance (IID). These assessments were obtained before the operation and 24h and 48 h after the surgery. Based on statistic analysis (pared t-student and Wilcoxon tests), the results showed a significant difference in the measurements of the degree of swelling and trismus of the treated sample. 8 mg of dexamethasone promoted a greater reduction of symptoms than 4 mg of dexamethasone The administration of 8 mg of the dexamethasone was more effective than 4 mg of the dexamethasone to reduce the degree of swelling and trismus. However, it had no effect on pain control.

  8. Accelerated development of the first and second mandibular molars after distraction osteogenesis of the mandible in patients with hemifacial microsomia.

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    Kim, Sukwha; Park, Jong Lim; Baek, Seung-Hak; Chung, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Chul Gyoo

    2009-05-01

    Although distraction osteogenesis of the mandible in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) before the mixed dentition period is widely performed, long-term follow-up information on dental problems is limited. We evaluated the long-term effect of distraction osteogenesis on dental development by comparing Nolla's developmental stages of the first and second molars between the affected and unaffected sides of the mandible. Forty-five patients with unilateral HFM who received distraction osteogenesis of the mandible between the ages of 5 and 8 years and whose dental status was followed for more than 2 years were selected for this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group I (n = 28) consisted of patients with Pruzansky types I and IIA and group II (n = 17) consisted of patients with types IIB and III. Panoramic radiographs at T0 (1 month before distraction), T1 (6 months to 1 year after distraction), T2 (2-3 years after distraction) were reviewed. Nolla's stages for the first and second molars were compared at each of the abovementioned times between the affected and unaffected sides using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In group I, there was no differences observed in Nolla's stages of the first and second molars in comparisons between the affected and unaffected sides of the mandible. However, in group II, at T0, there was a significant difference in Nolla's stage of the first and second molars in comparisons between the affected and unaffected sides. Over time, tooth development was accelerated, and eventually, there was no difference in Nolla's stage between the affected and unaffected sides at T1 and T2. Patients with severe HFM can benefit from distraction osteogenesis of the mandible. The results of this study showed that this procedure could normalize the delayed development and eruption of the first and second molars.

  9. Perioperative bromelain reduces pain and swelling and improves quality of life measures after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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    Majid, Omer Waleed; Al-Mashhadani, Bashar Adil

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of oral bromelain (4 × 250 mg) versus oral diclofenac sodium (4 × 25 mg) on pain, swelling, trismus, and quality of life (QOL) after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was planned. The sample included patients requiring extraction under local anesthesia of a single partial bony impacted mandibular third molar. The patients were randomly distributed into 1 of 3 groups: bromelain, diclofenac, and placebo. Treatment started 1 day before surgery and continued for 4 days. The predictor variable was the type of the drug given to the patients. The outcome variables were pain, swelling, and trismus, which were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days postoperatively. The other study variables included QOL measures to assess the patients' perception regarding the effect of surgery on their well-being and daily activities. A validated questionnaire was used to measure QOL. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance, multiple measures analysis of variance, or Pearson's χ(2) test, as appropriate. P bromelain and diclofenac groups both showed a significant reduction in pain compared with the placebo group at all intervals (P bromelain resulted in an insignificant reduction. A nonsignificant reduction in trismus occurred in both treatment groups compared with the placebo group. Both treatment groups also showed a significant difference in the effect on QOL in most subscales and total scores (P bromelain is an effective therapy to improve the QOL after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars, with an effect on the postoperative sequelae comparable to that of preemptive diclofenac sodium. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological Characteristics and Classification of Mandibular First Molars Having 2 Distal Roots or Canals: 3-Dimensional Biometric Analysis Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography in a Korean Population.

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    Kim, Yemi; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Yooseok; Kim, Bom Sahn; Choi, Yoo-Lim; Ha, Aena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphologic characteristics of mandibular first molars having 2 canals in distal roots. Interorifice distance, buccal bone thickness, and root curvature were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography images in a Korean population. In total, 1958 mandibular first molars were evaluated in axial, coronal, sagittal, and paraxial planes. Distal roots having 2 canals were classified according to their root and canal shapes (2 roots, 2 canals [2R2C]; 1 root, 2 canals with 2 apical foramina [1R2C(2-2)]; and 1 root, 2 canals with 1 apical foramen [1R2C(2-1)]). The distances between orifices and the distance from the apex to the buccal bone plate were measured for each root canal shape (2R2C, 1R2C[2-2], and 1R2C[2-1]). The curvature of distolingual (DL) roots was classified according to severity using 3-dimensional reconstructed images, and the direction of curvature was determined. The relationships of these characteristics to sex and side were evaluated. The prevalences of 2R2C, 1R2C(2-2), and 1R2C(2-1) were 25.89%, 10.32%, and 14.15%, respectively. The distances between distobuccal (DB) and DL orifices were 3.77 ± 0.74 mm for 2R2C, 3.02 ± 0.65 mm for 1R2C(2-2), and 2.44 ± 0.64 mm for 1R2C(2-1). The distances from the buccal plate to the DB canal were 3.84 ± 1.35 mm for 2R2C, 5.33 ± 1.41 mm for 1R2C(2-2), and 5.96 ± 1.63 mm for 1R2C(2-1). The distance from the buccal plate to the DL canal was 9.85 ± 1.46 mm for 2R2C, and 8.28 ± 1.50 mm for 1R2C(2-2). All distances differed significantly according to root canal configurations, and all were greater in men than women (P .05). No significant difference between the left and right sides was found (P > .05). The prevalence of most severely curved DL roots (type III) was 62.92%, and the direction was commonly toward the buccal side (69.03%). The prevalence of mandibular first molars having 2 canals in distal roots was more than 50% in a Korean population. Interorifice

  11. Micro-computed tomography evaluation of the removal of calcium hydroxide medicament from C-shaped root canals of mandibular second molars.

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    Ma, J Z; Shen, Y; Al-Ashaw, A J; Khaleel, H Y; Yang, Y; Wang, Z J; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2015-04-01

    To use micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) to evaluate the amount of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] remaining in the C-shaped root canals of mandibular second molars after attempting to remove it with passive ultrasonic and sonic irrigation. Thirty mandibular second molars, 15 in C1 and 15 in C2 configurations as first identified by μ-CT, were divided into three groups (five C1 and five C2 in each group) for the three irrigation methods. All teeth were prepared to ProTaper Universal F2 and filled with Ca(OH)2 paste. The Ca(OH)2 was removed with F2 files and irrigation without agitation or with agitation using either EndoActivator or ultrasonics. μ-CT was used to measure the initial amount of Ca(OH)2 present. After removal of Ca(OH)2, μ-CT imaging was used to assess the percentage of volume of residual Ca(OH)2 in the canal. Data were analysed using one-way anova test. There was no significant difference in the mean volume of the root canal systems after instrumentation amongst the three groups. The three irrigation techniques left 2-17% of Ca(OH)2 in the root canals after removal. The mean volume of the remaining Ca(OH)2 was higher in the group without agitation than in the groups with sonic or ultrasonic agitation (P ultrasonic groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in the amount of residual Ca(OH)2 between the EndoActivator and ultrasonic groups. The proportion of remaining Ca(OH)2 in the apical canals was higher than in the middle and coronal canals in all groups (P ultrasonic agitation reduced the amount of residual Ca(OH)2 in the C-shaped root canals, the large amount of calcium hydroxide in the critical apical area remains a concern. Alternative strategies should be considered in medication of the apical canal in C-shaped teeth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine HCl with different epinephrine concentration for local anesthesia in participants undergoing surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover, phase IV trial.

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    Karm, Myong-Hwan; Park, Fiona Daye; Kang, Moonkyu; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kang, Jeong Wan; Kim, Seungoh; Kim, Yong-Deok; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Woo; Hong, Sung-Woon; Lim, Mi Hyoung; Nam, Seung Kwan; Cho, Jae Min

    2017-05-01

    The most commonly impacted tooth is the third molar. An impacted third molar can ultimately cause acute pain, infection, tumors, cysts, caries, periodontal disease, and loss of adjacent teeth. Local anesthesia is employed for removing the third molar. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 or 1:200,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. Sixty-five healthy participants underwent surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars in 2 separate visits while under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with different epinephrine concentration (1:80,000 or 1:200,000) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial. Visual analog scale pain scores obtained immediately after surgical extraction were primarily evaluated for the 2 groups receiving different epinephrine concentrations. Visual analog scale pain scores were obtained 2, 4, and 6 hours after administering an anesthetic. Onset and duration of analgesia, onset of pain, intraoperative bleeding, operator's and participant's overall satisfaction, drug dosage, and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for the 2 groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in any measurements except hemodynamic factors (P >.05). Changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate following anesthetic administration were significantly greater in the group receiving 1:80,000 epinephrine than in that receiving 1:200,000 epinephrine (P ≤.01). The difference in epinephrine concentration between 1:80,000 and 1:200,000 in 2% lidocaine liquid does not affect the medical efficacy of the anesthetic. Furthermore, 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine has better safety with regard to hemodynamic parameters than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Therefore, we suggest using 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine rather than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of impacted

  13. [CT morphology of mandibular bone and mandibular nerve canal in hemimandibular elongation].

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    Zhang, Gui-Mei; Wang, Tao; Mao, Xiaobin; Yang, Dongkun

    2012-04-01

    To study morphology feature of mandibular anatomical characteristics and mandibular nerve canal of hemimandibular elongation (HE) using CT, and provide reference for the clinical treatment. 19 patients with HE were scanned using multidetector CT. Mimics 10.0 software was used for three-dimensional reconstruction, and CT images were reconstructed on different sections. The position of mandibular nerve canal, mandibular foramen and thickness of mandibular cortical bone were measured, and compared with control group (without mandibular lesion). Compared with the control group, the distance between mandibular nerve canal and mandibular surface were statistically different at the section of long axis of mandibular first molar centre (LAMFM)-lingual, long axis of mandibular second molar centre (LAMSM)-buccal, LAMSM-superior, retromolar area centre to the mandibular angle (RAC-MA)-buccal, RAC-MA-superior, RAC-MA-inferior and horizontal level of mandibular foramen under 5 mm (HLMFU5)-lingual, HLMFU5-anterior, HLMFU5-posterior (Pmandibular cortical bone were statistically different at the LAMFM-buccal, LAMFM-inferior (Pmandibular foramen (LPMF)-superior border of mandibular ramus (SBMR) and LPMF-inferior border of mandibular ramus (IBMR) were statistically different (Pmandibular cortical bone gradually decreases in all directions from the mandibular first molar to the mandibular ramus. Compared with the control group, mandibular nerve canal located buccally and superiorly at mandibular second molar and retromolar area, mandibular foramen located more anterior and lower inside mandibular ramus.

  14. Effects of pre-operative submucosal dexamethasone injection on the postoperative swelling and trismus following surgical extraction of mandibular third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Afeefa; Ali Bukhari, Syed Gulzar; Ashar; Manzoor, Arslan; Junaid, Muhammad

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effects of pre-operative submucosal dexamethasone injection on postoperative swelling and trismus following surgical extraction of mandibular third molar. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry (AFID), Rawalpindi, from October 2009 to March 2010. A total of 100 patients aged 18 - 40 years with good periodontal health and mesioangular impaction were divided in two treatment groups (50 in each group). Group-A received prophylactic 4 mg submucosal dexamethasone intraoral injection and Group-B acted as control group. Facial swelling and trismus were assessed at baseline, 2nd and 7th postoperative days. Data was analyzed using SPSS-10. There were 35 (70%) males and 15 (30%) females in group-A and 34 (68%) males and 16 (32%) females in group-B. Surgical time ranged from 30 - 50 minutes (mean = 40.62 ± 4.886 minutes) for group-A and 33 - 50 minutes (mean = 42.12 ± 4.543 minutes) for group-B. Administration of dexamethasone had statistically significant effect in reduction of swelling and trismus on second postoperative day (p trismus.

  15. Articaine (4%) with epinephrine (1:100,000 or 1:200,000) in intraosseous injections in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars: anesthetic efficacy and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leandro Augusto Pinto; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Bergamaschi, Cristiane de Cássia; Meechan, John Gerard; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; Ranali, José

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular effects and the anesthetic efficacy of intraosseous injections of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (EPI100) or 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (EPI200). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 0.9 mL EPI100 and EPI200 solutions were administered for endodontic treatment of mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 60 patients. The anesthetic success and pain during anesthesia were evaluated by visual analog scale. The cardiovascular parameters evaluated were heart rate, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and electrocardiogram changes. Both solutions provided high anesthetic efficacy (96.8% and 93.1% for EPI100 and EPI200, respectively; P > .05), and the cardiovascular parameters showed minimal incidences of significant differences throughout the clinical procedure. The epinephrine concentration did not affect the efficacy of 4% articaine, and both solutions produced a high success level of pulpal anesthesia. Intraosseous delivery by slow speed of injection did not induce significant clinical changes in cardiovascular parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beneficial effect of methylprednisolone after mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled split-mouth trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acham, Stephan; Klampfl, Arnold; Truschnegg, Astrid; Kirmeier, Robert; Sandner-Kiesling, Andreas; Jakse, Norbert

    2013-09-01

    Third molar (M3) removal is the model most frequently used for pain trials in oral surgery. Corticosteroids are frequently administered to reduce trismus and swelling after dentoalveolar surgical procedures. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of a single, preoperative oral application of methylprednisolone on postoperative trismus, pain intensity, and the subjective need for analgesic medication after surgical removal of impacted mandibular M3 (LM3). Sixteen healthy patients requiring similar bilateral surgical LM3 removal were included in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in a split-mouth design. At random, each patient received either weight-dependent methylprednisolone (40-80 mg) or a placebo orally 1 h prior to surgery. In each case, the right and left LM3 were treated in independent visits. Trismus, swelling, pain measured on a 100-mm visual analog scale, and the postoperative demand of analgesics were assessed. Statistical analysis indicates a significant reduction of trismus, swelling, pain intensity, and patient-controlled intake of analgesics during the whole postsurgical period of investigation (first to seventh day). The results of this study suggest that a single preoperative weight-dependent administration of methylprednisolone is a safe and effective concept for diminishing postoperative discomfort, pain intensity, and the total intake of analgesics after wisdom tooth extractions. In case of missing contraindications, the preoperative administration of methylprednisolone is recommended, a routine medication for more extended procedures in oral surgery.

  17. Comparison of Rehabilitating Missing Mandibular First Molars with Implant- or Tooth-Supported Prostheses Using Masticatory Efficiency and Patient Satisfaction Outcomes.

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    Kumar, Yogesh; Chand, Pooran; Arora, Varuni; Singh, Saumyendra V; Mishra, Niraj; Alvi, Habib A; Verma, Umesh P

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether a fixed partial denture (FPD) or an implant replacement of a single missing tooth leads to better masticatory efficiency and patient satisfaction. One-hundred and twenty participants with missing mandibular right first molars were selected on the basis of predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. After obtaining informed consent, 60 participants were randomized to the teeth-supported (FPD) group and 60 to the implant placement group (IMP). The study was divided into the following parts: (i) Completion of a Likert scale satisfaction questionnaire (postrehabilitation) by the participants. (ii) Evaluation of masticatory efficiency and performance 3 months after rehabilitation. Data were evaluated by applying t-test and z-test using statistical analysis (α ˂ 0.05). Masticatory efficiency of participants in the IMP and FPD groups was 74.95 ± 0.90% and 74.41 ± 3.35%, respectively (p = 0.607). Total satisfaction questionnaire scores for the two groups were also not significantly different; however, the mean scores of overall satisfaction and function categories in this questionnaire were significantly higher for the IMP group, while the mean score for the duration of treatment question was higher for the FPD group (p masticatory performance and efficiency were not statistically different for single teeth replaced with implants or FPDs, patients perceived higher satisfaction with implant restorations; they also preferred the shorter treatment times for rehabilitation in the FPD group. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Effectiveness of cold therapy in reducing pain, trismus, and oedema after impacted mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, self-controlled, observer-blind, split-mouth clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, M; Amini, P; Keshavarz, A

    2016-01-01

    Cold therapy is a conventional and widely used modality for reducing pain, trismus, and oedema after dentoalveolar surgeries. However, information reported in the literature on its effectiveness is insufficient and controversial. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of local cold application in reducing pain, trismus, and swelling after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Thirty patients (seven males and 23 females) with bilateral symmetrical mandibular impacted third molars were enrolled in this randomized, self-controlled, observer-blind clinical trial. The patients were aged between 18 and 30 years. After surgical removal of the tooth on one side (intervention), ice pack therapy was given for 24h after surgery; for the other side (control), no cold therapy was given. The time interval between the two surgeries was at least 4 weeks. The amount of pain, trismus, and facial swelling was measured on days 2 and 7 postoperative, and patient satisfaction with the cold therapy vs. no cold therapy was assessed. The amount of pain, trismus, and facial swelling, and the extent of patient satisfaction were not significantly different between the intervention and control sides. Cold therapy had no beneficial effects on postoperative sequelae after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral bifid mandibular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the normal interesting variations that we may encounter in the mandible is bifid mandibular canal. This condition can lead to difficulties when performing mandibular anesthesia or during extraction of lower third molar, placement of implants, and surgery in the mandible. Therefore diagnosis of this variation is sometimes very important and necessary.

  20. Distalização de segundo molar inferior impactado através da utilização de ancoragem esquelética com miniplaca: relato de caso Distalization of impacted mandibular second molar using miniplates for skeletal anchorage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belini Freire-Maia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo consiste no relato de um caso onde a distalização do segundo molar inferior impactado do lado direito foi obtida através da ancoragem esquelética com o uso de miniplaca. A verticalização dos segundos molares inferiores impactados, durante muito tempo, colocou-se como um grande desafio para ortodontistas e cirurgiões bucais devido à escassez de recursos de ancoragem destinados para esse fim. A utilização da ancoragem esquelética foi iniciada na clínica ortodôntica em meados dos anos 80 e, desde então, diversas modalidades têm sido desenvolvidas para esse princípio, como a utilização de mini-implantes, implantes dentários e, finalmente, miniplacas, que foram testadas e apresentaram resultados animadores. O assunto é relevante para ortodontistas e cirurgiões bucais, uma vez que o uso das miniplacas pode influir de forma significativa no tratamento de molares inferiores impactados.This study describes a case with an impacted right mandibular second molar which was distalized using miniplates for skeletal anchorage. Uprighting impacted mandibular second molars has been a great challenge for orthodontists and oral surgeons because of the scarcity of anchorage options. Skeletal anchorage was first used in clinical orthodontics in the middle of the 1980s. Since then, several devices have been developed for that purpose, such as mini-screws, tooth implants and, lately, miniplates, which have been tested and showed encouraging results. This topic is relevant for orthodontists and oral surgeons because the use of miniplates may significantly change the treatment of impacted mandibular molars.

  1. A Clinical Evaluation of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Alloplast with and without a Flowable Bioabsorbable Guided Tissue Regeneration Barrier in the Treatment of Mandibular Molar Class II Furcation Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Vineet; Nayak, Dilip G; Uppoor, Ashita S

    2016-02-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) therapy has shown good results in the management of mandibular molar class II furcation defects. Advances in biomaterial sciences have developed alloplastic bone replacement graft materials and bioabsorbable GTR barrier membranes with good biologic response and handling properties. The aim of this study was to compare the attachment gain and the bone fill obtained with an alloplast [biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) 60% hydroxyapatite (HA) and 40% beta tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP)] with and without a bioabsorbable GTR barrier [flowable poly (DL-lactide) (PLA) dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)] in the treatment of mandibular molar class II furcation defects. A total of 20 class II furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis in a comparative study. Ten defects were treated with Camceram(®) (BCP 60% HA and 40% - TCP) bone replacement graft material (group I) and 10 defects with a combination of Camceram® bone replacement graft material with Atrisorb® Freeflow™, bio-absorbable GTR barrier (flowable PLA dissolved in NMP) (group II). At baseline and at 6 months postsurgery, clinical parameters of vertical probing depth (PD) and horizontal probing depth (P-H), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR), and vertical depth of furcation defect (VDF) and horizontal depth of furcation defect (BP-H) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Intergroup comparisons made at 6 months postsurgery by unpaired Student's t-test showed mean reduction in PD in group I was 3.10 ± 0.73 mm and in group II was 3.20 ± 1.03 mm (p > 0.05). Mean reduction in P-H in group I was 1.60 ± 0.69 mm and in group II was 1.90 ± 0.73 mm (p > 0.05). Gain in CAL in group I was 2.80 ± 1.03 mm and in group II was 2.90 ± 0.94 mm (p > 0.05). Change in GR in group I was -0.30 ± 0.48 mm and in group II was -0.30 ± 0.48 (p > 0.05). Reduction in VDF in

  2. Is adjuvant laser therapy effective for preventing pain, swelling, and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Araya, Ignacio; Yanine, Nicolas; Beyene, Joseph; Shah, Prakesh S

    2012-08-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of low-level laser energy irradiation (LLEI) for decreasing pain, swelling, and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars (IMTMs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Central Register of Controlled Trials of the Cochrane Library were searched from their inception, and conference proceedings, cross-references, and gray literature were searched for the last 5 years for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of any type of LLEI, compared with active or inactive treatments, in patients undergoing surgical removal of IMTMs. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed by 2 independent evaluators using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A random-effects model meta-analysis was used to estimate the mean difference of trismus between the groups. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran χ(2) and I(2). Ten eligible trials were included in this systematic review. The included studies overall had a moderate risk of bias. Because of heterogeneity in the intervention and outcomes assessments, pain and swelling outcomes were only qualitatively summarized and indicated no beneficial effects of LLEI over placebo. Patients receiving LLEI had an average of 4.2 mm (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 7.2) and 5.2 mm (95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 8.2) less trismus than patients receiving no active treatment on the second and seventh day after the surgery, respectively. There was no benefit of LLEI on pain or swelling and a moderate benefit on trismus after removal of IMTMs. It is necessary to standardize the intervention and outcomes assessment and to conduct adequately powered, well-designed trials to evaluate the efficacy of LLEI. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the anaesthetic efficacy of and heart rate changes after periodontal ligament or intraosseous X-Tip injection in mandibular molars: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, M; Ghoddusi, J; Sharifi, E; Forghani, M; Afkhami, F; Marouzi, Parviz

    2012-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of supplemental anaesthesia using periodontal ligament injections (PDL) and intraosseous injections with the X-Tip system in terms of the measured heart rate and patient reported pain level. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, 40 patients (22 women, 18 men) with irreversible pulpitis who had experienced unsuccessful pain management by inferior alveolar nerve block with 2% lidocaine and 1 : 100 000 epinephrine were selected. Patients were divided equally and randomly into two groups. Supplementary anaesthesia was provided through intraosseous injection with the X-Tip system (X-Tip group) or by PDL injection (PDL group). After each step of injection, pain severity was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Patient heart rate was recorded with a pulse oximeter. Data were coded and analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test with SPSS (version 16) software. Anaesthetic success was obtained in 100% of X-Tip and 70% of PDL group patients after the first supplemental injection. Compared with the first PDL injection, the first intraosseous injection resulted in a significant increase in heart rate (P = 0.001); however, this increase was short-lived (mean increase: 9-10 beats per min). No significant difference in heart rate or anaesthesia success was observed between men and women. Intraosseous injection using the X-Tip system was more effective than PDL injection as a supplementary anaesthetic for pulpectomy in mandibular molars or second premolars. However, the former resulted in a transient increase in heart rate. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  4. Study of Kissing Molars in Turkish Population Sample

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... Mandibular third molars are the most common unerupted teeth; retention of the mandibular second molar is much less common.[1] Simultaneous retention of both teeth is quite rare. “Kissing molars” (KMs) are an interesting finding in permanent mandibular molar teeth. KMs or “rosette formation” was first ...

  5. Relación entre el perfil psicológico del paciente y la calidad de vida tras la extracción quirúrgica del tercer molar inferior

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster Torres, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    La evolución postoperatoria tras la extracción de los terceros molares depende de una serie de factores propios de cada paciente y de factores propios de la intervención quirúrgica. Pero algunos factores, principalmente psicológicos y psicosociales, pueden ser importantes cuando analizamos la sintomatología del paciente, el riesgo de complicaciones crónicas y la resolución de los síntomas. Se conoce muy poco sobre qué potencial predictivo tienen las alteraciones psicológicas preoperatorias so...

  6. A split-mouth, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study to analyze the pre-emptive effect of etoricoxib 120 mg on inflammatory events following removal of unerupted mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F W G; Soares, E C S; Esses, D F S; Silva, P G deB; Bezerra, T P; Scarparo, H C; Ribeiro, T R; Fonteles, C S R

    2015-09-01

    Pain after third molar extraction has been considered the most suitable pharmaceutical model to evaluate acute pain. This study aimed to evaluate the pre-emptive analgesic/anti-inflammatory efficacy of etoricoxib 120 mg following mandibular third molar surgery. A split-mouth, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with patients undergoing the surgical removal of mandibular third molars. All volunteers were allocated randomly to receive either etoricoxib 120 mg or placebo 1h preoperatively, and inflammatory events were evaluated. An estimated sample of 18 surgical units per group was required based on a pilot study (95% confidence level and 80% statistical power). Rescue medication was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method through log-rank Mantel-Cox test and Pearson linear correlation (Ppain scores significantly in comparison to placebo (Ppain score peak at 6h after surgery (Pmedication consumption was lower in the etoricoxib group compared to the placebo group over the study period (Ppain intensity and the need for rescue medication, but did not reduce swelling or trismus. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, ciego y placebo controlado sobre el uso de profilaxis antibiótica en la prevención de la infección postoperatoria de terceros molares mandibulares impactados. Un estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Montaner, Nicolás Yanine

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la administración de profilaxis antibiótica (PA) para la prevención de complicaciones infecciosas e inflamatorias en la cirugía de terceros molares mandibulares impactados y mesioangulados (TMMim) y verificar la factibilidad de llevar a cabo un protocolo de investigación bajo condiciones ideales, aportando información para un posterior estudio. Diseño del Estudio: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado piloto, ciego y placebo controlado. Materiales y Métodos: 34 pacie...

  8. Effect of intra-alveolar placement of 0.2% chlorhexidine bioadhesive gel on the incidence of alveolar osteitis following the extraction of mandibular third molars. A double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Linares, Jordi; Hueto-Madrid, Juan-Antonio; González-Lagunas, Javier; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo; Mareque-Bueno, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar osteitis (AO) is a common complication after third molar surgery. One of the most studied agents in its prevention is chlorhexidine (CHX), which has proved to be effective. Objectives: The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 0.2% bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel placed intra-alveolar in the prevention of AO after the extraction of mandibular third molars and to analyze the impact of risk factors such as smoking and oral contraceptives in the development of AO. Study Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial performed in the Ambulatory Surgery Unit of Hospital Vall d’Hebron and was approved by the Ethics Committee. A total of 160 patients randomly received 0.2% bioadhesive gel (80 patients) or bioadhesive placebo (80 patients). Results: 0.2% bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel applied in the alveolus after third molar extraction reduced the incidence of dry socket by 22% compared to placebo with differences that were not statistically significant. Smoking and the use of oral contraceptives were not related to higher incidence of dry socket. Female patients and the difficulty of the surgery were associated with a higher incidence of AO with statistically significant differences. 0.2% bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel did not produce any of the side effects related to chlorhexidine rinses. Conclusions: A 22% reduction of the incidence of alveolar osteitis with the application of 0.2% bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel compared to placebo with differences that were not statistically significant was found in this clinical trial. The lack of adverse reactions and complications related to chlorhexidine gel supports its clinical use specially in simple extractions and adds some advantages compared to the rinses in terms of duration of the treatment and reduction of staining and taste disturbance. Key words:Alveolar osteitis, dry socket, chlorhexidine bioadhesive gel, mandibular third molar surgery. PMID

  9. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  10. Study of kissing molars in Turkish population sample | Yanik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of kissing molars in Turkish population sample. ... refers to contacting occlusal surfaces of the impacted mandibular second and third molars. ... was to report the incidence of kissing molars (KMs), classification, incorporated pathologies, ...

  11. Efficacy of LA Axxess burs, Gates Glidden drills and Protaper Sx in obtaining straight line access in mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars: A cone-beam computed tomography assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Promila; Bains, Rhythm; Tikku, A P; Chandra, Anil; Mehta, Shibha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation of the ability of Gates Glidden (GG) drills, Protaper Sx, and LA Axxess burs to produce a straight line access (SLA) in mesiobuccal canals of mandibular first molars. Forty-five freshly extracted mandibular teeth with a canal curvature of 10-20° were taken for the study and divided into three groups according to the instruments used for cervical preflaring: Group I (LA Axxess burs), Group II (GG drills), and Group III (Protaper Sx). Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were evaluated for comparing the ability of GG drills, Protaper Sx and LA Axxess burs to produce an SLA in mesiobuccal canals of mandibular first molars. There was no significant change (P = 0.06) in the angle in the preSLA images of LA Axxess Group I (12.37 ± 1.01), GG Group II (13.39 ± 1.74), and Protaper Sx Group III (13.90 ± 1.74). The mean decrease in the angle from preSLA to postSLA was significant for all the three groups (P = 0.0001). However, the mean change was highest in Group I (4.25 ± 1.14), followed by Group II (3.28 ± 1.22) and Group III (2.89 ± 1.53). LA Axxess burs were the most effective in reducing the coronal curvature and produced a straighter access to apical third compared to GG Drills and Protaper Sx.

  12. Projection of the oblique line in periapical radiographs of mandibular molars = Projeção da linha oblíqua na região de molares inferiores em radiografias periapicais

    OpenAIRE

    Borghetti, Ruchielli Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar e quantificar a frequência da projeção da linha oblíqua sobre as cristas alveolares dos molares inferiores em radiografias periapicais. Metodologia: Foram selecionadas 500 radiografias periapicais da região de molares inferiores e avaliada a presença ou a ausência da linha oblíqua. Quando presente, foi analisada a interferência desta estrutura sobre a imagem das cristas alveolares dos molares inferiores. Os dados obtidos, considerando a frequência da sobreposição da linh...

  13. Efficacy of orally administered prednisolone versus partial endodontic treatment on pain reduction in emergency care of acute irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molars: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kérourédan, Olivia; Jallon, Léonard; Perez, Paul; Germain, Christine; Péli, Jean-François; Oriez, Dominique; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Arrivé, Elise; Devillard, Raphaël

    2017-03-28

    Irreversible pulpitis is a highly painful inflammatory condition of the dental pulp which represents a common dental emergency. Recommended care is partial endodontic treatment. The dental literature reports major difficulties in achieving adequate analgesia to perform this emergency treatment, especially in the case of mandibular molars. In current practice, short-course, orally administered corticotherapy is used for the management of oral pain of inflammatory origin. The efficacy of intraosseous local steroid injections for irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molars has already been demonstrated but resulted in local comorbidities. Oral administration of short-course prednisolone is simple and safe but its efficacy to manage pain caused by irreversible pulpitis has not yet been demonstrated. This trial aims to evaluate the noninferiority of short-course, orally administered corticotherapy versus partial endodontic treatment for the emergency care of irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molars. This study is a noninferiority, open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at the Bordeaux University Hospital. One hundred and twenty subjects will be randomized in two 1:1 parallel arms: the intervention arm will receive one oral dose of prednisolone (1 mg/kg) during the emergency visit, followed by one morning dose each day for 3 days and the reference arm will receive partial endodontic treatment. Both groups will receive planned complete endodontic treatment 72 h after enrollment. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with pain intensity below 5 on a Numeric Scale 24 h after the emergency visit. Secondary outcomes include comfort during care, the number of injected anesthetic cartridges when performing complete endodontic treatment, the number of antalgic drugs and the number of patients coming back for consultation after 72 h. This randomized trial will assess the ability of short-term corticotherapy to reduce pain in irreversible

  14. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Buccal Infiltration on the Success of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular First Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Prospective, Randomized Double-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Farhad, Ali Reza; Shenasa, Naghmeh; Haghighi, Saeideh Karimi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the effect of a buccal infiltration of sodium bicarbonate on the anesthetic success of the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for mandibular first molars in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular first molar were selected. The patients randomly received a buccal infiltration injection of either 0.7 mL 8.4% sodium bicarbonate with 0.3 mL 2% lidocaine containing 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.7 mL sterile distilled water with 0.3 mL 2% lidocaine containing 1:80,000 epinephrine in a double-blind manner. After 15 minutes, all the patients received conventional IANB injection using 3.6 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Access cavity preparation was initiated 15 minutes after the IANB injection. Lip numbness was a requisite for all the patients. Success was determined as no or mild pain on the basis of Heft-Parker visual analog scale recordings upon access cavity preparation or initial instrumentation. Data were analyzed using the t, chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. The success rate after the buccal infiltration of sodium bicarbonate was 78%, whereas without the buccal infiltration of sodium bicarbonate it was 44% (P irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cemented and screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth restorations in the molar mandibular region: A retrospective comparison study after an observation period of 1 to 4 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Pradíes, Guillermo; Sola-Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival and compare the appearance of different mechanical and biological complications, in screw-retained and cemented-retained single-tooth implant-supported restorations localized in the molar mandibular region, over a period of 1 to 4 years. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out with a total of eighty implant-supported restorations, which were placed in eighty patients for prosthetic rehabilitation of a mandibular molar. Forty patients were rehabilitated with a cemented-retained restoration and the other forty with a screw-retained restoration. The presence of the following complications was recorded for both types of prostheses: Fractures of the ceramic veneering, loosening screws, mucositis and peri-implantitis. Debonding of the restoration was analyzed in the cemented-retained restoration group. The clinical survival of crowns was analyzed with a Kaplan-Meier test and the clinical complications were compared, using a Student t test and Log-rank test. Results: 27 patients registered some complication. The average rate of complications was 37,5% for cemented-retained restorations and 30% for screw-retained restorations. The complications more common in the cemented-retained restoration were the presence of mucositis (14,87%), while in the screw-retained restorations was the loosening screw (20%). Student t test and Log-Rank test found significant differences (p=0,001) between the screw loosening and presence of mucositis. Conclusions: The cemented-retained restorations seem to prevent screw loosening, but the presence of cement seem to increase the complications around the soft tissues, however in the screw-retained restorations the presence of mucositis and peri-implantitis are lower than cemented-retained restorations. The incidence of fracture of ceramic veneering was similar in both groups. Key words:Screw-retained restorations, cemented-retained restorations, screw loosening

  16. In vitro comparisons of debris removal of the EndoActivator system, the F file, ultrasonic irrigation, and NaOCl irrigation alone after hand-rotary instrumentation in human mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyn, Steven L; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C; Rutledge, Richard E

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the debris removal efficacy of the EndoActivator system, the F file, ultrasonic irrigation, or 6% NaOCl irrigation alone in human mandibular molars after hand-rotary instrumentation. A custom brass cube (K-Kube) was used to create a sealed canal system, allowing each tooth to serve as its own control. Forty extracted mandibular molars were randomly divided into 4 equal experimental groups. Each tooth was mounted, sectioned at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the working length, and then reassembled into the K-Kube, and the mesial roots were similarly prepared by using hand-rotary instrumentation. For final debridement, group 1 used F file for 30 seconds, group 2 used EndoActivator system for 30 seconds, group 3 used ultrasonic irrigation for 30 seconds, and group 4 used irrigation with 6% NaOCl within 1 mm of working length. All groups received a final irrigation with 6% NaOCl in each canal. Specimens were evaluated at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the working length for cleanliness by capturing a digital image with a stereomicroscope. All specimens had the percent cleanliness for each canal and isthmus calculated both before and after final debridement. Statistical analysis was completed by using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests. The results showed no statistically significant difference in canal or isthmus cleanliness among the 4 groups, but there was a statistically significant difference (P < .001) in canal cleanliness between the 1-mm level versus the 3-mm and 5-mm levels for all of the groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Morfología interna del primer molar mandibular permanente. Influencia del uso de ultrasonidos y del microscopio operatorio en la localización de conductos

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia de Pablo, Oliver; Pérez Zaballos, María Teresa; Peix Sánchez, Manuel; Estévez Luaña, Roberto; Cisneros Cabello, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Estudios recientes reflejan la existencia de conductos accesorios en las raíces de los primeros molares permanentes inferiores. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar la influencia que tienen el uso de ultrasonidos y el microscopio operatorio en la localización de dichos conductos. Como objetivo secundario, hemos empleado la técnica de diafanización de manera innovadora para visualizar la anatomía real de los molares inferiores tratados...

  18. Fracture resistance and failure patterns of endodontically treated mandibular molars with and without glass fiber post in combination with a zirconia-ceramic crown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salameh, Z.; Ounsi, H.F.; Abou Shelib, M.N.M.; Sadig, W.; Ferrari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a fiber post on the fracture mechanics of zirconia crowns inserted over endodontically treated teeth with different extent of coronal damage. Methods: Endodontically treated human molars with three types of coronal damage received

  19. Efficacy of Preoperative Administration of Paracetamol-Codeine on Pain following Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Split-Mouth, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Cristalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preoperative administration of single-dose of paracetamol-codeine, in the relieving of acute postoperative pain after the surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consisted of 32 Caucasian outpatients, giving a total of 64 bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibles. Patients were randomized in two experimental groups to receive a preoperative oral dose of paracetamol-codeine (analgesic group or a placebo (placebo group at the first and second surgeries. Study participants were asked to record pain intensity scores during the operation and the next 2 days, the time of the first request for rescue analgesic, and the total number of postoperative-supplement paracetamol-codeine tablets. Results. The pain intensity score on the first day was significantly lower in the analgesic group than in the placebo group (p<0.001. The time to using rescue therapy was significantly longer in the analgesic group than in the placebo group (p=0.004. The number of paracetamol-codeine tablets used postoperatively did not differ between the analgesic and placebo groups (p=0.104. Conclusions. Preoperative paracetamol-codeine is effective in providing immediate postoperative pain control after third molar surgery and in delaying the initial onset of pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (Registration Number: NCT03049878.

  20. Third molar agenesis and craniofacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María José; Vicente, Ascensión; Bravo, Luis Alberto

    2009-05-01

    To test the null hypothesis that agenesis of wisdom teeth is not related with any particular craniofacial morphology. Ninety-seven patients (aged 13-19 years) were selected and divided into three groups: (1) bilateral agenesis of maxillary third molars, (2) bilateral agenesis of mandibular third molars, and (3) control group without agenesis. Presence or absence of third molars was determined using ortopantomographs. Cephalometric analysis was carried out from lateral teleradiographs, which included linear, angular, and proportional measurements. When data obtained were distributed normally it was analyzed by means of single-factor variance analysis and the Scheffé test (P classification in 58.8% of cases. The hypothesis is rejected. Agenesis of the maxillary third molars was related to a reduced mandibular plane angle. Patients with agenesis of the mandibular third molars showed a diminished lower third and a mandibular morphology characteristic of the brachyfacial pattern.

  1. The effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of pain, swelling and trismus after the surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of pain, swelling and trismus on male after the surgical removal of impacted lower third molar. Material and Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted for 150 male in two groups of patients, smokers and non-smokers. Each group consisted of 75 patients; smoking patient were the ones who smoke more than twenty cigarettes per day for more than one year of continuous smoking. Postoperative pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) and the degree of swelling was evaluated through facial reference points’ variation. The presence of trismus was analyzed through measurement of the interincisal distance (IID). Result: Clinical and radiographic examinations were carried out. Data regarding the age, gender, angulations type, depth and width of impactions were evaluated and analyzed The severity of pain, swelling and trismus on the 1st, 2nd , 5th and 7thday postoperatively was estimated. In both groups the pain and trismus were reported to be in peak level during the first post-operative day while post-operative swelling reaches its peak level in the second postoperative day. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking do not have any significant relationship with the severity of pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of lower third molar on male gender. Key words:Cigarettes smoking, pain, swelling, trismus, impacted lower third molars. PMID:24455065

  2. Efficacy of combination therapy using anorganic bovine bone graft with resorbable GTR membrane vs. open flap debridement alone in the management of grade II furcation defects in mandibular molars – A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Anitha Logaranjani; Bose, Buvaneshwari Birla; Muthu, Jananni; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Pushparajan, Saravanan; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Invasion of the bifurcation and trifurcation of the multi-rooted teeth resulting in furcation involvement is one of the serious complications of periodontitis. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy using anorganic bovine bone graft and resorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane versus open flap debridement alone in the management of Grade II furcation defects in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: The study included a total number of 20 sites in 10 patients with bilateral mandibular furcation defects, out of which 10 sites were treated as test group and 10 as control group. The test group was treated with combination therapy and the control group with open flap debridement alone. The parameters were recorded on 0 day (baseline), 90th day, and 180th day, which included vertical probing depth and horizontal probing depth of the furcation defect, clinical attachment level, and defect fill. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and standard deviation were calculated for different variables in each study group at different time points. Mean values were compared by using Wilcoxon signed ranks test, after adjusting the P values for multiple comparison by using Bonferroni correction method. Results: Both the test and control groups showed a definitive improvement in clinical parameters, which was statistically significant. On comparison, the vertical probing depth showed significant reduction in the test group with a mean reduction of 3.1 ± 0.7 mm, when compared to the control group which showed a mean reduction of 1.5 ± 0.5 mm. The horizontal probing depth of furcation defects was also significantly reduced in the test group with a mean reduction of 2.2 ± 0.6 mm, when compared to the control group in which the mean reduction was 0.9 ± 0.3 mm. There was also significant gain in attachment level in the test group which showed a mean gain of 3.2 ± 0.6 mm, when compared to the control group which showed a

  3. Evaluation of accessory furcation canals of permanent mandibular molars using radiography and clearing = Avaliação do canal cavo-interradicular em molares inferiores permanentes através de Rx e diafanização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb, Leandro José Corrêa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a presença do canal cavo-interradicular em molares inferiores permanentes através de radiografias e diafanização. Metodologia: A amostra foi constituída por 344 molares inferiores re-hidratados, preparados e armazenados individualmente em recipientes de vidro. A presença do canal cavo-interradicular foi investigada por um único operador treinado usando lupa (4x para as radiografias e microscópio óptico odontológico (30x para as amostras diafanizadas. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi usada para verificar diferenças morfológicas do assoalho pulpar. Resultados: A análise radiográfica mostrou que 9% das amostras tinham uma zona levemente radiolúcida, 2% mostravam uma imagem sugestiva, e 89% das amostras não tinham nenhuma evidência. Pela diafanização, o canal não foi encontrado nas amostras avaliadas. Pela MEV, as amostras recém extraídas mostraram com canalículos dentinários uniformes; as demais apresentaram pequenos sítios com canalículos uniformes. Conclusão: O exame radiográfico não foi o melhor método de diagnóstico; a diafanização é um excelente método avaliativo, pois permite a visualização tridimensional da anatomia interna dental em pesquisas in vitro

  4. Effect of three different core materials on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated deciduous mandibular second molars: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Preetam; Gugwad, Sachin C; Bhat, Chetan; Lodaya, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Endodontic treatment makes the tooth brittle due to loss of bulk of tooth structure, decrease in the moisture content of dentin and dentin elasticity. The following study was carried out to evaluate the effect of endodontic treatment on the fracture resistance of the tooth and reinforcing ability of three different core materials. The following study comprised of sample size of 30 deciduous second molars divided into control group (6) and test group (24). Access opening was done in 24 and 18th teeth with access opening were restored with three different core materials namely IRM (6), silver amalgam (6), GIC (6). All the 30 were subjected to fracture test using UTM (Universal testing machine)- Instron 95. Result showed a drastic reduction in the fracture resistance of the tooth on access opening (1/3rd) and out of the three core materials glass ionomer was shown to be the best core material giving the highest fracture registrance followed by silver amalgam and IRM.

  5. Clinical evaluation of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft (Periobone G with and without collagen membrane (Periocol in the treatment of bilateral grade II furcation defects in mandibular first permanent molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthy Prathap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furcation invasions represent one of the most demanding therapeutic challenges in periodontics. This investigation assessed and compared the clinical efficacy of hydroxyapatite bone graft material when used alone and with collagen membrane in the treatment of grade II furcation defects. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with comparable bilateral furcation defects in relation to mandibular first molars were selected and treated in a split-mouth design. After the hygiene phase of therapy was completed, the groups were selected randomly either for treatment with hydroxyapatite bone graft (Periobone G alone or with a combination of bone graft and guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane (Periocol. Clinical parameters like plaque index, gingival index, vertical probing depth, horizontal probing depth, clinical attachment level, position of marginal gingiva, and the amount of bone fill were used at baseline and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: At 6 months, both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant reduction in vertical and horizontal probing depths and gain in the clinical attachment level. Conclusion: The use of combination technique yielded superior results compared to sites treated with bone graft alone. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  6. Clinical and Biometric Evaluation of Guided Tissue Regeneration and Coronally Positioned Flap In Treatment of Grade II Forcation Defects In Mandibular Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Pak Nejad M

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR is the most recent and common method for regeneration of class II forcation molars. However, it requires membrane, which seems expensive for most of the patients. In order to overcome this problem, Coronally Position Flap (CPF procedure may be applied which arresting the epithelial cell down growth, follow the same aim. This study is aimed to compare GTR technique utilizing bioresorable collagen membrane and CPF utilizing citric acid. Nine patients with grade II forcation defects were selected. Defects were bilateral that randomly assigned into two groups: GTR and CPF groups. Measurements recorded at baseline and after surgery (6 months. Paired-T test was performed on these data. The following results were obtained after 6 months: In both groups significant reduction in probing pocket depth were measured in GTR and CPF groups, 1.55 Ind 1.88 mm, respectively. Also, open vertical probing depth: 0.33, 1.11 mm. Reduction in forcation weight in both groups was 0.22 mm. Bone fill was observed in 0.33% and 51% of defects. No recession was observed in GTR group, in CPF was 0.11 mm. Loss of attached gingiva was 0.34 and 0.78 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between clinical parameters except OHPD. Comparison of means at the day (0 and 180 in each group showed the success for regeneration of forca. Considering the results, it can be concluded that CPF may substitute for GTR technique.

  7. Fracture resistance and failure patterns of endodontically treated mandibular molars with and without glass fiber post in combination with a zirconia-ceramic crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ziad; Ounsi, Hani F; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Sadig, Walid; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a fiber post on the fracture mechanics of zirconia crowns inserted over endodontically treated teeth with different extent of coronal damage. Endodontically treated human molars with three types of coronal damage received fiber posts before cementation of zirconia-veneered crowns. Controls received composite resin cores without fiber posts. The specimens were loaded to failure and fractographically examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis revealed that specimens with fiber posts demonstrated significantly higher failure loads and favorable fracture pattern compared to the controls. At fractographic analysis, specimens with fiber posts demonstrated delamination of the veneer ceramic from intact zirconia under structure. Meanwhile, the specimens that were restored without a fiber post demonstrated micro-cracking of the composite core build-up resulting in loss of the support under the zirconia crowns which was responsible for the initiation of radial crack and catastrophic damage. Within the limitation of this study, the insertion of fiber post improved the support under zirconia crowns which resulted in higher fracture loads and favorable failure type compared to composite core build-up.

  8. Effect of menstrual cycle on frequency of alveolar osteitis in women undergoing surgical removal of mandibular third molar: a single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghpour, Majid; Rezaei, Naser Mohammadzadeh; Nejat, AmirHossein

    2013-09-01

    To measure the association between the menstrual cycle and the frequency of alveolar osteitis (AO). In a study with a single-blind design, patients with bilateral impacted third molar teeth underwent randomized surgical extraction: one tooth during the menstrual period and one during the middle of the cycle. The postoperative examiner was unaware of the menstrual cycle status of the patients. The predictor variable was the timing of the menstrual cycle and was grouped as mid-cycle and menstrual period. The outcome variable was AO, which was measured (without knowledge of the menstrual cycle timing) at 2 to 7 days postoperatively. Other study variables included oral contraceptive (OC) use, smoking status, irrigation used during surgery, extraction difficulty, surgeon experience, number of local anesthetic cartridges used, and patient age. Appropriate bi- and multivariate statistics were computed, and the level of statistical significance was set at P cycle than during the menstrual period inboth the OC users and nonusers (P menstrual period (P > .05). According to the results of the present study, the menstrual cycle could be a determinant risk factor in the frequency of AO. We recommend that elective procedures be performed during the menstrual period in both OC users and nonusers to eliminate the effect of cycle-related hormonal changes on the development of AO. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Roentgenographic study of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The mandibular canal must be considered carefully during the surgical treatment, especially surgical extraction of the impacted tooth and intraosseous implant, because it contains the important inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. The author investigated the curvature of the mandibular canal and its relation to the mandibular molars and positional relation between the mental foramen and the mandibular premolars in orthopantomogram. The materials consisted of 441 orthopantomograms divided four groups; Group I consisted of 56 males and 44 females from 1 to 6 years of age, Group II consisted of 58 males and 45 females from 7 to 12 years of age, Group III consisted of 65 males and 33 females from 13 to 18 years of age, Group IV consisted of 86 males and 54 females over 19 years of age. The results were as followings; 1. The curvature of mandibular canal was 144.50 .deg. in Group II, 148.11 .deg. in Group III, 147.33 .deg. in Group IV. 2. The curvature of mandibular canal was located most frequently on the area between mandibular 1st molar and mandibular 2nd molar in Group I (42%) and on the mandibular 2nd molar area in Group II (54%), Group III (59%), Group IV (53%). 3. The position of mental foramen was most frequently below the mandibular 1st premolar in Group I (58%), between the mandibular 1st premolar and the 2nd premolar in Group II (62%), Group III (47%), and below the mandibular 2nd premolar in Group IV (58%).

  10. Evaluation of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of various filling techniques in distal canals of mandibular molars instrumented with different single-file nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 distal roots of mandibular molar teeth were randomly assigned into three main ...

  11. Comparative Evalution of G bone (Hydroxyapatite) and G-Graft (Hydroxyapatite with Collagen) as Bone Graft Material in Mandibular III Molar Extraction Socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Vijayendra; Upadhyaya, Vivekananda; Berwal, Vikas; Jain, Kapil; Sah, Nupur; Sarathi, Partha; Swami, Pushp Chander

    2015-03-01

    Bone grafting is a dynamic phenomenon. It is a surgical procedure that replaces missing bone with material either from patient's own body, or, an artificial, synthetic or natural substitute. A successful bone graft when applied, heals, becomes incorporated, re-vascularises and eventually assumes the form desired. The main purpose of this present study was to radiologically assess and compare the regenerative potential of hydroxyapatite with Collagen (G-Graft) and hydroxyapatite (G-Bone) and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of these materials to enhance bone healing in third molar extraction sites through bone formation. The study was carried out in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacilal Surgery, patients were divided into three groups. The rationale for assigning the patients to the groups was strictly random: Group I - G-Graft (Hydroxyapatite with Collagen) was used as Bone graft material, Group II - Bone graft material used was G-Bone (Hydroxyapatite), Group III-control group (no grafts was used). Orthopentomogram(OPG) images were taken intra-operatively, just after extraction in the Group III (control), after extraction but before graft placement in Group I & II (study groups) and post-operatively at the end of first month and third month. Bone density of the post-extraction sockets was measured at four random areas through 'densitometric analysis' software in the OPG program (Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic System, Eastman Kodak Company) and an average value was recorded at each review. The percentage increase in bone density between 1(st) month & 3(rd) month was 7.55± 12.43 in Group I (G Graft), 4.41± 5.4859 in Group II (G Bone), while that Group III (control) was found to be -0.82 ± 3.96. The bone density increase was found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.01)) between all groups. The present study concluded that G-Graft has a definite regenerative potential and is better than G-bone and can be used in bony defects to enhance the bone healing

  12. entre la universidad y el tercer sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Navas Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de universidad actual tiende a independizarse del tercer sector. Mientras, ambas poseen recursos que pueden beneficiar al otro. La ficha de demandas es un documento que nace en la Universidad de Sevilla como respuesta a esta situación y facilita la petición de recursos del tercer sector. La ficha se puso en práctica en varias organizaciones del tercer sector de Sevilla, Cádiz, Barcelona y Navarra, cuyas demandas de recursos se convierten en datos que recopilamos y analizamos en el presente artículo. De forma complementaria, consideramos también propuestas de acercamiento entre universidad-calle desprendidas de los debates del congreso La Universidad Comprometida, celebrado en Sevilla. Este texto aporta información sobre la situación del tercer sector, permitiendo la optimización de la ficha de demandas y fundamentando otras propuestas de colaboración y cambio en la dinámica universitaria. La construcción de una universidad al servicio del bien común es el telón de fondo de este trabajo.

  13. Delayed dental maturity in dentitions with agenesis of mandibular second premolars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, S; Christensen, I J; Kjaer, I

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate dental maturity in the mandibular canine/premolar and molar innervation fields in children with agenesis of the 2nd mandibular premolar and to associate these findings with normal control material....

  14. The effect of loss of occlusal support on mandibular morphology in growing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farias-Neto, A; Martins, APVB; Rizzatti-Barbosa, CM

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of unilateral and bilateral premature loss of posterior occlusal support on mandibular bone dimensions in growing rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were randomized into three groups: control, unilateral mandibular molar teeth extraction, and bilateral mandibular molar teeth extraction. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed and acrylic rapid-prototyped templates of the mandibles were constructed. Mandibular length, ramus he...

  15. MOLAR UPRIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The mesial tipping of molar is frequently found in orthodontic cases. This molar malposition must be corrected since it may cause periodontal disorders, occlusal interferences, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and is often needed in planning a fixed bridge. This paper is a literature study to discuss about appliance designs, indication, and contraindications, and complication and treatment protocols of molar uprighting by fixed orthodontic appliances. By knowing the techniques of molar uprighting, the moments mentioned above can be avoided.

  16. Taurodontism in deciduous molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafna, Yash; Kambalimath, H V; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Prathibha

    2013-06-03

    Taurodont teeth are characterised by large pulp chambers at the expense of roots. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor and no constriction at the level of the cement-enamel junction are the characteristic features of taurodont tooth. It appears more frequently as an isolated anomaly but its association with syndromes and other abnormalities have also been reported. Permanent dentition is more commonly affected than deciduous dentition. This paper presents a case report of taurodontism in relation to mandibular deciduous second molars.

  17. Supernumerary maxillary and Mandibular Fourth Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-23

    Company. 12. Luten, J.R.: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in primary and mixed dentitions . J Dent Child 9:346-353, 1967. LEGEND Fig 1 Impacted...aide it n~coaesny and Identify by block number) Supernumerary teeth sk 1 AT waAC? V0111i (Cae s evem h N 011,690411 - idetit7 by block ntmmba) Five cases...of patients having supernumerary teeth in the distomolar regions of the mandibula and maxillary arches are reported. Supernumerary bicuspids were

  18. The sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid and the glass ionomer cement; Selamento de fossulas e fissura de segundo molar deciduo inferior com laser de Nd: YAG, acido fosforico e cimento de ionomero de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Maria Aparecida

    2003-07-01

    The main of our study was to check the sealing of second mandibular temporary molar pits and fissure, in vitro, with the laser of Nd: YAG, phosphoric acid at 37% and the glass ionomer cement (CIV, Fuji IX GC).The proposal was to check the structural morphologic changes in the laser irradiation upon the enamel surface to watch the pits and fissure sealing with the glass ionomer cement use after the laser irradiation and to verify the efficiency of the 'double conditioning' (phosphoric acid + Nd: YAG). At the same time we watch the evolution of the temperature in the pulp chamber's inside. Our desire was to achieve a therapeutic alternative technic to prevent the dental caries. The Nd: YAG laser parameters were the same: 79 mJ of energy per pulse; frequency of 5 Hz; mean power of 0,4 W; optical fiber on contact of 320 {mu}m diameter; fluency of 99,52 J/ cm{sup 2}, assuming that the only differential was the time of the laser application on the enamel surface. The samples were prepared with this way: Laser Nd: YAG (53 second) + acid + CIV (Fuji IX); Laser Nd: YAG (53 s); Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s) + acid + CIV; Laser Nd: YAG (20 s + 20 s); Acid + CIV; Control. Through the scanning electron microscopy (MEV) we noticed fusion and resolidification regions due to the laser irradiation and a better adaptation of the glass ionomer cement when we did the 'double conditioning'. Concerning the temperature increase we can conclude that the echeloned period was the best recommended because the temperature was found in a pattern that would not cause any damage to the dental pulp. For future studies we suggest a longer relaxing time between the laser irradiation, a comparative study of this method with other lasers, the use of other sealing materials and the study with the permanent teeth. (author)

  19. Permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Shirai, Sawa; Yano, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kotoe; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2005-04-01

    In recent years, mandibular expansion has been increasingly performed in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Lateral tipping of the molars associated with mandibular expansion should, however, be considered, because excessive expansion may result in excessive buccal tooth inclination, which may disturb the occlusal relationship. This study was conducted to quantitatively clarify molar movement during mandibular expansion using the Schwarz appliance to determine the permissible limit of mandibular expansion as a clinical index for inclination movement. Inclinations in the masticatory surface of the first molar and intermolar width were measured before expansion (T1), after expansion (T2), and before edgewise treatment (T3). Lower plaster models from 29 subjects treated with expansion plates were used and compared with models from 11 control subjects with normal occlusion. The average treatment change (T1-T2) in intermolar width was 5.42 mm (standard deviation 1.98), and the average angle of buccal tooth inclination was 10.16 degrees (standard deviation 3.83). No significant correlation was found between age prior to treatment and the treatment period when they were compared with the intermolar width increments and inclination angles. There was a significant positive correlation between retention duration and the amount of expansion. The regression coefficient of the angle of buccal tooth inclination during expansion to the increment of the intermolar width was approximately 0.2. This means that 1 mm of expansion is accompanied by 5 degrees of molar lateral tipping. This coefficient is clinically useful for estimating the permissible limit for mandibular expansion.

  20. Outcomes of intentionally replanted molars according to preoperative locations of periapical lesions and the teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WooCheol Lee

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, IR of mandibular molars seemed to provide a higher success rate than that for maxillary molars, regardless of the presence of preoperative periapical lesions.

  1. C-reactive protein a better indicator of inflammation after third molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    operative pain and pre-operative levels of C-reactive and post-operative pain and swelling in impacted third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study subjects were patients indicated for mandibular third molar extraction.

  2. Second molar impaction associated with lip bumper therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Helder Baldi; LeMert, Shawn; Alexander, Richard G; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Although lip bumpers (LBs) provide significant clinical gain of mandibular arch perimeter in mixed-dentition patients, orthodontists are reluctant to use them due to the possibility of permanent second molar eruptive disturbances. The present study was conducted to assess second molar impaction associated with the use of LBs, and to investigate how they can be solved. Lateral and panoramic radiographs of 67 patients (34 females and 33 males) were assessed prior (T₁) and post-LB treatment (T₂). LB therapy lasted for approximately 1.8 ± 0.9 years. Concomitant rapid palatal expansion (RPE) was performed in the maxilla at LB treatment onset. Impaction of mandibular second molars was assessed by means of panoramic radiographs in relation to the position of first mandibular molars. Horizontal and vertical movements of first and second molars were assessed cephalometrically on lateral cephalometric radiographs based on mandibular superimpositions. Eight (11.9%) patients had impacted second molars at the end of LB therapy. Two patients required surgical correction, whereas five required spacers and one patient was self-corrected. Mandibular first molar tip and apex migrated forward 1.3 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Second molar tip showed no statistically significant horizontal movement. Although LB therapy increased the risk of second molar impaction, impactions were, in most instances, easily solved.

  3. Second molar impaction associated with lip bumper therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Baldi Jacob

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although lip bumpers (LBs provide significant clinical gain of mandibular arch perimeter in mixed-dentition patients, orthodontists are reluctant to use them due to the possibility of permanent second molar eruptive disturbances.OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to assess second molar impaction associated with the use of LBs, and to investigate how they can be solved.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Lateral and panoramic radiographs of 67 patients (34 females and 33 males were assessed prior (T1 and post-LB treatment (T2. LB therapy lasted for approximately 1.8 ± 0.9 years. Concomitant rapid palatal expansion (RPE was performed in the maxilla at LB treatment onset. Impaction of mandibular second molars was assessed by means of panoramic radiographs in relation to the position of first mandibular molars. Horizontal and vertical movements of first and second molars were assessed cephalometrically on lateral cephalometric radiographs based on mandibular superimpositions.RESULTS: Eight (11.9% patients had impacted second molars at the end of LB therapy. Two patients required surgical correction, whereas five required spacers and one patient was self-corrected. Mandibular first molar tip and apex migrated forward 1.3 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively. Second molar tip showed no statistically significant horizontal movement.CONCLUSION: Although LB therapy increased the risk of second molar impaction, impactions were, in most instances, easily solved.

  4. Study of root canal accessibility in human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Farahani, Ramin M Z; Gajan, Esrafil B

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a general scheme for pulpectomy of primary molars that may be useful for decision-making about negotiation of root canals and selection of appropriate instruments. A total of 160 vital primary molars in 85 patients (40 males, 45 females) aged 4-6 years were selected. After taking primary radiographs, local anesthesia was induced, and the teeth were isolated using a rubber dam. Canal accessibility index (CAI) and tooth accessibility index (TAI) were calculated according to initial file size. Mandibular first molars had either three canals (79.2%) or four canals (20.8%), and all second molars had four canals. Maxillary first molars had three canals and second molars had either three canals (70.9%) or four canals (29.1%). Lower accessibility of the mandibular first molar distobuccal root accounted for the lower accessibility of these teeth in comparison with mandibular second molars. While three-canal maxillary second molars were more accessible due to the lower accessibility of the distobuccal canal of the maxillary first molar, poor accessibility of the distal canal in four-canal second molars was responsible for the difficult accessibility of these teeth. In conclusion, it seems that the accessibility of a single canal in each tooth determines the difficulty of accessibility for any given tooth. Moreover, while primary second molars are more accessible than first molars, all of them are negotiable.

  5. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  6. La transparecia en el tercer sector

    OpenAIRE

    Cortiñas Domínguez, Noa

    2014-01-01

    El Tercer Sector en España goza según las publicaciones de los observatorios españoles, de mucha credibilidad. Una realidad que nada tiene que ver con la consideración ciudadana del resto de instituciones. A este contraste cabe añadir que según publicaba recientemente Médicos sin Fronteras su número de asociados continuaba aumentando durante el año 2012 a pesar de la crisis económica. Cómo consiguen adquirir financiación y como logran generar confianza. Parece lógico suponer que la transp...

  7. Radiographic features of mandibular trabecular bone structure in hypodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Créton, M.; Geraets, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Verhey, H.; Cune, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiographic parameters of mandibular trabecular bone structure between 67 subjects having hypodontia and those without were studied on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Three regions of interest (ROI) were defined: the ascending ramus, apical of the mandibular molar and

  8. Using cone beam computed thomography in planning the extraction of impacted third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahović Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The panoramic radiography is the most used diagnostic imaging method in planning impacted lower third molar extractions. However, often panoramic radiography does not provide enough information in treatment planning for performing safely surgical extraction of impacted third molars. CBCT (Cone beam computed tomography provides more precise information in diagnostic analysis especially for planning surgical procedures where complications can be expected due to close relationship between mandibular canal and lower impacted third molars. The aim of this study is comparative analysis of panoramic radiography and CBCT in evaluating the topographic relationship between mandibular canal and impacted third molars. The study included 50 patients with close relationship between mandibular canal and impacted third molars detected using panoramic radiography. After panoramic radiography analysis CBCT was performed in order to diagnose, plan and prevent complications during the surgical tooth extraction. CBCT examination considered comparative analysis with panoramic radiography, marking, volume rendering and assessment of mandibular canal in buccolingual direction. Out of total patients where suprimposition of mandibular canal and impacted third molar on panoramic radiography was detected, in 32 patients mandibular chanal was localised on lingual side. Mandibular canal was positioned at bucal side in 18 of 50 patients. Results of this research indicate that panoramic radiography can be useful in everyday practice for diagnosis, planning and preparing lower third molar extractions, but in cases where close relationship between mandibular canal and lower third molars is detected CBCT is recommended as more precise radiographic imaging method in order to prevent complications.

  9. Pulpotomies with portland cement in human primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Regina Conti

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical cases in which Portland cement (PC was applied as a medicament after pulpotomy of mandibular primary molars in children are presented. Pulpotomy using PC was carried out in two mandibular first molars and one mandibular second molar, which were further followed-up. At the 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up appointments, clinical and radiographic examinations of the pulpotomized teeth and their periradicular area revealed that the treatments were successful in maintaining the teeth asymptomatic and preserving pulpal vitality. Additionally, the formation of a dentin bridge immediately below the PC could be observed in the three molars treated. PC may be considered as an effective alternative for primary molar pulpotomies, at least in a short-term period. Randomized clinical trials with human teeth are required in order to determine the suitability of PC before unlimited clinical use can be recommended.

  10. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal bleeding Molar pregnancy Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Second molar calcification stages to evaluate skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U H Vijayashree

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: A highly positive correlation exists between DI of mandibular second molars and CVMI. Stage F of Demirjian index, with the root length equal to or greater than the crown height corresponds to stage 3 of CVMI indicating the start of peak in mandibular growth which would be appropriate time to plan for functional appliances. Therefore, mandibular second molar calcification stages are reliable skeletal maturity indicator, which can be used to predict the growth status in determining the optimal treatment timing.

  12. Indications and risk factors for complications of lower third molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. ... records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted mandibular third molars from January 2008 to December ...

  13. Los fundamentos sociales del tercer sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Torre, Isabel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the gift, and the explanatory possibilities that its conceptual meaning offer and its methodological application, is the starting point to analyse the pro-social behaviours, present in the organizations that integrate the Third Sector: associations, foundations, benefit societies, co-operatives and labour societies. In all of these organizations, an interchange of goods and services is exercised, that can not be explained neither by the rules of the market nor by the principles of redistribution of the state. Altruism, solidarity and mutual principles, that inspire the pro-social behaviours, are usually practice through the networks of organized solidarity, that are based on the generalised trust and favour the civil society.

    La teoría del don, y las posibilidades explicativas que brindan su acepción conceptual y su aplicación metodológica, es el punto de partida para analizar los comportamientos prosociales, presentes en las entidades que integran el Tercer Sector: asociaciones, fundaciones, mutualidades, cooperativas y sociedades laborales. En todas estas entidades se ejercita un intercambio de bienes y servicios, que no pueden ser explicados ni por las reglas del mercado ni por los principios de redistribución del Estado. Los principios de altruismo, solidaridad y ayuda mutua, que inspiran los comportamientos prosociales, suelen practicarse a través de las redes de solidaridad organizada y favorecen el desarrollo de la sociedad civil.

  14. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health.

  15. Lateral expansion of the rat lower dental arch by applying an active plate model to the mandibular first molar region: observation of histological changes in the lower alveolar bone over a 2-week period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Eiwa; Ogihara, Kazuhiko; Aiyama, Shigeo

    2004-03-01

    Lateral expansion of the lower dental arch has rarely been conducted clinically because the structure of the lower jaw is considered to be unsuitable for this type of treatment. However, successful lateral expansion of the lower dental arch using SCHWALZ, an orthopedic appliance has been reported in recent years. Therefore, an experimental study was performed to examine the histological changes in the lower alveolar bone when lateral expansion is applied to the lower dental arch for periods of up to 2 weeks. An active plate model based on the Schwarz appliance was attached to the first molar region in rats. The distance between the right and left first molars was measured, and the mandible and first molar tooth were processed for light microscopy at different times after the fitting. The lateral expansion caused by lateral movement of the right and left first molars following the application of the active plate amounted to an average of 1.06 mm over a period of 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase/tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining revealed bone deposition on the periosteal surface of the buccal alveolar bone and the periodontal surface of the lingual alveolar bone, whereas bone absorption was observed on the periodontal surface of the buccal alveolar bone and the periosteal surface of the lingual alveolar bone. These findings demonstrate that lateral expansion of the lower dental arch through the application of an active plate model was achieved by bony deposition and absorption of alveolar bone, similar to the process that occurs in association with lateral expansion of the upper dental arch.

  16. Relationship among Types of Growth Patterns, Buccolingual Molar Inclination and Cortical Bone Thickness of the Mandible: A CT Scan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Shriram Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that a significant, but complex relationship exists between structures of the mandibular body and types of growth pattern. The morphological features that relate to masticatory function and types of growth pattern are associated with the cortical bone thickness of the mandibular body and the buccolingual inclination of the first and second permanent mandibular molars.

  17. Supplemental mandibular mesiodens: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganahalli, Manjunath; Honnappa, Adarsh; Chaitanya, Nallan Csk

    2013-12-01

    Developmental anomalies affecting the number of teeth are occasionally encountered clinically. The incidence of supernumerary teeth is approximately 1-3%. Among these are the maxillary anterior teeth, the maxillary molars, and the maxillo-mandubular premolars, in terms of descending order of occurrence. Supernumeraries occur rarely in the mandibular anterior teeth region. They may be either supplemental or rudimentary. We are reporting case of a supplemental type of supernumerary tooth in the mandibular anterior region and steps which were followed to distinguish supernumerary tooth from the normal series.

  18. Eficácia da articaína, da bupivacaína e da lidocaína associadas à epinefrina em pacientes com pulpite irreversível em molares mandibulares

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Moura Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia anestésica da articaína 4%, da lidocaína 2%, ambas associadas à epinefrina 1:100.000, e da bupivacaína 0.5%, associada à epinefrina 1:200.000, durante pulpectomia em pacientes com pulpite irreversível em molares inferiores. Cento e cinco voluntários do Setor de Urgência da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo receberam, aleatoriamente, 3,6mL de um dos anestésicos locais para o convencional bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior (BN...

  19. Taking advantage of an unerupted third molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Igor Figueiredo; Santiago, Fernando Zander Mucci; Sette-Dias, Augusto Cesar; Noronha, Vladimir Reimar Augusto de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Treatments with dental surgery seek to displace tooth to the correct position within the dental arch. To report a clinical case that took advantage of an unerupted third molar. A male patient, 18 years of age, was referred by his dentist to evaluate the third molars. The clinical exam revealed no visible lower third molars. The computed tomography (CT) exam showed the presence of a supernumerary tooth in the region of the mandibular ramus, on the left side, and impaction of the third molar, which was causing root resorption on the second molar, thus making it impossible to remain in the buccal cavity. The preferred option, therefore, was to remove both second molar and the supernumerary tooth, in addition to attaching a device to the third molar during surgery for further traction. After 12 months, the third molar reached the proper position. When a mandibular second permanent molar shows an atypical root resorption, an impacted third molar can effectively substitute the tooth by using an appropriate orthodontic-surgical approach.

  20. Coronectomy of Deeply Impacted Lower Third Molar: Incidence of Outcomes and Complications after One Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present study was to assess the surgical management of impacted third molar with proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve and complications associated with coronectomy in a series of patients undergoing third molar surgery. Material and Methods: The position of the mandibular canal in relation to the mandibular third molar region and mandibular foramen in the front part of the mandible (i.e., third molar in close proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve [IAN] or not was identified on panoramic radiographs of patients scheduled for third molar extraction. Results: Close proximity to the IAN was observed in 64 patients (35 females, 29 males with an impacted mandibular third molar. Coronectomy was performed in these patients. The most common complication was tooth migration away from the mandibular canal (n = 14, followed by root exposure (n = 5. Re-operation to remove the root was performed in cases with periapical infection and root exposure. Conclusions: The results indicate that coronectomy can be considered a reasonable and safe treatment alternative for patients who demonstrate elevated risk for injury to the inferior alveolar nerve with removal of the third molars. Coronectomy did not increase the incidence of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and would be safer than complete extraction in situations in which the root of the mandibular third molar overlaps or is in close proximity to the mandibular canal.

  1. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  2. Epidemiological Status of Third Molars in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Impaction of third molars is a common phenomenon. The incidence of impacted third molars varies in different populations. Objectives The aim of this study is to assess radiographic status (root development degree, angulation, and eruption level of the third molar in Iranian population via panoramic radiographs. Patients and Methods 647 patients, ranging in age from 17 - 25, were selected from three regions of Iran. Based on their panoramic radiographs, their root development degree, angulation, and eruption levels were analyzed. Results The angulation of upper third molars were vertical (44.6%, distoangular (44.1%, mesioangular (10.7%, and horizontal (0.6%. For lower third molars, the angulation was mesioangular (44.5%, vertical (33.8%, distoangular (12.2%, and horizontal (9.5%. The eruption levels of maxillary third molars were C > A> B, and for mandibular third molars they were A > B> C. The order of root development prevalence of the maxillary and mandibular third molars was complete > 2/3 > 1/3. Conclusions The most common status of impaction of the third molars in the maxilla was vertical angulation, level C of eruption, and complete root formation. In the mandible it was mesioangular, level A of eruption, and complete root formation. Since the study sample consists of patients from the north, middle, and south of Iran, the sample can represent the whole population of Iran.

  3. Sextant of Sapphires for Molar Distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnada, Swaroopa Rani; Palla, Yudistar Venkata; Ganugapanta, Vivek Reddy

    2016-08-01

    Space analysis quantifies the amount of crowding within the arches estimating the severity of space discrepancy. The space gaining procedures include extraction and non-extraction procedures like expansion, proximal stripping and molar distalization. To identify features seen in molar distalization cases. The sample size comprised 20 patients in whom molar distalization was decided as the treatment plan. The study models and lateral cephalograms of all the patients were taken. Occlusograms were obtained. Model analysis and cephalometric analysis were performed. Descriptive statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation, standard error and mode were done. The parameters in Question gave following results. The Bolton analysis showed anterior mandibular excess with mean value of 1.56mm±1.07. The first order discrepancy between maxillary central and lateral incisors was 5±1.95. The premolar rotation showed mean value of 16.58±5.12. The molar rotation showed the value of 7.66±2.26. The nasolabial angle showed the mean of 101.25±8.7 IMPA of 101.4±5.74. The six features studied in molar distalization cases [First order discrepancy between upper central and lateral incisors; Rotation of premolars and molars; Bolton's discrepancy in anterior dentition; Average to horizontal growth pattern; Proclined lower incisors and Obtuse nasolabial angle] can be taken as patterns seen in molar distalization cases and considered as a valid treatment plan.

  4. Third molar complications requiring hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Martin; Morbach, Thomas; Kleis, Wilfried; Wagner, Wilfried

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe demographic and clinical patterns of subjects hospitalized with complications associated with third molars (M3). The investigation was designed as a prospective cohort study composed of subjects admitted to hospital for management of M3-associated complications. The predictor variable was "clinical status of the M3" defined as (A) prophylactic M3 removal, (B) nonelective M3 removal, or (C) M3 present at the time of admission. Outcome variables were infection parameters, treatment costs, length of hospital stay, and days of disability. Postoperative complications (A and B) were compared to complications based on pericoronitis (C). Complications due to prophylactic removal (A) were compared to those arising from pericoronitis or from the removal of symptomatic teeth (B and C). From January 2003 to December 2004, 45 deep space infections, 6 mandibular fractures, 2 lingual nerve injuries, 1 parapharyngeal tooth luxation, and 1 osteomyelitis were noticed. Fifteen complications resulted from prophylactic surgery (A), 25 from nonelective removal (B), and 15 from pericoronitis (C). Direct treatment costs were 147,000 euro (A: 42,000 euro; B: 74,000 euro; C: 31,000 euro). In 10 of the 15 patients of group C, deep space involvement resulted immediately from the first episode of pericoronitis. Neither clinical markers of infection nor economic parameters showed significant differences between the groups. Within the catchment area of our institution, the majority of third molar-related hospitalizations resulted from diseased third molars or their removal.

  5. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; ten Cate, J.M.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop

  6. Horizontal and vertical changes in anchor molars after extractions in bimaxillary protrusion cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the anchor molar position (horizontal, vertical after retraction in bimaxillary protrusion maximum anchorage cases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring maximum anchorage after extraction of the first premolars were selected for this study. The second molars were banded in both arches along with trans-palatal arch in the maxillary arch and lingual arch in the mandibular arch. En mass retraction was done using sliding mechanics. Horizontal and vertical positions of the anchor first molars were evaluated cephalometrically before and after orthodontic retraction. Results: In the horizontal plane, maxillary first molars showed net mesial movement of 1.72 mm, and there was a statistical difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. The mandibular molars showed a net horizontal movement of 2.26 mm, and there was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-values (P < 0.001. In the vertical plane, there was vertical movement of the maxillary anchor molars by a net value of 0.95 mm which was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mandibular anchor molars moved vertically by a net value of 0.45 mm. This difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: There was anchorage loss seen in both the planes (horizontal, vertical of the maxillary anchor molars. In the mandibular anchor molars, there was anchorage loss seen only in the horizontal plane. No anchorage loss was seen in the vertical plane.

  7. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, K Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B; Mohanbabu, V; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-05-01

    To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The results showed that the mean age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P < 0.05). There are differences indicating that maxillary and mandibular third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization.

  8. External root resorption of the second molar associated with third molar impaction: comparison of panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Anne Caroline Costa; Neves, Frederico Sampaio; Alencar, Phillipe Nogueira Barbosa; Prado, Rodrigo Freire; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the assessment of external root resorption (ERR) of second molars associated with impacted third molars. In addition, the prevalence of ERR in second molars and the inclinations of the third molars more associated with ERR were investigated in both imaging methods. The sample consisted of 66 individuals with maxillary and mandibular impacted third molars (n = 188) seen on panoramic radiographs and CBCT images. The presence of ERR on the adjacent second molar was investigated, and the position of the third molar was determined using Winter's classification (vertical, horizontal, mesioangular, distoangular, and transverse). Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test, Fisher exact test, and 2-proportion Z test (the significance level was set at 5%). A significantly greater number of cases of ERR (P third molars in mesioangular and horizontal inclinations were more likely to cause resorption of the adjacent teeth. CBCT should be indicated for the diagnosis of ERR in second molars when direct contact between the mandibular second and third molars has been observed on panoramic radiographs, especially in mesioangular or horizontal impactions. Furthermore, considering the propensity of these teeth to cause ERR in second molars, third molar prophylactic extraction could be suggested. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiographic assessment of lower third molar eruption in different anteroposterior skeletal patterns and age-related groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Lazic, Emira; Soldatovic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Andric, Miroslav

    2015-07-01

    To analyze radiographic predictors for lower third molar eruption among subjects with different anteroposterior skeletal relations and of different age groups. In total, 300 lower third molars were recorded on diagnostic digital orthopantomograms (DPTs) and lateral cephalograms (LCs). The radiographs were grouped according to sagittal intermaxillary angle (ANB), subject age, and level of lower third molar eruption. The DPT was used to analyze retromolar space, mesiodistal crown width, space/width ratio, third and second molar angulation (α, γ), third molar inclination (β), and gonion angle. The LC was used to determine ANB, angles of maxillar and mandibular prognathism (SNA, SNB), mandibular plane angle (SN/MP), and mandibular lengths. A logistic regression model was created using the statistically significant predictors. The logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant impact of β angle and distance between gonion and gnathion (Go-Gn) on the level of lower third molar eruption (P < .001 and P < .015, respectively). The retromolar space was significantly increased in the adult subgroup for all skeletal classes. The lower third molar impaction rate was significantly higher in the adult subgroup with the Class II (62.3%) compared with Class III subjects (31.7%; P < .013). The most favorable values of linear and angular predictors of mandibular third molar eruption were measured in Class III subjects. For valid estimation of mandibular third molar eruption, certain linear and angular measures (β angle, Go-Gn), as well as the size of the retromolar space, need to be considered.

  10. A Rare Condition of Bimaxillary Primary Molar Taurodontism

    OpenAIRE

    Avula Jogendra Sai Sankar; Enuganti Sreedevi; Akkala Satya Gopal; Manne Naga Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Taurodontism is a relatively rare variance with a very low incidence in primary dentition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. It stands a challenge when these teeth require pulp therapy. This case report illustrates the oral rehabilitation of multiple primary molars with taurodontism involving both the maxillary and mandibular arches, which is a rare occurrence.

  11. A Rare Condition of Bimaxillary Primary Molar Taurodontism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogendra Sai Sankar, Avula; Sreedevi, Enuganti; Satya Gopal, Akkala; Naga Lakshmi, Manne

    2017-06-01

    Taurodontism is a relatively rare variance with a very low incidence in primary dentition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. It stands a challenge when these teeth require pulp therapy. This case report illustrates the oral rehabilitation of multiple primary molars with taurodontism involving both the maxillary and mandibular arches, which is a rare occurrence.

  12. A new method to correct lingual rolling of lower molars (Amini twister).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariborz; Poosti, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present an uncomplicated approach to overcome lingual rolling of mandibular molars during orthodontic treatment, by using rectangular NiTi arch wire in twist fashion through the molar tube. The sequential steps of the twist manoeuvre on a typodont and a case report are exhibited in this article.

  13. Management of pain after third molar surgery: a review of literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pain has been identified as the most common cause of postoperative morbidity after the surgical removal of impacted lower third molars which could be severe enough to affect the patients' daily life. Several studies have been done on impacted mandibular third molars in developed countries, where several ...

  14. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  15. Radiographic evaluation of third molar development in 6 to 24 year olds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hwa; Cho, Bong Hae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study investigated the developmental stages of third molars in relation to chronological age and compared third molar development according to location and gender. A retrospective analysis of panoramic radiographs of 2490 patients aged between 6 and 24 years was conducted, and the developmental stages of the third molars were evaluated using the modified Demirjian's classification. The mean age, standard deviation, minimal and maximal age, and percentile distributions were recorded for each stage of development. A Mann-Whitney U test was performed to test the developmental differences in the third molars between the maxillary and mandibular arches and between genders. A linear regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between the third molar development and chronological age. The developmental stages of the third molars were more advanced in the maxillary arch than the mandibular arch. Males reached the developmental stages earlier than females. The average age of the initial mineralization of the third molars was 8.57 years, and the average age at apex closure was 21.96 years. The mean age of crown completion was 14.52 and 15.04 years for the maxillary and the mandibular third molars, respectively. The developmental stages of the third molars clearly showed a strong correlation with age. The third molars developed earlier in the upper arch than the lower arch; further, they developed earlier in males than in females.

  16. Radiographic evaluation of third molar development in 6- to 24-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the developmental stages of third molars in relation to chronological age and compared third molar development according to location and gender. A retrospective analysis of panoramic radiographs of 2490 patients aged between 6 and 24 years was conducted, and the developmental stages of the third molars were evaluated using the modified Demirjian's classification. The mean age, standard deviation, minimal and maximal age, and percentile distributions were recorded for each stage of development. A Mann-Whitney U test was performed to test the developmental differences in the third molars between the maxillary and mandibular arches and between genders. A linear regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between the third molar development and chronological age. The developmental stages of the third molars were more advanced in the maxillary arch than the mandibular arch. Males reached the developmental stages earlier than females. The average age of the initial mineralization of the third molars was 8.57 years, and the average age at apex closure was 21.96 years. The mean age of crown completion was 14.52 and 15.04 years for the maxillary and the mandibular third molars, respectively. The developmental stages of the third molars clearly showed a strong correlation with age. The third molars developed earlier in the upper arch than the lower arch; further, they developed earlier in males than in females.

  17. Localization of the mandibular canal in brachycephalic dogs using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lenin Arturo Villamizar; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Lobos, Cristian Marcelo Villegas; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão de C Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    For some surgical procedures in veterinary dentistry including exodontia, orthognathic surgery, orthopedic surgery, oncologic surgery, and for the placement of dental implants, it is important to know the accurate location of the neurovascular structures within the mandibular canal. The aim of this research was to determine the course of the mandibular canal in the mandible and its relationship with other anatomical structures in brachycephalic dogs using computerized tomography. Mandibles from 10 brachycephalic cadaver dogs were evaluated. Measurements were taken in relation to the lingual, vestibular alveolar crest, and ventral surfaces. These measurements indicated that the mandibular canal descends slightly from the mandibular foramen to the molar area, decreasing the distance of the mandibular canal from the mandibular ventral border. The mandibular canal is slightly closer to the lingual surface than the vestibular surface except in the molar tooth region. The mandibular canal continues in a rostral direction occupying the ventral region of the mandibular body, reaching its maximum distance from the alveolar crest at the level of the first molar and fourth premolar teeth. In the third and fourth premolar tooth region, the mandibular canal maintains a similar distance between the vestibular and lingual borders; then, at the level of the second premolar tooth, the distance of the mandibular canal from the lingual and ventral border increases before its termination at the mental foramen. The study reported here documents the feasibility of using CT to determine the location of the mandibular canal in relation to bony and dental parameters. Although the difference in mandible size of the group of brachycephalic dogs reported here resulted in broad ranges of measurements, it is clear that the MC course may vary between individual dogs.

  18. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Oral Science Institute, College of Dentistry, Kangnung-Wonju National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  19. Mandibular arch changes following nonextraction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, David T; Pender, Neil; Counihan, Dan

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate mandibular tooth position changes following treatment with a lip bumper and fixed appliance. Specifically, we aimed to determine how space was obtained to align crowded lower incisors. Thirty-four consecutively treated children with a mean age of 10.6 years (SD: 1.14 years) were selected from a specialist orthodontic practice in Eire. All subjects were treated with a lip bumper followed by a fixed appliance. The positions and angulations of the lower first molars and most proclined lower incisor were measured on the pretreatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs and study models with a reflex metrograph. The changes were also compared with published growth data. After lip bumper and fixed appliance treatment the mandibular arch depth decreased (Mean difference: 1.2 mm; p lip bumper followed by fixed appliance treatment were to maintain the leeway space, expand the mandibular arch and 'upright' the lower molars. The treatment had no effect on the position of the lower incisors.

  20. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Distal movement of the mandibular dentition in the treatment of patients with Class III skeletal pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lan; Xu, Gengchi; Han, Yaohui; Ge, Zhenlin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the outcome of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion treated with extraction of mandibular third molars and distalization of molars using implant anchorage combined with MBT appliance. Fifteen patients (mean age 24.0 ± 5.8) with skeletal Class III malocclusion were selected. The mandibular third molars were extracted and the mandibular molars were moved distally using implant combined with MBT appliance. Cephalometric analysis was carried out before and after treatment. After active treatment, ANB, Wits distance, AB-NP and the distance between upper and lower lip position to SnPg' increased by 1.65° ± 1.04°, (4.39 ± 1.93) mm, 3.20° ± 1.61° and (1.13 ± 0.99) mm, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P skeletal Class III patients in the permanent dentition could be treated successfully with extraction of mandibular third molars and distalization of mandibular molars using implant anchorage combined with MBT appliance. The soft-tissue profile was improved.

  2. Repeatability and accuracy of a paralleling technique for radiographic evaluation of distal bone healing after impacted third molar surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inocêncio Faria, A; Gallas Torreira, M; López Ratón, M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability and radiographic accuracy of an intraoral paralleling technique to evaluate periodontal bone healing on the distal surface of the second mandibular molar (2 Mm...

  3. Evaluation of root canal morphology of human primary molars by using CBCT and comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Cantekin, Kenan; Aydinbelge, Mustafa; Dogan, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of primary tooth morphology is essential for clinical dentistry, especially for root canal treatment and dental traumatology. However, this has not been well documented to date with a large sample. This study was carried out to investigate the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of the primary molars, to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. A total of 343 primary molars, without any root resorption, were divided into four main groups including the maxillary first molars, maxillary second molars, mandibular first molars and mandibular second molars. All of them were analysed in CBCT images in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, the root canal type, diameter of root and root canal and root canal curvature were studied. Primary molars in all four groups showed variability in the number of roots and root canals. As far as length of the roots was concerned, the palatal root of the maxillary molar was found to be longest, while the distobuccal root was shortest. In mandibular molars, the mesial root was longer than the distal root. The length of distobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars and the distolingual canal of the mandibular molars was found to be shortest. The number of roots and root canals varied from two to four and three to four, respectively. The maxillary molars exhibited more one-canal than two-canal roots. The present study provides comprehensive information to the existing literature concerning the variation in root canal morphology of the maxillary and mandibular primary molar teeth. These data may help clinicians in the root canal treatment of these teeth.

  4. Multivariate analysis of the cleaning efficacy of different final irrigation techniques in the canal and isthmus of mandibular posterior teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon-Jee Yoo; WooCheol Lee; Hyeon-Cheol Kim; Won-Jun Shon; Seung-Ho Baek

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning efficacy of different final irrigation regimens in canal and isthmus of mandibular molars, and to evaluate the influence of related variables on cleaning efficacy of the irrigation systems. Materials and Methods Mesial root canals from 60 mandibular molars were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups according to the final irrigation technique: Group C, syringe irrigation; Group U, ultrasonics activation; Group SC,...

  5. Neurovascular Content of the Mandibular Canal and Its Clinical Relevance: A Literature Review of the Related Anatomical and Radiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliades Apostolos N.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In literature, anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar nerve branches (infratemporal, extraosseous and intraosseous are reported and their importance in clinical practice is discussed too. The spatial vessels’ position in relationship with the nerve in the mandibular canal was explored, which is of clinical significance in impacted third molar and implant surgery. It is believed that the neurovascular content of the main mandibular canal follows any variations of the mandibular canal i.e. bifid mandibular, retromolar and accessory mental canals. Retrospective studies and case reports reported the presence of multiple foramina on the medial surface of the ramus, near the main mandibular foramen. In some cases, one supplementary mandibular foramen was found to be connected with the lower third molar, which is called “temporal crest canal”. Others found an accessory mandibular foramen that led into a second mandibular canal which joined the main mandibular canal (double anteriorly. The bony canals contained a terminal branch of the anterior trunk of the mandibular nerve or a branch of inferior alveolar nerve before it entered the mandibular foramen.

  6. Extraction treatment of a class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and changes in stomatognathic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihiro; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kitashima, Fumiaki; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the successful extraction treatment of a Class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor on the left side. The posterior space in the mandibular arch was small, and the mandibular second molars were impacted, with distal tipping. The discrepancies in the maxillary and mandibular arches were resolved by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor on the right side and the mandibular second premolars on both sides. The mesial movement of the mandibular first molars occurred appropriately, with the second molars moving into an upright position. A lip bumper was used with a preadjusted edgewise appliance in the maxillary dentition to reinforce molar anchorage and labial movement of the retroclined incisors. Despite the extraction treatment, a deep bite could be corrected without aggravation as a result of the lip bumper and utility arch in the mandibular dentition. Thus, an Angle Class I molar relationship and an ideal overbite were achieved. The occlusal contact area and masticatory muscle activities during maximum clenching increased after treatment. The maximum closing velocity and the maximum gape during chewing increased, and the chewing pattern changed from the chopping to grinding type. The findings in the present case suggest that the correction of a deep bite might be effective for improving stomatognathic function.

  7. Neurovascular Content of the Mandibular Canal and Its Clinical Relevance: A Literature Review of the Related Anatomical and Radiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Eliades Apostolos N.; Manta Kalliopi H.; Tsirlis Anastasios T.

    2014-01-01

    In literature, anatomical variations of the inferior alveolar nerve branches (infratemporal, extraosseous and intraosseous) are reported and their importance in clinical practice is discussed too. The spatial vessels’ position in relationship with the nerve in the mandibular canal was explored, which is of clinical significance in impacted third molar and implant surgery. It is believed that the neurovascular content of the main mandibular canal follows any variations of the mandibular canal ...

  8. El "Tercer Sector", la "Economia Social" y Trabajo Social en Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesada, Ana C

    2009-01-01

    En las ultimas decadas, diversas organizaciones internacionales manifiestan un interes por reformular cientifica y politicamente la propuesta organizacional del "Tercer Sector" y la "Economia Social...

  9. Predictors of treatment preference for mandibular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Gironda, Melanie W; Black, Edward E; Belin, Thomas R; Atchison, Kathryn A

    2010-01-01

    Patient treatment preferences do not necessarily remain stable over time. This study focuses on predictors of patient treatment choice and on the extent to which patients are willing to take risks by choosing surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for mandibular fracture. Surveys of African-American and Hispanic adults receiving treatment at King/Drew Medical Center for either a mandibular fracture (n = 98) or third-molar removal (n = 105) were used to investigate patterns of patient preference over the course of a 4-month study period using generalized estimating equations controlling for age, gender, income, and fracture versus third-molar patient. The study examined the effects of symptom rating and a"standard gamble" measure reflecting a patient's willingness to accept scarring or nerve damage. This analysis is based on 169 patients who participated in four waves of data collection. The most salient predictor of patient treatment was the standard gamble measure at 1-month follow-up. Subjects with higher risk tolerance were more likely to select surgery versus jaw wiring. A higher likelihood of choosing surgery was associated with higher income and greater symptom severity. Fracture patients were more likely to select surgery compared with third-molar patients. The significance of symptom severity 1-month post-surgery raises an important issue regarding the healing process. Moreover, the significance of standard gamble as a predictor of treatment choice for mandibular fracture should encourage other researchers to use this measure of willingness to accept risk when studying acute conditions such as jaw fracture.

  10. Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elvira Farfán-García

    2016-01-01

    Este suplemento reúne 24 resúmenes de proyectos de investigación básica y aplicada que fueron presentados en el marco del Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología, organizado por el programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Santander UDES, sede Bucaramanga entre el 27 al 29 de abril de 2016 en el marco de la celebración de los 20 años de funcionamiento del programa. En este evento se reunieron investigadores nacionales, i...

  11. Restorative management of severely ankylosed primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Pontes, Alessandra Silva; Brito, Maria Hellen Sâmia Fortes; de Deus Moura, Lucia; de Deus Moura de Lima, Marina; de Melo Simplício, Alexandre Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Severe dentoalveolar ankylosis is an etiological factor for malocclusion. When infraocclusion occurs early, it progresses with time, leading to severe consequences in young children because of compensatory supra-eruption of the antagonist tooth and mesialization of adjacent teeth. Early diagnosis allows for interception of the problem and may prevent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of infraocclusion of primary mandibular second molars that were diagnosed early and were treated with composite resin crowns. The use of indirect composite restorations for ankylosed teeth is a good option for primary teeth with a moderate/ severe degree of ankylosis.

  12. Second molar germectomy and third molar eruption. 11 cases of lower second molar enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, G

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cases followed from enucleation of the unerupted lower second molars through third molar eruption. While results were generally good, three presented third molar malpositions requiring further treatment.

  13. Osteomielitis mandibular por actinomices: Reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Villalobos, David; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Paniura Rodríguez, Ditel; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima,; Huamaní Parra, Jaime; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.; Barreto Almea, Ana; Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima.

    2014-01-01

    Se reporta el caso de un paciente varón de 27 años con antecedente de exodoncia compleja de la tercera molar mandibular inferior derecha que presentaba una tumefacción circunscrita dolorosa en la región submandibular ipsilateral. En el estudio imaginológico, la radiografía panorámica presentaba un proceso osteolítico periapical e interradicular con un patrón osteogénico circundante por lo que se utilizó como complemento una tomografía cone beam, en donde se evidenció compromiso desde la rama ...

  14. Prevalence of three-rooted mandibular permanent first molars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-02

    Jun 2, 2012 ... Materials and Methods: Periapical radiographs of 640 subjects, which had been obtained in the Department of Oral. Diagnosis Radiology ... as well as possible variation in anatomy of the root canal system is important in ..... modified opening cavity with extension to the distolingual. The morphological ...

  15. internal root morphology in mandibular first permanent molars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... INTRODUCTION. The scientific advances in analysing endodontic ... An endodontic irrigation syringe with a 27 gauge needle (BU Kwang. Medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) was used to inject Indian ink (Sanford rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) into the root ... lens with a magnification power of 3X. The Vertucci.

  16. Influence of secondary wound healing after mandibular third molar coronectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, S; Vignudelli, E; Monaco, G; Marchetti, C

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the postoperative morbidity related to secondary wound healing after coronectomy. Ten of 116 patients treated by coronectomy healed by second intention as a result of failed sutures. We made a retrospective analysis after two years to evaluate the postoperative morbidity related to secondary wound healing. The complete closure of the alveolus of the 10 surgical sites was recorded three months after coronectomy. No patients had postoperative infections, dry socket, or pulpitis. All patients were free of symptoms, the retained roots were completely included, and were not detectable with a periodontal probe. The importance of primary wound closure after coronectomy has been stressed as a critical point to avoid postoperative infection of the root. We found that secondary wound healing after coronectomy was not associated with a high postoperative infection rate, but further randomised clinical studies are necessary to confirm the need for primary closure and its relations to the long-term success of the coronectomy. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with mandibular skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ezgi; Malkoç, Siddik; Kirtay, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the dentofacial changes obtained with bone anchorage in a Class II patient with moderate to severe crowding. A boy, aged 14.5 years, with a dolichofacial type, convex profile, and skeletal and dental Class II relationships was examined. After evaluation, functional treatment with bone anchorage and 4 first premolar extractions was decided as the treatment approach. Miniplates were placed on the buccal shelves of the mandibular third molars. The hook of the anchor was revealed from the first molar level. After surgery, the 4 first premolars were extracted to retract the protrusive mandibular incisors. The maxillary and mandibular first molars were banded, and a lip bumper was inserted to apply elastics and to help distalize the maxillary first molars. Orthodontic forces of 300 to 500 g were applied immediately after placement, originating from the miniscrews to the hooks of the appliance to advance the mandible. After 20 months of treatment, the patient had a dental and skeletal Class I relationship, the mandible was advanced, the maxilla was restrained, and overjet was decreased. The combination of a bone anchor, Class II elastics, and an inner bow is a promising alternative to functional treatment, along with extractions, in Class II patients. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mandibular movement and frontal craniofacial morphology in orthognathic surgery patients with mandibular deviation and protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Y; Yamada, K; Fukui, T; Hanada, K; Kohno, S

    2003-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mandibular movement (lateral excursion and masticatory movements) and craniofacial morphology in 16 patients with mandibular deviation, using a six degrees-of-freedom measuring device. (i) Mandibular deviation was found to be significantly related to frontal maxillary and occlusal plane angles. (ii) Three-dimensional non-working condylar and incisal path lengths were longer during the lateral excursion to the non-deviated side than to the deviated side, and the incisal path moved antero-inferior. (iii) The lateral motion range of the incisal path was wider during masticatory movement on the non-deviated side than on the deviated side, and the molar and non-working condylar path lengths corresponding to the lateral range of the incisal path were also longer on the non-deviated side. The group with posterior crossbite showed a significantly smaller horizontal range of incisal path, and also significantly smaller frontal projected incisal and molar path angles during masticatory movement on the deviated side than on the non-deviated side. These results suggest that lateral excursion and masticatory movements could be related to craniofacial morphology and posterior crossbite.

  20. Mandibular resection via mandibular-lip L flap for the treatment of extensive multicystic Ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Martins Oliveira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor accounting for 1% of all tumors of the maxilla and mandibula. The mandibula is committed in 85% of the cases. The tumor is locally invasive, able to infiltrate bone marrow spaces, without radiographic or macroscopic evidence. High recurrence rates are associated with different surgical techniques, which range from simple tumoral enucleation to extensive resections. The authors report a case of a 26-year old female patient with an 8-year history of progressive, non-tender, swelling of the left mandibular region. The intraoral examination showed that the floor of mouth was raised on the left side by a bulging along the bottom of the left mandibular vestibule as well as the lingual region. Over this area, there were ulcerated areas in the alveolar region of the molars and mucosal fenestration in the alveolar and lingual regions were present. A panoramic radiography revealed a multicystic lesion, resembling the soap-bubble shape endosseous lesion. The computed tomography revealed an expandable multicystic lesion compromising both mandibular cortices. The patient underwent a biopsy, which revealed the diagnosis of a multicystic variant of Ameloblastoma, with plexiform pattern, treated with left mandibular resection and immediate installation of a customized prosthesis. After a year of follow-up, no evidence of the tumor relapse was evidenced.

  1. Removable molar power arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment of force elements from the gingival hook of maxillary molar tubes during the retraction of the anterior teeth is very common in orthodontic practice. As the line of force passes below the center of resistance (CR of molar, it results its mesial tipping and also anchorage loss. To overcome this problem, the line of force should pass along the CR of molar. This article highlights a method to overcome this problem by attaching a removable power arm to the headgear tube of molar tube during the retraction of the anterior teeth.

  2. Identidad institucional de las organizaciones del Tercer Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Torre Prados

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es ofrecer una aproximación descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos de las entidades del Tercer Sector, tanto desde el punto de vista de sus características organizativas como de su gobierno y gestión, considerando que estas tres líneas de análisis están condicionadas por el reconocimiento institucional de las funciones sociales que desempeñan el conjunto plural y heterogéneo de sus entidades, entendidas como organizaciones no lucrativas cuyos rasgos básicos son el carácter privado, el principio de no distribución de beneficios, la movilización de recursos voluntarios, la estructura organizativa formal y la capacidad de autonomía y gobierno.

  3. Nueva ciudadanía para el tercer milenio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gloria Pérez Serrano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de ciudadanía en las sociedades multiculturales esta experimentado cambios profundos. La nueva ciudadanía que emerge en el alborear del tercer milenio presenta exigencias y posibilidades diversas; los ciudadanos deben estar preparados para afrontarlos. Se abordan en este trabajo los horizontes de la nueva ciudadanía, los nexos entre ciudadanía y nacionalidad, la formación del buen ciudadano crítico así como las dimensiones de esta ciudadanía: democrática, social, paritaria, intercultural y ambiental. Se pone de relieve que el ciudadano en la sociedad actual debe construir su identidad con pertenencias múltiples y aprender a convivir en la diversidad.

  4. Presence of third molars in orthodontic patients from northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Georgia Barka,1 Georgios Tretiakov,1 Theodosios Theodosiou,2 Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou31School of Dentistry, 2Biostatistics, Department of Informatics, School of Natural Sciences, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceObjective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of presence of third molar teeth and their distribution in each jaw and each side, according to sex, in a group of orthodontic patients with permanent dentition from northern Greece.Methods: The sample included panoramic radiographs from 220 patients with permanent dentition (mean age 13.62 ± 1.81. The Χ2 test was used to assess the relationships between the variables, and the Fisher's exact test was used in cases where the expected frequencies in each cell were <5.Results: The frequency of third molar presence was 79.1%, and 20.9% was the frequency of third molar agenesis. Intersexual differences in the number of third molars was not statistically significant. There was a correlation between the distribution of third molars on the right and the left side (Fisher's exact test = 100.788; P = 0. The two sides showed the same tendency toward the presence or absence of third molars. A correlation was also found between the distribution of maxillary and mandibular third molars (Fisher's exact test = 24.372; P = 0. In each jaw, the presence or absence of third molars was highly related to the number of third molars found in the other jaw.Conclusion: The present results showed that in this orthodontic group of northern Greek patients, presence accounted for 79.1% and agenesis for 20.9%. No significant difference was found between the frequencies of third molar presence on the left and right sides in either the maxilla or mandible.Keywords: third molars, presence, orthodontic population, Greeks

  5. Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira Farfán-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este suplemento reúne 24 resúmenes de proyectos de investigación básica y aplicada que fueron presentados en el marco del Tercer Simposio Internacional de Bacteriología, organizado por el programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Santander UDES, sede Bucaramanga entre el 27 al 29 de abril de 2016 en el marco de la celebración de los 20 años de funcionamiento del programa. En este evento se reunieron investigadores nacionales, internacionales, profesores, estudiantes de pregrado y posgrado, quienes compartieron experiencias y avances de investigación en torno a las ciencias biomédicas. Dentro de los objetivos del tercer simposio estaba divulgar los resultados de investigación de investigadores y estudiantes de diferentes instituciones regionales y nacionales así como establecer alianzas y acercamientos con científicos e investigadores de las instituciones participantes para el fortalecimiento de las líneas de investigación del Grupo de Investigación en Manejo Clínico –CliniUDES-. Entre los temas que fueron tratados en el simposio se destacan: enfermedades emergentes y cambio climático, enfermedades virales tropicales, hematología clínica, síndrome metabólico, actualización en diagnóstico de diabetes, cáncer y marcadores tumorales, gestión del riesgo y genética forense. Los organizadores del evento fueron la Dra. Juanita Trejos Suárez y el Dr. Sergio Yebrail Gómez Rangel acompañados por un comité científico y académico y por estudiantes del programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico.

  6. Molar heights and incisor inclinations in adults with Class II and Class III skeletal open-bite malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to compare maxillary and mandibular molar heights and incisor inclinations in patients with skeletal open-bite Class II, patients with skeletal open-bite Class III, and an untreated control group. Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 70 orthodontic patients (34 men, 36 women) between 16 and 40 years of age were examined. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to facial growth pattern and overbite. The control group (n = 25) included normodivergent Class I subjects with adequate overbite; the skeletal open-bite Class II group (n = 25) and the skeletal open-bite Class III group (n = 20) included hyperdivergent Class II or Class III subjects with negative overbite. Measurements considered were ANB angle, palatal and mandibular plane angles, maxillary incisor palatal plane angulation, and mandibular incisor mandibular plane angulation, as well as the distance from the palatal or the mandibular plane to the mesial cusp of the molars. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the differences between the groups, followed by the Tukey post-hoc test. Additionally, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed. Significant differences in molar height were found (P palatal plane angulation was greater in the skeletal open-bite Class III group by approximately 6°. Mandibular incisor to mandibular plane angulation was 10° more lingual in the skeletal open-bite Class III group (P <0.001). The skeletal open-bite groups had greater molar heights than did the control group. The skeletal open-bite Class II group had more eruption of the mandibular molars. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the mandibular incisors were more lingual in the skeletal open-bite Class III group. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction.

  8. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor involving the maxillary antrum with displacement of the third molar: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar Mengji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of the jaw with a high rate of recurrence. The lesion commonly occurs in the mandibular molar-ramus area and is rarely seen in the maxilla. Its occurrence in the maxillary sinus along with a displaced third molar is very rare. This article reports a case of KCOT in a 15-year-old boy with a displaced third molar involving the right maxillary antrum.

  9. Endodontic and post-endodontic management of a fused molar

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    Ruchi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of fused teeth needs special care and attention to the bizarre anatomy. This paper describes root canal treatment of a fused carious tooth presenting with apical periodontitis. It is a rare case of fusion of the mandibular second molar with a paramolar. There is no literature regarding placement of crown over endodontically treated fused teeth. In this case, the fused teeth were endodontically treated and restored by a porcelain fused to metal crown.

  10. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-19

    May 19, 2011 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Oct-Dec 2012 • Vol 15 • Issue 4. Yakasai, et al.: Tubal molar pregnancy follow-up using serial βhCG measurements similar to other trophoblastic tumors.[6] The outcome of the treatment of these patients is similar to those coming with non-molar ectopic gestation.

  11. Restauraciones cerámicas en molares jóvenes con endodoncia Ceramics restorations in young molars with endodontic

    OpenAIRE

    M. Urdaneta Quintero; L. Yánez de Meléndez; J. Álvarez Zárraga; M. Jimeno Jiménez; C. Soto Mestre

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Efectuar restauraciones cerámicas Cerec (feldespática y de dióxido de circonio) en molares jóvenes con endodoncia, para prevenir complicaciones en el aparato estomatognático por la pérdida de estos dientes. Material y métodos: Se describe la confección de restauraciones cerámicas a nivel de la zona molar mandibular derecha de un paciente del género femenino de 18 años de edad, a quien se le realizó radiografía periapical, por presentar dolor espontáneo en el lado derecho mandibular....

  12. Mandibular lingual canals distribute to the dental crypts in prenatal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Kazunari; Fukami, Kaori; Kuribayashi, Ami; Shimoda, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2014-07-01

    To describe configurations of human prenatal mandibular, lingual canals using a limited-field cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to examine their origin and anatomical significance. Nine fetal mandibles were examined using a CBCT. Mandibular maturity was assessed according to the mandibular size measured directly and image findings on development of dental crypts. Mandibular, lingual canals and the related foramina (mandibular, mental, and lingual foramina) were observed on axial, sagittal, and cross-sectional images. The horizontal position of mental and lingual foramina was assessed by direct observation using a loupe. In all nine mandibles, CBCT images depicted three separate mandibular canals, which individually occurred at the ramus area. One was a short canal directly connecting to the permanent molar crypt. The other two showed a parallel course, following the mandibular corpus toward the frontal area; the upper one connected to the mental foramen, and the lower one distributed anterior area of canine and incisor crypts. Lingual foramina were observed bilaterally in eight of nine mandibles, whose horizontal position was lingual against the crypt of deciduous canine. The lingual canals occurred from lingual foramina, and connected to the close deciduous tooth crypt or the mandibular canal distributing in the frontal area. It was suggested human dentition could be developed by plural mandibular and lingual canals.

  13. Epidemiological survey on third molar agenesis and facial pattern among adolescents requiring orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Diego, Rafael; Montero, Javier; López-Valverde, Nansi; Ignacio de Nieves, José; Prados-Frutos, Juan-Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the association between facial pattern according to Ricketts cephalometric analysis, and prevalence of third molar agenesis, taking subject age and gender as control variables. Material and Methods An epidemiological survey was conducted based on a sample of 224 candidates for orthodontic treatment aged 12 to 24 (n=224). Third molar agenesis was recorded using Ricketts cephalometric analyses of lateral teleradiographs and panoramic radiographs. The risk for agenesis was predicted considering the 5 Vert Index parameters (facial axis, facial depth, mandibular plane angle, lower facial height and mandibular arch), facial type (brachyfacial, mesofacial, dolichofacial) and sociodemographic variables (age and sex), using odds ratio (OR) calculated by logistic regression. Results Third molar agenesis was observed in 25% of the sample. Risk for agenesis is significantly determined by sociodemographic factors (age, OR: 1.2), cephalic patterns (mesofacial vs dolichofacial, OR:4.3; and brachyfacial vs dolichofacial OR: 3.2) and cephalometric patterns (facial axis, OR: 0.8; lower facial height, OR: 0.8; and mandibular plane angle, OR:0.9). Conclusions Facial parameters (facial axis, lower facial height, and mandibular plane angle) proved to be strong predictors of the risk for third molar agenesis, the prevalence of agenesis being significantly lower in dolichofacial individuals. Key words:Facial Pattern, Ricketts Analysis, Third Molar Agenesis. PMID:29075410

  14. Articulación del Tercer Sector en España

    OpenAIRE

    Ariño Villarroya, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    El artículo analiza la naturaleza e identidad del Tercer Sector en España definido como espacio plural articulado para la producción de bienestar y democracia y cuyos rasgos concretos dependen del régimen de bienestar en el que se incardina. A partir de aquí se analiza la doble visión sociológica sobre la baja articulación del Tercer Sector: como situación provisional previa a la madurez organizativa y como naturaleza específica del Tercer Sector cuya dificultad de articulación se debe a su h...

  15. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. G. Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  16. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane.

  17. Familial aggregation of mandibular prognathism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular prognathism is a hereditary condition where there is an excess growth of the mandible in relation to the maxilla that can be associated with maxillary retrusion, mandibular protrusion, or both. Skeletal mandibular prognathism is most prevalent in Eastern Asian populations. This paper focuses on a Korean family with skeletal mandibular prognathism that was inherited through three generations. Apparently, neither mandible nor maxilla is retruded in the affected individuals, but there is a concave facial profile. The dentition has a class I occlusion with skeletal mandibular prognathism, and the only way to treat this case would be orthognathic surgery with the help of orthodontic appliances.

  18. Biomechanics in Molar Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón Giraldo, Juan Esteban; Castaño, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate molar control is one of the difficulties that arise during mechanical treatment. When molar control is handled efficiently, it facilitates precise control of forces and moments, which increases the effectiveness of biomechanics. Knowledge of 4 x 2, 6 x 2 partial systems and the transpalatal bar with its different forms of activation offer a number of advantages that make it possible to optimize orthodontic results. The aim of this article is to clarify concepts, specify possible tr...

  19. A comparison of the effects of 2 mandibular anchorage systems used with a 3-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Candan; Gülsen, Ayşe; Keykubat, Alaaddin; Ucem, Tuba Tortop; Yüksel, Sema

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 mandibular anchorage systems used with a 3-dimensional bimetric maxillary distalizing arch. The Wilson rapid molar distalization appliance for Class II molar correction was used with 26 patients; two groups of 13 patients each were formed. In the first group (9 girls, 4 boys with a mean age 11 years 5 months), mandibular anchorage was gained by a modified lip bumper with a standard lingual arch of 0.9-mm stainless steel. The second group (7 girls, 6 boys, with a mean age of 13 years) had a 0.016 x 0.016-inch utility arch, with a 3-dimensional lingual arch for anchorage. Cephalometric radiographs were taken before and after maxillary first molar distalization. The treatment results showed that the extrusion of the mandibular first molar was statistically significant in both the modified lip bumper and utility arch groups (P lip bumper and utility arch groups (P lip bumper group (P lip bumper group (P < .05). Both anchor units similarly enhanced the mandibular first molar anchorage. However, particularly in the utility group, mandibular incisor anchorage control seemed to be inadequate.

  20. Rapid palatal expansion effects on mandibular transverse dimensions in unilateral posterior crossbite patients: a three-dimensional digital imaging study

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    Alessandro Ugolini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate indirect effects on mandibular arch dimensions, 1 year after rapid palatal expansion (RPE therapy. Methods Thirty-three patients in mixed dentition (mean age 8.8 years showing unilateral posterior crossbite and maxillary deficiency were treated with a RPE (Haas type cemented on the first permanent molars. Treatment protocol consisted of two turns per day until slight overcorrection of the molar transverse relationship occurred. The Haas expander was kept on the teeth as a passive retainer for an average of 6 months. Study models were taken prior (T1 and 15 months on average (T2 after expansion. A control group of 15 untreated subjects with maxillary deficiency (mean age 8.3 years was also recorded with a 12-month interval. Stone casts were digitized with a 3D scanner (3Shape, DK. Results In the treated group, both mandibular intermolar distance (+1.9 mm and mandibular molar angulation (+9° increased. Mandibular incisor angulation showed an increase of 1.9°. There was little effect on intercanine distance and canine angulation. Controls showed a reduction in transverse arch dimension and a decrease in molar and canine angulation values. Conclusions RPE protocol has indirect widening effects on the mandibular incisors and first molars.

  1. El tercer mundo representado: la imagen como nido de estereotipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Martín Nieto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las miradas que se lanzan a los países en vías de desarrollo desde los que no lo son siguen siendo miopes y estereotipadas. Se fomenta, además, a través de las representaciones que se ofrecen de ellos en los medios de comunicación de masas. La imagen que llega a los países del conocido como primer mundo pasa por el tamiz de la espectacularidad de las guerras, los desastres naturales y lo sugerente de la publicidad.Las ONG, las instituciones que más conocen estos países, sus culturas y sus gentes, aún deben trabajar para crear una percepción más cercana y certera de las realidades del Tercer Mundo. Las imágenes que utilizan en la actualidad han evolucionado y se han regulado por códigos deontológicos, pero no consiguen eliminar la imagen de estas sociedades como alejadas, dependientes e infantilizadas.

  2. Influence of changing the chewing region on mandibular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashii, K; Tomida, M; Yamashita, S

    2009-03-01

    In the shortened dental arch condition, little is known of how patients adapt their jaw function during mastication to the new oral environment. This study aimed to investigate the changes in mandibular movements when the chewing region was changed from the first molar to the first premolar. Thirty clinical residents with natural dentitions were recruited. The subjects were asked to chew a piece of beef jerky using either the first molar or the first premolar on the preferred chewing side. Three-dimensional trajectories of lower incisors and both condyles were analysed using a jaw movement tracking device with six degrees of freedom during the period between the onset and offset of electromyographic bursts from the masseter and anterior temporal muscles. The closing angle of the lower incisors for first premolar chewing was narrower in comparison with that for first molar chewing (p < 0.05). The lengths of the condylar trajectories and the maximum velocities of the condylar movement for first premolar chewing were smaller and slower, respectively, in comparison with those for first molar chewing (both sides; p < 0.01). The mandibular movement during mastication might be changed to adapt the premolar chewing because of a loss of posterior occlusal supports.

  3. Variables preoperatorias e intraoperatorias asociadas al aumento del tiempo quirúrgico en la exodoncia de terceros molares inferiores Pre-surgical and surgical factors related to increase of surgical time in lower third molar remove

    OpenAIRE

    Olate, S; J.P. Alister; R Alveal; Soto, M.; H.D. de Miranda Chaves Netto; Thomas, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La exodoncia de tercer molar es un procedimiento frecuente en odontología, lo que exige conocer los factores que pueden anticipar el tiempo quirúrgico y sus características. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer los factores asociados al aumento del tiempo quirúrgico (ATQ) en la exodoncia de terceros molares inferiores (3M). Material y método: 145 sujetos de entre 15 y 40 años fueron seleccionados desde tres centros quirúrgicos de Temuco (Chile), en los que fueron realiza...

  4. Radiological age estimation: based on third molar mineralization and eruption in Turkish children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayi, Beytullah; Kaya, Ahsen; Kolusayın, Melek Ozlem; Karadayi, Sükriye; Afsin, Hüseyin; Ozaslan, Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Radiographic evaluation of mineralization and eruption stages of third molars using dental panoramic radiographies can be an efficient tool for chronological age estimation in both forensic sciences and legal medicine. The third molar tooth is utilized for dental age estimation about the age span of 15-23 years because it represents the only tooth still in development. The aim of this study is to obtain and analyze data regarding third molar development and eruption in Turkish population for dental age estimation. A total of 744 dental panoramic radiographies of 394 female and 350 male subjects aged between 8 and 22 years were examined. Third molar development was determined according to the Nolla classification system, and eruption was assessed relative to the alveolar bone level. Mandibular and maxillary third molars were generally found at similar stages of development on both sides. Nolla stage 6 (completed crown calcification) was reached at around the age of 15 in both maxillary and mandibular third molars in both sexes. Alveolar emergence was at around the age of 16 in males and around age of 17 in females. Although third molars' eruption shows greater variability than development of third molars, data which were obtained from this study about eruption of these teeth can be supportive to development data for age estimation.

  5. Bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary premolars associated with unusual clinical complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth in comparison to the normal dentition. Their prevalence varies between 0.1% and 3.8%. Supernumeraries are more common in permanent dentition and its incidence is higher in maxillary incisor region, followed by maxillary third molar and mandibular molar, premolar, canine, and lateral incisor. The prevalence of supernumerary premolars is between 0.075-0.26%, and they may occur in single or multiple numbers Bilateral occurrence is uncommon and large percentage of supernumerary premolars remains impacted, unerupted, and usually asymptomatic; radiograph plays an important role in diagnosis of these. The present paper reports a case of bilaterally impacted completely developed supernumerary premolars associated with common clinical complication in unusual manner along with taurodontism of the upper and lower molars.

  6. Prevalence of Taurodont molars in a North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Arya, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    It is very important for dentists to be familiar with anomalies of teeth not only for the clinical complications but also their management. Taurodontism also provides a valuable clue in detecting its association with various syndromes and other systemic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taurodont molars among a North Indian population. A total of 1000 patients' full-mouth periapical radiographs were screened. The radiographs were evaluated under optimal conditions using double magnifying glasses. A total of 7615 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of Taurodont teeth (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Twenty-eight patients were found to have a Taurodont molar (11 women and 17 men [P = 0.250]). The prevalence of Taurodont molar was 2.8%. Males had a higher prevalence rate than females (3.4% vs. 2.2%, respectively). A cluster analysis of total Taurodonts in the mandible (45%) versus maxilla (55%) of both males and females combined showed a statistically significant difference (P Taurodontism is basically based on racial expression in different populations. These variations in prevalence between different populations may be due to ethnic variations. The occurrence of Taurodont molars among this Indian population was rare.

  7. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, N S; Bryan, R A E; Duggal, M S

    2008-12-01

    Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a qualitative defect of 1-4 first permanent molars with or without the maxillary and mandibular permanent incisors. It seems to have been recognised first in the 1970s and prevalence varies between 2.8% and 25%, dependent upon the study. The dental literature was searched using a number of key terms entered into MEDLINE, the reference list of each paper as located was examined for further papers that had been missed in the initial search. The review of the literature showed that teeth that are affected indicate a systemic cause at around the time of birth; investigators have put forward a number of possible causes; asthma, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, antibiotics, dioxins in mother's milk, tonsillitis and tonsillectomy and exanthamatous fevers of childhood. However, at the present time the aetiology remains unclear. Treatment of the affected permanent first molars can include restorations using adhesive intra-coronal restorations to extra-coronal restorations (e.g. preformed metal crowns). There is little evidence to support one option over another. In severe cases extraction at the optimum time may be the best option; allowing the permanent second molars to come forwards. There is little improvement in affected anterior teeth with microabrasion and direct or indirect composite resin restorations may be appropriate in some children. Ultrastructural and biochemical make up of MIH affected teeth seem to have been investigated less than other areas. It is important that children with MIH are diagnosed as early as possible and managed appropriately; this will involve multidisciplinary input.

  8. Morphological analysis of mandibular posterior edentulous bones using cross-sectional CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sul Mi; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Seok; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, Tae In [Hallym Univ, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphologic features of posterior edentulous mandible for Korea patients using cross-sectional CT images. Computed tomographic cross-sectional views taken in 2004 and 2005 at Seoul National University Dental Hospital were analyzed by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. Four indices were measured to meet the purpose of this study: 1) thd horizontal distance between the alveolar crest and mandibular canal (Type), 2) the angle of the mandibular long axis (Angle), 3) the bucco-lingual location of mandibular canal, and 4) the depth of the submandibular fossa. The averages and standard deviations of the measurements were compared according to the location (the first and second molar area) and sex of the patients. Statistically significant difference was found in Type, Angle, and submandibular fossa depth between the first and second molar area (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between men and women in any of the measured indies. Most of the mandibular canals were located in lingual side of posterior mandible. More care should be taken when an implant is installed on the mandibular second molar area.

  9. The influence of age, sex, population group, and dentition on the mandibular angle as measured on a South African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettlé, Anna C; Becker, Piet J; de Villiers, Elzabe; Steyn, Maryna

    2009-08-01

    The mandibular angle is measured in physical anthropological assessments of human remains to possibly assist with the determination of sex and population affinity. The purpose of this investigation was to establish how the mandibular angle changes with age and loss of teeth among the sexes in South African population groups. The angles of 653 dried adult mandibles from the Pretoria Bone Collection were measured with a mandibulometer. Males and females of both South African whites and blacks were included. To compensate for imbalances in numbers among subgroups, type IV ANOVA testing was applied. No association was found between age and angle within either of the populations, within sexes, or within dentition groups. The angle was the most obtuse in individuals without molars and with an uneven distribution of molars, and most acute in the group with an even distribution of molars on both sides. Statistically significant differences (P population groups and se