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Sample records for terbutaline treatment aggravates

  1. Comparison of nebulized terbutaline and subcutaneous epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, D L; Goetz, D R; Kohen, D P; Fifield, G C

    1985-03-01

    Nineteen children who presented for treatment of acute asthma symptoms were studied. They were randomized to receive either subcutaneous epinephrine 0.01 mg/kg (0.3 mg maximum) or nebulized terbutaline 1 mg in 2 mL normal saline. The drugs were administered using the double-blind method. Each patient received either subcutaneous epinephrine with concurrent nebulized normal saline or nebulized terbutaline with a concurrent subcutaneous injection of normal saline. Depending on the patient's clinical status, up to three doses of the same drug and placebo were administered. Pulmonary functions (FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75), heart rate, respiratory rate, and pulmonary index were obtained before treatment, at 20 minutes, and at one hour after the final treatment. Except for the baseline respiratory rate, the mean number of treatments, pulmonary index, heart rate, and respiratory rate (at 20 minutes and one hour) were not statistically different. Pulmonary functions were not significantly different at any time. The one-hour post-treatment pulmonary functions (percentage of predicted normal) for terbutaline and epinephrine were FEV1, 49.2 +/- 18.4% and 49.4 +/- 16.9%; FVC, 72.7 +/- 23.4% and 62.7 +/- 21.6%; and FEF25-75, 31.8 +/- 18.6% and 39.0 +/- 12.2%, respectively. The data presented support our hypothesis that terbutaline by nebulization is at least as effective as epinephrine in the management of children with similar degrees of pulmonary obstruction.

  2. Comparison of nebulized terbutaline (TERB) and subcutaneous epinephrine (EPI) in the treatment of acute asthma.

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    Tinkelman, D G; Vanderpool, G E; Carroll, M S; Lotner, G Z; Spangler, D L

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nebulized terbutaline 5 mg vs. subcutaneous epinephrine (1/1000, 0.3 cc) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma in adult patients. Patients with a known diagnosis of asthma, who presented to the investigators in acute respiratory distress, without any previous adrenergic agents for six hours, were the subjects for this study. There were 33 patients enrolled in the study between 16 and 64 years of age. The results indicate both treatment groups gave significant increases in pulmonary function at all times when compared to baseline (p less than 0.001). Nebulized terbutaline and subcutaneous epinephrine appeared equally effective in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma, without significant differences in bronchodilator effectiveness or side effects.

  3. Subcutaneous epinephrine versus nebulized terbutaline in the emergency treatment of asthma.

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    Pancorbo, S; Fifield, G; Davies, S; Fraser, G; Helmink, R; Heissler, J

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of aerosolized terbutaline compared with subcutaneous epinephrine in the treatment of acute asthma was studied. The study population consisted of 30 men and women, 17 to 35 years old, who were diagnosed at a hospital emergency department as having acute asthmatic attacks. Heart rate, blood pressure, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured on admission and 5, 15, and 30 minutes after initial drug treatment. One group received an initial dose of epinephrine hydrochloride (1:1000) 0.3 ml subcutaneously and a second, identical dose 15 minutes later. The other group received terbutaline sulfate 1 mg (for patients weighing less than or equal to 40 kg) or 2 mg (for patients weighing greater than 40 kg) by nebulizer over a five-minute period. Treatment was considered successful in patients whose PEFR was both greater than 60 liters/min and more than 16% greater than the individual's baseline PEFR. Improvements in the PEFR and in the ratio of the measured PEFR to the expected PEFR were compared for the two test groups. Five minutes after the initial drug administration, the mean improvement in PEFR was significantly greater in the terbutaline group (40% improvement) than in the epinephrine group (17% improvement). At 15 and 30 minutes, there were no significant differences in mean improvement in PEFR, but a trend favoring epinephrine was observed. The numbers of patients showing greater than or equal to 16% improvement in PEFR over baseline were not significantly different between the two groups. For patients in both drug groups with initial PEFR less than 60 liters/min, PEFR did not exceed 100 liters/min after treatment. No significant effect on heart rate was observed after administration of either drug. Aerosolized terbutaline is as effective as subcutaneous epinephrine in management of patients with acute bronchoconstricting episodes.

  4. Disregarding Graduated Treatment: Why Transfer Aggravates Recidivism

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    Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…

  5. Pain in Breast Cancer Treatment: Aggravating Factors and Coping Mechanisms

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    Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pain in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema and the characteristics of aggravating factors and coping mechanisms. The study was conducted in the Clinica Godoy, São Jose do Rio Preto, with a group of 46 women who had undergone surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. The following variables were evaluated: type and length of surgery; number of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions; continued feeling of the removed breast (phantom limb, infection, intensity of pain, and factors that improve and worsen the pain. The percentage of events was used for statistical analysis. About half the participants (52.1% performed modified radical surgery, with 91.3% removing only one breast; 82.6% of the participants did not perform breast reconstruction surgery. Insignificant pain was reported by 32.60% of the women and 67.3% said they suffered pain; it was mild in 28.8% of the cases (scale 1–5, moderate in 34.8% (scale 6–9, and severe in 4.3%. The main mechanisms used to cope with pain were painkillers in 41.30% of participants, rest in 21.73%, religious ceremonies in 17.39%, and chatting with friends in 8.69%. In conclusion, many mastectomized patients with lymphedema complain of pain, but pain is often underrecognized and undertreated.

  6. [Characteristic and treatment of acute aggravating cubital tunnel syndrome].

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    Chen, Ran; Kan, Shilian; Li, Jin

    2015-11-03

    To investigate the causes and the characteristics of acute aggravating cubital tunnel syndrome. The enrolling criteria of subjects were as follows: (1) Patients with manifestation of cubital tunnel syndrome for more than 6 months; (2) acute exacerbation of the disease for no more than 4 weeks. The clinical data from March 2011 to December 2014 was collected and analyzed retrospectively. Twelve cases aged 52 to 65 met the enrolling criteria and were included in this study, and among them 10 patients were male, 2 were female; 5 cases were on the left and the other 7 on the right. All of them had some degree of cubital tunnel syndrome symptoms before the onset of acute exacerbation. When nerve decompression and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve was performed, the elbow joint cysts which squeezed the ulnar nerve were found. The cysts were then resected. In all 12 cases, the compression symptoms of ulnar nerve were relieved after surgery. The mean follow up period was 13 months, ranging from 6 to 45 months. According to Gu Yudong functional evaluation criteria for cubital tunnel syndrome, 2 of the patients can be judged as "Excellent", 8 "good" and 2 "acceptable" at the follow-up. Cyst compression may induce the acute exacerbation of ulnar nerve symptom in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical for these patients.

  7. Bambuterol: dose response study of a new terbutaline prodrug in asthma

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    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Laursen, L C; Madsen, F

    1986-01-01

    to the plasma terbutaline concentration in each treatment group, so bambuterol produced more prolonged bronchodilatation than treatment with terbutaline. Tremor and cardiac side-effects were most pronounced after administration of bambuterol 0.34 mg/kg. No severe side-effects were seen. Bambuterol produced...

  8. Comparison of nebulized epinephrine and terbutaline in patients with acute severe asthma: a controlled trial.

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    Adoun, Michèle; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Doré, Pierre; Rouffineau, Jean; Godet, Cendrine; Robert, René

    2004-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of nebulized adrenaline and terbutaline in acute severe asthma. Prospective pilot randomized double-blind cross-over trial. Emergency department of a university hospital. Thirty-eight patients admitted with severe acute asthma. Each patient received adrenaline (3 mg) and terbutaline (5 mg) nebulizations over 20 min in randomized order. Additional treatment comprised methylprednisolone, intravenous hydration, and oxygen. The efficacy and tolerability of the two drugs were evaluated at the end of each nebulization as well as potential synergistic effects. Eighteen patients received adrenaline first, and 20 received terbutaline first. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) improved significantly in both groups after the first nebulization (from 157 L/min +/- 111 L/min to 199 L/min +/- 134 L/min with adrenaline, P nebulization. No adverse effects were observed. Adrenaline nebulization was as effective and as well tolerated as terbutaline in acute severe asthma. No synergistic effect between terbutaline and adrenaline was observed.

  9. Potentiation of the adverse effects of intravenous terbutaline by oral theophylline.

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    Smith, S R; Kendall, M J

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the influence of therapeutic plasma concentrations of theophylline on some of the unwanted responses to intravenous terbutaline in normal subjects. There was a significantly greater fall in serum potassium and rise in plasma glucose, pulse rate and systolic blood pressure in response to an intravenous infusion of terbutaline when theophylline was present compared with when terbutaline was given alone. These drugs are commonly used together in the treatment of acute asthma and potentiation of side effects may be hazardous. We suggest monitoring of the serum potassium when these drugs are used together during acute exacerbations of asthma. PMID:3707814

  10. Terbutaline nebulization and epinephrine injection in treating acute asthmatic children.

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    Lin, Y Z; Hsieh, K H; Chang, L F; Chu, C Y

    1996-05-01

    Ninety children with acute asthma, equally divided into two study groups, were studied to compare the efficacy and safety of nebulized terbutaline with injected epinephrine in the treatment of acute exacerbation. The terbutaline group received 2 ml (5,0 mg) terbutaline solution diluted with 2 ml 0.9% saline for inhalation over 10 minutes; the epinephrine group received 0.01 ml/kg of 1:1000 epinephrine (maximum 0,3 ml) through subcutaneous injection at deltoid area. Spirometry, pulse oximetry, and clinical severity scoring system were evaluated at baseline and again 15 minutes after treatment. The baseline data of the two groups were not significantly different. The clinical severity score and spirometry of both groups were significantly improved after treatment. Compared with the terbutaline group, the epinephrine group had better mean oxygen saturation (SaO2; p epinephrine treatment was more effective in the improvement of FEV1, FEF25-75%, and oxygen saturation (SaO2) (p = 0.011, 0.012, and 0.006, respectively). A Significantly higher rate of adverse effects occurred in patients given epinephrine (47% vs 11%, p = 0.0002); these included pallor, tremor, dizziness, headache, palpitation, soreness of legs, numbness of extremities, cold sweating, general weakness and nausea. Considering the general trend to noninvasive therapy in children and the more frequent adverse effects after epinephrine injection, such nebulized beta-2 agonists as terbutaline appear preferable for initial therapy of acute asthma if oxygen is supplemented to prevent possible hypoxemia. However, parenteral epinephrine still is worth trying, particularly in any severe, life-threatening attack.

  11. Terbutaline: level the playing field for inhaled β2-agonists by introducing a dosing and urine threshold

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    Jacobson, Glenn A; Hostrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Terbutaline, a short-acting β2-agonist similar to salbutamol, is widely used in Europe in the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Unlike salbutamol, terbutaline requires therapeutic use exemption (TUE) for therapeutic inhaled use in competitive sport. There is now...... limits for other common β2-agonists. This allows athletes to use these drugs for therapeutic purposes while minimising the potential for doping and administrative burden of TUEs. However, no such threshold limits currently exist for terbutaline. For terbutaline, athletes can be granted a TUE...

  12. Effects of Dietary Beta-Adrenergic Agonist, Terbutaline, on Carcass Characteristics and Blood Attributes in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Boostan MJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary Terbutaline, a beta adrenergic agonist, on carcass characteristics and blood attributes in 288 Japanese quails was studied from 21 through 49 days of age. Dietary treatments included four levels of Terbutaline [0 (T0, 1 (T1, 3 (T3, and 5 (T5 mg/Kg of the diet]. Quails were bled at the end of the trial for biochemical assays and the carcass characteristics were then measured. The relative weights of breast and drumstick muscles were increased in birds treated with 3 and 5 mg/Kg diet of Terbutaline (P. Regardless of Terbutaline dietary levels included, the weight of subcutaneous and abdominal fat pad was significantly decreased in treated birds (P. The relative weight of heart was increased in T3 treatment group and that of liver was increased in all birds receiving Terbutaline as compared with the control group (P. Irrespective of the dosing level, the percentage of protein in breast muscle was higher in Terbutaline-treated birds (P. However, the fat percentage in drumstick muscle was reduced in birds treated with 3 and 5 mg/Kg diet of Terbutaline, but its protein percentage was increased in T1, T3, and T5 (P. A significant increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids was found in all birds that received Terbutaline (P as compared with the control. Overally, the data suggested that dietary Terbutaline had a profound positive effect on carcass composition, but a minimal one on the plasma metabolites (glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride of Japanese quails.

  13. Terbutaline

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    ... immediately: increased difficulty breathing tightening of the throat fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat chest pain seizures If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  14. Acute kidney injury aggravated by treatment initiation with apixaban: Another twist of anticoagulant-related nephropathy

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    Sergey V. Brodsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant-related nephropathy (ARN was initially described in patients on warfarin (as warfarin-related nephropathy and recently in those using dabigatran. Herein, we report clinical history and kidney biopsy findings in a patient on apixaban (Eliquis. Initiation of treatment with apixaban resulted in aggravation of preexisting mild acute kidney injury (AKI. A few days after apixaban therapy, the patient became oligoanuric, and kidney biopsy showed severe acute tubular necrosis with numerous occlusive red blood cell casts. Only one out of 68 glomeruli with open capillary loops had small segmental cellular crescent. Therefore, there was major discrepancy between the degree of glomerular injury and the glomerular hematuria. Considering that the onset of this AKI was associated with apixaban treatment initiation, we propose that this patient had ARN associated with factor Xa inhibitor (apixaban, which has not previously been described. Monitoring of kidney function is recommended after initiation of anticoagulant therapy.

  15. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment

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    Miyauchi Akira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients. Methods Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment. Results In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI were found for 44 patients (69%. For 15 (23% of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%. Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%, and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%. The remaining 5 patients (8% had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351 greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305 lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%. Conclusion The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of

  16. IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Treatment Aggravates Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis and Sepsis in Mice.

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    Abukar Ali

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra is the primary therapy against autoinflammatory syndromes with robust efficacy in reducing systemic inflammation and associated organ injury. However, patients receiving IL-1Ra might be at increased risk of acquiring serious infections.To study whether IL-1Ra treatment deteriorates Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus septic arthritis and sepsis in mice.NMRI mice were treated with anakinra (IL-1Ra daily for 7 days before intravenous inoculation with S. aureus strain Newman in both arthritogenic and lethal doses. The clinical course of septic arthritis, histopathological and radiological changes of the joints, as well as the mortality were compared between IL-1Ra treated and control groups.IL-1Ra treated mice developed more frequent and severe clinical septic arthritis. Also, the frequency of polyarthritis was significantly higher in the mice receiving IL-1Ra therapy. In line with the data from clinical arthritis, both histological and radiological signs of septic arthritis were more pronounced in IL-1Ra treated group compared to controls. Importantly, the mortality of IL-1Ra treated mice was significantly higher than PBS treated controls.IL-1Ra treatment significantly aggravated S. aureus induced septic arthritis and increased the mortality in these mice.

  17. Multiple anomalies, hypokalaemic paralysis and partial symptomatic relief by terbutaline

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    Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A; Jensen, B M

    1998-01-01

    features resembling Treacher Collins' syndrome. The main symptom was hypokalaemic paralysis. The episodes were accompanied by a lowered intracellular potassium content and an increase in intracellular sodium. Treatment with terbutaline, a Na/K-ATPase-stimulating drug, resulted in attack-free periods......In this paper a follow-up is presented of a case report initially described by Andersen in 1971. The patient presented with a syndrome including elements of familial periodic paralysis with hypokalaemia, long QT syndrome, ventricular ectopy, myopathy with fibre-type disproportion and dysmorphic...

  18. Effect of terbutaline and bambuterol on immediate-type allergic skin responses and mediator release in human skin.

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    Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    2003-09-01

    Beta-2 agonists are potent inhibitors of mast cell degranulation in vitro. Intradermally injected they also inhibit mast cell activation in human skin in vivo. To what extent orally administered beta(2)-agonists inhibit mast cell degranulation and allergic skin responses in vivo in daily recommended doses remains unclear. The main purpose was to study the effects of oral administered terbutaline and bambuterol on allergen- and codeine-induced histamine release and skin responses in intact human skin in vivo. In addition, control studies were carried out with intradermally injected terbutaline. Ten allergic subjects were randomized to receive bambuterol (10 mg tablets twice daily), terbutaline (7.5 mg controlled release tablets twice daily) and corresponding placebo for 5 days with a washout phase of 3 days between treatments in a double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over trial. The patients were studied at the fifth day of each regimen, i.e. at day 5, 13, and 21. Allergen- and codeine-induced histamine release was measured by microdialysis technique. Wheal and flare reactions to allergen, codeine, and histamine were measured planimetrically. Measurements were performed in the morning on day 5 on each regimen before medication and for additional 5 h after administration of the morning dose. In a separate series of experiments in another 10 allergic patients, 1-1,000 nM (0.05-50 pmoles) of terbutaline was injected intradermally for measurement of histamine release, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis and skin responses. Neither orally administered terbutaline nor bambuterol significantly reduced allergen- or codeine-induced histamine release. Flare reactions to allergen, codeine and histamine remained unaffected which was also the case for the majority of the wheal reactions. In comparison, intradermally injected terbutaline significantly reduced allergen-induced histamine release, PGD(2) synthesis, and skin reactions. Codeine-induced histamine release remained unaffected

  19. Terbutaline accumulates in blood and urine following daily therapeutic inhalation

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    Krogh, Nanna; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Dyreborg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated pharmacokinetics of terbutaline after single and seven consecutive days of inhalation in exercising trained men. METHODS: Twelve healthy young trained men underwent two pharmacokinetic trials comparing single dose (2 mg) and seven consecutive days (2 mg×d) of inha......PURPOSE: This study investigated pharmacokinetics of terbutaline after single and seven consecutive days of inhalation in exercising trained men. METHODS: Twelve healthy young trained men underwent two pharmacokinetic trials comparing single dose (2 mg) and seven consecutive days (2 mg......×d) of inhaled terbutaline. After inhalation of terbutaline at each trial, subjects performed 90 min of bike ergometer exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption after which they stayed inactive. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after inhalation of terbutaline. Samples were analyzed by high...

  20. Effect of terbutaline on mucociliary clearance in asthmatic and healthy subjects after inhalation from a pressurised inhaler and a dry powder inhaler.

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    Mortensen, J; Groth, S; Lange, P; Hermansen, F

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: beta Agonists have been shown to increase mucociliary clearance in some studies but not all. Whether the formulation of beta agonists affects mucociliary clearance is not known but may be important as the use of dry powder inhalers increases. METHODS: The effect of different methods of administration of inhaled terbutaline on mucociliary clearance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was assessed in 10 patients with asthma and 10 healthy subjects. Terbutaline (1 mg) was administered through a metered dose inhaler with a spacer (Nebuhaler) or a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler), or both treatments were given, in a four way double blind, double dummy trial. Mucociliary clearance was measured by bronchoscintigraphy. RESULTS: Clearance of radioactivity from the lobar bronchi increased in the asthmatic patients by a median of 32% after terbutaline was given by metered dose inhaler and 55% after a combined dose of 2 mg from both inhalers (1 mg from each) compared with placebo but by only 9% after 1 mg of terbutaline was given by a dry powder inhaler. In the healthy subjects mucociliary clearance increased by 51% when terbutaline was given by a dry powder inhaler, by 66% when given by a metered dose inhaler, and by 66% when given by both inhalers combined. The effect of terbutaline on FEV1 was the same with each of the inhalers. CONCLUSION: Despite similar changes in FEV1 with the two formulations terbutaline increased mucociliary clearance significantly in asthmatic and healthy subjects when inhaled from a metered dose inhaler whereas when it was inhaled from a dry powder inhaler its effect was significant only in healthy subjects. The reason for the difference in asthmatic subjects is unclear, but may be associated with differences in the deposition of terbutaline. Images PMID:1771605

  1. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

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    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  2. Aerosolized terbutaline sulfate--an evalution of efficacy and side effects in patients with reversible airway disease.

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    Trautlein, J; Allegra, J; Gillin, M

    1977-01-01

    Aerosolized terbutaline sulfate at a dose of 0.50 mg has been shown to produce significant bronchodilation in patients with reversible airway disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 0.50 mg terbutaline aerosol used on a regular dosage schedule over a six-week period. Sixteen ambulant patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a component of reversible airway disease were evaluated. The patients were tested at two-week intervals during a six-week period. The patients abstained from all bronchodilatory medications for at least 10 hours prior to the time of evaluation. The evaluation consisted of baseline pulmonary function tests, ECG, CBC, urinalysis, and renal and liver function tests. After the terbutaline was administered, a rhythm strip and pulmonary function tests were repeated at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Throughout the six-week study, there was a statistically significant increase in FEV1.0 and MMEFR (P less than 0.001): deltaFEV1.0 (ml) 740 (63%) 550 (45%) 340 (25%) 320 (25%) deltaMMEFR (liters/min) 42 (74%) 29 (46%) 28 (43%) 36 (42%). No abnormal laboratory results or paradoxical bronchospasm were noted during the study period; however, sympathomimetic side effects were observed. Aerosolized terbutaline sulfate (0.50 mg) when used on a regular schedule over a six-week period is effective in the treatment of reversible airway disease.

  3. Of Malthus and Methuselah: does longevity treatment aggravate global catastrophic risks?

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    Jebari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Global catastrophic risk is a term that refers to the risk of the occurrence of an event that kills at least millions of people across several continents. While it has been argued by a number of scholars that one major potential risk comes from technology, the obscure nature of future technologies makes it difficult to utilize traditional probabilistic risk for the meaningful study of these risks. This article describes an alternative approach and applies it to a research program that has attracted a considerable amount of resources recently: namely longevity research. The aim of this research is to delay or reverse the ageing process. This article argues that this research program is much more risky or less beneficial than its proponents argue. In particular, they tend to underestimate the concerns associated with the potentially drastic population growth that longevity treatment could cause. The ethical benefit often ascribed to longevity treatment is that such treatment would add more subjective life-years that are worth living. However, in light of contemporary environmental problems, such an increase of the human population might be reckless. Drastically reducing fertility to reduce risks associated with environmental stress would make the benefits of such technology much less compelling.

  4. Effectiveness of terbutaline pump for the prevention of preterm birth. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Laura M Gaudet

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous terbutaline (SQ terbutaline infusion by pump is used in pregnant women as a prolonged (beyond 48-72 h maintenance tocolytic following acute treatment of preterm contractions. The effectiveness and safety of this maintenance tocolysis have not been clearly established. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous (SQ terbutaline infusion by pump for maintenance tocolysis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, post-marketing surveillance data and grey literature were searched up to April 2011 for relevant experimental and observational studies. Two randomized trials, one nonrandomized trial, and 11 observational studies met inclusion criteria. Non-comparative studies were considered only for pump-related harms. We excluded case-reports but sought FDA summaries of post-marketing surveillance data. Non-English records without an English abstract were excluded. Evidence of low strength from observational studies with risk of bias favored SQ terbutaline pump for the outcomes of delivery at <32 and <37 weeks, mean days of pregnancy prolongation, and neonatal death. Observational studies of medium to high risk of bias also demonstrated benefit for other surrogate outcomes, such as birthweight and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. Several cases of maternal deaths and maternal cardiovascular events have been reported in patients receiving terbutaline tocolysis.Although evidence suggests that pump therapy may be beneficial as maintenance tocolysis, our confidence in its validity and reproducibility is low, suggesting that its use should be limited to the research setting. Concerns regarding safety of therapy persist.

  5. Influence of exercise in normal and hot ambient conditions on the pharmacokinetics of inhaled terbutaline in trained men

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    Kreiberg, Michael; Becker, V; Jessen, S

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of inhaled terbutaline at rest and after exercise in normal and hot ambient conditions with respect to doping analysis. Thirteen trained young men participated in the study. Urine and blood samples were collected after inhalation of 4 mg terbutaline du......, EXHs results in higher urine concentrations of terbutaline. This should be considered when evaluating doping cases of terbutaline....

  6. Erosive arthritis and hepatic granuloma formation induced by peptidoglycan polysaccharide in rats is aggravated by prasugrel treatment.

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    Analia E Garcia

    Full Text Available Administration of the thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, clopidogrel, increased the erosive arthritis induced by peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS in rats or by injection of the arthritogenic K/BxN serum in mice. To determine if the detrimental effects are caused exclusively by clopidogrel, we evaluated prasugrel, a third-generation thienopyridine pro-drug, that contrary to clopidogrel is mostly metabolized into its active metabolite in the intestine. Prasugrel effects were examined on the PG-PS-induced arthritis rat model. Erosive arthritis was induced in Lewis rats followed by treatment with prasugrel for 21 days. Prasugrel treated arthritic animals showed a significant increase in the inflammatory response, compared with untreated arthritic rats, in terms of augmented macroscopic joint diameter associated with significant signs of inflammation, histomorphometric measurements of the hind joints and elevated platelet number. Moreover, fibrosis at the pannus, assessed by immunofluorescence of connective tissue growth factor, was increased in arthritic rats treated with prasugrel. In addition to the arthritic manifestations, hepatomegaly, liver granulomas and giant cell formation were observed after PG-PS induction and even more after prasugrel exposure. Cytokine plasma levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, MIP1 alpha, MCP1, IL-17 and RANTES were increased in arthritis-induced animals. IL-10 plasma levels were significantly decreased in animals treated with prasugrel. Overall, prasugrel enhances inflammation in joints and liver of this animal model. Since prasugrel metabolites inhibit neutrophil function ex-vivo and the effects of both clopidogrel and prasugrel metabolites on platelets are identical, we conclude that the thienopyridines metabolites might exert non-platelet effects on other immune cells to aggravate inflammation.

  7. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören

    2004-01-01

    indicated that F4.5 microg had the same systemic activity as the clinically less effective dose of 250 microg terbutaline. The duration of systemic effects differed marginally between treatments. Spontaneously reported adverse events (most frequently tremor) were fewer with formoterol (78% of the children...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oral and inhaled terbutaline after exercise in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreborg, Anders; Krogh, Nanna; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    allowed inhaled use of terbutaline from prohibited oral ingestion based on urine concentrations in doping control analysis. However given the potential performance enhancing effect of high dose terbutaline, it is essential to establish a limit on the WADA doping list.......AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate pharmacokinetics of terbutaline after oral and inhaled administration in healthy trained male subjects in relation to doping control. METHODS: Twelve healthy well-trained young men (27 ±2 years; mean ± SE) underwent two pharmacokinetic trials...... that compared 10 mg oral terbutaline with 4 mg inhaled dry powder terbutaline. During each trial, subjects performed 90 min of bike ergometer exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. Blood (0-4 h) and urine (0-24 h) samples were collected before and after administration of terbutaline. Samples were...

  9. Photochemical transformation of terbutaline (pharmaceutical) in simulated natural waters: degradation kinetics and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenli; Ben Abdelmelek, Sihem; Zheng, Zheng; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Danny; Song, Weihua

    2013-11-01

    In this study, varied nature organic matter isolates were employed to investigate the indirect photo transformation of terbutaline, which is a major feed additive medicine to increase the proportion of lean meat in the livestock. In the indirect photolysis of terbutaline under solar simulated irradiation, (1)O2 plays an important role among the •OH and (3)DOM*. The reaction rate constant of (1)O2 was determined as (7.1 ± 0.3) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0, while the reaction rate constant of •OH was (6.87 ± 0.43) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The contribution of singlet oxygen to the indirect photolysis of terbutaline (19-44%) was higher than that of the hydroxyl radical (1-7%). The pseudo first order rate constants for the photodegradation of terbutaline increase with increasing pH, which indicates that pH mainly affects the reaction rate of the singlet oxygen with the phenolic part of the terbutaline. The Quinone was identified as the main photosensitized product through LC-MS/MS analysis. It is also proposed that the degradation pathway of terbutaline involves reaction between the phenolic part of terbutaline and singlet oxygen. This finding strongly suggests that singlet oxygen was important factor for the photodegradation of terbutaline in natural waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline on cytokines in children with bronchopneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Che

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children and the effect on cytokines. Methods: A total of 70 children with bronchopneumonia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given anti-infection, oxygen inhalation, cough and asthma relieving, acidosis correcting, mask+oxygen driven aerosol inhalation of budesonide (0.5 mg/time and terbutaline (1.0 mg/time, with an oxygen flow rate of 5-7 L/min, 5-10 min every time, twice a day. On the above basis, the patients in the study group were given additional ipratropium bromide (1.0 mg/time. After 7-day treatment, the efficacy was evaluated. The levels of IL-6, TNF-毩, CRP, and WBC before and after treatment were detected. PEF, FVC, and FEV1 before and after treatment were detected. The improvement of clinical symptoms and signs, and the occurrence of adverse reactions were observed. Results: The levels of IL-6, TNF-毩, CRP, and WBC counting after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. Conclusions: Ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children can rapidly relieve the symptoms, and improve the cytokine level, without obvious adverse reactions; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  11. Terbutaline depot tablets in childhood asthma. A double-blind controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N; Høst, A; Ljungholm, K

    1985-01-01

    Thirty children 8-13 years old, with perennial asthma and with a reversibility of greater than or equal to 20% in lung function (FEV1) were given a sustained-release preparation of terbutaline sulphate 5 mg twice a day and ordinary tablets 2.5 mg three times a day; each treatment lasted 1 week....... The design of the study was double-blind, cross-over, with a randomized allocation of the drugs. Both drugs improved the lung function significantly. The children had significantly less coughing during the night when they took depot tablets than when they took ordinary tablets. The side effects were few...... with both treatments. Most of the patients preferred the depot tablets....

  12. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...... therapeutic and prohibited use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples....

  13. When antiepileptic drugs aggravate epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, P

    2000-03-01

    Paradoxically, an antiepileptic drug (AED) may aggravate epilepsy. The number of AEDs is steadily increasing, and the occurrence of paradoxical aggravation will probably become a frequent problem. The overall status of the patient treated for epilepsy can be altered due to maladjustment to the diagnosis of epilepsy, to unwanted side-effects, to overdosage and to the occurrence of tolerance. However, the main mechanism of aggravation is the occurrence of an inverse pharmacodynamic effect. The specific effect of the AED is such that it controls epilepsy in most cases and increases seizures in other cases. Idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGE) are particularly prone to pharmacodynamic aggravation: typical absences are constantly increased by carbamazepine (CBZ), vigabatrin, tiagabine, gabapentin, while phenytoin (PHT) is less aggravating. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is often aggravated by CBZ, less constantly by PHT and other AEDs. Generalised tonic-clonic seizures found in IGEs may respond to AEDs that aggravate the other seizure types. In symptomatic generalised epilepsies, patients have often several seizure types that respond differently to AEDs: myoclonias are generally aggravated by the same drugs that aggravated IGEs; tonic seizures in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome respond to CBZ, which may however aggravate atypical absences. In severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, there is a nearly constant aggravating effect of lamotrigine. In some patients with benign rolandic epilepsy, a clear aggravation may be produced by CBZ, with occurrence of negative myoclonias, atypical absences, drop attacks, and at the maximum evolution into a state of electrical status epilepticus during sleep. It is much more difficult to pinpoint specific pharmacological sensitivity in other focal epilepsies, but aggravation clearly occurs. When treating epilepsy, the clinician should act according to seizure type, or, better, to epilepsy type. Patients are usually aware of aggravation before

  14. High-dose inhaled terbutaline increases muscle strength and enhances maximal sprint performance in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of high-dose inhaled terbutaline on muscle strength, maximal sprinting, and time-trial performance in trained men. METHODS: Nine non-asthmatic males with a [Formula: see text] of 58.9 ± 3.1 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (mean ± SEM......) participated in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. After administration of inhaled terbutaline (30 × 0.5 mg) or placebo, subjects' maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m.quadriceps was measured. After MVC, subjects performed a 30-s Wingate test. Sixty minutes following the Wingate test...... = 0.019) and 3.3 ± 1.0 % (P = 0.009) higher for terbutaline than placebo. Net accumulation of plasma lactate was higher (P = 0.003) for terbutaline than placebo during the Wingate test, whereas [Formula: see text] above baseline was unchanged by terbutaline (P = 0.882). Time-trial performance...

  15. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Repurpose terbutaline sulfate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyojung; Chung, Ah-Young; Park, Hae-Chul; Park, Rae Woong; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Hyosil; Lee, KiYoung; Butte, Atul J

    2015-03-05

    Prediction of new disease indications for approved drugs by computational methods has been based largely on the genomics signatures of drugs and diseases. We propose a method for drug repositioning that uses the clinical signatures extracted from over 13 years of electronic medical records from a tertiary hospital, including >9.4 M laboratory tests from >530,000 patients, in addition to diverse genomics signatures. Cross-validation using over 17,000 known drug-disease associations shows this approach outperforms various predictive models based on genomics signatures and a well-known "guilt-by-association" method. Interestingly, the prediction suggests that terbutaline sulfate, which is widely used for asthma, is a promising candidate for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for which there are few therapeutic options. In vivo tests using zebrafish models found that terbutaline sulfate prevents defects in axons and neuromuscular junction degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. A therapeutic potential of terbutaline sulfate was also observed when axonal and neuromuscular junction degeneration have already occurred in zebrafish model. Cotreatment with a β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, butoxamine, suggests that the effect of terbutaline is mediated by activation of β2-adrenergic receptors.

  17. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770 mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660 mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO{sub 2}. The ZrO{sub 2}NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645 mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO{sub 2}NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10–160 nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25 nM (based on 3S{sub b}/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO{sub 2}NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Graphical abstract: A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A composite electrode was prepared using nanoparticles of ZrO{sub 2} and MWCNTs. • The ZrO{sub 2}NPs/MWCNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of terbutaline • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 2.25 nM. • The proposed electrode

  18. Terbutaline impairs the development of peripheral noradrenergic projections: potential implications for autism spectrum disorders and pharmacotherapy of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Seidler, Frederic J

    2013-01-01

    Terbutaline, a β2-adrenoceptor agonist, is used off-label for long-term management of preterm labor; such use is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. We explored the mechanisms underlying terbutaline's effects on development of peripheral sympathetic projections in developing rats. Terbutaline administration on postnatal days 2-5 led to immediate and persistent deficiencies in cardiac norepinephrine levels, with greater effects in males than in females. The liver showed a lesser effect; we reasoned that the tissue differences could represent participation of retrograde trophic signaling from the postsynaptic site to the developing neuronal projection, since hepatic β2-adrenoceptors decline in the perinatal period. Accordingly, when we gave terbutaline earlier, on gestational days 17-20, we saw the same deficiencies in hepatic norepinephrine that had been seen in the heart with the later administration paradigm. Administration of isoproterenol, which stimulates both β1- and β2-subtypes, also had trophic effects that differed in direction and critical period from those elicited by terbutaline; methoxamine, which stimulates α1-adrenoceptors, was without effect. Thus, terbutaline, operating through trophic interactions with β2-adrenoceptors, impairs development of noradrenergic projections in a manner similar to that previously reported for its effects on the same neurotransmitter systems in the immature cerebellum. Our results point to the likelihood of autonomic dysfunction in individuals exposed prenatally to terbutaline; in light of the connection between terbutaline and autism, these results could also contribute to autonomic dysregulation seen in children with this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of inhaled terbutaline on substrate utilization and 300-kcal time trial performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Karlsson, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In a randomized double-blind crossover design, we investigated the effect of the beta2-agonist terbutaline on endurance performance and substrate utilization in nine moderately trained males (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max): 58.9±3.1 mL min(-1) kg(-1)). Subjects performed 60 min of submaximal...... exercise (65-70% of VO2max) immediately followed by a 300-kcal time trial with inhalation of either terbutaline (TER) or placebo (PLA). Pulmonary gas exchange was measured during the submaximal exercise and muscle biopsies were collected before and after the exercise bouts. Time trial performance...... performance, but increase carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscles during submaximal exercise independent of AMPK and ACC phosphorylation, and that this effect diminishes as drug exposure time, exercise duration and intensity are increased....

  20. Pear shaped spacer nebuhaler compared with nebulised solution for terbutaline administration in acute severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, C R; O'Donnell, T V

    1985-10-09

    The efficacy of terbutaline (1 mg) administered from pressurised aerosol through a nebuhaler was compared in a crossover trial with terbutaline (4 mg) as nebulised solution in 20 patients with acute severe asthma. The improvements following the nebuhaler, which did not require an electrical or pressure source, were worthwhile. In contrast to earlier experience in stable asthma, the increases in FEV1 (p = 0.04) and VC (p = 0.05) at 20 minutes were greater following the higher dose as nebuliser solution than following nebuhaler use. Nebuhaler technique requires individual attention since some patients with the severe asthma breathed out through the nebuhaler reservoir due to failure to close the one-way valve.

  1. In vitro characterisation of terbutaline sulphate particles prepared by thermal ink-jet spray freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Garima; Mueannoom, Wunlapa; Buanz, Asma B M; Taylor, Kevin M G; Gaisford, Simon

    2013-04-15

    Thermal ink-jet spray freeze-drying (TIJ-SFD) was used to produce inhalable particles of terbutaline sulphate, the aerosolisation properties of which were compared to the commercial Bricanyl formulation. Scanning electron micrograph images showed the particles to be spherical, highly porous and suitable for aerosolisation from a simple, capsule-based dry-powder device (Cyclohaler) without the need for additional excipients. Particle size was dependent upon the concentration of solution jetted, as well as the distance between the print head and the surface of the liquid nitrogen. Starting with a 5% (w/v) solution and maintaining this distance at 3cm produced spherical, porous particles of volume median diameter (VMD) 14.1 ± 0.8 μm and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 4.0 ± 0.6 μm. The fine particle fraction (proportion of aerosol with MMAD ≤ 4.46 μm) was 22.9 ± 3.3%, which compared favourably with that of the marketed dry powder inhaler formulation of terbutaline (Bricanyl Turbohaler; 25.7 ± 3.8%), tested under the same conditions. These findings show that TIJ-SFD is a useful tool to predict the viability of a DPI formulation during preformulation physicochemical characterisation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Ligand Treatment of Mice Aggravates Acute Lung Injury in Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae: Role of Pneumolysin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumshagen, Christina; Maus, Regina; Bischof, Andrea; Ueberberg, Bianca; Bohling, Jennifer; Osterholzer, John J.; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D.; Paton, James C.; Welte, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand (Flt3L) is a dendritic cell (DC) growth and differentiation factor with potential in antitumor therapies and antibacterial immunization strategies. However, the effect of systemic Flt3L treatment on lung-protective immunity against bacterial infection is incompletely defined. Here, we examined the impact of deficient (in Flt3L knockout [KO] mice), normal (in wild-type [WT] mice), or increased Flt3L availability (in WT mice pretreated with Flt3L for 3, 5, or 7 days) on lung DC subset profiles and lung-protective immunity against the major lung-tropic pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although in Flt3L-deficient mice the numbers of DCs positive for CD11b (CD11bpos DCs) and for CD103 (CD103pos DCs) were diminished, lung permeability, a marker of injury, was unaltered in response to S. pneumoniae. In contrast, WT mice pretreated with Flt3L particularly responded with increased numbers of CD11bpos DCs and with less pronounced numbers of CD103pos DCs and impaired bacterial clearance and with increased lung permeability following S. pneumoniae challenge. Notably, infection of Flt3L-pretreated mice with S. pneumoniae lacking the pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin (PLY), resulted in substantially less lung CD11bpos DCs activation and reduced lung permeability. Collectively, this study establishes that Flt3L treatment enhances the accumulation of proinflammatory activated lung CD11bpos DCs which contribute to acute lung injury in response to PLY released by S. pneumoniae. PMID:23006850

  3. A randomized, controlled trial of nebulized terbutaline for the first acute bronchiolitis in infants less than 12-months-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsa, Faten; Ben Rhouma, Anis; Ghaffari, Hadhami; Boussetta, Khadija; Zouari, Bechir; Brini, Ines; Karboul, Lotfi; Souid, Mahbouba; Bousnina, Souad

    2009-03-01

    Despite the common clinical practice, the available evidence on the efficacy of bronchodilators therapy for bronchiolitis is conflicting. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized terbutaline in bronchiolitis as measured by improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation or reduction in duration of hospitalization. This prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed at Children's Hospital of Tunis from December 2004 to April 2006. A total of 35 patients less than 12 months of age with diagnosis of moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled and assigned to receive nebulized terbutaline or normal saline placebo at admission (T0), at 30 minutes after admission (T30) and every four hours during a study period. Outcome measurements included: Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI) score, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, heart rate and the duration of hospitalization. There were no significant difference between terbutaline and placebo at baseline, T30 min, T60 min, and T120 min after start study in RDAI score, oxygen saturation in room air, rate respiratory and heart rate. There was no difference in duration of hospitalization. Nebulized terbutaline therapy does not appear effective in treating moderately ill infants with the first acute bronchiolitis.

  4. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González

    2010-09-01

    a low birth weight. Most of patients were treated with luminotherapy (90,17%. CONCLUSION. The severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a health problem. Aggravating factors include the prematurity and the low birth weight. Luminotherapy is an effective therapeutic measure for its treatment.

  5. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Sherajee, Shamshad J.; Rafiq,Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 μg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (...

  6. Hyperkinetic Aggravation of Learning Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author replies to the article titled "Controversial Medical Treatments of Learning Disabilities" (R. Sieben), and reviews the treatment of hyperactive disorders with special diets and nutrition supplements. (IM)

  7. Potassium and magnesium distribution, ECG changes, and ventricular ectopic beats during beta 2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveskov, C; Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A

    1994-01-01

    .001). The urinary excretion of potassium decreased from 0.077 mmol/min (0.052 to 0.102) to 0.038 mmol/min (0.025 to 0.051) (p sodium potassium pumps from 1,104.1 nmol/kg dry weight (1,030.6 to 1,177.5) to 1,273.3 nmol/kg dry weight (1,193.5 to 1,353.2) (p ... of sodium-potassium pumps. Furthermore, terbutaline induced changes in ECG with a highly significant lengthening of the QTc interval but with an unchanged number of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects....... or terbutaline (bolus, 0.25 mg; maintenance dose, 5 micrograms/min). SETTING: University Department of Clinical Chemistry. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy male volunteers. Mean age was 24.1 (range, 20 to 31) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum potassium and magnesium muscle potassium and magnesium, and muscle sodium...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes of muscle stiffness to severe, disabling disease with frequent attacks. Unlike some other forms of ...

  9. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  10. Maternal Stress Combined with Terbutaline Leads to Comorbid Autistic-Like Behavior and Epilepsy in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercum, Florencia M; Rodgers, Krista M; Benison, Alex M; Smith, Zachariah Z; Taylor, Jeremy; Kornreich, Elise; Grabenstatter, Heidi L; Dudek, F Edward; Barth, Daniel S

    2015-12-02

    Human autism is comorbid with epilepsy, yet, little is known about the causes or risk factors leading to this combined neurological syndrome. Although genetic predisposition can play a substantial role, our objective was to investigate whether maternal environmental factors alone could be sufficient. We examined the independent and combined effects of maternal stress and terbutaline (used to arrest preterm labor), autism risk factors in humans, on measures of both autistic-like behavior and epilepsy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to mild stress (foot shocks at 1 week intervals) throughout pregnancy. Pups were injected with terbutaline on postnatal days 2-5. Either maternal stress or terbutaline resulted in autistic-like behaviors in offspring (stereotyped/repetitive behaviors and deficits in social interaction or communication), but neither resulted in epilepsy. However, their combination resulted in severe behavioral symptoms, as well as spontaneous recurrent convulsive seizures in 45% and epileptiform spikes in 100%, of the rats. Hippocampal gliosis (GFAP reactivity) was correlated with both abnormal behavior and spontaneous seizures. We conclude that prenatal insults alone can cause comorbid autism and epilepsy but it requires a combination of teratogens to achieve this; testing single teratogens independently and not examining combinatorial effects may fail to reveal key risk factors in humans. Moreover, astrogliosis may be common to both teratogens. This new animal model of combined autism and epilepsy permits the experimental investigation of both the cellular mechanisms and potential intervention strategies for this debilitating comorbid syndrome. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515894-09$15.00/0.

  11. Influence of the lactose grade within dry powder formulations of fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, V N P; Bierend, H; Robins, E; Steckel, H; Flament, M P

    2012-01-17

    Dry powder formulations are often composed of fine drug particles and coarser carrier particles, typically alpha-lactose monohydrate. However, the performance of a powder formulation may be highly dependent on the lactose quality and source. This study investigated the characteristics of lactose that influence the drug-to-carrier interaction and the performance of lactose-based dry powder inhaler formulations. The selected lactoses differed in the preparation processes and the content of fine lactose particles. Efficiency testing was done using fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as model drugs. Inverse gas chromatography was used to determine the surface heterogeneity distribution of different energy sites of the lactose and to understand the mechanism by which the fine carrier particles can improve the performance of dry powder inhalers. To assess the adhesion of respirable-sized drug to carrier particles, a simple method was developed based on aspiration and considering the whole blend as it is used in dry powder inhalers. When the percentage of fine lactose is high, a lower quantity of drug adheres to the lactose and/or the adhesion force is also lower. This was confirmed by the aerosolization assays done in the TSI (twin stage impinger). A correlation was observed between adhesion characteristics and inertial impaction. For both drugs, the fine particle fractions were highest in blends that present a greater proportion of lactose fine particles. A fairly good correlation between the fine particle fractions of both drugs and the peak max value and the AUC (area under curve) were found by inverse gas chromatography. With higher fine particle fraction values, which correspond to higher content of fines, the peak maxima determined by inverse gas chromatography were shifted to higher adsorption potentials, which supports the agglomeration hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Dose emission and aerodynamic characterization of the terbutaline sulphate dose emitted from a Turbuhaler at low inhalation flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, M E; Assi, K H; Chrystyn, H

    2013-01-01

    Previously, dose emission below 30 L min(-1) through DPI has not been routinely determined. However, during routine use some patients do not achieve 30 L min(-1) inhalation flows. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine dose emission characteristics for low inhalation flows from terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler. Total emitted dose (TED), fine particle dose (FPD) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler were determined using inhalation flows of 10-60 L min(-1) and inhaled volume of 4 L. TED and FPD increase significantly with the increase of inhalation flows (p MMAD increases with decrease of inhalation flow until flow of 20L min(-1) then it decreases. In vitro flow dependent dose emission has been demonstrated previously for Turbuhaler for flow rates above 30 L min(-1) but is more pronounced below this flow. Minimal FPD below 30 L min(-1) suggests that during routine use at this flow rate most of emitted dose will impact in mouth. Flow dependent dose emission results suggest that Pharmacopoeias should consider the use variety of inhalation flows rather than one that is equivalent to pressure drop of 4 KPa.

  14. Inhibition of common cold-induced aggravation of childhood asthma by leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Fukuda, Hironobu; Abe, Toshio; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Yumi; Kanno, Noriko; Arisaka, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged common cold and aggravation of asthma were significantly higher in patients aged common cold-induced aggravation was significantly less effective in patients aged common cold, asthma control was significantly more effective for those treated with leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) compared to treatment without LTRAs. Asthma control did not differ between patients who did or did not take inhaled corticosteroids or long-acting β2 stimulants. These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  15. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) and CEN method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Chrystyn, Henry

    2009-03-01

    Characterization of the aerosolized dose emitted from a nebulized system can be determined using CEN (prEN13544-1) methodology and more recently with a Next Generation Impactor (NGI), but evaporative effects can influence the results. We have investigated these characteristics using different flows and cooling with the NGI and compared the results to the standard CEN method using two different nebulizer systems. The NGI was operated using flows of 15 and 30 L min(-1) at room (ROOM) temperature and immediately after cooling at 5 degrees C for 90 min (COLD). Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream jet nebulizer (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO), were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. The CEN method was also used to provide the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosolized dose from these two nebulizer systems. The mean (SD) mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) using 15COLD, 15ROOM, 30COLD, 30ROOM, and CEN for AERO was 5.0(0.1), 4.1(0.3), 4.4(0.2), 2.0(0.3), and 3.0(1.1) microm, respectively, and 4.2(0.4), 2.6(0.4), 3.5(0.1), 1.7(0.1), and 3.2(0.3) microm for SIDE. The fine particle fraction (FPF), using the NGI, followed the expected trend associated with the corresponding MMAD values, ranging from 48.1 to 70.5% from AERO and 57.3 to 87.8% for SIDE. The mean FPF for AERO and SIDE using the CEN methodology was 72.5 and 63.6%. Overall there was a highly significant difference (p MMAD of both nebulizer systems. All methods revealed a significant difference between AERO and SIDE except CEN. Both nebulizer systems were prone to evaporation effects during in vitro testing. Cooling and using a slow flow minimizes evaporation effects with the NGI and should be adopted as the recommended compendial method. The CEN method provides different values to those of the NGI operating conditions and could not differentiate between the two nebulizers.

  16. Electrochemical sensor for terbutaline sulfate based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with grapheme and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Hua, Xin; Pei, Hongying; Shen, Yuan; Shen, Guijun

    2017-12-01

    A glass carbon electrode was prepared that coated with a composite film containing grapheme and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was used to study the electrochemical response of terbutaline sulfate. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current was found to be proportional to its concentration in the range of 0.2-5 μmol·L-1 and 5-40 μmol·L-1).Compared with the bare GC electrode, the GN-MWNTs-modified GC (GN-MWNTs/GC) had many advantages such as relatively high sensitivity, good stability and long life time. The modified electrode was used to determine the TES tablets with satisfactory results.

  17. β1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Antenatal betamethasone attenuates intrauterine infection-aggravated hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Soo; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Jin Kyu; Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Sung, Dong Kyung; Jeon, Ga Won; Hwang, Jong Hee; Shim, Jae Won; Park, Won Soon

    2013-06-01

    Intrauterine infection can exacerbate postnatal hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that antenatal betamethasone treatment attenuates hyperoxic lung injury aggravated by intrauterine infection in neonatal rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight experimental groups according to (i) whether rats were exposed to normoxia (N) or hyperoxia (H, 85% oxygen) from postnatal day (P)1 to P14, (ii) whether antenatal betamethasone (0.2 mg/dose) or vehicle was administered to pregnant rats at gestation days (E)19 and E20, and (iii) whether intrauterine infection was induced or not antenatally. Intrauterine infection was induced by intracervical inoculation of Escherichia coli into pregnant rats on E19. We measured cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in P1 rat lungs and performed morphometric analyses and assessed inflammatory responses in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at P14 by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and measurement of myeloperoxidase activity, collagen, and cytokine levels. Cytokine levels in P1 rat lungs were increased by intrauterine infection, and these increases were attenuated by antenatal betamethasone. Hyperoxic lung injuries, indicated by morphometric changes and an inflammatory response in the lung and BAL fluid, were aggravated by intrauterine infection at P14. This aggravation was significantly attenuated by antenatal betamethasone. Antenatal betamethasone attenuated aggravated hyperoxic lung injuries induced by intrauterine infection in neonatal rats via its anti-inflammatory actions.

  19. Use of indium-111 oxine to study pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration in endotoxin shock and effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdsson, G.H.; Christenson, J.T.; al-Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A. (Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait))

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of indium-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes was simultaneously recorded in multiple organs during endotoxin shock in sheep. Also, the effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline were studied. An experimental protocol was designed to mimic a clinical condition in an intensive care setting as far as possible. The animals were ventilated with 50% oxygen to avoid hypoxemia and were given large amounts of intravenous fluids to reduce adverse effects of hypovolemia. A moderate dose of E. coli endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bwt) was given by intravenous infusion to 14 adult sheep, seven of them receiving continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after endotoxin, when signs of lung injury had developed. The other seven acted as controls. A marked pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration together with a sharp drop in leukocyte counts in peripheral blood occurred within minutes after start of the endotoxin infusion in both groups. However, no changes were observed in the kidneys or the gut. After 60 min and until the end of the experiment, there was a significantly lower activity in the lungs and in the liver of the animals treated with terbutaline than in the controls (P less than .01). Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. This study confirms the results of other investigators showing that significant leukocyte sequestration occurs in the lungs during endotoxemia, but it also demonstrates that leukocytes sequestrate in the liver, although slightly less than in the lungs.

  20. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease - two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrichs Espen; Toft Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Stuttering is a speech disorder with disruption of verbal fluency which is occasionally present in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Long-term medical management of PD is frequently complicated by fluctuating motor functions and dyskinesias. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment of motor fluctuations and is the most common surgical procedure in PD. Here we report the re-occurrence and aggravation of stuttering fol...

  1. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease - two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrichs Espen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stuttering is a speech disorder with disruption of verbal fluency which is occasionally present in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Long-term medical management of PD is frequently complicated by fluctuating motor functions and dyskinesias. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN is an effective treatment of motor fluctuations and is the most common surgical procedure in PD. Here we report the re-occurrence and aggravation of stuttering following STN-DBS in two male patients treated for advanced PD. In both patients the speech fluency improved considerably when the neurostimulator was turned off, indicating that stuttering aggravation was related to neurostimulation of the STN itself, its afferent or efferent projections and/or to structures localized in the immediate proximity. This report supports previous studies demonstrating that lesions of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, including the STN, is involved in the development of stuttering. In advanced PD STN-DBS is generally an effective and safe treatment. However, patients with PD and stuttering should be informed about the risk of aggravated symptoms following surgical therapy.

  2. Aggravating factors for melasma: a prospective study in 197 Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, C; Cheffai, S; Latreille, J; Dhaoui, M A; Youssef, S; Jaber, K; Nageotte, O; Doss, N

    2010-09-01

    Melasma is a frequent cause of consultations at dermatology departments by dark-skinned patients in Tunisia. To investigate factors that influence melasma severity in a large Tunisian population. A total of 197 patients (188 women and 9 men), who attended Tunis Military Hospital for a consultation were included prospectively from August 2005 to August 2006. Disease severity was estimated using the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI). Aggravating factors were investigated using multiple logistic regressions. Of the women included, 14% presented phototype III, 45% phototype IV and 41% phototype V; 76% presented a centrofacial melasma phenotype, 23% a malar and 1% a mandibular phenotype. About 60% developed melasma before thirty. Sun exposure was reported as a triggering factor by 51% of women and as an aggravating factor by 84%. Pregnancy was reported as an aggravating factor by 51% of women who had been pregnant, and oral contraceptive use reported by 38% of women exposed to oral contraceptives. The risk of severe melasma was about three times higher for women with age at onset under 30, phototype V and major lifetime sun exposure and about 8 times higher for women exposed to oral contraceptives. This study identifies a number of factors associated with the severity of melasma. Further epidemiological studies in this type of population, in particular, to investigate triggering factors, are justified by the aesthetic damage caused by melasma in dark-skinned patients, lack of efficacy of existing treatments, non-compliance with photoprotection recommendations and the challenge of treatment.

  3. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, M; Jessen, S; Onslev, J; Clausen, T; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-07-01

    While chronic systemic administration of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content, such effect is unexplored after therapeutic inhalation. We investigated the effect of therapeutic inhalation of the glucocorticoid budesonide on Na+ ,K+ ATPase content of skeletal muscle in men. Ten healthy trained subjects, aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± 95% CI), participated in the study. Before and after 2 weeks of daily inhalation of budesonide (1.6 mg/day), a biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle for measurement of Na+ ,K+ ATPase content and blood samples were drawn for determination of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K+ . Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na+ ,K+ ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 nM with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline. The present observations show that therapeutic inhalation of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content, but does not enhance high-intensity cycling endurance in response to terbutaline. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lack of efficacy and potential aggravation of myoclonus with lamotrigine in Unverricht-Lundborg disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Pierre; Gelisse, Philippe; Crespel, Arielle

    2006-12-01

    Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures, action myoclonus, mild ataxia, without dementia. Persistence of invalidating action myoclonus is a major problem. Drugs like phenytoin can aggravate ULD. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the effect of add-on lamotrigine (LTG) in the five patients under our care who received LTG. Three men and two women, aged 20-50 years who had ULD confirmed by molecular biology, followed in two epilepsy centers, received add-on LTG at 50-300 mg/d. All of them had valproate. The other drugs used in cotherapy were high-dose piracetam, benzodiazepines phenobarbital, topiramate, and primidone. The assessment of LTG was based on detailed interview and clinical examination. Aggravation was diagnosed when myoclonic jerks (MJ) increased without irregular intake of medication, inappropriate lifestyle, encephalopathic or metabolic complications, or overdosage. In two patients, LTG exacerbated MJ in a dose-dependent manner. In one patient, a delayed, severe exacerbation of myoclonus occurred that only ceased after LTG withdrawal and introduction of levetiracetam. These three patients had minor forms of ULD. In two patients with moderate to severe forms of ULD, LTG had no effect. Although symptoms may fluctuate in ULD, it was possible to pinpoint lack of improvement (2/5), dose-related exacerbation of myoclonus (2/5), and putative late-onset aggravation (1/5) in five patients treated with adjunctive LTG. LTG does not appear to be a sensible treatment option in ULD.

  5. Is Lymphostasis an Aggravant of Lipedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old female patient reported that a characteristic of her family was ‘fat legs’ with postural edema since adolescence. Over the years the patient had been gaining weight with an increase in fatty tissue in the legs and arms. At the age of 24 years she started taking oral contraceptives and noted worse swelling and pain in the lower limbs. She was advised to suspend the use of the contraceptives and to start using a transdermal lymphatic system drug and physical exercise which partially improved the symptoms. Three years ago she noted that the swelling was increasing without improvement and sought a physician who raised the hypothesis of lymphedema and referred her to a specialized center. Lipedema and lymphedema was diagnosed in the physical examination. A 3-day intensive treatment program (8 h daily was started for lymphedema which included manual and mechanical lymph drainage associated with short-strech (<50 mm Hg compression stockings custom made using a cotton-polyester fabric. Volumetry and perimetry were performed before starting and after the treatment and the legs were photographed. Volumetric and perimetric reductions were obtained suggesting the involvement of regional cutaneous lymphostasis in this disease.

  6. Inducing and Aggravating Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhiyatam Mardhiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (subsequently abbreviated as GERD is a disease commonly found in the community. Several factors have been recognized as inducing and aggravating factors of GERD symptoms such as older age, female gender, obesity, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, certain diet and poor eating habit like eating fatty, spicy, and acid food.

  7. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (...

  8. 38 CFR 3.306 - Aggravation of preservice disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disability. 3.306 Section 3.306 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Connection § 3.306 Aggravation of preservice disability. (a) General. A preexisting injury or disease will be... disability during such service, unless there is a specific finding that the increase in disability is due to...

  9. Aggravating effects of Asian sand dust on lung eosinophilia in mice immunized beforehand by ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Takano, Hirohisa; Nishikawa, Masataka; Mori, Ikuko; Sun, Guifan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    Asian sand dust (ASD) event may result in a significant influence on an asthmatic patient. However, for obvious reasons, there is no experimental study in which asthmatic patients are exposed to ASD. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of ASD on lung eosinophiliain mice immunized beforehand by ovalbumin (OVA). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with OVA four times at 2-week intervals. Simultaneous intratracheal administration of OVA and ASD (OVA + ASD sim) at the last OVA treatment or intratracheal administration with ASD 1 day before (OVA + ASD pre) /after (OVA + ASD post) the last OVA treatment was performed to investigate the effects of OVA and ASD exposure timing. The three kinds of treatment (OVA + ASD pre; OVA + ASD sim; OVA + ASD post) aggravated allergic lung inflammation and proliferation of goblet cells in the airway epithelium in mice, as evidenced by the cellular profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pathological examination. As an overall trend, these changes were paralleled with the expression of Th2-associated effecter molecules and eosinophil relevant cytokine chimokines in BALF as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG1 compared with OVA treatment alone. OVA + ASD sim aggravated lung eosinophilia remarkably compared with the other treatments. The order of the potency of the aggravation was OVA+ASD pre < OVA+ASD post

  10. Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution treatment in ambulatory children with viral bronchiolitis decreases symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Tal, Guy; Witzling, Michaela; Someck, Eli; Houri, Sion; Cohen, Herman A; Mandelberg, Avigdor

    2002-12-01

    To determine the utility of inhaled hypertonic saline solution to treat ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Sixty-five ambulatory infants (mean +/- SD age, 12.5 +/- 6 months) with viral bronchiolitis received either of the following: inhalation of 0.5 mL (5 mg) terbutaline added to 2 mL of 0.9% saline solution as a wet nebulized aerosol (control; group 1; n = 32) or 0.5 mL (5 mg) terbutaline added to 2 mL of 3% saline solution administered in the same manner as above (treatment; group 2; n = 33). This therapy was repeated three times every day for 5 days. The clinical severity (CS) scores at baseline on the first day of treatment were 6.4 +/- 1.8 in group 1 and 6.6 +/- 1.5 in group 2 (not significant). After the first day, the CS score was significantly lower (better) in group 2 as compared to group 1 on each of the treatment days (p hypertonic saline solution-treated patients (group 2) as compared to the 0.9% saline solution-treated patients (group 1) [p = 0.01; Fig 1 ]. We conclude that in nonasthmatic, nonseverely ill ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis, aerosolized 3% saline solution plus 5 mg terbutaline is effective in decreasing symptoms as compared to 0.9% saline solution plus 5 mg terbutaline.

  11. Terbutaline-induced desensitization of beta 2-adrenoceptor in vivo function in humans: attenuation by ketotifen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodde, O. E.; Petrasch, S.; Bauch, H. J.; Daul, A.; Gnadt, M.; Oefler, D.; Michel, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    Use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists in long-term treatment of patients with chronic asthma bronchiale or heart failure is of limited value because beta-adrenoceptor desensitization develops. The antiallergic drug ketotifen prevents beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced desensitization of rat and human

  12. Rebound airway obstruction and responsiveness after cessation of terbutaline : Effects of budesonide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, JW; vanderMark, TW; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS

    Regular monotherapy with inhaled Bz-agonists may lead to a temporary increase of airway obstruction and increase of airway responsiveness after cessation of treatment. We investigated whether antiinflammatory therapy may affect these rebound phenomena. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we

  13. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature......Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury......–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other...

  14. Mesenchymal stromal cell implantation for stimulation of long bone healing aggravates Staphylococcus aureus induced osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Elisabeth; Holschbach, Jeannine; Buchta, Nicole; Bitsch, Rudi Georg; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Richter, Wiltrud

    2015-07-01

    Large bone defects requiring long-term osteosynthetic stabilization or repeated surgeries show a considerable rate of infection. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to enhance bone regeneration, but their powerful immunomodulatory effects may impose an enhanced risk for osteomyelitis development. In order to unravel whether implantation of MSCs aggravates a simultaneous bone infection, a hydrogel-supported osteomyelitis ostectomy model was developed in which rats received a femoral bone defect with rigid plate-fixation. After fibrin-assisted transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), effects of MSC implantation on osteomyelitis development were quantified over 3-4 weeks. All SA-infected animals developed an acute local osteomyelitis with significantly increased blood neutrophil count, abscess formation and bone destruction. MSC-treatment of infected defects aggravated osteomyelitis according to a significantly elevated osteomyelitis score and enhanced distal bone loss with spongy alteration of cortical bone architecture. Increased attraction of macrophages, osteoclasts and regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were potential MSC actions. Overall trophic actions of MSCs implanted into non-sterile bone defects may enhance an infection and/or exacerbate osteomyelitis. Studies on antibiotic carrier augmentation or antibiotic treatment are warranted to decide whether MSC implantation is a safe and promising therapy for orthopedic implant-stabilized bone defects at high risk for development of infection. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Jessen, Søren; Onslev, Johan

    2017-01-01

    While chronic systemic administration of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na+,K+ ATPase content, such effect is unexplored after therapeutic inhalation. We investigated the effect of therapeutic inhalation of the glucocorticoid budesonide on Na+,K+ ATPase content of skeletal muscle in men. Ten...... healthy trained subjects, aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± 95% CI), participated in the study. Before and after 2 weeks of daily inhalation of budesonide (1.6 mg/day), a biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle for measurement of Na+,K+ ATPase content and blood samples were drawn for determination....... The present observations show that therapeutic inhalation of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na+,K+ ATPase content, but does not enhance high-intensity cycling endurance in response to terbutaline....

  16. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Hostrup; Onslev, Johan; Jessen, Søren Kaare

    2017-01-01

    While chronic systemic administration of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content, such effect is unexplored after therapeutic inhalation. We investigated the effect of therapeutic inhalation of the glucocorticoid budesonide on Na+ ,K+ ATPase content of skeletal muscle in men. Ten...... healthy trained subjects, aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± 95% CI), participated in the study. Before and after 2 weeks of daily inhalation of budesonide (1.6 mg/day), a biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle for measurement of Na+ ,K+ ATPase content and blood samples were drawn for determination....... The present observations show that therapeutic inhalation of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content, but does not enhance high-intensity cycling endurance in response to terbutaline....

  17. Dowling-Degos disease--a heat aggravated variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossard, S; Krivanek, J

    2001-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of a micropapular eruption localized to the flexor aspect of her limbs as well as persistent reticulate pigmentation of her neck and upper chest resembling Darier's disease. The eruption was associated with pruritus that was precipitated by heat and was worse in summer. The axillae, groins and inframammary areas had multiple papules but lacked reticulate pigmentation. Multiple biopsies showed an epidermis with club- and antler-like rete ridges but no acantholysis or dyskeratosis. This distinct clinical presentation may represent an unusual heat aggravated variant of Dowling-Degos disease that clinically shares features with Darier's disease and transient acantholytic dermatosis.

  18. Does simultaneous bilingualism aggravate children's specific language problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Stenroos, Maria; Mickos, Annika; Westman, Martin; Ekholm, Pia; Byring, Roger

    2012-09-01

    There is little data on whether or not a bilingual upbringing may aggravate specific language problems in children. This study analysed whether there was an interaction of such problems and simultaneous bilingualism. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old children with specific language problems (LANG group, N = 56) or who were typically developing (CONTR group, N = 60). Seventy-three children were Swedish-Finnish bilingual and 43 were Swedish-speaking monolingual. Assessments (in Swedish) included tests of expressive language, comprehension, repetition and verbal memory. Per definition, the LANG group had lower scores than the CONTR group on all language tests. The bilingual group had lower scores than the monolingual group only on a test of body part naming. Importantly, the interaction of group (LANG or CONTR) and bilingualism was not significant on any of the language scores. Simultaneous bilingualism does not aggravate specific language problems but may result in a slower development of vocabulary both in children with and without specific language problems. Considering also advantages, a bilingual upbringing is an option also for children with specific language problems. In assessment, tests of vocabulary may be sensitive to bilingualism, instead tests assessing comprehension, syntax and nonword repetition may provide less biased methods. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  19. Cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells aggravate tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eKudo-Saito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have both stemness and multi-modulatory activities on other cells, and the immunosuppressive and tumor-promotive mechanisms have been intensively investigated in cancer. The role of MSCs appears to be revealed in tumor aggravation, and targeting MSCs seems to be a promising strategy for treating cancer patients. However, it is still impractical in clinical therapy, since the precise MSCs are poorly understood in the in vivo setting. In previous studies, MSCs were obtained from different sources, and were prepared by ex vivo expansion for a long term. The inconsistent experimental conditions made the in vivo MSCs obscure. To define the MSCs in the host is a priority issue for targeting MSCs in cancer therapy. We recently identified a unique subpopulation of MSCs increasing in mice and human with cancer metastasis. These MSCs are specifically expanded by metastatic tumor cells, and promote tumor progression and dissemination accompanied by immune suppression and dysfunction in the host, more powerfully than normal MSCs growing without interference of cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the role of MSCs in tumor aggravation, along with our new findings of the bizarre MSCs.

  20. Beyond bullying: Aggravating elements of peer victimization episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three outcomes were assessed: level of fear, missing school, and trauma symptoms. A nationally representative sample of 3,164 children and youth ages 6-17 (51.8% male; 68.4% white, 12.5% black, 13.5% Hispanic, 5.7% other race) was obtained through Random Digit Dial and supplemented with an address-based sample to capture cell-phone-only households. One child was randomly selected from each household. Interviews were conducted with parents of children age 6-9 and with the youths themselves if they were age 10-17. Peer victimization was assessed with the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Almost half (48.4%) of the entire sample of school-age children experienced at least 1 form of peer victimization in the past year. Injury and power imbalance independently increased the impact on children for all 3 outcomes. Additionally, weapon involvement and sexual content were associated with trauma symptoms, with sexual content having the strongest effect (B = .23, p peer victimization along with more research to identify the aggravating features that signal the greatest need for intervention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  2. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Gyo-Boong; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Ahn, Kangmo

    2015-01-01

    Most of researches on the impact of indoor air pollutants on atopic dermatitis (AD) have been based upon animal models, in vitro experiments and case-control studies. However, human data to elucidate the role of indoor air pollution on worsening symptoms of pre-existing AD from a longitudinal study are scarce. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of indoor air pollution on AD symptoms in children. We surveyed 30 children with AD in a day-care centre, which moved to a new building during the study. These children stayed there for 8 hours a day Monday through Friday, and their daily symptom scores were recorded. Indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels were continuously measured 24 hours a day for 12 months (Period 1 to 4). Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. Compared to the period before moving (Period 1), concentrations of indoor air pollutants mostly increased after moving (Period 2) and decreased by natural ventilation and bake-out (Periods 3 and 4). The rate of positive AD symptom increased from 32.8% (Period 1) up to 43.8% (Period 2) and 50.5% (Period 3), then decreased to 35.4% in Period 4 (P indoor air pollutants on AD symptoms 2 days later were evaluated, AD symptoms significantly increased by 12.7% (95% CI: -0.01 to 27.1) as toluene levels increased by 1 ppb (P = 0.05). In conclusion, indoor air pollutants increase the risk of AD aggravation in children and toluene in the indoor environment might act as an aggravating factor.

  3. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available Aortocaval fistula (AV in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX rats.Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into Sham (n = 10, UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10, AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18 and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22, respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements.UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats.Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals.

  4. Selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced injury of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Pan, Shengchi; Gan, Fang; Hao, Shu; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Haibin; Huang, Kehe

    2018-02-16

    Keshan disease is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy in humans. Selenium deficiency, T-2 toxin, and myocarditis virus are thought to be the major factors contributing to Keshan disease. But the relationship among these three factors is poorly described. This study aims to explore whether selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying mechanism. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat and cultured at the physiological (2.0 μM) or lower concentrations of selenium with different concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results showed that selenium deficiencies aggravated T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by MTT bioassay, LDH activity, reactive oxygen species levels and caspase 3 protein expressions. T-2 toxin treatment significantly increased mRNA expressions for stress proteins GRP78 and CHOP in cardiomyocytes compared with the control. Selenium deficiencies further promoted GRP78, CHOP and p-eIF2α expressions. Knockdown of CHOP by the specific small interfering RNA eliminated the effect of selenium deficiencies on T-2 toxin-induced injury. It could be concluded that selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury through initiating more aggressive endoplasmic reticulum stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue aggravates CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Jun-Feng; Min, Guang-Ning; Han, Wei; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and CNTF analogs were reported to have hepatoprotective effect and ameliorate hepatic steatosis in db/db or high-fat-diet-fed mice. Because hepatic steatosis and injury are also commonly induced by hepatotoxin, the aim of the present study is to clarify whether CNTF could alleviate hepatic steatosis and injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Unexpectedly, when combined with CCl 4 , CNTF aggravated hepatic steatosis and liver injury. The mechanism is associated with effects of CNTF that inhibited lipoprotein secretion and drastically impaired the ability of lipoproteins to act as transport vehicles for lipids from the liver to the circulation. While injected after CCl 4 cessation, CNTF could improve liver function. These data suggest that CNTF could be a potential hepatoprotective agent against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury after the cessation of CCl 4 exposure. However, it is forbidden to combine recombinant mutant of human CNTF treatment with CCl 4 .

  6. Helicobacter pylori Infection Aggravates Diet-induced Insulin Resistance in Association With Gut Microbiota of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR yet the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. The vital role of gut microbiota in triggering IR has been increasingly reported, however, no study has explored the correlation of gut microbiota and H. pylori-associated IR. Using H. pylori-infected mice model fed different diet structures, we demonstrated that H. pylori infection significantly aggravated high-fat diet (HFD-induced metabolic disorders at the early stage, the extent of which was close to the effect of long-term HFD. Interestingly, we observed dynamic alterations in gut microbiota that were consistent with the changes in the metabolic phenotype induced by H. pylori and HFD. There may be an interaction among H. pylori, diet and gut microbiota, which dysregulates the host metabolic homeostasis, and treatment of H. pylori may be beneficial to the patients with impaired glucose tolerance in addition to diet control.

  7. Amorphous silica nanoparticles size-dependently aggravate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions following an intradermal injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Toshiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rising use of nanomaterials (NMs, there is concern that NMs induce undesirable biological effects because of their unique physicochemical properties. Recently, we reported that amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSPs, which are one of the most widely used NMs, can penetrate the skin barrier and induce various biological effects, including an immune-modulating effect. Thus, it should be clarified whether nSPs can be a risk factor for the aggravation of skin immune diseases. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between the size of SPs and adjuvant activity using a model for atopic dermatitis. Results We investigated the effects of nSPs on the AD induced by intradermaly injected-mite antigen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp in NC/Nga mice. Ear thickness measurements and histopathological analysis revealed that a combined injection of amorphous silica particles (SPs and Dp induced aggravation of AD in an SP size-dependent manner compared to that of Dp alone. In particular, aggravation was observed remarkably in nSP-injected groups. Furthermore, these effects were correlated with the excessive induction of total IgE and a stronger systemic Th2 response. We demonstrated that these results are associated with the induction of IL-18 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in the skin lesions. Conclusions A particle size reduction in silica particles enhanced IL-18 and TSLP production, which leads to systemic Th2 response and aggravation of AD-like skin lesions as induced by Dp antigen treatment. We believe that appropriate regulation of nanoparticle physicochemical properties, including sizes, is a critical determinant for the design of safer forms of NMs.

  8. Imprecise methods may both obscure and aggravate a relation between fat and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2007-01-01

    -protein energy has been found to be substantial, particularly among those who are obese or have high dietary intakes. Such a non-random bias on the group level would tend to aggravate associations between dietary non-protein and disease. Whether the net result of the random and non-random bias aggravates...

  9. Glucose-rich diet aggravates monocrotophos-induced dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Chinnu; Rajini, P S

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to obtain insights into the mechanism(s) by which glucose-rich diet aggravates monocrotophos (MCP)-induced dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we exposed three different strains of worms (wild-type N2, CB1112 (cat-2(e1112)II, tyrosine hydroxylase-deficient mutant, catecholamine absent) and the transgenic BZ555 (egls1-dat-1p::green fluorescent protein [GFP]) (in which bright GFP is tagged to the dopamine neuronal soma and processes) grown and maintained in normal nematode growth medium or 2% glucose enriched-nematode growth medium to MCP (0.75 mm) for 48 h. After the exposure, dopamine-mediated behaviors such as repulsion to nonanone, chemotaxis index and basal slowing response were determined in worms. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid content were quantified in N2 worms. The extent of neurodegeneration was visualized and quantified in dat-1::GFP worms. Basal slowing response study clearly indicated that cat-2 worms exposed to MCP and glucose were less affected compared to N2 of the same treatment. Learning and memory were affected by MCP and glucose. While MCP-treated worms showed lesser repulsion to nonanone compared to control worms, MCP-treated, glucose-fed worms showed a greater reduction in repulsion to nonanone. Further, MCP-treated, glucose-fed worms exhibited a marked reduction in dopamine content and an increase in 3,4-dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid levels compared to that in control. Dat-1::GFP showed a significant degeneration of dopaminergic neurons when exposed to glucose and MCP. Thus, our results clearly demonstrate that glucose-rich diet aggravates the dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction induced by MCP in C. elegans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Infrapatellar fat pad aggravates degeneration of acute traumatized cartilage: a possible role for interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Jiang, Y; Alexander, P G; Ulici, V; Zhu, Y; Wu, S; Tuan, R S

    2017-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP), which is located underneath the patella, close to cartilage surfaces, functions in distributing mechanical load and has been shown to produce cytokines. This study aims to assess the involvement of the IPFP in the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) through investigating the crosstalk between the IPFP and injured cartilage in vitro. A single blunt impact (36 MPa) on healthy bovine articular cartilage explants was used to generate traumatized cartilage. Conditioned media from IPFP and traumatized cartilage (FP-CM and TC-CM) were prepared separately. After culturing in FP-CM, the posttraumatic cartilage explants were analyzed for expression of cartilage degeneration associated genes and secretion of the interleukin (IL)-6, into the culture medium. The effect of traumatized cartilage on IPFP was studied by treating IPFP-derived adipocytes and IPFP adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSC) with TC-CM followed by analysis of cytokine expression. FP-CM aggravated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release in traumatized cartilage, but did not significantly affect healthy cartilage. FP-CM raised gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-6 in traumatized cartilage explants, and lowered expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, 2, 3, compared to non-conditioned medium. Of particular significance is that medium IL-6 levels increased substantially in both FP-CM and FP-CM treated traumatized cartilage cultures. Extrinsic IL-6 treatment of traumatized cartilage simulated part of the effects of FP-CM. TC-CM elevated levels of IL-6 expression in IPFP derived adipocytes and ADSCs. IPFP aggravates post-traumatized cartilage degeneration, and IL-6 is a candidate tissue degeneration mediator. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic mice through interleukin-12 regulation on Klotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiuli

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that periodontitis can contribute to adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in the obese rat model. However, the related inflammatory mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of periodontitis on the function of pancreatic β-cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines-related immune mechanism in a mouse model. C57BL/6-db/db and inbred C57BL/6 mice were chosen here to establish a mouse model with periodontitis, which was induced by ligatures for 8 weeks. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was introduced to evaluate the function of pancreatic islets and β-cells. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Klotho were also measured, and the correlation between immunostimulation and Klotho level was deeply investigated in vitro. Pancreatic β-cell failure, with insulin resistance, was observed in db/db mice, while periodontitis could aggravate β-cell dysfunction-related features. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and Klotho showed a negatively synergistic change, whereas the expression of Klotho was also inhibited under IL-12 treatment in MIN6 β-cells or isolated islets. Furthermore, IL-12-induced immune stimulation and also decreased insulin secretion were proven to be reversed by Klotho overexpression. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell failure in diabetic mice. Further in vitro studies showed IL-12 regulation on Klotho, while Klotho also acted as an inhibitor on IL-12, indicating the potential of Klotho for preserving pancreatic β-cell function in diabetes.

  12. Clostridial collagenase aggravates the systemic inflammatory response in rats with partial-thickness burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokumcu, Zafer; Ergun, Orkan; Celik, Handan Ak; Aydemir, Sohret; Sezak, Murat; Ozok, Geylani; Celik, Ahmet

    2008-11-01

    Clostridial collagenase A (CCA) has been shown effective in degrading collagen in eschar tissue and promoting healing in partial-thickness burns. As there are also reports of fever, leukocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and septic complications during treatment with CCA, we aimed to determine in rats whether CCA aggravates the systemic inflammatory response. Rats with partial-thickness burns were randomly divided into groups with either no dressing (ND), povidone-iodine dressing (PID) or CCA dressing (CCAD). Body weights and temperatures, blood leukocyte counts, and serum levels of CRP, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were measured at 0, 3, and 24h and days 3 and 7 from burn. Wounds were cultured on days 1, 3 and 7 and burn depth was evaluated on day 1. Body weights for all groups were significantly lower after burn, with highest loss (25.5%) in the CCAD group. At 3h a significant drop in rectal temperature was noted in all groups. The CCAD group had higher rectal temperature levels than the PID group on days 3 and 7 (pPID groups; the CCAD group showed a significant rise in serum levels of CRP on day 1, of IL-6 on day 3 and of TNF-alpha on day 7. Wound infection was more common in CCAD group and increased on days 3 and 7, but this was insignificant. CCA aggravated the systemic inflammatory response in rats with partial-thickness burns, which is accompanied by a higher risk of infection.

  13. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy; Candida Oral como fator agravante da mucosite radioinduzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de odontologia

    2011-07-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  14. 5-Lipoxygenase Knockout Aggravated Apical Periodontitis in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Sun, H; Yang, B; Liu, X; Wang, J

    2017-11-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) plays a vital role in the host innate immune response, including bacteria-induced inflammation. Apical periodontitis (AP) is due to immune disorders caused by imbalances between bacterial invasion and subsequent host defense response. In this work, we investigated the role of 5-lipoxygenase in AP by using 5- lo knockout mice (5- lo-/- mice). Results showed that 5- lo-/- mice had greater periapical bone loss and more osteoclasts positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining than did wild-type mice, as determined by micro-computed tomography and histologic staining. The inflammation- and osteoclastogenesis-related factors IL-1β, TNF-α, RANK, and RANKL were also significantly elevated in 5- lo-/- mice, whereas osteoprotegerin was reduced. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from 5- lo-/- mice revealed an obviously impaired ability to phagocytose the AP pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum. In vivo experiments confirmed that 5- lo knockout led to decreased macrophage recruitment and increased F. nucleatum infection around the periapical area due to decreased leukotriene B4 and LXA4 production. All these results showed that 5- lo knockout impaired the host innate immune system to promote the release of bone resorption-related factors. Therefore, 5- lo deficiency aggravated AP in an experimental murine AP model.

  15. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  16. Acute myocardial infarction in a patient suffering from penicillin-induced laryngeal edema : Kounis syndrome aggravated by adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesin, Mahmut; Kalçık, Macit; Gürsoy, Mustafa Ozan; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Çağdaş, Metin; Özkan, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    Kounis syndrome or allergic angina is defined as the coincidental occurrence of chest pain and allergic reactions accompanied by clinical and laboratory findings of classical angina pectoris. It is triggered by the action of potent vasoactive and inflammatory mediators, which are released from the mast cells during the allergic reaction. Epinephrine is a life-saving medication in anaphylaxis; however, it can aggravate ischemia and induce coronary vasospasm and arrhythmias. Here, we present a patient with Kounis syndrome that was caused by intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin G, and in whom epinephrine administration for treatment of laryngeal edema had provoked severe myocardial ischemia.

  17. Aggravated Relations between Turkey and Russia: Prospects for Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslambek Totirbekovich Mozloyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strategic analysis of the reasons and outcomes of the aggravation of the relations between Russia and Turkey after the catastrophe with the Russian military plane Su-24. The author outlines the most critical problems which have led to this tragic event using the philosophical approach. The article analyses the relations between the two countries from the strategic point of view on the assumption of the necessity to build up fruitful cooperation in the future. According to the author, purely economic factors because of which bilateral relations could be defined as strategic partnership, have proven to be insufficient when it has come to the political rapprochement of Russia and Turkey based on the commonly understood values of the regional cooperation amid the formation of the multipolar world. The author claims that Russia and Turkey could together become one of the poles using their regional cooperation in the regions of the Black sea and the Middle-East. Nevertheless, extra idealization of the two countries' rapprochement, taking into account the events of the 24th November, 2015, has caused political disenchantment with the perspective of taking the bilateral relations to the real level of strategic partnership which would include not only economic but other factors as well. The tragic event is not only about our plane being shut down but also about the murder of our soldiers what, also considering the reluctance of the Turkish elite to make apologies and its aspiration to postpone the normalization of the relations, makes it difficult to at least bring the relations back to their initial level.

  18. Topical treatment of melasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    .... The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment...

  19. Development and In Vitro-In Vivo Characterization of Chronomodulated Pulsatile Delivery Formulation of Terbutaline Sulphate by Box-Behnken Statistical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Prabhjot Singh; Bhargava, Anurag; Sharma, Jaya; Sharma, Shailesh; Sharma, Abhimanyu Rai; Sharma, Binu

    2017-06-30

    In the present study, we have designed a press-coated pulsatile delivery tablet (PDT) of Terbutaline sulphate (TS) intended for prevention of early-morning asthma attacks. The formulation is capable of giving burst release of drug after 6 h of lag time. In this study, a press-coating technique was employed to coat a fast-release core tablet containing TS with a polymeric release retarding coat comprising of ethyl cellulose, HPMC K15M and Carbopol 971P. Fast-release core tablets were formulated using sodium starch glycolate with croscarmellose sodium (disintegrants). Optimization of PDT was done by response surface methodology employing the Box-Behnken design. The formulations underwent physical evaluation and drug release study. A lag time of 6 h was obtained by the optimized PDT formulation (OP1). The accelerated stability studies showed no significant changes in physicochemical properties and release behaviour before and after storage. Further in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were performed on rabbits to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The formulation OP1 showed C max and T max values of 162.92 ± 9.85 ng/mL and 10 h, respectively. A large value of MRT for the formulation OP1 (12.34 ± 0.778 h) signifies that formulation OP1 was able to delay the release. The study concludes that the chronotherapeutic PDT of TS can be successfully formulated and used to provide a pulsatile release for the chronotherapy of nocturnal asthma.

  20. Under-expression of α8 integrin aggravates experimental atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Cordasic, Nada; Neureiter, Daniel; Amann, Kerstin; Marek, Ines; Volkert, Gudrun; Stintzing, Sebastian; Jahn, Angelika; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hilgers, Karl F; Hartner, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Integrins play an important role in vascular biology. The α8 integrin chain attenuates smooth muscle cell migration but its functional role in the development of atherosclerosis is unclear. Therefore, we studied the contribution of α8 integrin to atherosclerosis and vascular remodelling. We hypothesized that α8 integrin expression is reduced in atherosclerotic lesions, and that its under-expression leads to a more severe course of atherosclerosis. α8 Integrin was detected by immunohistochemistry and qPCR and α8 integrin-deficient mice were used to induce two models of atherosclerotic lesions. First, ligation of the carotid artery led to medial thickening and neointima formation, which was quantified in carotid cross-sections. Second, after crossing into ApoE-deficient mice, the formation of advanced vascular lesions with atherosclerotic plaques was quantified in aortic en face preparations stained with Sudan IV. Parameters of renal physiology and histopathology were assessed: α8 integrin was detected in the media of human and murine vascular tissue and was down-regulated in arteries with advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In α8 integrin-deficient mice (α8(-/-) ) as well as α8(+/-) and α8(+/+) littermates, carotid artery ligation increased media:lumen ratios in all genotypes, with higher values in ligated α8(-/-) and α8(+/-) compared to ligated α8(+/+) animals. Carotid artery ligation increased smooth muscle cell number in the media of α8(+/+) mice and, more prominently, of α8(-/-) or α8(+/-) mice. On an ApoE(-/-) background, α8(+/-) and α8(-/-) mice developed more atherosclerotic plaques than α8(+/+) mice. α8 Integrin expression was reduced in α8(+/-) animals. Renal damage with increased serum creatinine and glomerulosclerosis was detected in α8(-/-) mice only. Thus, under-expression of α8 integrin aggravates vascular lesions, while a complete loss of α8 integrin results in reduced renal mass and additional renal disease in the presence of

  1. Mercury in wintering seabirds, an aggravating factor to winter wrecks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Nguyen, Hanh Linh; Boué, Amélie; Spitz, Jérôme; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-09-15

    Every year, thousands of seabirds are cast ashore and are found dead along the coasts of North America and Western Europe. These massive mortality events called 'winter wrecks' have generally been attributed to harsh climatic conditions and prolonged storms which affect bird energy balance and impact their body condition. Nevertheless, additional stress factors, such as contaminant body burden, could potentially cumulate to energy constraints and actively contribute to winter wrecks. However, the role played by these additional factors in seabird massive winter mortality has received little attention to date. In February/March 2014, an unprecedented seabird wreck occurred along the Atlantic French coasts during which > 43,000 seabirds were found dead. By analyzing mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues collected on stranded birds, we tested the hypothesis that Hg played a significant role in this mortality. More specifically, we aimed to (1) describe Hg contamination in wintering seabirds found along the French coasts in 2014, and (2) determine if Hg concentrations measured in some vital organs such as kidney and brain reached toxicity thresholds that could have led to deleterious effects and to an enhanced mortality. We found some of the highest Hg levels ever reported in Atlantic puffins, common guillemots, razorbills and kittiwakes. Measured concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 μg · g(-1) of dry weight in brain, 1.3 to 7.2 μg · g(-1) in muscle, 2.5 to 13.5 μg · g(-1) in kidney, 2.9 to 18.6 μg · g(-1) in blood and from 3.1 to 19.5 μg · g(-1) in liver. Hg concentrations in liver and brain were generally below the estimated acute toxicity levels. However, kidney concentrations were not different than those measured in the liver, and above levels associated to renal sub-lethal effects, suggesting a potential Hg poisoning. We concluded that although Hg was not directly responsible for the high observed mortality, it has been a major aggravating

  2. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China); Peng, Shuangqing [Evaluation and Research Center for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Science, 20 Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China); Wang, Weidong, E-mail: wwdwyl@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: yuhui_hao@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  3. Microglia-Induced Activation of Noncanonical Wnt Signaling Aggravates Neurodegeneration in Demyelinating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ron; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by both myelin loss and neuronal degeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal degeneration in demyelinating disorders are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) demyelinating-mouse model of MS, inflammatory microglia produce cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since microglia and noncanonical Wnt signaling components in neurons, such as the coreceptor Ror2, were observed in the spinal cords of mice with EAE (EAE mice), we postulated that the interplay between activated microglia and spinal neurons under EAE conditions is mediated through noncanonical Wnt signaling. EAE treatment upregulated in vivo expression of noncanonical Wnt signaling components in spinal neurons through microglial activation. In accordance with the neuronal degeneration detected in the EAE spinal cord in vivo, coculture of spinal neurons with microglia or the application of recombinant IL-1β upregulated noncanonical Wnt signaling and induced neuron death, which was suppressed by the inhibition of the Wnt-Ror2 pathway. Ectopic noncanonical Wnt signaling aggravated the demyelinating pathology in another MS mouse model due to Wnt5a-induced neurodegeneration. The linkage between activated microglia and neuronal Wnt-Ror2 signaling may provide a candidate target for therapeutic approaches to demyelinating disorders. PMID:27550808

  4. Homocysteine Aggravates Cortical Neural Cell Injury through Neuronal Autophagy Overactivation following Rat Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqian Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine (Hcy levels have been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood to date. In the current study, we hypothesized that neuronal autophagy activation may be involved in the toxic effect of Hcy on cortical neurons following cerebral ischemia. Brain cell injury was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL staining. The level and localization of autophagy were detected by transmission electron microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence double labeling. The oxidative DNA damage was revealed by immunofluorescence of 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Hcy treatment aggravated neuronal cell death, significantly increased the formation of autophagosomes and the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 in the brain cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO. Immunofluorescence analysis of LC3B and Beclin-1 distribution indicated that their expression occurred mainly in neurons (NeuN-positive and hardly in astrocytes (GFAP-positive. 8-OHdG expression was also increased in the ischemic cortex of Hcy-treated animals. Conversely, LC3B and Beclin-1 overexpression and autophagosome accumulation caused by Hcy were partially blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA. Hcy administration enhanced neuronal autophagy, which contributes to cell death following cerebral ischemia. The oxidative damage-mediated autophagy may be a molecular mechanism underlying neuronal cell toxicity of elevated Hcy level.

  5. Microglia-induced activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling aggravates neurodegeneration in demyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Smits, Ron; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-22

    Oligodendrocytes are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by both myelin loss and neuronal degeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal degeneration in demyelinating disorders are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) demyelinating mouse model of MS, inflammatory microglia produce cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Since microglia and non-canonical Wnt signaling components in neurons, such as the co-receptor Ror2, were observed in the spinal cord of EAE mice, we postulated that the interplay between activated microglia and spinal neurons under EAE conditions is mediated through non-canonical Wnt signaling. EAE treatment up-regulated in vivo expression of non-canonical Wnt signaling components in spinal neurons through microglial activation. In accordance with the neuronal degeneration detected in the EAE spinal cord in vivo, co-culture of spinal neurons with microglia or the application of recombinant IL-1β up-regulated non-canonical Wnt signaling, and induced neuronal cell death, which was suppressed by the inhibition of the Wnt-Ror2 pathway. Ectopic non-canonical Wnt signaling aggravated the demyelinating pathology in another MS mouse model due to Wnt5a-induced neurodegeneration. The linkage between activated microglia and neuronal Wnt-Ror2 signaling may provide a possible candidate target for therapeutic approaches to demyelinating disorders. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Helicobacter pylori Infection Aggravates Diet-induced Insulin Resistance in Association With Gut Microbiota of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cong; Yang, Zhen; Cheng, Dandan; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Ge, Zhongming; Luo, Zhijun; Lu, Nonghua

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR) yet the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. The vital role of gut microbiota in triggering IR has been increasingly reported, however, no study has explored the correlation of gut microbiota and H. pylori-associated IR. Using H. pylori-infected mice model fed different diet structures, we demonstrated that H. pylori infection significantly aggravated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders at the early stage, the extent of which was close to the effect of long-term HFD. Interestingly, we observed dynamic alterations in gut microbiota that were consistent with the changes in the metabolic phenotype induced by H. pylori and HFD. There may be an interaction among H. pylori, diet and gut microbiota, which dysregulates the host metabolic homeostasis, and treatment of H. pylori may be beneficial to the patients with impaired glucose tolerance in addition to diet control. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Carbon monoxide pollution aggravates ischemic heart failure through oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Cyril; Boissière, Julien; André, Lucas; Meyer, Gregory; Bideaux, Patrice; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Obert, Philippe; Lacampagne, Alain; Thireau, Jérôme; Cazorla, Olivier; Richard, Sylvain

    2017-01-03

    Risk of hospital readmission and cardiac mortality increases with atmospheric pollution for patients with heart failure. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Carbon monoxide (CO) a ubiquitous environmental pollutant could be involved. We explored the effect of daily exposure of CO relevant to urban pollution on post-myocardial infarcted animals. Rats with ischemic heart failure were exposed 4 weeks to daily peaks of CO mimicking urban exposure or to standard filtered air. CO exposure worsened cardiac contractile dysfunction evaluated by echocardiography and at the cardiomyocyte level. In line with clinical reports, the animals exposed to CO also exhibited a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype with numerous sustained ventricular tachycardias as monitored by surface telemetric electrocardiograms. CO did not affect cardiac β-adrenergic responsiveness. Instead, mitochondrial dysfunction was exacerbated leading to additional oxidative stress and Ca2+ cycling alterations. This was reversed following acute antioxidant treatment of cardiomyocytes with N-acetylcysteine confirming involvement of CO-induced oxidative stress. Exposure to daily peaks of CO pollution aggravated cardiac dysfunction in rats with ischemic heart failure by specifically targeting mitochondria and generating ROS-dependent alterations. This pathway may contribute to the high sensibility and vulnerability of individuals with cardiac disease to environmental outdoor air quality.

  8. Impairment of PPARαand the Fatty Acid Oxidation Pathway Aggravates Renal Fibrosis during Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Mi Kyung; Oh, Goo Taeg; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2018-02-12

    Defects in the renal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway have been implicated in the development of renal fibrosis. Although, compared with young kidneys, aged kidneys show significantly increased fibrosis with impaired kidney function, the mechanisms underlying the effects of aging on renal fibrosis have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α ) and the FAO pathway as regulators of age-associated renal fibrosis. The expression of PPAR α and the FAO pathway-associated proteins significantly decreased with the accumulation of lipids in the renal tubular epithelial region during aging in rats. In particular, decreased PPAR α protein expression associated with increased expression of PPAR α -targeting microRNAs. Among the microRNAs with increased expression during aging, miR-21 efficiently decreased PPAR α expression and impaired FAO when ectopically expressed in renal epithelial cells. In cells pretreated with oleic acid to induce lipid stress, miR-21 treatment further enhanced lipid accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with miR-21 significantly exacerbated the TGF- β -induced fibroblast phenotype of epithelial cells. We verified the physiologic importance of our findings in a calorie restriction model. Calorie restriction rescued the impaired FAO pathway during aging and slowed fibrosis development. Finally, compared with kidneys of aged littermate controls, kidneys of aged PPAR α -/- mice showed exaggerated lipid accumulation, with decreased activity of the FAO pathway and a severe fibrosis phenotype. Our results suggest that impaired renal PPAR α signaling during aging aggravates renal fibrosis development, and targeting PPAR α is useful for preventing age-associated CKD. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Right Cervical Vagotomy Aggravates Viral Myocarditis in Mice Via the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Sha, Ge; Xing-Xing, Chen; Lian-Pin, Wu; De-Pu, Zhou; Xiao-Wei, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Yue-Chun, Li

    2017-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system dysfunction with increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis. The vagus nerve can modulate the immune response and control inflammation through a 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' dependent on the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Although the role of β-adrenergic stimulation on viral myocarditis has been investigated in our pervious studies, the direct effect of vagal tone in this setting has not been yet studied. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of cervical vagotomy in a murine model of viral myocarditis. In a coxsackievirus B3 murine myocarditis model (Balb/c), effects of right cervical vagotomy and nAChR agonist nicotine on echocardiography, myocardial histopathology, viral RNA, and proinflammatory cytokine levels were studied. We found that right cervical vagotomy inhibited the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, aggravated myocardial lesions, up-regulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and worsened the impaired left ventricular function in murine viral myocarditis, and these changes were reversed by co-treatment with nicotine by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. These results indicate that vagal nerve plays an important role in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect in viral myocarditis, and that cholinergic stimulation with nicotine also plays its peripheral anti-inflammatory role relying on α7nAChR, without requirement for the integrity of vagal nerve in the model. The findings suggest that vagus nerve stimulation mediated inhibition of the inflammatory processes likely provide important benefits in myocarditis treatment.

  10. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells aggravate chronic cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by the induction of oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Ha Chung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether hATMSCs protect against cyclosporine (CsA-induced renal injury. CsA (7.5 mg/kg and hATMSCs (3×10(6/5 mL were administered alone and together to rats for 4 weeks. The effect of hATMSCs on CsA-induced renal injury was evaluated by assessing renal function, interstitial fibrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and apoptotic cell death. Four weeks of CsA-treatment produced typical chronic CsA-nephropathy. Combined treatment with CsA and hATMSCs did not prevent these effects and showed a trend toward further renal deterioration. To evaluate why hATMSCs aggravated CsA-induced renal injury, we measured oxidative stress, a major mechanism of CsA-induced renal injury. Both urine and serum 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine(8-OHdG levels were higher in the CsA+hATMSCs group than in the CsA group (P<0.05. An in vitro study showed similar results. Although the rate of apoptosis did not differ significantly between HK-2 cells cultured in hATMSCs-conditioned medium and those cultured in DMEM, addition of CsA resulted in greater apoptosis in HK-2 cells cultured in hATMSCs-conditioned medium. Addition of CsA increased oxidative stress in the hATMSCs-conditioned medium. The results of our study suggest that treatment with hATMSCs may aggravate CsA-induced renal injury because hATMSCs cause oxidative stress in the presence of CsA.

  11. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes contributes to hyperhomocysteinemia-aggravated inflammation and atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renqing; Wang, Yiqin; Mu, Nana; Lou, Xiaoying; Li, Weixuan; Chen, Yanming; Fan, Dong; Tan, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been identified as the cellular machinery responsible for activation of inflammatory processes. In this study, we hypothesized that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes contributes to HHcy-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis. ApoE−/− mice were fed regular chow, high-fat (HF) diet, or HF plus high methionine diet to induce HHcy. To assess the role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in HHcy-aggravated atherosclerosis, NLRP3 shRNA viral suspension was injected via tail vein to knock down the NLRP3 gene. Increased plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-18, aggravated macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic lesions, and accelerated development of atherosclerosis were detected in HHcy mice as compared with control mice, and were associated with the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. Silencing the NLRP3 gene significantly suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, reduced plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, attenuated macrophage infiltration and improved HHcy-induced atherosclerosis. We also examined the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1-differentiated macrophages in the presence or absence of NLRP3 siRNA or the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-WEHD-FMK. We found that Hcy activated NLRP3 inflammasomes and promoted subsequent production of IL-1β and IL-18 in macrophages, which were blocked by NLRP3 gene silencing or Z-WEHD-FMK. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) may have a central role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we next investigated whether antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) prevented Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. We found Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was abolished by NAC. Treatment with NAC in HHcy mice also suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and improved HHcy-induced atherosclerosis. These data suggest that the

  12. Colchicine aggravates coxsackievirus B3 infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Bernard J.; Woudstra, Linde; Fong Hing, Gene; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Murk, Jean-Luc; van Ham, Marieke; Heymans, Stephane; Juffermans, Lynda J. M.; van Rossum, Albert C.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Krijnen, Paul A. J.; Emmens, Reindert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is a clinical need for immunosuppressive therapy that can treat myocarditis patients in the presence of an active viral infection. In this study we therefore investigated the effects of colchicine, an immunosuppressive drug which has been used successfully as treatment for pericarditis

  13. [Intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria aggravates pulmonary immune pathological injury of mice infected with influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sha; Yan, Yuqi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Jiang, Zhenyou

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria and influenza virus infection, and the effect on pulmonary inflammatory cytokines in mice. Totally 36 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, virus-infected group and metronidazole treatment group (12 mice in each group). Mice in the metronidazole group were administrated orally with metronidazole sulfate for 8 days causing anaerobic bacteria flora imbalance; then all groups except the normal control group were treated transnasally with influenza virus (50 μL/d FM1) for 4 days to establish the influenza virus-infected models. Their mental state and lung index were observed, and the pathological morphological changes of lung tissues, caecum and intestinal mucosa were examined by HE staining. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17 in the lung homogenates were determined by ELISA. Compared with the virus control group, the metronidazole group showed obviously increased lung index and more serious pathological changes of the lung tissue and appendix inflammation performance. After infected by the FM1 influenza virus, IFN-γ and IL-17 of the metronidazole group decreased significantly and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were raised, but there was no statistically difference between the metronidazole and virus control groups. Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection.

  14. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  15. Some necessary criminalist methods for the investigation of aggravated murders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valon Brahimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a negative, complex and dynamic occurrence that fits to the social changes. So in order to fight the crime and prevent it in society, it is very important to know some social disciplines which clearly help to understand the aim of this phenomenon. To reach this aim we must use different techniques which are based on the proceedings pair. The investigations are based on the scene, witnesses, police, criminalist experts, medicine, processes and the treatment of cases in the most correct form through a structure of investigation.

  16. Aggravation and Stress in Parenting: Associations with Coparenting and Father Engagement among Resident Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison; Carrano, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a sample of 2,139 resident biological fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing surveys (baseline and 12-month follow-up), to examine whether paternal aggravation and stress in parenting is associated with father engagement and coparenting and whether this association differs by father's socioeconomic status. Results of…

  17. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Jou.

  18. Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rétraction: plagiat aggravé dans l'article Aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique lors d'un asthme réfractaire: à propos d'un cas clinique. Khalid Lahmadi, Hind El Youssi, Jawad Rochdi, BoughrineNawal, Er-Rami Mohammed. The Pan African Medical Journal.

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  20. Street Life: Aggravated and Sexual Assaults among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Nathanial Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Examines aggravated and sexual assaults among 240 runaway and homeless adolescents (RHAs) in Des Moines (Iowa). Results suggest RHAs are at risk of life-threatening situations on the streets due to aggressive and abusive parents. Additionally, street life situations have significant impacts on the probability that RHAs will be victims of…

  1. Inhibition of Common Cold-Induced Aggravation of Childhood Asthma by Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Yoshihara

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  2. Alkaline ceramidase 3 deficiency aggravates colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice by hyperactivating the innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Xu, R; Snider, A J; Schrandt, J; Li, Y; Bialkowska, A B; Li, M; Zhou, J; Hannun, Y A; Obeid, L M; Yang, V W; Mao, C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing studies suggest that ceramides differing in acyl chain length and/or degree of unsaturation have distinct roles in mediating biological responses. However, still much remains unclear about regulation and role of distinct ceramide species in the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that alkaline ceramidase 3 (Acer3) mediates the immune response by regulating the levels of C18:1-ceramide in cells of the innate immune system and that Acer3 deficiency aggravates colitis in a murine model by augmenting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myeloid and colonic epithelial cells (CECs). According to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, ACER3 is downregulated in immune cells in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a potent inducer of the innate immune response. Consistent with these data, we demonstrated that LPS downregulated both Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity while elevating C18:1-ceramide, a substrate of Acer3, in murine immune cells or CECs. Knocking out Acer3 enhanced the elevation of C18:1-ceramide and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells and CECs in response to LPS challenge. Similar to Acer3 knockout, treatment with C18:1-ceramide, but not C18:0-ceramide, potentiated LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. In the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, Acer3 deficiency augmented colitis-associated elevation of colonic C18:1-ceramide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acer3 deficiency aggravated diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss and mortality. Pathological analyses revealed that Acer3 deficiency augmented colonic shortening, immune cell infiltration, colonic epithelial damage and systemic inflammation. Acer3 deficiency also aggravated colonic dysplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that Acer3 has an important anti-inflammatory role by suppressing cellular or tissue C18:1-ceramide, a

  3. 77 FR 24415 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a... with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, FRA is adjusting the aggravated...), [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act...

  4. Semaphorin 7A Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation during Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mariella; Granja, Tiago Folgosa; Rosenberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The extent of pulmonary inflammation during lung injury ultimately determines patient outcome. Pulmonary inflammation is initiated by the migration of neutrophils into the alveolar space. Recent work has demonstrated that the guidance protein semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) influences the migration of neutrophils into hypoxic tissue sites, yet, its role during lung injury is not well understood. Here, we report that the expression of SEMA7A is induced in vitro through pro-inflammatory cytokines. SEMA7A itself induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial and epithelial cells, enhancing pulmonary inflammation. The induction of SEMA7A facilitates the transendothelial migration of neutrophils. In vivo, animals with deletion of SEMA7A expression showed reduced signs of pulmonary inflammatory changes following lipopolysaccharide challenge. We define here the role of SEMA7A in the development of lung injury and identify a potential pathway to interfere with these detrimental changes. Future anti-inflammatory strategies for the treatment of lung injury might be based on this finding. PMID:26752048

  5. Retreatment using a dual mode of low-fluence Q-switched and long-pulse Nd:YAG laser in patients with melasma aggravation after previous therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chun Pil; Yim, Seon Mi; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul; Choi, Jae Eun

    2015-06-01

    Aggravated melasma after treatment is vulnerable to stimulation, can easily deteriorate, and may be distressing without proper management. To retrospectively assess the effectiveness and safety of combination therapy using low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (QSNY) and long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (LPNY) (dual toning) in patients with rebound melasma. A total of 30 patients with aggravated melasma after previous therapy who were treated with dual toning were enrolled. A total of 10 sessions were conducted at 1-week intervals, followed by maintenance treatment. The results were evaluated using the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) and the physician's global assessment (PGA) before and 2 months after completing the 10 treatment sessions. The baseline mMASI was 10.48 ± 3.64, which significantly decreased to 3.22 ± 1.45 2 months after completing the 10 treatment sessions (p melasma after previous treatment. LPNY may stabilize melasma activity to prevent rebound hyperpigmentation via dermal remodeling.

  6. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.

  7. Helicobacter pylori Infection Aggravates Diet-induced Insulin Resistance in Association With Gut Microbiota of Mice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Cong; Yang, Zhen; Cheng, Dandan; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Ge, Zhongming; Luo, Zhijun; Lu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR) yet the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. The vital role of gut microbiota in triggering IR has been increasingly reported, however, no study has explored the correlation of gut microbiota and H. pylori-associated IR. Using H. pylori-infected mice model fed different diet structures, we demonstrated that H. pylori infection significantly aggravated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabo...

  8. Role of foods in irregular aggravation of skin lesions in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2008-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease that especially affects children and adolescents. Many environmental factors have been recognized as relevant in aggravating skin lesions of the disease. However, it remains to be determined whether foods play a role in worsening of skin lesions in children with atopic dermatitis. In the present study, we investigated whether foods play a role in irregular aggravation of skin lesions in children with the disease. The study population consisted of 69 patients aged 3-15 years with atopic dermatitis. They were hospitalized and open challenge tests were performed with suspected foods. Photographs of representative skin lesion sites were taken at baseline and before and after the challenge. We determined challenge-positive foods by evaluating the comparable before/after challenge photographs. One to three (average, 1.9) challenge-positive foods were confirmed in 52 (75%) of the 69 patients examined. Predominant offending foods were chocolate, cheese and yogurt. Specific immunoglobulin E values to offending foods were mostly negative. We asked patients to exclude challenge-positive foods from their diets. They were then discharged and followed up for 3 months at our outpatient clinic. Exclusion of the offending foods for 3 months brought about a remarkable improvement in the disease. These results suggest that foods play an important role in irregular aggravation of skin lesions in children with atopic dermatitis.

  9. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  10. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilayaraja Muthuramu; Ruhul Amin; Andrey Postnov; Mudit Mishra; Frank Jacobs; Olivier Gheysens; Paul P. Van Veldhoven; Bart De Geest

    2017-01-01

    .... We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice...

  11. 5 CFR 890.1016 - Aggravating and mitigating factors used to determine the length of permissive debarments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... involving violence, patient abuse, drug abuse, or controlled substances convictions or violations to be... absence of aggravating or mitigating factors shall have no effect to either increase or lower the nominal...

  12. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Guadall, Anna; Orriols, Mar; Navas, Miquel; Aguiló, Silvia; de Diego, Alicia; Navarro, María A; García-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) controls matrix remodeling, a key process that underlies cardiovascular diseases and heart failure; however, a lack of suitable animal models has limited our knowledge with regard to the contribution of LOX to cardiac dysfunction. Here, we assessed the impact of LOX overexpression on ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in a transgenic LOX (TgLOX) mouse model with a strong cardiac expression of human LOX. TgLOX mice exhibited high expression of the transgene in cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts, which are associated with enhanced LOX activity and H2O2 production and with cardiofibroblast reprogramming. LOX overexpression promoted an age-associated concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and impaired diastolic function. Furthermore, LOX transgenesis aggravated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which triggered a greater fibrotic response that was characterized by stronger collagen deposition and cross-linking and high expression of fibrotic markers. In addition, LOX transgenesis increased the Ang II-induced myocardial inflammatory infiltrate, exacerbated expression of proinflammatory markers, and decreased that of cardioprotective factors. Mechanistically, LOX overexpression enhanced oxidative stress and potentiated the Ang II-mediated cardiac activation of p38 MAPK while reducing AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that LOX induces an age-dependent disturbance of diastolic function and aggravates Ang II-induced hypertrophy, which provides novel insights into the role of LOX in cardiac performance.-Galán, M., Varona, S., Guadall, A., Orriols, M., Navas, M., Aguiló, S., de Diego, A., Navarro, M. A., García-Dorado, D., Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Martínez-González, J., Rodriguez, C. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy. © FASEB.

  13. A20 Haploinsufficiency Aggravates Transplant Arteriosclerosis in Mouse Vascular Allografts: Implications for Clinical Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Herwig P; Lee, Andy; Peterson, Clayton R; Revuelta Cervantes, Jesus; Wojcik, Brandon M; Parulkar, Anshul; Mele, Alessandra; LoGerfo, Philip J; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Csizmadia, Eva; da Silva, Cleide G; Ferran, Christiane

    2016-11-01

    Inflammation is central to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). We questioned whether physiologic levels of anti-inflammatory A20 influence TA severity. We performed major histocompatibility complex mismatched aorta to carotid artery interposition grafts, using wild type (WT) or A20 heterozygote (HET) C57BL/6 (H-2) donors and BALB/c (H-2) recipients, and conversely BALB/c donors and WT/HET recipients. We analyzed aortic allografts by histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and gene profiling (quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). We validated select in vivo A20 targets in human and mouse smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures. We noted significantly greater intimal hyperplasia in HET versus WT allografts, indicating aggravated TA. Inadequate upregulation of A20 in HET allografts after transplantation was associated with excessive NF-кB activation, gauged by higher levels of IkBα, p65, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, CXCL10, CCL2, TNF, and IL-6 (mostly localized to SMC). Correspondingly, cytokine-induced upregulation of TNF and IL-6 in human and mouse SMC cultures inversely correlated with A20 expression. Aggravated TA in HET versus WT allografts correlated with increased intimal SMC proliferation, and a higher number of infiltrating IFNγ and Granzyme B CD4 T cells and natural killer cells, and lower number of FoxP3 regulatory T cells. A20 haploinsufficiency in allograft recipients did not influence TA. A20 haploinsufficiency in vascular allografts aggravates lesions of TA by exacerbating inflammation, SMC proliferation, and infiltration of pathogenic T cells. A20 single nucleotide polymorphisms associating with lower A20 expression or function in donors of vascularized allografts may inform risk and severity of TA, highlighting the clinical implications of our findings.

  14. Continuing Exposure to Low-Dose Nonylphenol Aggravates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Dysfunction and Role of Rosuvastatin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chia-Hung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonylphenol (NP, an environmental organic compound, has been demonstrated to enhance reactive-oxygen species (ROS synthesis. Chronic exposure to low-dose adenine (AD has been reported to induce chronic kidney disease (CKD. Methods In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to NP will aggravate AD-induced CKD through increasing generations of inflammation, ROS, and apoptosis that could be attenuated by rosuvastatin. Fifty male Wistar rats were equally divided into group 1 (control, group 2 (AD in fodder at a concentration of 0.25%, group 3 (NP: 2 mg/kg/day, group 4 (combined AD & NP, and group 5 (AD-NP + rosuvastatin: 20 mg/kg/day. Treatment was continued for 24 weeks for all animals before being sacrificed. Results By the end of 24 weeks, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine levels were increased in group 4 than in groups 1–3, but significantly reduced in group 5 as compared with group 4 (all p  Conclusion NP worsened AD-induced CKD that could be reversed by rosuvastatin therapy.

  15. Lack of mitochondrial ferritin aggravated neurological deficits via enhancing oxidative stress in a traumatic brain injury murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Wang, Libo; Dai, Zhibo; Wu, Pei; Shi, Huaizhang; Zhao, Shiguang

    2017-12-22

    Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mitochondrial ferritin (Ftmt) is reported to be closely related to oxidative stress. However, whether Ftmt is involved in TBI-induced oxidative stress and neurological deficits remains unknown. In the present study, the controlled cortical impact model was established in wild-type and Ftmt knockout mice as a TBI model. The Ftmt expression, oxidative stress, neurological deficits, and brain injury were measured. We found that Ftmt expression was gradually decreased from 3 to 14 days post-TBI, while oxidative stress was gradually increased, as evidenced by reduced GSH and superoxide dismutase levels and elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. Interestingly, the extent of reduced Ftmt expression in the brain was linearly correlated with oxidative stress. Knockout of Ftmt significantly exacerbated TBI-induced oxidative stress, intracerebral hemorrhage, brain infarction, edema, neurological severity score, memory impairment, and neurological deficits. However, all these effects in Ftmt knockout mice were markedly mitigated by pharmacological inhibition of oxidative stress using an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these results reveal an important correlation between Ftmt and oxidative stress after TBI. Ftmt deficiency aggravates TBI-induced brain injuries and neurological deficits, which at least partially through increasing oxidative stress levels. Our data suggest that Ftmt may be a promising molecular target for the treatment of TBI. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Vitamin D deficiency aggravates nephrotoxicity, hypertension and dyslipidemia caused by tenofovir: role of oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Canale

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Vitamin D has been associated with renal and cardiovascular diseases because of its effects on oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, a widely used component of antiretroviral regimens for HIV treatment, can induce renal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of VDD on TDF-induced nephrotoxicity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, receiving a standard diet for 60 days; VDD, receiving a vitamin D-free diet for 60 days; TDF, receiving a standard diet for 60 days with the addition of TDF (50 mg/kg food for the last 30 days; and VDD+TDF receiving a vitamin D-free diet for 60 days with the addition of TDF for the last 30 days. TDF led to impaired renal function, hyperphosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, hypertension and increased renal vascular resistance due to downregulation of the sodium-phosphorus cotransporter and upregulation of angiotensin II and AT1 receptor. TDF also increased oxidative stress, as evidenced by higher TBARS and lower GSH levels, and induced dyslipidemia. Association of TDF and VDD aggravated renovascular effects and TDF-induced nephrotoxicity due to changes in the redox state and involvement of RAAS.

  17. Naturally occurring glycoalkaloids in potatoes aggravate intestinal inflammation in two mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablokov, Vadim; Sydora, Beate C; Foshaug, Rae; Meddings, Jon; Driedger, Darcy; Churchill, Tom; Fedorak, Richard N

    2010-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be initiated following disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. This disruption, in turn, permits luminal antigens unfettered access to the mucosal immune system and leads to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Glycoalkaloids, which are found in potatoes, disrupt cholesterol-containing membranes such as those of the intestinal epithelium. Glycoalkaloid ingestion through potatoes may play a role in the initiation and/or perpetuation of IBD. To determine if commercial and high glycoalkaloids containing fried potato skins aggravate intestinal inflammation using two different animal models of IBD. Fried potato skins from commercial potatoes containing low/medium glycoalkaloid levels and high glycoalkaloids potatoes were fed for 20 days to interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitic mice. Intestinal permeability, mucosal cytokine and myeloperoxidase levels and body weight were determined to assess intestinal injury. Deep frying potato skins markedly increased glycoalkaloid content. Interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice fed fried commercial potato skins with medium glycoalkaloid content exhibited significantly elevated levels of ileal IFN-γ relative to controls. Mice in the dextran sodium sulfate colitis model that were fed the same strain of potatoes demonstrated significantly elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 in the colon in addition to an enhanced colonic permeability. Inflammatory response was intensified when the mice were fed potatoes with higher glycoalkaloid contents. Our results demonstrate that consumption of potato skins containing glycoalkaloids can significantly aggravate intestinal inflammation in predisposed individuals.

  18. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R after high (25 mM or low (5.5 mM glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system.

  19. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  20. Copper oxide nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation and mucus production in asthmatic mice via MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ko, Je-Won; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs), metal oxide nanoparticles were used in multiple applications including wood preservation, antimicrobial textiles, catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation and heat transfer fluid in machines. We investigated the effects of CuONPs on the respiratory system in Balb/c mice. In addition, to investigate the effects of CuONPs on asthma development, we used a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. CuONPs markedly increased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts, proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). CuONPs induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion with increases in phosphorylation of the MAPKs (Erk, JNK and p38). In the OVA-induced asthma model, CuONPs aggravated the increased AHR, inflammatory cell count, proinflammatory cytokines, ROS and immunoglobulin E induced by OVA exposure. In addition, CuONPs markedly increased inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung and mucus secretions, and MAPK phosphorylation was elevated compared to OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Taken together, CuONPs exhibited toxicity on the respiratory system, which was associated with the MAPK phosphorylation. In addition, CuONPs exposure aggravated the development of asthma. We conclude that CuONPs exposure has a potential toxicity in humans with respiratory disease.

  1. High fat diet aggravates atrial and ventricular remodeling of hypertensive heart disease in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiou, Yi-Lin; Huang, I-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Ting; Lee, Hsiang-Chun

    2017-09-06

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure in aging population. This study is to determine whether an excess dietary fat is lipotoxic or lipoprotein to the hypertrophic aging heart. At 44-week-old, a normal chow (12% fat) was replaced a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) for randomly selective spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR + HFD, n = 6) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY + HFD, n = 6, normotensive control). Others (SHR, n = 11; WKY, n = 10) were continuously fed with normal diets. After 27 weeks, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and femoral arterial catheterization were performed before rats being sacrificed for molecular biology analyses. HFD aggravated cardiac atrial, ventricular dilation and hypertrophy in SHR (LV mass: SHR + HFD 2026.0 ± 424.9 vs SHR 1449 ± 461.1 mg, unpaired t test P heart disease in aging rats was aggravated by HFD with worse atrial, ventricular remodeling and associated with left ventricular systolic function impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hoving

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  3. Habitual use of warm-water cleaning toilets is related to the aggravation of vaginal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Mitsuharu; Iino, Koichi; Minoura, Shigeki

    2010-10-01

    Warm-water cleaning toilets, or ‘bidet toilets’, are one of the most popular household goods in Japan. However, a recent large-scale survey raised questions about the relationship between bidet toilet use and bacterial vaginitis as reflecting bacterial vaginosis with inflammation. Recently, gynecologists have expressed concerns about the increase in aggravated vaginal microflora in habitual bidet users. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify the possible relevancy of bidet usage to changes in vaginal microflora. Two hundred and sixty-eight non-pregnant women of reproductive age, with an increase in vaginal discharge, consented to enter the study. On outpatient visit, an aliquot of cervicovaginal secretion was obtained by a sterilized cotton swab and cultured using standard culture systems. Normal microflora (Lactobacillus species) was not present in 42.86% of bidet toilet users, compared to 8.77% of non-users. Fecal bacteria were detected in 50 of the 268 cases (18.66%), 46 cases in users (92%) and only 4 cases in non-users (8%). Contamination by other pathogens was 4 to 6 times higher in users than in non-users. Habitual use of bidet toilets aggravates vaginal microflora, either by depriving normal microflora or facilitating opportunistic infection of fecal bacteria and other microorganisms.

  4. Airway Surface Dehydration Aggravates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Hallmarks of COPD in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Leen J M; Verhamme, Fien M; Dupont, Lisa L; Desauter, Elke; Duerr, Julia; Seyhan Agircan, Ayca; Conickx, Griet; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G; Mall, Marcus A; Bracke, Ken R

    2015-01-01

    Airway surface dehydration, caused by an imbalance between secretion and absorption of ions and fluid across the epithelium and/or increased epithelial mucin secretion, impairs mucociliary clearance. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of airway surface dehydration in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD remains unknown. We aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of airway surface dehydration on several CS-induced hallmarks of COPD in mice with airway-specific overexpression of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (βENaC). βENaC-Tg mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to air or CS for 4 or 8 weeks. Pathological hallmarks of COPD, including goblet cell metaplasia, mucin expression, pulmonary inflammation, lymphoid follicles, emphysema and airway wall remodelling were determined and lung function was measured. Airway surface dehydration in βENaC-Tg mice aggravated CS-induced airway inflammation, mucin expression and destruction of alveolar walls and accelerated the formation of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Moreover, lung function measurements demonstrated an increased compliance and total lung capacity and a lower resistance and hysteresis in βENaC-Tg mice, compared to WT mice. CS exposure further altered lung function measurements. We conclude that airway surface dehydration is a risk factor that aggravates CS-induced hallmarks of COPD.

  5. Transmitted Holocaust trauma: curse or legacy? The aggravating and mitigating factors of Holocaust transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Natan P F

    2008-01-01

    For children of Holocaust survivors, the trauma of their parents can be perceived both as a curse and as a legacy. On the one hand, it may fill their inner lives with terrible anxiety-provoking associations; on the other, it may be a source of creative inspiration that motivates them to make the world a better place. As a result, most of them struggle with the contradictory forces of vulnerability and resilience that they inherited from their parents. Since there is such a wide spectrum of adaptive reactions to the Holocaust, it is important to identify the various aggravating and mitigating factors that are assumed to increase or decrease the risk of children to absorb the trauma of their parents and to develop specific second-generation psychopathology as a result. In an effort to understand more clearly some of the aggravating factors, a demographic study of a clinical sub-population of the "Second Generation" was conducted. Results indicated that most of this clinical population was born soon after the war ended, to parents who were both Holocaust survivors, and that they were mostly female, married, highly educated, working as teachers or in the helping professions, were the first or the second child, and had parents who were inclined not to share their Holocaust experiences with their children. Parents were mostly rated as fully functioning, without severe mental and physical disease and as not overly preoccupied with the Holocaust.

  6. Indigo Naturalis Ameliorates Oxazolone-Induced Dermatitis but Aggravates Colitis by Changing the Composition of Gut Microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Soichiro; Hoshi, Namiko; Inoue, Jun; Yasutomi, Eiichiro; Otsuka, Takafumi; Dhakhwa, Ramesh; Wang, Zi; Koo, Yuna; Takamatsu, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Yamairi, Haruka; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ooi, Makoto; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Indigo naturalis (IND) is an herbal medicine that has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat diseases including dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease in China. However, the mechanism by which IND exerts its immunomodulatory effect is not well understood. A murine model of dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease, both induced by oxazolone (OXA), was treated with IND. The severity of dermatitis was evaluated based on ear thickness measurements and histological scoring. The severity of colitis was evaluated by measuring body weight, histological scoring, and endoscopic scoring. The expression of inflammatory cytokines in ear and colon tissue was evaluated using real-time PCR. 16S rRNA DNA sequencing of feces from OXA-induced colitis mice was performed before and after IND treatment. The effects of IND on OXA-induced colitis were also evaluated after depleting the gut flora with antibiotics to test whether alteration of the gut flora by IND influenced the course of intestinal inflammation in this model. IND treatment ameliorated OXA dermatitis with a reduction in IL-4 and eosinophil recruitment. However, OXA colitis was significantly aggravated in spite of a reduction in intestinal IL-13, a pivotal cytokine in the induction of the colitis. It was found that IND dramatically altered the gut flora and IND no longer exacerbated colitis when colitis was induced after gut flora depletion. Our data suggest that IND could modify the inflammatory immune response in multiple ways, either directly (i.e., modification of the allergic immune cell activity) or indirectly (i.e., alteration of commensal compositions). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Extracellular heat-shock protein 70 aggravates cerulein-induced pancreatitis through toll-like receptor-4 in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jun-min; WANG Rong; LIU Hong-xiang; LI Yuan; ZENG Yu-jian; ZHOU Zong-guang; LIU Hai-yi; XU Bing; WANG Ling; ZHOU Bin

    2008-01-01

    Background In patients suffering from acute pancreatitis, the pathogenesis is not completely understood, and several recent studies in vitro suggested that heat shock proteins might play an important role in cell signaling. To investigate the possible role of extracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in pancreatitis, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-deficient and wild-type mice were administered with exogenous Hsp70 during the course of cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP).Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by 5 intraperitoneal injections of cerulein at hourly intervals, and then treated with recombinant Hsp70 through the caudal vein 4 hours after the start of cerulein injections. Subsequently serum amylase and serum cytokines levels were detected. Histologic alteration of the pancreas was evaluated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) concentrations and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in both pancreas and lungs were analyzed. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) activation in pancreatic tissue was measured using a sensitive RelA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Treatment with recombinant Hsp70 to wild-type mice in CIP resulted in significant aggravation of inflammation in pancreas, elevated levels of serum cytokines, up-regulation of pulmonary MPO activity and increase of lung tissues TNF-α concentrations. In contrast, treatment with Hsp70 to TLR4-deficient mice had little effect on serum cytokines levels, pancreatic inflammation, pulmonary MPO activity and TNF-a concentrations.Conclusions The results suggest that extracellular HspTO might induce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)-Iike response in vivo and TLR4 might be involved in the Hsp70-mediated activation of inflammatory reaction in the progression of CIP without infection.

  8. Efficacy of traditional Japanese herbal medicines-Keishikajutsubuto (TJ-18) and Bushi-matsu (TJ-3022)-against postherpetic neuralgia aggravated by self-reported cold stimulation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miho; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Kageyama, Mitsuru; Otsuka, Shizue; Inoue, Takaya; Nishida, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kishida, Yuki

    2012-07-01

    It has been reported that postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in patients over 60 years of age is aggravated under cold stimulation and is often difficult to treat. Keishikajutsubuto (TJ-18) and Bushi-matsu (TJ-3022) are traditional Japanese herbal medicines and have long been used to treat neuralgia and arthralgia, which are aggravated following cold stimulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined TJ-18 and TJ-3022 therapy in cases of PHN aggravated by self-reported cold stimulation. Fifteen (15) PHN patients aged 60 years and over were examined. Patients were aware of the persistent pain despite other treatments; pain was generally aggravated following exposure to cold stimulation. First, TJ-18 (7.5 g/day) was administered to patients, and then TJ-3022 (1.0 g/day) was also administered and progressively increased by 0.5-1.0 g increments every 2-4 weeks, until stable improvement was achieved, which was rated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Analgesic effects were evaluated using the VAS during each patient visit. Background variables, responses to treatment (time course of VAS rating, VAS improvement rate), the amount of additional TJ-3022 administered, and adverse reactions were analyzed. Twelve (12) of the 15 patients completed the entire trial. Patient ages were 61-85 years, the male-to-female ratio was 4:8, and length of time after onset of herpes zoster was 2-92 months. In 3 patients, oral TJ-18 treatment was not possible due to hot flash or gastric discomfort. The VAS improvement rate for patients being orally administered both TJ-18 and TJ-3022 was 76.5±27.7% (mean±standard deviation). The additional TJ-3022 dose was 1.0-5.0 g/day. Twelve (12) patients have been treated without serious adverse reactions. TJ-18 and TJ-3022 combination treatment is a promising means of treating intractable PHN, which has a self-reported tendency to aggravate pain under cold stimulation.

  9. Helicobacter pylori as a trigger and aggravating factor in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Plakhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is the most common human infection. H. pylori is known to cause chronic gastritis and gastric and duodenal ulcers. However, the H. pylori-host interaction is not confined to the gastric mucosa, the mechanism responsible for the adaptation of this bacterium to the living conditions in the human body, can cause systemic immune imbalance, provoking various autoimmune reactions. The paper considers the investigations demonstrating the possible role of H. pylori as a trigger or aggravating factor in rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjögren's syndrome and disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and progressive systemic sclerosis. The relationship between H. pylori and autoimmune diseases is confirmed by the higher frequency of more aggressive strains of this microorganism in rheumatic diseases. There are also clinical trials showing the positive impact of H. pylori eradication on RA activity. 

  10. A Case of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Which Was Aggravated by Acid Reducer

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    Yukiomi Nakade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE. After ceasing to administer the acid reducer, incidences of hospitalization due to oozing from GAVE stopped. After the administration of the acid reducer was restarted, the patient had tarry stool, and diffuse oozing of blood was seen again. We report a first case of GAVE which was aggravated by acid reducer.

  11. Lowering barometric pressure aggravates mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, J; Morimae, H; Seino, Y; Kobayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Mizumura, K

    1999-04-30

    To examine the effects of meteorological change on the pain-related behaviors of neuropathic rats, animals with a chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve were exposed to low barometric pressure (LP), 20 mmHg below the natural atmospheric pressure in a climate-controlled room. CCI caused a decreased hindpaw withdrawal threshold to von Frey hair (VFH) stimulation (mechanical allodynia) and prolonged duration of hindpaw withdrawal in response to pinprick stimulation (mechanical hyperalgesia). When the CCI rats were exposed to LP, both these pain-related behaviors were aggravated, whereas no change was seen in a group of controls. In the CCI rats sympathectomy inhibited this LP-induced augmentation of pain-related behaviors. These results show that LP intensifies the abnormalities in the pain-related behaviors of neuropathic rats, and that sympathetic activity contributes to the LP effect.

  12. Acute patellofemoral pain: aggravating activities, clinical examination, MRI and ultrasound findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Holmich, P.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate acute anterior knee pain caused by overuse in terms of pain location, aggravating activities, findings on clinical examination and ultrasound/MRI examination. To determine if acute anterior knee pain caused by overuse should be classified as a subgroup of patellofemoral...... pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods: In a observational study design 30 army recruits with anterior knee pain (mean duration of pain 4 weeks) were examined using the PFPS pain severity scale (PSS), knee pain diagrams, standardised clinical examination, ultrasound and MRI examinations. Results: On PSS typical...... knee loading activities were the most painful, while sitting with knee bend for prolonged time caused surprisingly little pain. Pain was most commonly perceived in the peripatellar area (25 patients (83%)). The most common site of pain on clinical examination was the peripatellar area (25 patients (83...

  13. Methodes de classification et facteurs d'aggravation de la scoliose idiopathique

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Muñoz, Abel

    2010-01-01

    La scoliose idiopathique est une maladie multifactorielle qui a du risque d’évoluer vers des grandes déformations. La problématique actuelle est la détermination de l’évolutivité de la scoliose au premier examen. Avec cette problématique, l’objectif du projet est d’utiliser de nouvelles méthodes statistiques de prédiction pour améliorer l’évaluation du risque d’aggravation de la scoliose idiopathique au premier examen. Avec 2 buts bien différenciés, d’un coté déterminer l’évolutivité de la sc...

  14. Obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury in mouse embryos: a prospective study

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    Ma Wenhong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but few reports have examined thawed embryo transfer in obese women. Many studies have shown that increased lipid accumulation aggravates vitrification injury in porcine and bovine embryos, but oocytes of these species have high lipid contents (63 ng and 161 ng, respectively. Almost nothing is known about lipids in human oocytes except that these cells are anecdotally known to be relatively lipid poor. In this regard, human oocytes are considered to be similar to those of the mouse, which contain approximately 4 ng total lipids/oocyte. To date, no available data show the impact of obesity on vitrification in mouse embryos. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of maternal diet-induced obesity and to characterize the effect of obesity on vitrification by investigating the survival rate and embryo developmental competence after thawing. Methods Prospective comparisons were performed between six–eight-cell embryos from obese and normal-weight mice and between fresh and vitrified embryos. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow (normal-weight group or a high-fat diet (obese group for 6 weeks. The mice were mated, zygotes were collected from oviducts and cultured for 3 days, and six–eight-cell embryos were then selected to assess lipid content in fresh embryos and to evaluate differences in apoptosis, survival, and development rates in response to vitrification. Results In fresh embryos from obese mice, the lipid content (0.044 vs 0.030, Pvs.9.3%, Pvs. 93.1%, P Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in survival and developmental rates between embryos from obese and normal-weight mice were eliminated after vitrification. Thus, maternal obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury, but obesity alone greatly impairs pre-implantation embryo survival and development.

  15. Chronic Low Dose Chlorine Exposure Aggravates Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Activates Inflammasome Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hoon; Park, Da-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic clinical studies suggested that chronic exposure to chlorine products is associated with development of asthma and aggravation of asthmatic symptoms. However, its underlying mechanism was not clearly understood. Studies were undertaken to define the effects and mechanisms of chronic low-dose chlorine exposure in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods Six week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA in the presence and absence of chronic low dose chlorine exposure of naturally vaporized gas of 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Airway inflammation and AHR were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell recovery and non-invasive phlethysmography, respectively. Real-time qPCR, Western blot assay, and ELISA were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Human A549 and murine epithelial (A549 and MLE12) and macrophage (AMJ2-C11) cells were used to define the responses to low dose chlorine exposure in vitro. Results Chronic low dose chlorine exposure significantly augmented airway inflammation and AHR in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and IL-33 were significantly increased in OVA/Cl group compared with OVA group. The chlorine exposure also activates the major molecules associated with inflammasome pathway in the macrophages with increased expression of epithelial alarmins IL-33 and TSLP in vitro. Conclusion Chronic low dose exposure of chlorine aggravates allergic Th2 inflammation and AHR potentially through activation of inflammasome danger signaling pathways. PMID:25202911

  16. Potato glycoalkaloids adversely affect intestinal permeability and aggravate inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bijal; Schutte, Robert; Sporns, Peter; Doyle, Jason; Jewel, Lawrence; Fedorak, Richard N

    2002-09-01

    Disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is important in the initiation and cause of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Glycoalkaloids, solanine (S), and chaconine (C) are naturally present in potatoes, can permeabilize cholesterol-containing membranes, and lead to disruption of epithelial barrier integrity. Frying potatoes concentrates glycoalkaloids. Interestingly, the prevalence of IBD is highest in countries where fried potatoes consumption is highest. To further understand the role of potato glycoalkaloids on intestinal barrier integrity, we examined the effect of varying concentrations of solanine and chaconine on intestinal permeability and function. Solanine (0-50 microM), chaconine (0-20 microM), or a 1:1 mixture (0-20 microM) were exposed to T84 cultured epithelial monolayers for varying periods of time to determine concentration response effect on epithelial permeability. Next, a 1:1 mixture (5 microM) of solanine-to-chaconine (C:S) was exposed to sheets of normal murine small intestine, mounted in Ussing chambers, from control and interleukin-10 gene-deficient mice to determine whether glycoalkaloids affected intestine from mice with a genetic predisposition for IBD greater than controls. Finally, the effects of glycoalkaloids on colonic histologic injury were examined in mice orally fed amounts of glycoalkaloids that would normally be consumed in a human diet. Glycoalkaloids embedded and permeabilized the T84 monolayer epithelial membrane bilayer in a concentration-dependent fashion, with C:S > C > S. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments also illustrated a concentration-dependent disruption of intestinal barrier integrity in animals with a genetic predisposition to develop IBD, but not in control animals. Similarly, in vivo oral feeding experiments demonstrated that C:S ingestion, at physiologic concentrations, aggravated histologic colonic injury in mice genetically predisposed to developing IBD. Concentrations of glycoalkaloids normally available

  17. Obesity does not aggravate osteoporosis or osteoblastic insulin resistance in orchiectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Rattanachote, Pinyada; Pintana, Hiranya; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that testosterone deprivation impairs osteoblastic insulin signaling, decreases osteoblast survival, reduces bone density, and that obesity aggravates those deleterious effects in testosterone-deprived rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats underwent either a bilateral orchiectomy (O, n=12) or a sham operation (S, n=12). Then the rats in each group were further divided into two subgroups fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks. At the end of the protocol, blood samples were collected to determine metabolic parameters and osteocalcin ratios. The tibiae were collected to determine bone mass using microcomputed tomography and for osteoblast isolation. The results showed that rats fed with HF (sham-operated HF-fed rats (HFS) and ORX HF-fed rats (HFO)) developed peripheral insulin resistance and had decreased trabecular bone density. In ND-fed rats, only the ORX ND-fed rats (NDO) group had decreased trabecular bone density. In addition, osteoblastic insulin resistance, as indicated by a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, were observed in all groups except the sham-operated ND-fed rats (NDS) rats. Those groups, again with the exception of the NDS rats, also had decreased osteoblastic survival. No differences in the levels of osteoblastic insulin resistance and osteoblastic survival were found among the NDO, HFS, and HFO groups. These findings suggest that either testosterone deprivation or obesity alone can impair osteoblastic insulin signaling and decrease osteoblastic survival leading to the development of osteoporosis. However, obesity does not aggravate those deleterious effects in the bone of testosterone-deprived rats. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high-fat diet induced steatohepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Seitz, Helmut K; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2010-03-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum with Lieber-DeCarli high-fat diet (71% energy from fat) for 6 weeks to induce NASH, as demonstrated previously. Afterwards, these rats were continuously fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 55% total energy from fat) or high fat plus alcohol diet (HFA, 55% energy from fat and 16% energy from alcohol) for an additional 4 weeks. Pathological lesions including fat accumulation and inflammatory foci in liver were examined and graded. Lipid peroxidation and apoptotic hepatocytes in the liver were assessed. The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1), Fas death receptor (Fas) and Fas ligant (FasL), IL-1beta and IL-12 were determined by real-time PCR. Protein levels of total and cleaved caspase-3, CYP2E1, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured by western blotting. The number of hepatic inflammatory foci and apoptotic hepatocytes were significantly increased in rats fed with HFA as compared with those in HFD-fed rats. The aggravated inflammatory response and cellular apoptosis mediated by HFA were associated with elevated mRNA expression of Fas/FasL and cleaved caspase-3 protein. Although no significant differences were observed between HFD and HFA groups, the levels of lipid peroxidation, Bax and Bcl-2 protein concentration, and mRNA levels of other inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in these 2 groups than those in the control group. These data suggest that even moderate alcohol consumption can cause more hepatic inflammation and cellular apoptosis in a pre-existing NASH condition.

  19. Aggravation of Chronic Stress Effects on Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in LPA1 Receptor Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Hoyo-Becerra, Carolina; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor regulates plasticity and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Here, we studied whether absence of the LPA1 receptor modulated the detrimental effects of chronic stress on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial memory. Methodology/Principal Findings Male LPA1-null (NULL) and wild-type (WT) mice were assigned to control or chronic stress conditions (21 days of restraint, 3 h/day). Immunohistochemistry for bromodeoxyuridine and endogenous markers was performed to examine hippocampal cell proliferation, survival, number and maturation of young neurons, hippocampal structure and apoptosis in the hippocampus. Corticosterone levels were measured in another a separate cohort of mice. Finally, the hole-board test assessed spatial reference and working memory. Under control conditions, NULL mice showed reduced cell proliferation, a defective population of young neurons, reduced hippocampal volume and moderate spatial memory deficits. However, the primary result is that chronic stress impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in NULLs more severely than in WT mice in terms of cell proliferation; apoptosis; the number and maturation of young neurons; and both the volume and neuronal density in the granular zone. Only stressed NULLs presented hypocortisolemia. Moreover, a dramatic deficit in spatial reference memory consolidation was observed in chronically stressed NULL mice, which was in contrast to the minor effect observed in stressed WT mice. Conclusions/Significance These results reveal that the absence of the LPA1 receptor aggravates the chronic stress-induced impairment to hippocampal neurogenesis and its dependent functions. Thus, modulation of the LPA1 receptor pathway may be of interest with respect to the treatment of stress-induced hippocampal pathology. PMID:21980482

  20. Sleep deprivation aggravates median nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and enhances microglial activation by suppressing melatonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Interference with Tim-3 protein expression attenuates the invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and aggravates anoikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Muming; Lu, Bin; Liu, Yancun; Me, Ying; Wang, Lijun; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells resistant to anoikis are considered to be candidates for metastasis. In the present study, the role of Tim-3 in anoikis and its influence on the invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) was investigated. Here, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA) was applied to two ccRCC cell lines, 786-O and Caki-2, to induce detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Tim-3 mRNA and protein expression levels were assayed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot, respectively. Anoikis was measured by Ho33342/PI double staining, acridine orange staining, and further determined using the CytoSelect™ 24-well Anoikis Assay kit. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry, E-cadherin and N-cadherin protein expression were determined using western blotting and a Chemicon cell invasion assay kit was used to quantify the invasive capacity of 786-O and Caki-2 cells. It was demonstrated that detachment from the ECM decreases transcription and the protein expression level of Tim-3 in 786-O and Caki-2 cells compared with control cells. Interference with Tim-3 expression using small interfering RNA exacerbated anoikis in 786-O and Caki-2 cells induced by poly-HEMA treatment. E-cadherin upregulation, N-cadherin downregulation, and ECM detachment-induced reduction in invasion ability were all exacerbated by knockdown of Tim-3. In conclusion, interference with Tim-3 expression may attenuate the invasion of renal cell carcinoma by aggravating anoikis, indicating Tim-3 as a potential therapeutic target for treating ccRCC. PMID:28112366

  2. Hepatic deletion of Smad7 in mouse leads to spontaneous liver dysfunction and aggravates alcoholic liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TGF-β has been known to play an important role in various liver diseases including fibrosis and alcohol-induced fatty liver. Smad7 is an intracellular negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. It is currently unclear whether endogenous Smad7 has an effect on liver function and alcoholic liver damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Cre/loxP system by crossing Alb-Cre mice with Smad7(loxP/loxP mice to generate liver-specific deletion of Smad7 with loss of the indispensable MH2 domain. Alcoholic liver injury was achieved by feeding mice with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for 6 weeks, followed by a single dose of ethanol gavage. Deletion of Smad7 in the liver was associated with increased Smad2/3 phosphorylation in the liver or upon TGF-β treatment in primary hepatocytes. The majority of mice with liver specific deletion of Smad7 (Smad7(liver-KO were viable and phenotypically normal, accompanied by only slight or no reduction of Smad7 expression in the liver. However, about 30% of Smad7(liver-KO mice with high efficiency of Smad7 deletion had spontaneous liver dysfunction, demonstrated as low body weight, overall deterioration, and increased serum levels of AST and ALT. Degeneration and elevated apoptosis of liver cells were observed with these mice. TGF-β-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT was accelerated in Smad7-deleted primary hepatocytes. In addition, alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis were profoundly aggravated in Smad7 deficient mice, associated with upregulation of critical genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation. Furthermore, alcohol-induced ADH1 expression was significantly abrogated by Smad7 deletion in hepatocytes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we provided in vivo evidence revealing that endogenous Smad7 plays an important role in liver function and alcohol-induced liver injury.

  3. Tau-Induced Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase-IV Activation Aggravates Nuclear Tau Hyperphosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ping; Ye, Jin-Wang; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2017-06-23

    Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tau hyperphosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. Among these sites, tau phosphorylated at Thr205 and Ser214 was almost exclusively found in the nuclear fraction at the conditions used in the present study. With the intracellular tau accumulation, the Ca 2+ concentration was significantly increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Further studies using site-specific mutagenesis and pharmacological treatment demonstrated that phosphorylation of tau at Thr205 increased nuclear Ca 2+ concentration with a simultaneous increase in the phosphorylation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) at Ser196. On the other hand, phosphorylation of tau at Ser214 did not significantly change the nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling. Finally, expressing calmodulin-binding protein-4 that disrupts formation of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex abolished the okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the nuclear fraction. We conclude that the intracellular accumulation of phosphorylated tau, as detected in the brains of AD patients, can trigger nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling, which in turn aggravates tau hyperphosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights for tauopathies: hyperphosphorylation of intracellular tau and an increased Ca 2+ concentration may induce a self-perpetuating harmful loop to promote neurodegeneration.

  4. Aggravation of Risk and Precautionary Measures in Non-Life Insurance: A Tricky Scope for the Insurer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi-Jüri Luik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggravation of risk and failure to take precautionary measures are focal issues in non-life insurance in terms of potential partial or full release of the insurer from the duty to perform. Not infrequently, it is difficult to draw a line between the aggravation of risk on the one hand, and non-compliance with precautionary measures on the other, since a particular action by a policyholder may present both situations. At the same time, the legal remedies available to the insurer regarding these two situations are different in scope. The aggravation of risk and non-compliance with precautionary measures are precisely the bases on which insurers actually reduce indemnity or refuse to compensate for damages. This article explores the differences between insurance laws in the Baltic states—specifically, the Estonian Law of Obligations Act, the Latvian Insurance Contract Law and Lithuanian rules contained in the Civil Code and Insurance Law. The article explores the differences between the Baltic states’ insurance laws and the Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL with regard to a policyholder’s duty in relation to aggravation of risk and precautionary measures, as the rights and obligations of policyholders do change where the optional instrument is applied. The article also includes comparisons to German, Finnish and Russian insurance law.

  5. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Road

    2005-10-07

    To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested. An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcero-genic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats. (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats.

  6. Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black nanoparticles do not aggravate elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological effects that could aggravate pulmonary emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pulmonary administration of TiO2 or CB NPs in rats could induce and/or aggravate elastase-induced emphysema, and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods On day 1, Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 25 U kg−1 pancreatic porcine elastase or saline. On day 7, they received an intratracheal instillation of TiO2 or CB (at 100 and 500 μg) dispersed in bovine serum albumin or bovine serum albumin alone. Animals were sacrificed at days 8 or 21, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, histological analysis of inflammation and emphysema, and lung mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), macrophage inflammatory protein-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1, and -12 were measured. In addition, pulmonary MMP-12 expression was also analyzed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. Results TiO2 NPs per se did not modify the parameters investigated, but CB NPs increased perivascular/peribronchial infiltration, and macrophage MMP-12 expression, without inducing emphysema. Elastase administration increased BAL cellularity, histological inflammation, HO-1, IL-1β and macrophage MMP-12 expression and induced emphysema. Exposure to TiO2 NPs did not modify pulmonary responses to elastase, but exposure to CB NPs aggravated elastase-induced histological inflammation without aggravating emphysema. Conclusions TiO2 and CB NPs did not aggravate elastase-induced emphysema. However, CB NPs induced histological inflammation and MMP-12 mRNA and protein expression in macrophages. PMID:22849372

  7. Obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury in mouse embryos: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenhong; Yang, Xing; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2012-08-31

    Obesity is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but few reports have examined thawed embryo transfer in obese women. Many studies have shown that increased lipid accumulation aggravates vitrification injury in porcine and bovine embryos, but oocytes of these species have high lipid contents (63 ng and 161 ng, respectively). Almost nothing is known about lipids in human oocytes except that these cells are anecdotally known to be relatively lipid poor. In this regard, human oocytes are considered to be similar to those of the mouse, which contain approximately 4 ng total lipids/oocyte. To date, no available data show the impact of obesity on vitrification in mouse embryos. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of maternal diet-induced obesity and to characterize the effect of obesity on vitrification by investigating the survival rate and embryo developmental competence after thawing. Prospective comparisons were performed between six-eight-cell embryos from obese and normal-weight mice and between fresh and vitrified embryos. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow (normal-weight group) or a high-fat diet (obese group) for 6 weeks. The mice were mated, zygotes were collected from oviducts and cultured for 3 days, and six-eight-cell embryos were then selected to assess lipid content in fresh embryos and to evaluate differences in apoptosis, survival, and development rates in response to vitrification. In fresh embryos from obese mice, the lipid content (0.044 vs 0.030, Pvitrification, no significant difference was found between thawed embryos from obese and normal-weight mice in apoptosis, survival, and development rates on days 4 and 5. In both groups, pre- and post-vitrification embryo apoptosis, survival, and development rates were similar. This study demonstrated that differences in survival and developmental rates between embryos from obese and normal-weight mice were eliminated after vitrification. Thus, maternal obesity does

  8. Long-term leucine supplementation aggravates prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular changes in trained rats.

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    Dos Santos, Gustavo Barbosa; de Oliveira, André Gustavo; Ramos, Luiz Alberto Ferreira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can long-term leucine supplementation prevent prolonged strenuous endurance exercise induced cardiac injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged endurance exercise does not seem to exceed cardiac energetic capacity, hence it does not represent an energy threat to this organ, at least in trained subjects. However, it may induce, in susceptible individuals, a state of cardiac electrical instability, which has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This situation might be worsened when combined with leucine supplementation, which leads to increased blood pressure and cardiac injury. Leucine supplementation failed to prevent cardiac fatigue symptoms and may aggravate prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular disturbances in trained rats. Observational studies have raised concerns that prolonged strenuous exercise training may be associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and even primary cardiac arrest or sudden death. It has been demonstrated that leucine can reduce prolonged exercise-induced muscle damage and accelerate the recovery process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged strenuous endurance exercise on cardiovascular parameters and biomarkers of cardiac injury in trained adult male rats and assess the use of leucine as an auxiliary substance to prevent the likely cardiac adverse effects caused by strenuous exercise. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to receive a balanced control diet (18% protein) or a leucine-rich diet (15% protein plus 3% leucine) for 6 weeks. The rats were submitted to 1 h of exercise, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Three days after the training period, the rats were submitted to swimming exercise until exhaustion, and cardiac parameters were assessed. Exercising until exhaustion significantly increased cardiac biomarker levels, cytokines and glycogen content inhibited protein

  9. Endothelial damage is aggravated in acute GvHD and could predict its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, E; Palomo, M; Rovira, M; Pereira, A; Escolar, G; Penack, O; Holler, E; Carreras, E; Diaz-Ricart, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether there is enhanced endothelial dysfunction in patients developing acute GvHD (aGvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to identify biomarkers with predictive and/or diagnostic value. In in vitro experiments, endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to serum from patients with (aGvHD, n=31) and without (NoGvHD, n=13) aGvHD, to evaluate changes in surface adhesion receptors, the reactivity of the extracellular matrix by measuring the presence of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet adhesion, and the activation of intracellular signaling proteins. Plasma levels of VWF, ADAMTS-13, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 were also measured. In vitro results showed a more marked proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype in ECs in association with aGvHD. Regarding circulating biomarkers, levels of VWF and TNFR1 above an optimal cutoff score, taken independently or combined, at day 7 after allo-HCT, would be able to positively predict that around 90% of patients will develop aGvHD. Our results demonstrate that endothelial damage is aggravated in those allo-HCT recipients developing aGvHD, and that VWF and TNFR1 are promising predictive aGvHD biomarkers. These findings could contribute to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of aGvHD.

  10. Use of high-dose nandrolone aggravates septic shock in a mouse model

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    Che Lin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nandrolone, an anabolic-androgenic steroid, is widely misused by athletes who wish to rapidly increase muscle mass and performance. An increasing number of reports have indicated that nandrolone may affect and modulate the immune system. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nandrolone on septic shock-caused immune responses and the cellular mechanism of action using a sepsis murine model. Before septic shock induction, BALB/c mice were given a high dose of nandrolone or peanut oil only. After septic shock induction, mice were sacrificed at different time points. Their blood and tissue specimens were analyzed. It was found that the high-dose nandrolone group had significantly increased mortality compared with the control group (p<0.001. The serum malondialdehyde level was significantly increased in the high-dose group compared with the control group. Animals administered a high dose of nandrolone had significantly increased hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α or splenic interferon-γ at 0 and 6 hours. In lung tissue, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 mRNA expression were increased in the high-dose nandrolone group at 6 hours. Nandrolone abuse may hasten the death of patients with septic shock and may aggravate septic shock in mice.

  11. Dietary fructose aggravates the pathobiology of traumatic brain injury by influencing energy homeostasis and plasticity.

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    Agrawal, Rahul; Noble, Emily; Vergnes, Laurent; Ying, Zhe; Reue, Karen; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been on the rise for the last two decades and is starting to be recognized as being responsible for metabolic diseases. Metabolic disorders pose a particular threat for brain conditions characterized by energy dysfunction, such as traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury patients experience sudden abnormalities in the control of brain metabolism and cognitive function, which may worsen the prospect of brain plasticity and function. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we report that fructose consumption disrupts hippocampal energy homeostasis as evidenced by a decline in functional mitochondria bioenergetics (oxygen consumption rate and cytochrome C oxidase activity) and an aggravation of the effects of traumatic brain injury on molecular systems engaged in cell energy homeostasis (sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha) and synaptic plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding, synaptophysin signaling). Fructose also worsened the effects of traumatic brain injury on spatial memory, which disruption was associated with a decrease in hippocampal insulin receptor signaling. Additionally, fructose consumption and traumatic brain injury promoted plasma membrane lipid peroxidation, measured by elevated protein and phenotypic expression of 4-hydroxynonenal. These data imply that high fructose consumption exacerbates the pathology of brain trauma by further disrupting energy metabolism and brain plasticity, highlighting the impact of diet on the resilience to neurological disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

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    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  13. Alarm pheromone that aggravates stress-induced hyperthermia is soluble in water.

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    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2005-07-01

    We previously reported that stressed male Wistar rats released alarm pheromone from the perianal region, which aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the mitral/tufted cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb in recipient rats. In this study, we attempted to obtain this pheromone in water using these responses as bioassay parameters. Water droplets were collected from the ceiling of a box in which no animal was placed, or from a box in which an anesthetized donor rat was given electrical stimulation to either the neck or perianal regions in order to induce neck odor or alarm pheromone release, respectively. Then we placed one of the three kinds of water-containing filter papers on the wall of a recipient's home cage and observed heart rate, body temperature and behavioral responses, as well as Fos expression in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of the recipient. The water collected from the box containing the alarm pheromone was found to generate a reproduction of all of the responses seen in the animal that had been directly exposed to alarm pheromone in our previous studies. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is soluble in water.

  14. Cardiomyocyte Overexpression of FABP4 Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Hypertrophy.

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    Ji Zhang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. It is considered to express mainly in adipose tissues, and be strongly associated with inflammation, obesity, diabetes and cardiovasculardiseases. Here we report that FABP4 is also expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in regulating heart function under pressure overload. We generated heart-specific transgenic FABP4 (FABP4-TG mice using α myosin-heavy chain (α-MHC promoter and human FABP4 sequence, resulting in over-expression of FABP4 in cardiomyocytes. The FABP4-TG mice displayed normal cardiac morphology and contractile function. When they were subjected to the transverse aorta constriction (TAC procedure, the FABP4-TG mice developed more cardiac hypertrophy correlated with significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, compared with wild type controls. FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes activated phosphor-ERK signal and up-regulate the expression of cardiac hypertrophic marker genes. Conversely, FABP4 induced phosphor-ERK signal and hypertrophic gene expressions can be markedly inhibited by an ERK inhibitor PD098059 as well as the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403. These results suggest that FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes can aggravate the development of cardiac hypertrophy through the activation of ERK signal pathway.

  15. Blood glucose fluctuation aggravates lower extremity vascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

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    Jiao, X-M; Zhang, X-G; Xu, X U-P; Yi, C; Bin, C; Cheng, Q-P; Gong, Q-Q; Lv, X-F

    2014-01-01

    Lower-extremity vascular diseases are important complication of diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the influence of blood glucose fluctuation in type 2 diabetes-associated lower-extremity vascular diseases, and explore the possible mechanism. Patients with type 2 diabetes was assigned to Group B (without lower-extremity vascular disease) and group C (with lower-extremity vascular disease). Healthy subjects (Group A) served as normal controls. All patients received dynamic blood glucose monitoring for 72 h. The mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and the largest amplitude of glycemic excursion (LAGE) were estimated. The levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and biochemical indices were examined, and the lower-extremity vascular diseases were scored in patients from group C. Groups B and C have higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC) level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, HbA1c level, and vWF level and lower IMA level than those in Group A (p lower-extremity vascular diseases was associated with MAGE, LAGE, SBP, LDL-C, vWF, HbA1c, and IMA (p lower-extremity vascular diseases were involved with MAGE, IMA, and vWF. Enhanced fluctuation in patients with type 2 diabetes may promote the occurrence and development of lower-extremity vascular diseases through aggravating vascular endothelial injury.

  16. Salt stress aggravates boron toxicity symptoms in banana leaves by impairing guttation.

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    Shapira, O R; Israeli, Yair; Shani, Uri; Schwartz, Amnon

    2013-02-01

    Boron (B) is known to accumulate in the leaf margins of different plant species, arguably a passive consequence of enhanced transpiration at the ends of the vascular system. However, transpiration rate is not the only factor affecting ion distribution. We examine an alternative hypothesis, suggesting the participation of the leaf bundle sheath in controlling radial water and solute transport from the xylem to the mesophyll in analogy to the root endodermis. In banana, excess B that remains confined to the vascular system is effectively disposed of via dissolution in the guttation fluid; therefore, impairing guttation should aggravate B damage to the leaf margins. Banana plants were subjected to increasing B concentrations. Guttation rates were manipulated by imposing a moderate osmotic stress. Guttation fluid was collected and analysed continuously. The distribution of ions across the lamina was determined. Impairing guttation indeed led to increased B damage to the leaf margins. The kinetics of ion concentration in guttation samples revealed major differences between ion species, corresponding to their distribution in the lamina dry matter. We provide evidence that the distribution pattern of B and other ions across banana leaves depends on active filtration of the transpiration stream and on guttation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. [Case report: recently diagnosed celiac disease as aggravating factor of osteoporosis in an old woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camila C; Corrêa, Pedro Henrique S; Halpern, Alfredo

    2006-12-01

    Sixty-three-year-old woman requested medical attention for osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed: T(spine (L1-L4))= -3.5 SD [Bone mineral density (BMD): 0.766 g/cm(2)]. T(femoral neck) = -2.4 SD (BMD: 0.716 g/cm(2)). She has been in calcium and vitamin D supplementation for 2 years. She informed a 5-year-history of hypothyroidism in levothyroxine replacement. Alendronate sodium 70 mg/week was initiated with significant increase in BMD in the first year (6.1% equally in spine and femoral neck). After a 5-year follow-up, the patient presented with weight loss, anemia and decrease in BMD (12.6% in spine and 20.9% in femoral neck). Clinical history revealed intermittent diarrhea episodes for 2 years and the hypothesis of celiac disease was suspected. Anti-gliadin and anti-endomysium antibodies were positive: 25.3 U/mL (gluten-free diet, patient improved of malabsorptive symptoms and gained BMD (47.3% in spine and 31.6% in femoral neck), confirming the hypothesis of celiac disease as aggravating factor of osteoporosis in this patient.

  18. Low precipitation aggravates the impact of extreme high temperatures on lizard reproduction.

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    Wang, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-Gao; Li, Shu-Ran; Bi, Jun-Huai; Du, Wei-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Extreme high temperatures are occurring more frequently with ongoing anthropogenic climate warming, but the experimental tests of the effects of high temperatures on terrestrial vertebrates in natural conditions are rare. In this study, we investigated the effects of extreme high temperatures on female reproduction and offspring traits of multi-ocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) kept in field enclosures in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia. Our studies indicate that high temperatures significantly affect the gestation period and reproductive output of females and the offspring sex ratio, but have little impact on offspring body size and mass. More interestingly, we found that the effect of extreme high temperatures on female reproductive output was not consistent between two consecutive years that differed in precipitation. Low precipitation may aggravate the impact of climate warming on lizards and negatively affect the survival of lizards in the desert steppe. Our results provide evidence that temperature interacts with precipitation to determine the life history of lizards, and they suggest that a drier and hotter environment, such as the future climate in arid mid-latitude areas, will likely impose severe pressure on lizard populations, which are an important component of the food web in desert areas around the world.

  19. Anti-Fas mAb-induced apoptosis and cytolysis of airway tissue eosinophils aggravates rather than resolves established inflammation

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    Persson Carl GA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fas receptor-mediated eosinophil apoptosis is currently forwarded as a mechanism resolving asthma-like inflammation. This view is based on observations in vitro and in airway lumen with unknown translatability to airway tissues in vivo. In fact, apoptotic eosinophils have not been detected in human diseased airway tissues whereas cytolytic eosinophils abound and constitute a major mode of degranulation of these cells. Also, Fas receptor stimulation may bypass the apoptotic pathway and directly evoke cytolysis of non-apoptotic cells. We thus hypothesized that effects of anti-Fas mAb in vivo may include both apoptosis and cytolysis of eosinophils and, hence, that established eosinophilic inflammation may not resolve by this treatment. Methods Weeklong daily allergen challenges of sensitized mice were followed by airway administration of anti-Fas mAb. BAL was performed and airway-pulmonary tissues were examined using light and electron microscopy. Lung tissue analysis for CC-chemokines, apoptosis, mucus production and plasma exudation (fibrinogen were performed. Results Anti-Fas mAb evoked apoptosis of 28% and cytolysis of 4% of eosinophils present in allergen-challenged airway tissues. Furthermore, a majority of the apoptotic eosinophils remained unengulfed and eventually exhibited secondary necrosis. A striking histopathology far beyond the allergic inflammation developed and included degranulated eosinophils, neutrophilia, epithelial derangement, plasma exudation, mucus-plasma plugs, and inducement of 6 CC-chemokines. In animals without eosinophilia anti-Fas evoked no inflammatory response. Conclusion An efficient inducer of eosinophil apoptosis in airway tissues in vivo, anti-Fas mAb evoked unprecedented asthma-like inflammation in mouse allergic airways. This outcome may partly reflect the ability of anti-Fas to evoke direct cytolysis of non-apoptotic eosinophils in airway tissues. Additionally, since most apoptotic tissue

  20. Hypothyroidism-induced Reversible Encephalopathy as a Cause of Aggravation of Parkinsonism and Myoclonus in Parkinson's Disease

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    Gwanhee Ehm

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myoclonus and encephalopathy are unusual in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD.Case report: We describe the case of a 59-year-old male with PD who developed myoclonus and encephalopathy. Underlying hypothyroidism was revealed after admission and treated with levothyroxine. Myoclonus and encephalopathy were completely resolved following thyroid hormone replacement.Discussion: Hypothyroidism can cause reversible myoclonus and encephalopathy along with unusual aggravation of parkinsonism symptoms in patients with PD.

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Aggravates Renal Injury through Cytokines and Direct Renal Injury

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    Songhui Zhai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC activation state were examined. The results showed that renal injury was more serious in the reinfection group than in the primary infection group. At a higher infection dose, 6×106 PFU, the renal injury was more severe, accompanied by higher levels of proteinuria and urinary GAGs excretion, and lower levels of serum albumin. Podocyte foot effacement was more extensive, and hyperplasia of mesangial cells and proliferation of mesangial matrix were observed. The maturation state of DCs was specific, compared with the primary infection. There was also a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+T lymphocytes, due to an increase in the percentage of CD8+T lymphocytes and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+T lymphocytes, and a dramatic increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-17. In terms of the different reinfection times, the day 14 reinfection group yielded the most serious renal injury and the most significant change in immune function. RSV F protein was still expressed in the glomeruli 56 days after RSV infection. Altogether, these results reveal that RSV infection could aggravate renal injury, which might be due to direct renal injury caused by RSV and the inflammatory lesions caused by the anti-virus response induced by RSV.

  2. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Aggravates Vitamin A Deficiency in the Mother-Child Group.

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    da Cruz, Sabrina Pereira; Matos, Andréa; Pereira, Silvia; Saboya, Carlos; da Cruz, Suelem Pereira; Ramalho, Andréa

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A in women who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) who became pregnant or did not, in the same period after surgery, and to assess its effects on mother and child health. A retrospective longitudinal study conducted with women who previously underwent RYGB, paired by age and BMI measured before surgery, divided into group 1 (G1) comprising 77 women who did not become pregnant and group 2 (G2) with 39 women in their third gestational trimester. Both groups were assessed before surgery (T0) and in the same interval after surgery: less than or equal to 1 year (T1) or over 1 year (T2), during a maximum of 2 years. Serum concentrations of retinol and β-carotene, night blindness (NB), and gestational and neonatal complications were investigated [urinary tract infection, iron deficiency anemia, hypertensive syndrome of pregnancy, dumping syndrome, birth weight, gestational age at birth (GAB), and correlation between weight and GAB]. Data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 21.0 (p < 0.05). RYGB reduced the serum levels of retinol and β-carotene, especially before the first postsurgical year. When associated with pregnancy, inadequacy rate was 55% higher in T1 and T2. Comparing G1 to G2, we noted that pregnancy in women undergoing RYGB can contribute to increased inadequacy of retinol and β-carotene, reaching a higher percentage of women with NB after 1 postsurgical year. High prevalence of pregnancy/neonatal complications was found in T1 and T2. NB was correlated with inadequacy of β-carotene. Pregnancy after RYGB aggravates vitamin A deficiency, increases the percentage of NB cases, and can contribute to pregnancy and neonatal complications even in 1 postsurgical year.

  3. Aggravation of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Cigarette Smoke in Mice Is CD44-Dependent.

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    Smitha Kumar

    Full Text Available Although epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoke (CS facilitates the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, these studies offer limited information on the mechanisms involved. The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is involved in cell adhesion and acts as a receptor for hyaluronic acid and osteopontin. We aimed to investigate the role of CD44 in a murine model of CS-facilitated allergic airway inflammation.Wild type (WT and CD44 knock-out (KO mice were exposed simultaneously to house dust mite (HDM extract and CS. Inflammatory cells, hyaluronic acid (HA and osteopontin (OPN levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Proinflammatory mediators, goblet cell metaplasia and peribronchial eosinophilia were assessed in lung tissue. T-helper (Th 1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production was evaluated in mediastinal lymph node cultures.In WT mice, combined HDM/CS exposure increased the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of HA and OPN in BALF and Th2 cytokine production in mediastinal lymph nodes compared to control groups exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS/CS, HDM/Air or PBS/Air. Furthermore, HDM/CS exposure significantly increased goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial eosinophilia and inflammatory mediators in the lung. CD44 KO mice exposed to HDM/CS had significantly fewer inflammatory cells in BALF, an attenuated Th2 cytokine production, as well as decreased goblet cells and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice. In contrast, the levels of inflammatory mediators were similar or higher than in WT mice.We demonstrate for the first time that the aggravation of pulmonary inflammation upon combined exposure to allergen and an environmental pollutant is CD44-dependent. Data from this murine model of concomitant exposure to CS and HDM might be of importance for smoking allergic asthmatics.

  4. A High-Saturated-Fat, High-Sucrose Diet Aggravates Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Female Rats.

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    Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Chun-Mei; Cao, Si-Si; Zhou, Li-Ping; Wong, Man-Sau

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited. We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement. Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R(2) = 0.39; P < 0.01). The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity by Regulatory NKT10 Cells Aggravates Alcoholic Hepatosteatosis

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    Kele Cui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We and others have found that the functions of hepatic natural killer (NK cells are inhibited but invariant NKT (iNKT cells become activated after alcohol drinking, leaving a possibility that there exists interplay between NK cells and iNKT cells during alcoholic liver disease. Here, in a chronic plus single-binge ethanol consumption mouse model, we observed that NK cells and interferon-γ (IFN-γ protected against ethanol-induced liver steatosis, as both wild-type (WT mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 antibody and IFN-γ-deficient GKO mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty livers. As expected, IFN-γ could directly downregulate lipogenesis in primary hepatocytes in vitro. On the contrary, iNKT cell-deficient Jα18−/− or interleukin-10 (IL-10−/− mice showed fewer alcoholic steatosis, along with the recovered number and IFN-γ release of hepatic NK cells, and exogenous IL-10 injection was sufficient to compensate for iNKT cell deficiency. Furthermore, NK cell depletion in Jα18−/− or IL-10−/− mice caused more severe hepatosteatosis, implying NK cells are the direct effector cells to inhibit liver steatosis. Importantly, adoptive transfer of iNKT cells purified from normal but not IL-10−/− mice resulted in suppression of the number and functions of NK cells and aggravated alcoholic liver injury in Jα18−/− mice, indicating that IL-10-producing iNKT (NKT10 cells are the regulators on NK cells. Conclusion: Ethanol exposure-triggered NKT10 cells antagonize the protective roles of NK cells in alcoholic hepatosteatosis.

  6. Administration of Mycobacterium leprae rHsp65 aggravates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice.

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    Eliana B Marengo

    Full Text Available The 60 kDa heat shock protein family, Hsp60, constitutes an abundant and highly conserved class of molecules that are highly expressed in chronic-inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Experimental autoimmune uveitis [EAU] is a T cell mediated intraocular inflammatory disease that resembles human uveitis. Mycobacterial and homologous Hsp60 peptides induces uveitis in rats, however their participation in aggravating the disease is poorly known. We here evaluate the effects of the Mycobacterium leprae Hsp65 in the development/progression of EAU and the autoimmune response against the eye through the induction of the endogenous disequilibrium by enhancing the entropy of the immunobiological system with the addition of homologous Hsp. B10.RIII mice were immunized subcutaneously with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein [IRBP], followed by intraperitoneally inoculation of M. leprae recombinant Hsp65 [rHsp65]. We evaluated the proliferative response, cytokine production and the percentage of CD4(+IL-17(+, CD4(+IFN-gamma(+ and CD4(+Foxp3(+ cells ex vivo, by flow cytometry. Disease severity was determined by eye histological examination and serum levels of anti-IRBP and anti-Hsp60/65 measured by ELISA. EAU scores increased in the Hsp65 group and were associated with an expansion of CD4(+IFN-gamma(+ and CD4(+IL-17(+ T cells, corroborating with higher levels of IFN-gamma. Our data indicate that rHsp65 is one of the managers with a significant impact over the immune response during autoimmunity, skewing it to a pathogenic state, promoting both Th1 and Th17 commitment. It seems comprehensible that the specificity and primary function of Hsp60 molecules can be considered as a potential pathogenic factor acting as a whistleblower announcing chronic-inflammatory diseases progression.

  7. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  8. Vitamin D deficiency aggravates chronic kidney disease progression after ischemic acute kidney injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Garcia Gonçalves

    pathways and involvement of TGF-β1 growth factor, VDD could be considered as an aggravating factor for tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis progression following acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. The inner ear is involved in the aggravation of nociceptive behavior induced by lowering barometric pressure of nerve injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakubo, Megumi; Sato, Jun; Honda, Takashi; Mizumura, Kazue

    2010-01-01

    Patients suffering from neuropathic pain often complain of pain aggravation when the weather is changing. The exact mechanism for weather change-induced pain has not been clarified. We have previously demonstrated that experimentally lowering barometric pressure (LP) intensifies pain-related behaviors in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). In the present experiment we examined whether this pain aggravating effect of LP exposure in nerve injured rats is still present after lesioning of the inner ear. We used both CCI and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) models for this study. We injected into the middle ear sodium arsanilate solution (100mg/ml, 50microl/ear), which is known to degenerate vestibular hair cells, under anesthesia the day before surgery. Rats were exposed to LP (27hPa decrease over 8min) 7-9 days after CCI or 5-8 days after SNL surgery, and pain-related behavior (number of paw lifts induced by von Frey hair stimuli) was measured. When the inner ear lesioned SNL or CCI rats were exposed to LP, they showed no augmentation of pain-related behavior. On the other hand, the pain aggravating effect of a temperature decrease (from 24 to 17 degrees C) was maintained in both SNL and CCI rats. These results suggest that the barometric sensor/sensing system influencing nociceptive behavior during LP in rats is located in the inner ear.

  10. Progressive seizure aggravation in the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model is accompanied by marked increase in hippocampal p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in neurons

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    Carmela Giordano

    2016-12-01

    /2 levels in the third session. The vast majority of p-ERK1/2 immunopositive cells were co-labeled with FosB/ΔFosB antibodies, suggesting the existence of a relationship between the investigated markers in a subpopulation of neurons activated by seizures. These findings suggest that p-ERK1/2 are useful markers to define the aggravation of seizures and the response to anticonvulsant treatments. In particular, p-ERK1/2 expression clearly identified the involvement of hippocampal regions during seizure aggravation in the 6-Hz model.

  11. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; De Geest, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (h...

  12. Cold-aggravated pain in humans caused by a hyperactive NaV1.9 channel mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Leipold, Enrico; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Frick, Miya; Gong, Ping; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Voigt, Martin; Katona, Istvan; Oliver Goral, R.; Altm?ller, Janine; N?rnberg, Peter; Weis, Joachim; H?bner, Christian A.; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Kurth, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the human SCN11A-encoded voltage-gated Na+ channel NaV1.9 cause severe pain disorders ranging from neuropathic pain to congenital pain insensitivity. However, the entire spectrum of the NaV1.9 diseases has yet to be defined. Applying whole-exome sequencing we here identify a missense change (p.V1184A) in NaV1.9, which leads to cold-aggravated peripheral pain in humans. Electrophysiological analysis reveals that p.V1184A shifts the voltage dependence of channel op...

  13. Chronic urticaria and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godse Kiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and causes. Still, despite our best efforts no cause may be found in the majority of cases. The treatment options are: Primary prevention in the form of avoidance of aggravating factors; counseling; antihistamines; leukotriene receptor antagonists; prednisolone; sulfasalazine and a host of immunosuppressives like methotrexate, cyclosporine, omalizumab etc.

  14. Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria in Taiwan: A Clinical Study of Demographics, Aggravating Factors, Laboratory Findings, Serum Autoreactivity and Treatment Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Chuan Lee

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: This study provided an overview of CIU patients in a medical center in northern Taiwan. We found that atopy did not influence the severity or durtation of CIU. Nevertheless, atopy was associated with a poor therapeutic response of second-generation antihistamine. A survey of personal atopy history, especially allergic rhinitis, is important for management of CIU patients in Taiwan.

  15. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher ( p coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold ( p coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower ( p coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  16. Achilles detachment in rat and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: Promoted tendon-to-bone healing and opposed corticosteroid aggravation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivic, Andrija; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Huljev, Dubravko; Sikiric, Predrag

    2006-05-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (BPC 157, as an antiulcer agent in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease; PLD-116, PL 14736, Pliva, no toxicity reported) alone (without carrier) ameliorates healing of tendon and bone, respectively, as well as other tissues. Thereby, we focus on Achilles tendon-to-bone healing: tendon to bone could not be healed spontaneously, but it was recovered by this peptide. After the rat's Achilles tendon was sharply transected from calcaneal bone, agents [BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), 6alpha-methylprednisolone (1 mg), 0.9% NaCl (5 mL)] were given alone or in combination [/kg body weight (b.w.) intraperitoneally, once time daily, first 30-min after surgery, last 24 h before analysis]. Tested at days 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, and 21 after Achilles detachment, BPC 157 improves healing functionally [Achilles functional index (AFI) values substantially increased], biomechanically (load to failure, stiffness, and Young elasticity modulus significantly increased), macro/microscopically, immunohistochemistry (better organization of collagen fibers, and advanced vascular appearance, more collagen type I). 6alpha-Methylprednisolone consistently aggravates the healing, while BPC 157 substantially reduces 6alpha-methylprednisolone healing aggravation. Thus, direct tendon-to-bone healing using stabile nontoxic peptide BPC 157 without a carrier might successfully exchange the present reconstructive surgical methods. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Cold-aggravated pain in humans caused by a hyperactive NaV1.9 channel mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Enrico; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Frick, Miya; Gong, Ping; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Voigt, Martin; Katona, Istvan; Oliver Goral, R; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Weis, Joachim; Hübner, Christian A; Heinemann, Stefan H; Kurth, Ingo

    2015-12-08

    Gain-of-function mutations in the human SCN11A-encoded voltage-gated Na(+) channel NaV1.9 cause severe pain disorders ranging from neuropathic pain to congenital pain insensitivity. However, the entire spectrum of the NaV1.9 diseases has yet to be defined. Applying whole-exome sequencing we here identify a missense change (p.V1184A) in NaV1.9, which leads to cold-aggravated peripheral pain in humans. Electrophysiological analysis reveals that p.V1184A shifts the voltage dependence of channel opening to hyperpolarized potentials thereby conferring gain-of-function characteristics to NaV1.9. Mutated channels diminish the resting membrane potential of mouse primary sensory neurons and cause cold-resistant hyperexcitability of nociceptors, suggesting a mechanistic basis for the temperature dependence of the pain phenotype. On the basis of direct comparison of the mutations linked to either cold-aggravated pain or pain insensitivity, we propose a model in which the physiological consequence of a mutation, that is, augmented versus absent pain, is critically dependent on the type of NaV1.9 hyperactivity.

  18. Impairment of insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 signaling is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction and aggravates I/R injury in STZ-diabetic Rats

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    Deng Jen-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we established systemic in-vivo evidence from molecular to organism level to explain how diabetes can aggravate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury and revealed the role of insulin signaling (with specific focus on Akt/GLUT4 signaling molecules. The myocardial I/R injury was induced by the left main coronary artery occlusion for 1 hr and then 3 hr reperfusion in control, streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulinopenic diabetes, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in heart rate, and a prolonged isovolumic relaxation (tau which lead to decrease in cardiac output (CO without changing total peripheral resistance (TPR. The phosphorylated Akt and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4 protein levels were dramatically reduced in both I/R and non-I/R diabetic rat hearts. Insulin treatment in diabetes showed improvement of contractile function as well as partially increased Akt phosphorylation and GLUT 4 protein levels. In the animals subjected to I/R, the mortality rates were 25%, 65%, and 33% in the control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic group respectively. The I/R-induced arrhythmias and myocardial infarction did not differ significantly between the control and the diabetic groups. Consistent with its anti-hyperglycemic effects, insulin significantly reduced I/R-induced arrhythmias but had no effect on I/R-induced infarctions. Diabetic rat with I/R exhibited the worse hemodynamic outcome, which included systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. Insulin treatment only partially improved diastolic functions and elevated P-Akt and GLUT 4 protein levels. Our results indicate that cardiac contractile dysfunction caused by a defect in insulin-stimulated Akt/GLUT4 may be a major reason for the high mortality rate in I/R injured diabetic rats.

  19. Long term hemodialysis aggravates lipolytic activity reduction and very low density, low density lipoproteins composition in chronic renal failure patients

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    Bouchenak Malika

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia is common in uremia, and represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Methods To investigate the effects of hemodialysis (HD duration on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL compositions and lipopolytic activities, 20 patients on 5 to 7 years hemodialysis were followed-up during 9 years. Blood samples were drawn at T0 (beginning of the study, T1 (3 years after initiating study, T2 (6 years after initiating study and T3 (9 years after initiating study. T0 was taken as reference. Results Triacylglycerols (TG values were correlated with HD duration (r = 0.70, P Conclusion Despite hemodialysis duration, VLDL-LDL metabolism alterations are aggravated submitting patients to a greater risk of atherosclerosis.

  20. Stress and Corticosteroids Aggravate Morphological Changes in the Dentate Gyrus after Early-Life Experimental Febrile Seizures in Mice

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    Jolien S. van Campen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure precipitant in patients with epilepsy. Moreover, a relation between ear stress and epilepsy has been suggested. Although ear stress and stress hormones are known to influence seizure threshold in rodents, effects on the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis are still unclear. Therefore, we studied the consequences of ear corticosteroid exposure for epileptogenesis, under highly controlled conditions in an animal model. Experimental febrile seizures (eFS were elicited in 10-day-old mice by warm-air induced hyperthermia, while a control group was exposed to a normothermic condition. In the following 2 weeks, mice received either seven corticosterone or vehicle injections or were left undisturbed. Specific measures indicative for epileptogenesis were examined at 25 days of age and compared with vehicle injected or untreated mice. We examined structural [neurogenesis, dendritic morphology, and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS] and functional (glutamatergic postsynaptic currents and long-term potentiation plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG. We found that differences in DG morphology induced by eFS were aggravated by repetitive (mildly stressful vehicle injections and corticosterone exposure. In the injected groups, eFS were associated with decreases in neurogenesis, and increases in cell proliferation, dendritic length, and spine density. No group differences were found in MFS. Despite these changes in DG morphology, no effects of eFS were found on functional plasticity. We conclude that corticosterone exposure during early epileptogenesis elicited by eFS aggravates morphological, but not functional, changes in the DG, which partly supports the hypothesis that ear stress stimulates epileptogenesis.

  1. Pex11a deficiency is associated with a reduced abundance of functional peroxisomes and aggravated renal interstitial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Huachun; Ji, Xu; Endo, Kosuke; Iwai, Naoharu

    2014-11-01

    Although proteinuria is known to be associated with the deterioration of chronic kidney disease, the molecular basis of this mechanism is not fully understood. We previously found that Pex11a deficiency was associated with a reduction of functional peroxisomes and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes and resulted in steatosis. Proximal tubule cells are rich in peroxisomes. We assessed whether Pex11a deficiency might result in the derangement of peroxisome systems in proximal tubule cells and the aggravation of tubulointerstitial lesions in chronic kidney disease. Histological analyses showed that the number of functional peroxisomes in proximal tubule cells was reduced in Pex11a knockout (Pex11a(-/-)) mice. To clarify whether a decrease in the number of tubular peroxisomes might aggravate interstitial lesions, we assessed 2 models in which proximal tubule cells are overloaded with fatty acids (ie, deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt hypertension and the overload of fatty acid-bound albumin). Deoxycorticosterone acetate -salt-treated Pex11a(-/-) mice exhibited greater interstitial lesions than deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-treated wild-type mice in terms of tubular lipid accumulation, blood pressure, urinary albumin, urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, urinary 8-iso-prostane, and the histological evaluation of fibrosis and inflammation. An overload of fatty acid-bound albumin also resulted in more severe tubulointerstitial lesions in Pex11a(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, restored the abundance of peroxisomes and reduced the tubulointerstitial lesions induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. In conclusion, our results indicate that proximal tubule peroxisomes play an important role in proteinuria-induced interstitial lesions. The activation of tubular peroxisomes might be an excellent therapeutic strategy against chronic kidney disease. © 2014 American Heart

  2. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilayaraja Muthuramu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05 in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64 during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01 higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001 was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001 higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001 higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05 in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  3. High-Fat Diet in the Absence of Obesity Does Not Aggravate Surgically Induced Lymphoedema in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Karaman, Sinem; Proulx, Steven T; Leu, Kristin; Buschle, Dorina; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoedema represents the cardinal manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction and is associated with expansion of the adipose tissue in the affected limb. In mice, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was associated with impaired collecting lymphatic vessel function, and adiposity aggravated surgery-induced lymphoedema in a mouse model. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adiposity is necessary to impair lymphatic function or whether increased lipid exposure alone might be sufficient in a surgical lymphoedema model. To investigate the role of increased lipid exposure in lymphoedema development we used a well-established mouse tail lymphoedema model. Female mice were subjected to a short-term (6 weeks) HFD, without development of obesity, before surgical induction of lymphedema. Lymphoedema was followed over a period of 6 weeks measuring oedema, evaluating tissue histology and lymphatic vascular function. HFD increased baseline angiogenesis and average lymphatic vessel size in comparison to the chow control group. Upon induction of lymphedema, HFD-treated mice did not exhibit aggravated oedema and no morphological differences were observed in the blood and lymphatic vasculature. Importantly, the levels of fibro-adipose tissue deposition were comparable between the 2 groups and lymphatic vessel function was not impaired as a result of the HFD. Although the net immune cell infiltration was comparable, the HFD group displayed an increased infiltration of macrophages, which exhibited an M2 polarization phenotype. These results indicate that increased adiposity rather than dietary influences determines predisposition to or severity of lymphedema. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. In utero exposure to second-hand smoke aggravates adult responses to irritants: adult second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Perveen, Zakia; Paulsen, Daniel; Rouse, Rodney; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Kearney, Michael; Penn, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    In utero exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is associated with exacerbated asthmatic responses in children. We tested the hypothesis that in utero SHS will aggravate the lung responses of young adult mice re-exposed to SHS. We exposed Balb/c mice in utero to SHS (S) or filtered air (AIR; A), and re-exposed the male offspring daily from 11-15 weeks of age to either SHS (AS and SS) or AIR (AA and SA). After the adult exposures, we analyzed samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), examined the results of histopathology, and assessed pulmonary function and gene expression changes in lung samples. In SS mice, compared with the other three groups (AA, AS, and SA), we found decreases in breathing frequency and increases in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), as well as low but significantly elevated concentrations of BALF proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine). Lung morphometric analyses revealed enlarged airspaces and arteries in SA and SS mice compared with their in utero AIR counterparts, as well as increased collagen deposition in AS and SS mice. Unique gene expression profiles were found for in utero, adult, and combined exposures, as well as for mice with elevated AHR responses. The profibrotic metalloprotease genes, Adamts9 and Mmp3, were up-regulated in the SS and AHR groups, suggesting a role for in utero SHS exposure on the adult development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results indicate that in utero exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations of SHS alter lung structure more severely than do adult SHS exposures of longer duration. These in utero exposures also aggravate AHR and promote a profibrotic milieu in adult lungs.

  5. Cisplatin-induced gastrointestinal dysmotility is aggravated after chronic administration in the rat. Comparison with pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezos, P A; Vera, G; Martín-Fontelles, M I; Fernández-Pujol, R; Abalo, R

    2010-07-01

    Chemotherapy induces nausea/emesis and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Pica, the ingestion of non-nutritive substances, is considered as an indirect marker of nausea/emesis in non-vomiting species, like the rat. Cisplatin is the most emetogenic antitumoral drug. In the rat, acute cisplatin induces pica and gastric dysmotility in a temporally related manner, but the effects of chronic cisplatin are not well known. This study analyzed the effects of chronic cisplatin on pica and on gastrointestinal motor function in the rat, using radiographic, non-invasive methods. Rats received saline or cisplatin (1-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) once a week for four consecutive weeks. Serial X-rays were taken 0-8 h after administration of barium sulfate, which was given intragastrically immediately after the first and last cisplatin administrations and 1 week after treatment finalization. Pica (i.e., kaolin intake) was measured in isolated rats. Cisplatin delayed gastric emptying and induced acute (during the 24 h following each administration) pica. Upon chronic administration, these effects were exacerbated. In addition, basal kaolin intake was enhanced (facilitated) and gastric distension induced. Delayed gastric emptying and gastric distension were not apparent 1 week after treatment, but basal kaolin intake was still elevated. Whereas gastric dysmotility induced by cisplatin is parallel to the development of acute pica and might underlie facilitation of pica throughout chronic treatment, it does not explain its long-term maintenance. These findings should be taken into account in the search for new antiemetic strategies.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide aggravated DOI-induced Tourette syndrome: elaboration for recurrence of Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Long; Zhenyang, Si; Chunyan, Wang; Qingqing, Pan

    2017-12-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by highest familial recurrence rate among neuropsychiatric diseases with complicated inheritance. Recurrence of Tourette syndrome was frequently observed in clinical. Unexpectedly, the mechanism of recurrence of Tourette syndrome was failure to elucidate. Here, we first shown that lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may played an important role in the recurrence of Tourette syndrome. The TS model in rats was induced by DOI (the selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:(1)Control;(2) Control + LPS; (2)TS; (3)TS + LPS. The results demonstrated that the LPS treatment significantly increased stereotypic score and autonomic activity. LPS treatment also significantly increased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and striatum. Also, highly expressed TLR4, MyD88, P-NF-κBp65, P-IκBα in TS rats were increased respectively by LPS treatment as indicted in western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis. Thus, it was supposed that lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may played an important role in the recurrence of Tourette syndrome and its mechanism was related to TLR/NF-κB pathway.

  7. Multiple Discriminations – between a Contravention Per Se and an Aggravating Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There are some references on multiple discrimination like in the Recital 14 of the Racial Equality Directive, 2000/43/EC: „In implementing the principle of equal treatment irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, the Community should, in accordance with Article 3(2 of the EC Treaty, aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality between men and women, especially since women are often the victims of multiple discrimination”. Even in this case there is no legal definition of multiple discriminations.In 2008, so after 8 years, in the Explanatory Memorandum of the Proposal for a Council Directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation there is a reference regarding multiple discrimination in the sense that „Attention was also drawn to the need to tackle multiple discrimination, for example by defining it as discrimination and by providing effective remedies. These issues go beyond the scope of this Directive but nothing prevents Member States taking action in these areas.”

  8. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Taeho Han

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week. So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results

  9. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rafael Taeho; Back, Seung Keun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Lee, JaeHee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Heung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA) exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD) produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air) for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week). So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results suggested that 1

  10. Increase in hippocampal water diffusion and volume during experimental pneumococcal meningitis is aggravated by bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    pneumococci. The study comprised of four experimental groups. I. Uninfected controls (n = 8); II. Meningitis (n = 11); III. Meningitis with early onset bacteremia by additional i.v. injection of live pneumococci (n = 10); IV. Meningitis with attenuated bacteremia by treatment with serotype-specific anti......BACKGROUND: The hippocampus undergoes apoptosis in experimental pneumococcal meningitis leading to neurofunctional deficits in learning and memory function. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate hippocampal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and volume with MRI during the course...... of experimental pneumococcal meningitis, 2) to explore the influence of accompanying bacteremia on hippocampal water distribution and volume, 3) and to correlate these findings to the extent of apoptosis in the hippocampus. METHODS: Experimental meningitis in rats was induced by intracisternal injection of live...

  11. Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safaa M. Raghab; Ahmed M. Abd El Meguid; Hala A. Hegazi

    2013-01-01

    ... composed. This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Borg El Arab landfill in Alexandria using an aerobic treatment process which was applied...

  12. Dietary phosphorus overload aggravates the phenotype of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Eiji; Yoshida, Mizuko; Kojima, Yoriko; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohashi, Kazuya; Nagata, Yosuke; Shiozuka, Masataka; Date, Munehiro; Higashi, Tetsuo; Nishino, Ichizo; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked disease with no effective treatment. Progressive muscle degeneration, increased macrophage infiltration, and ectopic calcification are characteristic features of the mdx mouse, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Because dietary phosphorus/phosphate consumption is increasing and adverse effects of phosphate overloading have been reported in several disease conditions, we examined the effects of dietary phosphorus intake in mdx mice phenotypes. On weaning, control and mdx mice were fed diets containing 0.7, 1.0, or 2.0 g phosphorus per 100 g until they were 90 days old. Dystrophic phenotypes were evaluated in cryosections of quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscles, and maximal forces and voluntary activity were measured. Ectopic calcification was analyzed by electron microscopy to determine the cells initially responsible for calcium deposition in skeletal muscle. Dietary phosphorus overload dramatically exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes of mdx mice by increasing inflammation associated with infiltration of M1 macrophages. In contrast, minimal muscle necrosis and inflammation were observed in exercised mdx mice fed a low-phosphorus diet, suggesting potential beneficial therapeutic effects of lowering dietary phosphorus intake on disease progression. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that dietary phosphorus intake directly affects muscle pathological characteristics of mdx mice. Dietary phosphorus overloading promoted dystrophic disease progression in mdx mice, whereas restricting dietary phosphorus intake improved muscle pathological characteristics and function.

  13. Aggravation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in hypertensives with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasseros, Ioannis; Katsi, Vasiliki; Vyssoulis, Gregory; Pylarinos, Ioannis; Ioannis, Pylarinos; Richter, Dimitrios; Gialernios, Theodoros; Souretis, Georgios; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the combined effects of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We examined 118 consecutive hypertensives who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients underwent a complete echocardiographic study within 24 h of catheterization by operators blind to their condition. The study participants were divided into two groups according to the presence of CAD: group A, with the disease (n=72); and group B, without (n=46). Patients with CAD exhibited lower LV fractional shortening and ejection fraction (P=0.002 and P=0.001). Hypertensives with CAD had significantly prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) compared to those without CAD (P<0.001). Most interestingly, CAD patients had significantly worse Ema/Ama, Vp (flow propagation velocity), E/Vp and Vp/IVRT (all P<0.05). In addition, after adjusting for confounders, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that IVRT increases were associated with greater odds of CAD, whereas decreases in Vp or Vp/IVRT were associated with lower odds of CAD (all P ≤ 0.001). In hypertensives, the early recognition of LV diastolic performance alteration may be associated with the presence of significant CAD, indicating the need for more aggressive approaches both in terms of pharmacological treatment and interventional evaluation.

  14. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially......Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  16. Obesogenic diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction and pathobiont expansion aggravate experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Chul Lee

    Full Text Available Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice. Goblet cell number and secretion of mucin by goblet cells were also decreased, while intestinal permeability was increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, and exhibited severe colonic inflammation, accompanied by the expansion of selected pathobionts such as Atopobium sp. and Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation transferred the susceptibility to DSS-colitis, and antibiotic treatment abrogated colitis progression. These data suggest that an experimental HFD-induced Paneth cell dysfunction and subsequent intestinal dysbiosis characterized by pathobiont expansion can be predisposing factors to the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. Uric acid and allopurinol aggravate absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Kovács, Zsolt

    2018-02-16

    Uric acid has a role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. For example, uric acid may facilitate seizure generalization while reducing uric acid level may evoke anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects. Allopurinol blocks the activity of xanthine oxidase, by which allopurinol inhibits catabolism of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid and, as a consequence, decreases the level of uric acid. Although the modulation of serum uric acid level is a widely used strategy in the treatment of certain diseases, our knowledge regarding the effects of uric acid on epileptic activity is far from complete. Thus, the main aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of uric acid on absence epileptic seizures (spike-wave discharges: SWDs) in a model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rat. We investigated the influence of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected uric acid (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), allopurinol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) alone and the combined application of allopurinol (50 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) or inosine (500 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) on absence epileptic activity. We demonstrated that both uric acid and allopurinol alone significantly increased the number of SWDs whereas indomethacin abolished the uric acid-evoked increase in SWD number. Our results suggest that uric acid and allopurinol have proepileptic effects in WAG/Rij rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cysteinyl leukotriene signaling aggravates myocardial hypoxia in experimental atherosclerotic heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nobili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT are powerful spasmogenic and immune modulating lipid mediators involved in inflammatory diseases, in particular asthma. Here, we investigated whether cys-LT signaling, in the context of atherosclerotic heart disease, compromises the myocardial microcirculation and its response to hypoxic stress. To this end, we examined Apoe(-/- mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and analysed the expression of key enzymes of the cys-LT pathway and their receptors (CysLT1/CysLT2 in normal and hypoxic myocardium as well as the potential contribution of cys-LT signaling to the acute myocardial response to hypoxia. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myocardial biopsies from Apoe(-/- mice demonstrated signs of chronic inflammation with fibrosis, increased apoptosis and expression of IL-6, as compared to biopsies from C57BL/6J control mice. In addition, we found increased leukotriene C(4 synthase (LTC(4S and CysLT1 expression in the myocardium of Apoe(-/- mice. Acute bouts of hypoxia further induced LTC(4S expression, increased LTC(4S enzyme activity and CysLT1 expression, and were associated with increased extension of hypoxic areas within the myocardium. Inhibition of cys-LT signaling by treatment with montelukast, a selective CysLT1 receptor antagonist, during acute bouts of hypoxic stress reduced myocardial hypoxic areas in Apoe(-/- mice to levels equal to those observed under normoxic conditions. In human heart biopsies from 14 patients with chronic coronary artery disease mRNA expression levels of LTC(4S and CysLT1 were increased in chronic ischemic compared to non-ischemic myocardium, constituting a molecular basis for increased cys-LT signaling. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CysLT1 antagonists may have protective effects on the hypoxic heart, and improve the oxygen supply to areas of myocardial ischemia, for instance during episodes of sleep apnea.

  19. Galectin-1-Driven Tolerogenic Programs Aggravate Yersinia enterocolitica Infection by Repressing Antibacterial Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davicino, Roberto C; Méndez-Huergo, Santiago P; Eliçabe, Ricardo J; Stupirski, Juan C; Autenrieth, Ingo; Di Genaro, María S; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2017-08-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y. enterocolitica pathogenicity by undermining protective antibacterial responses. We found higher expression of Gal-1 in the spleen and Peyer's patches of mice infected orogastrically with Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 compared with noninfected hosts. This effect was prevented when mice were infected with Y. enterocolitica lacking YopP or YopH, two critical effectors involved in bacterial immune evasion. Consistent with a regulatory role for this lectin during Y. enterocolitica pathogenesis, mice lacking Gal-1 showed increased weight and survival, lower bacterial load, and attenuated intestinal pathology compared with wild-type mice. These protective effects involved modulation of NF-κB activation, TNF production, and NO synthesis in mucosal tissue and macrophages, as well as systemic dysregulation of IL-17 and IFN-γ responses. In vivo neutralization of these proinflammatory cytokines impaired bacterial clearance and eliminated host protection conferred by Gal-1 deficiency. Finally, supplementation of recombinant Gal-1 in mice lacking Gal-1 or treatment of wild-type mice with a neutralizing anti-Gal-1 mAb confirmed the immune inhibitory role of this endogenous lectin during Y. enterocolitica infection. Thus, targeting Gal-1-glycan interactions may contribute to reinforce antibacterial responses by reprogramming innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation is aggravated in angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Giselle S; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria Glória; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Barcelos, Lucíola S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]/Mas receptor pathway is currently recognized as a counterbalancing mechanism of the renin-angiotensin system in different pathophysiological conditions. We have previously described that treatment with ANG-(1-7) attenuates lung inflammation and remodeling in an experimental model of asthma. In the present study, we investigated whether lack of the Mas receptor could alter the inflammatory response in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Mas receptor wild-type (MasWT) and knockout (MasKO) mice were subjected to four doses of OVA (20 μg/mice ip) with a 14-day interval. At the 21st day, nebulization with OVA (1%) was started, three times per week until the 46th day. Control groups received saline (0.9% ip) and were nebulized with saline (0.9%). MasWT-OVA developed a modest inflammatory response and minor pulmonary remodeling to OVA challenge. Strikingly, MasKO-OVA presented a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate, increase in extracellular matrix deposition, increase in thickening of the alveolar parenchyma, increase in thickening of the smooth muscle layer of the pulmonary arterioles, increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the lungs, characteristic of chronic asthma. Additionally, MasKO-OVA presented an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with MasWT-OVA. Furthermore, MasKO-OVA showed a worse performance in a test of maximum physical exercise compared with MasWT-OVA. Our study shows that effects triggered by the Mas receptor are important to attenuate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in a model of allergic lung inflammation in mice. Our data indicate that impairment of the ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway may lead to worsening of the pathophysiological changes of asthma. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Adiponectin aggravates bone erosion by promoting osteopontin production in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jie; Xu, Lingxiao; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yani; Xuan, Wenhua; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Pengfei; Wu, Qin; Liu, Rui; Che, Nan; Wang, Fang; Tan, Wenfeng; Zhang, Miaojia

    2018-02-08

    of bone erosion in the AD-treated CIA mice. When bound to integrin α v β 3 , OPN functions as a mediator of AD and osteoclasts. Our study provides new evidence of AD involvement in bone erosion. AD induces the expression of OPN, which recruits osteoclasts and initiates bone erosion. These data highlight AD as a novel target for RA treatment.

  2. Haloperidol prophylaxis for preventing aggravation of postoperative delirium in elderly patients: a randomized, open-label prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, Shinji; Kawabata, Yasuji; Fujishiro, Ken; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kuroiwa, Kojiro; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Takemura, Marie; Ando, Masahiko; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the early administration haloperidol in preventing the aggravation of postoperative delirium in elderly patients. A total of 201 patients (age ≥75 years) who underwent elective surgery were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: the intervention group (n = 101) received prophylactic haloperidol (5 mg); the control group (n = 100) did not. Haloperidol was administered daily during postoperative days 0-5 to the patients who presented with NEECHAM scores of 20-24 when measured at 18:00. The primary endpoint was the incidence of severe postoperative delirium. The incidence of severe postoperative delirium in all patients was 25.1%. The incidence of severe postoperative delirium in the intervention group (18.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (32.0%) (p = 0.02). The difference between the two groups was larger when the analysis was limited to the 70 patients who had NEECHAM scores of 20-24 for at least one day during postoperative days 0-5. No adverse effects of the haloperidol were observed. The prophylactic administration of haloperidol at the early stage of delirium significantly reduced the incidence of severe postoperative delirium in elderly patients. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000007204.

  3. Dietary iron supplements may affect stress adaptation and aggravate stress hyperglycemia in a rat model of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Qi, Rui; Xu, Manni; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2012-06-01

    Iron supplementation is believed to decrease the risk of iron-deficiency anemia or low birth weight. In modern society, a majority of people are in a continual state of stress. Stress-induced hyperglycemia, known as transient hyperglycemia, may be a risk factor causing diabetes. To understand the role of iron in people under stress, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of iron supplementation on glucose or stress hyperglycemia. The effect of a diet containing non-heme iron (80 or 320 mg/kg) on Sprague-Dawley rats and those under psychological stress was evaluated. Compared with control rats, a high-iron diet (320 mg/kg) increased blood glucose transiently in normal rats but induced hyperglycemia persistently in stressed rats throughout the experiment. Iron supplements further aggravated iron deposition and oxidative stress injury to the liver induced by the stress exposure. Glucose-related stress hormones were also affected by iron supplementation in stressed rats. Oxidative stress may be one of the main reasons for insulin resistance. Moreover, changes in stress hormones indicate that high-iron supplements may affect stress adaptation. Both are primary reasons for the hyperglycemia induced by iron supplementation in stressed rats. Gaining an insight into the mechanisms and correlations of these changes may be beneficial to human health and is important for the prevention of pathologic glycemia-related diseases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-Distance Travel Behaviours Accelerate and Aggravate the Large-Scale Spatial Spreading of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the role of long-distance travel behaviours on the large-scale spatial spreading of directly transmitted infectious diseases, focusing on two different travel types in terms of the travellers travelling to a specific group or not. For this purpose, we have formulated and analysed a metapopulation model in which the individuals in each subpopulation are organised into a scale-free contact network. The long-distance travellers between the subpopulations will temporarily change the network structure of the destination subpopulation through the “merging effects (MEs,” which indicates that the travellers will be regarded as either connected components or isolated nodes in the contact network. The results show that the presence of the MEs has constantly accelerated the transmission of the diseases and aggravated the outbreaks compared to the scenario in which the diversity of the long-distance travel types is arbitrarily discarded. Sensitivity analyses show that these results are relatively constant regarding a wide range variation of several model parameters. Our study has highlighted several important causes which could significantly affect the spatiotemporal disease dynamics neglected by the present studies.

  5. Intestinal mononuclear cells primed by systemic interleukin-12 display long-term ability to aggravate colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Luciano P; Sena, Angela A; Rodriguez Galán, María Cecilia; Cejas, Hugo; Correa, Silvia G

    2017-03-01

    To address whether the burst of systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) influences intestinal inflammation elicited by luminal stimuli, we induced IL-12 release by cDNA injection in C57BL/6 mice and simultaneously started dextran sulphate sodium administration. The sequence of the inflammatory response triggered by IL-12 release was characterized by assessing myeloperoxidase activity and histological damage in colon samples on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after colitis induction. To evaluate the persistence of IL-12 priming, colitis was induced in mice 7 or 60 days after cDNA injection. Under IL-12 influence, the development of acute colitis presented a faster and selective infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. Recruitment was driven by systemic cytokines rather than luminal antigens. Interestingly, when colitis was triggered 7 or 60 days after the cytokine storm, cells maintained the ability to worsen clinical signs of intestinal inflammation. Together, a systemic IL-12 burst effectively primed intestinal cells that became more prone to develop inflammatory responses. Activation was long-lasting because intestinal cells maintained their inflammatory potential and their ability to aggravate colitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inhibition of catecholamine degradation ameliorates while chemical sympathectomy aggravates the severity of acute Friend retrovirus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemker, Dominique; Mollerus, Sina; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dittmer, Ulf; Del Rey, Adriana; Schedlowski, Manfred; Engler, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of retroviral infections. However, experimental data are scarce and findings inconsistent. Here, we investigated the role of the SNS during acute infection with Friend virus (FV), a pathogenic murine retrovirus that causes polyclonal proliferation of erythroid precursor cells and splenomegaly in adult mice. Experimental animals were infected with FV complex, and viral load, spleen weight, and splenic noradrenaline (NA) concentration was analyzed until 25 days post infection. Results show that FV infection caused a massive but transient depletion in splenic NA during the acute phase of the disease. At the peak of the virus-induced splenomegaly, splenic NA concentration was reduced by about 90% compared to naïve uninfected mice. Concurrently, expression of the catecholamine degrading enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) was significantly upregulated in immune cells of the spleen. Pharmacological inhibition of MAO-A and COMT by the selective inhibitors clorgyline and 3,5-dinitrocatechol, respectively, efficiently blocked NA degradation and significantly reduced viral load and virus-induced splenomegaly. In contrast, chemical sympathectomy prior to FV inoculation aggravated the acute infection and extended the duration of the disease. Together these findings demonstrate that catecholamine availability at the site of viral replication is an important factor affecting the course of retroviral infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNA-135a is up-regulated and aggravates myocardial depression in sepsis via regulating p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ge; Pan, Minli; Jin, Weimin; Jin, Guoxin; Huang, Yumao

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNA-135a (miR-135a) is implicated in the pathological processes of several cancers. However, the roles and regulatory mechanism of miR-135a in sepsis-induced myocardial depression (MD) remain largely unknown. In this study, the serum of patients with sepsis and healthy controls was obtained. The miR-135a expression was then measured. Then lentiviruses (miR-135a mimic, inhibitor and scramble control) were transfected into BALB/c mice. After 4days of transfection, polymicrobial sepsis model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery. The serum tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 were detected. Cardiac function was assessed. In addition, the protein expressions of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway-related proteins were determined. Besides, SB203580 and JSH-23, the inhibitors of p38 MAPK and NF-κB respectively, were used to treat the isolated ventricular myocytes in vitro. MiR-135a was significantly up-regulated in the serum of patients with sepsis. In comparison with CLP group, the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and the expressions of p-p38 and p-p65 in CLP+miR-135a mimic group were significantly increased, while markedly decreased in CLP+miR-135a inhibitor group. Moreover, EF, FS, LVdP/dt (max), LVdP/dt (min) and LVDP of CLP+miR-135a mimic group were all significantly decreased, while markedly increased in CLP+miR-135a inhibitor group. Besides, the increased expressions of p-p38 and p-p65, decreased expression of p-IKBα and the decreased percentage of contraction amplitude in miR-135a mimic group were markedly reversed by SB203580 or JSH-23 treatments. Up-regulation of miR-135a could aggravate sepsis-induced inflammation and myocardial dysfunction via activation of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  9. Aggravation of north channels' shrinkage and south channels' development in the Yangtze Estuary under dam-induced runoff discharge flattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-yuan; Li, Yi-tian; Yue, Yao; Yang, Yun-ping

    2017-03-01

    Construction of dams on rivers has progressively affected the seasonal variability of runoff discharge, which has consequently produced remarkable impacts on the morphology of estuarine channels. This paper considers four-typical-order bifurcations of the Yangtze Estuary and adopts an ebb partition ratio (defined as the diversion ratio of ebb flow in a given branch divided by the total ebb tidal discharge immediately upstream of the river node where the bifurcation occurs) as a measure of water excavating force in the bifurcation channels. Results show that the seasonal variability of runoff discharge at Datong Hydrological Station (Datong) is flattened, being mainly driven by upstream runoff flattening observed at Yichang Hydrological Station (Yichang) and the tributary rivers. Yearly ebb partition ratios of the channels located to the north and south of the islands present decreasing and increasing trends respectively, and as also do the yearly north and south channel volume of the bifurcations. Yearly ebb partition ratio is proved to be an effective index to represent the water excavating force considering the stability of yearly ebb tidal discharge and its relationship with the channel erosion-deposition. River dams are the driving factors behind the runoff flattening at Datong because of their flattening effects on its main contributors (Yichang and tributary rivers). This flattening significantly helps reduce and enlarge the yearly ebb partition ratios of the north and south channels respectively, and then aggravates the shrinkage and development of the north and south channels separately. Yearly ebb partition ratio of the North Passage (NP) must be enlarged in order for the NP to maintain its function as a shipping channel.

  10. Accreditation not Aggravation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Cath; Archer, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action research project that investigated a range of activities to improve learners' mathematical communication skills. It also gives details of a subsequent case study that illustrates how technology can provide a means of overcoming some of the difficulties learners and tutors face in communicating about numeracy, while…

  11. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A.

  12. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  13. Difficulties in brief conjoint treatment of sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, M R; Davenport, A E

    1975-02-01

    The authors offered conjoint treatment of sexual dysfunction to an unselected population in a military hospital for one year. Of the 10 couples who requested treatment, 7 were treated by techniques outlined by Masters and Johnson. The couples who completed the treatment exercises improved, and neurotic interactions, presumably resulting from the symptoms, often disappeared. The couples who avoided the exercises had interactional patterns dominated by projection and blame, sadomasochism, and depressive features; typically their marital difficulties were aggravated by the treatment.

  14. Acute, transient hemorrhagic hypotension does not aggravate structural damage or neurologic motor deficits but delays the long-term cognitive recovery following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Christian; Stover, John F.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Hoover, Rachel C.; Morales, Diego M.; Schouten, Joost W.; McMillan, Asenia; Soltesz, Kristie; Motta, Melissa; Spangler, Zachery; Neugebauer, Edmund; McIntosh, Tracy K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Posttraumatic hypotension is believed to increase morbidity and mortality in traumatically brain-injured patients. Using a clinically relevant model of combined traumatic brain injury with superimposed hemorrhagic hypotension in rats, the present study evaluated whether a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure aggravates regional brain edema formation, regional cell death, and neurologic motor/cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury. Design Experimental prospective, randomized study in rodents. Setting Experimental laboratory at a university hospital. Subjects One hundred nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-385 g. Interventions Experimental traumatic brain injury of mild to moderate severity was induced using the lateral fluid percussion brain injury model in anesthetized rats (n = 89). Following traumatic brain injury, in surviving animals one group of animals was subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic hypotension, maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 50-60 mm Hg for 30 mins (n = 47). The animals were subsequently either resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution (three times shed blood volume, n = 18) or left uncompensated (n = 29). Other groups of animals included those with isolated traumatic brain injury (n = 34), those with isolated hemorrhagic hypotension (n = 8), and sham-injured control animals receiving anesthesia and surgery alone (n = 22). Measurements and Main Results The withdrawal of 6-7 mL of arterial blood significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 50% without decreasing arterial oxygen saturation or Pao2. Brain injury induced significant cerebral edema (p hypotension. Brain injury-induced neurologic deficits persisted up to 20 wks after injury and were also not aggravated by the hemorrhagic hypotension. Cognitive dysfunction persisted for up to 16 wks postinjury. The superimposition of hemorrhagic hypotension significantly delayed the time course of cognitive recovery

  15. A rare aggravation of severe mucositis post chemotherapy in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1tf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlette Inati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a debilitating manifestation in children undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Children with mucositis should be properly managed in order to prevent further exacerbation and adverse complications. We hereby present the first report of a severe chemotherapy-induced mucositis, plausibly aggravated by improper dental hygiene leading to shedding of the ventral part of the tongue in a child with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. The patient steadily and gradually recovered her oral maneuvers and ability to speak several months later. Her tongue underwent hypertrophy as a compensatory mechanism. We recommend that critical and regular assessment of the oral mucosa and proper dental care and oral hygiene be emphasized in all pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. Families of affected children need to be educated about the benefits and modes of optimal oral hygiene for their children and the need to seek immediate care for mouth pain and or lesions. Optimal treatment for mucositis needs to be instituted without delay in this high risk pediatric population. Such a preventive and therapeutic approach may prevent associated life threatening oral and systemic complications, promote rapid and complete mucosal healing, alleviate pain and improve quality of life in children with cancer.

  16. [Intermittent thrombolytic treatment. Results during severe, chronic arterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiessinger, J N; Aiach, M; Lagneau, P; Cormier, J M; Housset, E

    1975-04-20

    38 patients with severe chronic arteritis of the lower limbs were treated with streptokinase intermittently. All had been refused for surgical operation. One patient died, 4 others had early interruption of treatment. Eleven of the 38 patients had efficient thrombolysis confirmed by arteriography. The facts confirm the possibility of thrombolysis during chronic arterial disease. The fact that the aggravation was recent was favourable factor in prognosis. The eleven patients improved, had severe aggravation of symptomes for less than 2 months. Thus thrombolytic treatment has a place of choice in the treatment of severe arterial disease where surgery is impossible, or dangerous, owing to the uncertain state of the vascular bed below the lesion. Efficacious, it permits reconstructive surgery in cases where it had been at first refused. The use of intermittent treatment, apart from advantages of confort and cost, seems to increase the efficacy of treatment.

  17. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Knockdown of ANRIL aggravates H2O2-induced injury in PC-12 cells by targeting microRNA-125a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Yin, Fei; Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Kun-Chi; Ruan, Qing; Qi, Ying-Mei

    2017-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating and common neurological disorder which causes local oxidative damage. The study aimed to investigate the underlying role of ANRIL in H2O2-induced cell injury of rat PC-12 cells. Cell injury was evaluated on the basis of cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis. The effect of ANRIL on H2O2-induced cell injury was estimated after cell transfection. Then, the interaction between ANRIL and miR-125a was explored by qRT-PCR and estimation of cell injury. Predicted by TargetScan, the possible target gene of miR-125a was verified. After that, the effects of aberrantly expressed target gene on cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis as well as phosphorylation of key kinases involved in JAK/STAT and ERK/MAPK pathways were evaluated. Results revealed that H2O2-induced PC-12 cell injury could be aggravated by ANRIL suppression. ANRIL appeared to act as a sponge of miR-125a, and ANRIL suppression promoted H2O2-induced cell injury by up-regulation of miR-125a. MCL-1 was a target of miR-125a, and MCL-1 was negatively correlated with miR-125a. Subsequent experiments showed the effect of MCL-1 silence on H2O2-induced PC-12 cell injury was the same as ANIRL suppression. MCL-1 attenuated H2O2-induced PC-12 cell injury by activating JAK/STAT and ERK/MAPK pathways. These findings suggested that knockdown of ANRIL aggravates H2O2-induced injury in PC-12 cells by targeting miR-125a. This might provide novel insights in the role of ANRIL in pathogenesis of oxidative damage during SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. High-fat diet aggravates 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Xu, Hengsen; Wang, Chao; Ji, Minghui; Gu, Jun; Yang, Lu; Zhu, Jiansheng; Dong, Huibin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-05-15

    Growing evidence has revealed that a high-fat diet (HFD) could lead to disorders of glycolipid metabolism and insulin-resistant states, and HFDs have been associated with the inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could increase the risk of diabetes in humans and reduce testosterone production in rats. However, whether the HFD affects BDE47-inhibited testosterone production by elevating insulin levels and inducing related pathways remains unknown. In male rats treated with BDE47 by gavage for 12 weeks, the HFD significantly increased the BDE47 content of the liver and testis and increased the weight of the adipose tissue; increased macrovesicular steatosis in the liver and the levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin; further aggravated the disruption of the seminiferous epithelium; and lowered the level of testosterone, resulting in fewer sperm in the epididymis. Of note, the HFD enhanced BDE47-induced DAX-1 expression and decreased the expression levels of StAR and 3β-HSD in the testicular interstitial compartments in rats. In isolated primary Leydig cells from rats, BDE47 or insulin increased DAX-1 expression, decreased the expression of StAR and 3β-HSD, and reduced testosterone production, which was nearly reversed by knocking down DAX-1. These results indicated that the HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production through hyperinsulinemia, and the accumulation of testicular BDE47 that induces the up-regulation of DAX-1 and the subsequent down-regulation of steroidogenic proteins, i.e., StAR and 3β-HSD, in Leydig cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic administration of recombinant IL-6 upregulates lipogenic enzyme expression and aggravates high-fat-diet-induced steatosis in IL-6-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Vida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver. Administration of IL-6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL-6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion. In this study, we further investigated the role of IL-6 on steatosis induced through a high-fat diet (HFD in wild-type (WT and IL-6-deficient (IL-6−/− mice. Additionally, HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice were also chronically treated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6. Obesity in WT mice fed a HFD associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels, fatty liver, upregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3, increased AMP kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK, and downregulation of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1. The HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice showed severe steatosis, no changes in CPT1 levels or AMPK activity, no increase in STAT3 amounts, inactivated STAT3, and marked downregulation of the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. The IL-6 chronic replacement in HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice restored hepatic STAT3 and AMPK activation but also increased the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. Furthermore, rIL-6 administration was associated with aggravated steatosis and elevated fat content in the liver. We conclude that, in the context of HFD-induced obesity, the administration of rIL-6 might contribute to the aggravation of fatty liver disease through increasing lipogenesis.

  2. Chronic Prednisolone Treatment Aggravates Hyperglycemia in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet but Does Not Worsen Dietary Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskewitz, Anke J.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Lierop, Marie-Jose; Schreurs, Marijke; Bloks, Vincent W.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Dokter, Wim H.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as prednisolone have potent antiinflammatory actions. Unfortunately, these drugs induce severe adverse effects in patients, many of which resemble features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether adverse effects of

  3. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni; N.G RaghavendraRao; D.Narasimhareddy

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesiv...

  4. The formulation and evaluation of terbutaline sulphate and dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The formulation is usually prepackaged in unit doses or as a bulk, from which portions are dispensed. Though there have been significant advances, especially in understanding the role of carrier properties on the aerosol performance of the drug, the exact mechanism of adhesion and drug liberation during aerosolization is ...

  5. Deposition of terbutaline sulphate and salbutamol sulphate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhaler device is as important as the powder formulation for the successful development of dry powder inhalation products. As a result of current focus on tightening regulatory requirements, it is imperative that reproducibility of the metered dose of drug must be ensured during the formulation, packaging and use.

  6. TLR2 Expression in Peripheral CD4+ T Cells Promotes Th17 Response and Is Associated with Disease Aggravation of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Th17 responses have been shown to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF. The mechanism underlying the enhanced Th17 responses in these patients remains largely unclear. Here we investigated toll-like receptors (TLRs expression in peripheral T cells and their roles in Th17 cell differentiation and disease aggravation in ACLF patients. 18 healthy subjects (HS, 20 chronic HBV-infected (CHB patients, and 26 ACLF patients were enrolled and examined for TLRs expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. The correlations of T cell TLR2 expression with the antigen non-specific Th17 responses and disease aggravation, as well as the Th17 response to TLR2 ligand stimulation were evaluated in ACLF patients. Compared to HS and CHB patients, ACLF patients showed a distinct TLRs expression pattern in PBMCs. Significantly increased TLR2 expression in T cells was observed in ACLF patients. The TLR2 expression in CD4+ T cells was correlated with the Th17 responses and the clinical markers for disease aggravation in ACLF patients. Moreover, TLR2 ligands stimulation promoted Th17 cell differentiation and response in PBMCs of ACLF patients. These findings implicate that TLR2 signaling plays critical roles in Th17 cell differentiation and disease aggravation of HBV-related ACLF.

  7. Does Cisapride, as a 5HT4 Receptor Agonist, Aggravate the Severity of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Motavallian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for research that will lead to the reveal of targets designed to analyse the possible pathways for the treatment of IBD. Because of the probable involvement of serotonin in inflammatory conditions of intestine and the important role of 5HT4 receptors in GI function, the investigation of the role of 5HT4 receptors in the pathogenesis of IBD will be interesting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cisapride, a 5HT4 receptor agonist, in trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid-(TNBS induced rat colitis. Two hours subsequent to induction of colitis using TNBS in rats, cisapride (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p; 4 mg/kg, orally (p.o and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p; 2 mg/kg, p.o were administrated for 6 days. Animals were thereafter euthanized; macroscopic, histological, and biochemical assessments and ELISA test were carried out on distal colon samples. Our data showed that dexamethasone treatment (i.p, p.o significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic damage and also biochemical markers, but there were no significant differences in aforementioned parameters between cisapride (i.p or p.o and TNBS-treated rats. It can be deduced that because the severity of colitis produced by TNBS is massive (through various pathways, cisapride could not bring about more colitis damages through 5HT4 receptors. Based on the present study further researches are required for investigating the exact roles of 5HT4 receptors in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

  8. Esophagogastric anastomosis in rats: Improved healing by BPC 157 and L-arginine, aggravated by L-NAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djakovic, Zeljko; Djakovic, Ivka; Cesarec, Vedran; Madzarac, Goran; Becejac, Tomislav; Zukanovic, Goran; Drmic, Domagoj; Batelja, Lovorka; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Pajtak, Alen; Knez, Nikica; Japjec, Mladen; Luetic, Kresimir; Stancic-Rokotov, Dinko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-11-07

    To cure typically life-threatening esophagogastric anastomosis in rats, lacking anastomosis healing and sphincter function rescue, in particular. Because we assume esophagogastric fistulas represent a particular NO-system disability, we attempt to identify the benefits of anti-ulcer stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, which was in trials for ulcerative colitis and currently for multiple sclerosis, in rats with esophagocutaneous fistulas. Previously, BPC 157 therapies have promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis and fistulas, and esophagitis and gastric lesions, along with rescued sphincter function. Additionally, BPC 157 particularly interacts with the NO-system. In the 4 d after esophagogastric anastomosis creation, rats received medication (/kg intraperitoneally once daily: BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), or L-arginine (100 mg) alone and/or combined or BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng) in drinking water). For rats underwent esophagogastric anastomosis, daily assessment included progressive stomach damage (sum of the longest diameters, mm), esophagitis (scored 0-5), weak anastomosis (mL H2O before leak), low pressure in esophagus at anastomosis and in the pyloric sphincter (cm H2O), progressive weight loss (g) and mortality. Immediate effect assessed blood vessels disappearance (scored 0-5) at the stomach surface immediately after anastomosis creation. BPC 157 (all regimens) fully counteracted the perilous disease course from the very beginning (i.e., with the BPC 157 bath, blood vessels remained present at the gastric surface after anastomosis creation) and eliminated mortality. Additionally, BPC 157 treatment in combination with L-NAME nullified any effect of L-NAME that otherwise intensified the regular course. Consistently, with worsening (with L-NAME administration) and amelioration (with L-arginine), either L-arginine amelioration prevails (attenuated esophageal and gastric lesions) or they counteract each other (L-NAME + L-arginine); with the

  9. The mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism augments formation of lymphocytic foci but does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Müller

    Full Text Available A polymorphism in the ATP synthase 8 (ATP8 gene of the murine mitochondrial genome, G-to-T transversion at position 7778, has been suggested to increase susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP. The polymorphism also induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, secretory dysfunction and β-cell mass adaptation. Here, we have used two conplastic mouse strains, C57BL/6N-mtAKR/J (B6-mtAKR; nt7778 G; control and C57BL/6N-mtFVB/N (B6-mtFVB; nt7778 T, to address the question if the polymorphism also affects the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, two age groups of mice (3 and 12-month-old, respectively were subjected to up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 µg/kg body weight at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of α-amylase and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung tissue. A comparison of cerulein-induced pancreatic tissue damage and increases of α-amylase and MPO activities showed no differences between the age-matched groups of both strains. Interestingly, histological evaluation of pancreatic tissue of both untreated and cerulein-treated B6-mtAKR and B6-mtFVB mice also revealed the presence of infiltrates of immune cells surrounding ducts and vessels; a finding that is compatible with an early stage of AIP. After recovery from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (day 7 after the injections, 12-month-old B6-mtFVB mice but not B6-mtAKR mice displayed aggravated lymphocytic lesions. A comparison of 12-month-old mice with other age groups of both strains revealed that lymphocytic foci were largely absent in 3-month-old mice, while 24-month-old mice were more affected. Together, our data suggest that the mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Autoimmune-like lesions, however, may progress faster if

  10. Direct recognition of Fusobacterium nucleatum by the NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 aggravates periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Chaushu

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common human chronic inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of the tooth attachment apparatus and tooth loss. Although infections with periopathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum are essential for inducing periodontitis, the nature and magnitude of the disease is determined by the host's immune response. Here, we investigate the role played by the NK killer receptor NKp46 (NCR1 in mice, in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Using an oral infection periodontitis model we demonstrate that following F. nucleatum infection no alveolar bone loss is observed in mice deficient for NCR1 expression, whereas around 20% bone loss is observed in wild type mice and in mice infected with P. gingivalis. By using subcutaneous chambers inoculated with F. nucleatum we demonstrate that immune cells, including NK cells, rapidly accumulate in the chambers and that this leads to a fast and transient, NCR1-dependant TNF-α secretion. We further show that both the mouse NCR1 and the human NKp46 bind directly to F. nucleatum and we demonstrate that this binding is sensitive to heat, to proteinase K and to pronase treatments. Finally, we show in vitro that the interaction of NK cells with F. nucleatum leads to an NCR1-dependent secretion of TNF-α. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NCR1 and NKp46 directly recognize a periodontal pathogen and that this interaction influences the outcome of F. nucleatum-mediated periodontitis.

  11. N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aggravates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Exposure of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rodents produces permanent behavioral syndrome characterized by repetitive head movements, circling and back walking. Other synthetic nitriles of industrial importance such as crotonitrile and allylnitrile are also able to produce similar motor deficits in experimental animals. However, due to the well-defined behavioral deficits and their easy quantification, IDPN-induced behavioral syndrome is a preferential animal model to test the interaction of various agents with synthetic nitriles. This study reports the effect of non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine (NARG) on IDPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Four groups of animals were given i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. These rats were treated with oral administration of NARG in the doses of 0 (IDPN alone group), 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN, respectively. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of NARG alone (without IDPN). The results showed that NARG significantly exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements, circling and back walking. The histology of inner ear showed massive degeneration of the sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris of rats receiving the combined treatment with IDPN and NARG, suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway aggravates proteotoxicity of hepatic mutant Z alpha1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Nunzia; Attanasio, Sergio; Granese, Barbara; Castello, Raffaele; Teckman, Jeffrey; Wilson, Andrew A; Ballabio, Andrea; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disease that can affect both the lung and the liver. The vast majority of patients harbor a mutation in the serine protease inhibitor 1A (SERPINA1) gene leading to a single amino acid substitution that results in an unfolded protein that is prone to polymerization. Alpha1-antitrypsin defciency-related liver disease is therefore caused by a gain-of-function mechanism due to accumulation of the mutant Z alpha1-antitrypsin (ATZ) and is a key example of an disease mechanism induced by protein toxicity. Intracellular retention of ATZ triggers a complex injury cascade including apoptosis and other mechanisms, although several aspects of the disease pathogenesis are still unclear. We show that ATZ induces activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun and that genetic ablation of JNK1 or JNK2 decreased ATZ levels in vivo by reducing c-Jun-mediated SERPINA1 gene expression. JNK activation was confirmed in livers of patients homozygous for the Z allele, with severe liver disease requiring hepatic transplantation. Treatment of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-hepatic cells with a JNK inhibitor reduced accumulation of ATZ. These data reveal that JNK is a key pathway in the disease pathogenesis and add new therapeutic entry points for liver disease caused by ATZ. (Hepatology 2017;65:1865-1874). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Static magnetic fields aggravate the effects of ionizing radiation on cell cycle progression in bone marrow stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvestani, Amir Sabet; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Heshmati, Emran; Tavasoli, Zeinab; Jahromi, Azadeh Manoochehri

    2010-02-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) on the progression of cell cycle as a monitor of presumptive genotoxicity of these fields, the effects of a 15 mT SMF on cell cycle progression in rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) were examined. The cells were divided into two groups. One group encountered SMF alone for 5h continuously but the other group exposed with X ray before treatment with SMF. The population of cells did not show any significant difference in the first group but the second group that was exposed with acute radiation before encountering SMF showed a significant increase in the number of cells in G(2)/M phase. So SMF has intensified the effects of X ray, where SMF alone, did not had any detectable influence on cell cycle. These findings suggest that magnetic fields (MF) play their role by increasing the effects of genotoxic agents and because of the greater concentration of free radicals in the presence of radical pair producers, this effect is better detectable.

  14. NK cells inhibit anti-M.bovis BCG T cell responses and aggravate pulmonary inflammation in a direct lung infection mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Gu, Xiuling; Liu, Xiaoman; Wei, Songtao; Wang, Bin; Fang, Min

    2018-02-15

    Tuberculosis remains a threat to public health. The major problem for curing this disease is latent infection, of which the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Previous studies indicate that NK cells do not play a role in inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung, and recent studies have revealed that NK cells regulate the adaptive immunity during mycobacterial infection. By using a mouse model of direct lung infection with M.bovis BCG, we found that the presence of NK cells postponed the priming and activation of T cells after BCG infection. In addition, depletion of NK cells before infection alleviated pulmonary pathology. Further studies showed that NK cells lysed BCG-infected macrophages in an NKG2D dependent manner. Thus, NK cells did not play a direct role in control BCG, but aggravated the pulmonary inflammation and impaired anti-BCG T cell immunity, likely through killing BCG-infected macrophages. Our results may have important implications for the design of immune therapy to treat tuberculosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal blood loss as an aggravating factor of iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months fed whole cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra Maria Rodrigues; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2008-02-01

    To verify the occurrence of occult intestinal blood loss and iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months. A consecutive sample of 98 infants of the Pediatric Public Health Primary Care Unit in the town of Arapongas, Parana State, Brazil was involved in this cross-sectional study. Dietary history, hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and an occult fecal blood loss investigation, by the immune chromatographic method specific for human hemoglobin were performed. Presence of occult intestinal blood occurred in 8/23 of the breast-fed (plus complementary feed) infants and in 30/64 of the infants who were fed with cow's milk (plus complementary feed) (P=0.449). The comparison of body iron indicators in accordance to positive or negative occult fecal blood, did not show any significant difference in the 23 breast-fed infants. Serum ferritin (median=4.2 ng/mL) was significantly lower (P=0.004) in infants who received whole cow's milk and had positive occult fecal blood, than in those infants who received whole cow's milk but were without occult fecal blood (median=12.1 ng/mL). In breast-fed infants with negative occult fecal blood, iron deficiency severity is not greater than in those with positive results. In infants fed whole cow's milk, occult fecal blood loss is an aggravating factor of iron deficiency.

  16. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone formation.

  17. Genetic ablation of ryanodine receptor 2 phosphorylation at Ser-2808 aggravates Ca(2+)-dependent cardiomyopathy by exacerbating diastolic Ca2+ release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Velez-Cortes, Florencia; Lou, Qing; Valdivia, Carmen R; Knollmann, Bjorn C; Valdivia, Hector H; Gyorke, Sandor

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) by protein kinase A (PKA) at Ser-2808 is suggested to mediate the physiological 'fight or flight' response and contribute to heart failure by rendering the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) leaky for Ca(2+). In the present study, we examined the potential role of RyR2 phosphorylation at Ser-2808 in the progression of Ca(2+)-dependent cardiomyopathy (CCM) by using mice genetically modified to feature elevated SR Ca(2+) leak while expressing RyR2s that cannot be phosphorylated at this site (S2808A). Surprisingly, rather than alleviating the disease phenotype, constitutive dephosphorylation of Ser-2808 aggravated CCM as manifested by shortened survival, deteriorated in vivo cardiac function, exacerbated SR Ca(2+) leak and mitochondrial injury. Notably, the deteriorations of cardiac function, myocyte Ca(2+) handling, and mitochondria integrity were consistently worse in mice with heterozygous ablation of Ser-2808 than in mice with complete ablation. Wild-type (WT) and CCM myocytes expressing unmutated RyR2s exhibited a high level of baseline phosphorylation at Ser-2808. Exposure of these CCM cells to protein phosphatase 1 caused a transitory increase in Ca(2+) leak attributable to partial dephosphorylation of RyR2 tetramers at Ser-2808 from more fully phosphorylated state. Thus, exacerbated Ca(2+) leak through partially dephosphorylated RyR2s accounts for the prevalence of the disease phenotype in the heterozygous S2808A CCM mice. These results do not support the importance of RyR2 hyperphosphorylation in Ca(2+)-dependent heart disease, and rather suggest roles for the opposite process, the RyR2 dephosphorylation at this residue in physiological and pathophysiological Ca(2+) signalling.

  18. Genetic ablation of ryanodine receptor 2 phosphorylation at Ser-2808 aggravates Ca2+-dependent cardiomyopathy by exacerbating diastolic Ca2+ release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Velez-Cortes, Florencia; Lou, Qing; Valdivia, Carmen R; Knollmann, Bjorn C; Valdivia, Hector H; Gyorke, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) by protein kinase A (PKA) at Ser-2808 is suggested to mediate the physiological ‘fight or flight’ response and contribute to heart failure by rendering the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) leaky for Ca2+. In the present study, we examined the potential role of RyR2 phosphorylation at Ser-2808 in the progression of Ca2+-dependent cardiomyopathy (CCM) by using mice genetically modified to feature elevated SR Ca2+ leak while expressing RyR2s that cannot be phosphorylated at this site (S2808A). Surprisingly, rather than alleviating the disease phenotype, constitutive dephosphorylation of Ser-2808 aggravated CCM as manifested by shortened survival, deteriorated in vivo cardiac function, exacerbated SR Ca2+ leak and mitochondrial injury. Notably, the deteriorations of cardiac function, myocyte Ca2+ handling, and mitochondria integrity were consistently worse in mice with heterozygous ablation of Ser-2808 than in mice with complete ablation. Wild-type (WT) and CCM myocytes expressing unmutated RyR2s exhibited a high level of baseline phosphorylation at Ser-2808. Exposure of these CCM cells to protein phosphatase 1 caused a transitory increase in Ca2+ leak attributable to partial dephosphorylation of RyR2 tetramers at Ser-2808 from more fully phosphorylated state. Thus, exacerbated Ca2+ leak through partially dephosphorylated RyR2s accounts for the prevalence of the disease phenotype in the heterozygous S2808A CCM mice. These results do not support the importance of RyR2 hyperphosphorylation in Ca2+-dependent heart disease, and rather suggest roles for the opposite process, the RyR2 dephosphorylation at this residue in physiological and pathophysiological Ca2+ signalling. PMID:24445321

  19. Celecoxib-induced gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions in rats, counteraction by BPC 157 or L-arginine, aggravation by L-NAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Bauk, Lara; Sever, Marko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Luetic, Kresimir; Suran, Jelena; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-07

    To counteract/reveal celecoxib-induced toxicity and NO system involvement. Celecoxib (1 g/kg b.w. ip) was combined with therapy with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (known to inhibit these lesions, 10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, or 1 ng/kg ip) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg ip), as well as NOS blockade [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] (5 mg/kg ip) given alone and/or combined immediately after celecoxib. Gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions and liver enzyme serum values in rats were assessed at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. This high-dose celecoxib administration, as a result of NO system dysfunction, led to gastric, liver, and brain lesions and increased liver enzyme serum values. The L-NAME-induced aggravation of the lesions was notable for gastric lesions, while in liver and brain lesions the beneficial effect of L-arginine was blunted. L-arginine counteracted gastric, liver and brain lesions. These findings support the NO system mechanism(s), both NO system agonization (L-arginine) and NO system antagonization (L-NAME), that on the whole are behind all of these COX phenomena. An even more complete antagonization was identified with BPC 157 (at both 24 h and 48 h). A beneficial effect was evident on all the increasingly negative effects of celecoxib and L-NAME application and in all the BPC 157 groups (L-arginine + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157). Thus, these findings demonstrated that BPC 157 may equally counteract both COX-2 inhibition (counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib on all lesions) and additional NOS blockade (equally counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib + L-NAME). BPC 157 and L-arginine alleviate gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions, redressing NSAIDs' post-surgery application and NO system involvement.

  20. [Metered-dose inhaler with spacer vs nebulization for severe and potentially severe acute asthma treatment in the pediatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannier, N; Timsit, S; Cojocaru, B; Leis, A; Wille, C; Garel, D; Bocquet, N; Chéron, G

    2006-03-01

    To compare treatment with beta 2 agonist delivered either by a spacer device or a nebulizer in children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma. In this randomized trial, children 4 to 15 years, cared for in the emergency department for severe or potentially severe acute asthma, received 6 times either nebulizations of salbutamol (0.15mg/kg) or puffs of a beta 2 agonist (salbutamol 50 microg/kg or terbutaline 125 microg/kg). The primary outcome was the hospitalization rate. Secondary outcomes included percentage improvement in Bishop score, in PEF, SaO(2), respiratory and heart rates, side effects, length of stay and relapses 10 and 30 days later. Groups did not differ for baseline data. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (nebulizer N=40, spacer N=39) for baseline characteristics before emergency department consultation except for length of acute asthma in the spacer group. Clinical evolution after treatment, hospitalization rate, relapse were similar including the more severe subgroup. In the spacer group, tachycardia was less frequent (Pvs 108+/-13 min, Pmetered-dose inhaler with spacer is an effective alternative to nebulizers for the treatment of children with severe or potentially severe acute asthma in the emergency department. Time gained can be used for asthma education.

  1. Topical treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  2. Topical treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  3. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium – Identification of the responsible medium components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Results Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199). Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid) did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM), a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM), and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640) evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution) also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types. PMID:23046946

  4. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium - identification of the responsible medium components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless-Petig, Gesine; Metzenmacher, Martin; Türk, Tobias R; Rauen, Ursula

    2012-10-10

    In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199). Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid) did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM), a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM), and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640) evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution) also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types.

  5. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Liver-Resident Macrophage M2 Polarization via C/EBP Homologous Protein-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Rao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggravated liver ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury has been observed in hyperglycemic hosts, but its underlying mechanism remains undefined. Liver-resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of liver IR injury. In this study, we evaluated the role of ER stress in regulating KC activation and liver IR injury in a streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic/diabetic mouse model. Compared to the control group (CON group, hyperglycemic mice exhibited a significant increase in liver injury and intrahepatic inflammation following IR. KCs obtained from hyperglycemic mice secreted higher levels of the pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6, while they secreted significantly lower levels of the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. Furthermore, enhanced ER stress was revealed by increased C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP activation in both IR-stressed livers and KCs from hyperglycemic mice. Specific CHOP knockdown in KCs by siRNA resulted in a slight decrease in TNF-α and IL-6 secretion but dramatically enhanced anti-inflammatory IL-10 secretion in the hyperglycemic group, while no significant changes in cytokine production were observed in the CON group. We also analyzed the role of hyperglycemia in macrophage M1/M2 polarization. Interestingly, we found that hyperglycemia inhibited IL-10-secreting M2-like macrophage polarization, as revealed by decreased Arg1 and Mrc1 gene induction accompanied by a decrease in STAT3 and STAT6 signaling pathway activation. CHOP knockdown restored Arg1 and Mrc1 gene induction, STAT3 and STAT6 activation, and most importantly, IL-10 secretion in hyperglycemic KCs. Finally, in vivo CHOP knockdown in KCs enhanced intrahepatic anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene induction and protected the liver against IR injury in hyperglycemic mice but had no significant effects in control mice. Our results demonstrate that hyperglycemia induces hyper-inflammatory activation of KCs

  6. The in-vivo use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to detect inflammation elicits a cytokine response but does not aggravate experimental arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline A Vermeij

    -term effects were evident for gene expression, histology or serum cytokine concentrations.Injection of SPION, either locally or systemically, gives an acute inflammatory response. In the long term, up to 14 days after the injection, while the SPION reside in the joint, no further activating effects of SPION were observed. Hence, we conclude that SPION do not aggravate arthritis and can therefore be used safely to detect joint inflammation by MR imaging.

  7. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  8. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium – Identification of the responsible medium components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pless-Petig Gesine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Results Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199. Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM, a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM, and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640 evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types.

  9. Non-superiority of Kakkonto, a Japanese herbal medicine, to a representative multiple cold medicine with respect to anti-aggravation effects on the common cold: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Satoe; Goto, Masashi; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Hidetsuna; Kimura, Akira; Uruma, Reiko; Takahashi, Yuko; Taneichi, Setsuko; Musashi, Manabu; Miyaki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Kakkonto, a Japanese herbal medicine, is frequently used to treat the common cold not only with a physician's prescription, but also in self-medication situations. This study aimed to examine whether Kakkonto prevents the aggravation of cold symptoms if taken at an early stage of illness compared with a well-selected Western-style multiple cold medicine. This study was a multicenter, active drug-controlled, randomized trial. Adults 18 to 65 years of age who felt a touch of cold symptoms and visited 15 outpatient healthcare facilities within 48 hours of symptoms onset were enrolled. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one treated with Kakkonto (Kakkonto Extract-A, 6 g/day) (n=209) and one treated with a Western-style multiple cold medicine (Pabron Gold-A, 3.6 g/day) (n=198) for at most four days. The primary outcome of this study was the aggravation of cold, nasal, throat or bronchial symptoms, scored as moderate or severe and lasting for at least two days within five days after entry into the study. Among the 410 enrollees, 340 (168 in the Kakkonto group and 172 in the Pabron group) were included in the analyses. The proportion of participants whose colds were aggravated was 22.6% in the Kakkonto group and 25.0% in the Pabron group (p=0.66). The overall severity of the cold symptoms was not significantly different between the groups. No harmful adverse events occurred in either group. Kakkonto did not significantly prevent the progression of cold symptoms, even when prescribed at an early stage of the disease.

  10. PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN ANTI-CRISIS STRATEGY IN MODERN CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Schedrin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the prospects for the development of Ukraine’s anti-crisis strategy in the current conditions of aggravation of the socio-economic situation. The urgency of the researched subject – namely, the study of the potential directions for the development of the anti-crisis tools of Ukrainian state policy – is determined primarily by the seriousness of the problem, which should be overcome by means of these methods. The purpose of the article is to identify promising tools and mechanisms for an anti-crisis policy that can make a significant contribution to improving the current state of the socio-economic sphere in Ukraine. Its subject is anti-crisis tools and instruments, which could be used in Ukrainian scenario. It is noted that our state is at the stage of the permanent crisis and suffers from the consequences of both global and local crisis phenomena. The scientific novelty of the article is determined by the combination of economic, social, political, and legal approaches to the study of the current state of the Ukrainian economy. The methodology of the research is formed by the combination of economic and political methods of scientific activities, which are based on the principles of objectivism and systematic approach. The findings of scientific research and recommendations of some Ukrainian scientists regarding the necessary anti-crisis tools are considered as the sources for the article. The results of the study show that Ukraine suffers from a series of systemic problems and challenges, which are the main threat to the stability of the national economy. Among the most influential of them we can identify the low level of incomes of citizens, which is associated with the devaluation of the national currency and the increase in utility tariffs; high level of unemployment; shortage of foreign and domestic investments; the decline in production and exports, caused both by military operations in the Donbas and the loss

  11. Sarcopenia and Endothelial Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: Results From the Studies Investigating Comorbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marcelo R; Saitoh, Masakazu; Ebner, Nicole; Valentova, Miroslava; Konishi, Masaaki; Ishida, Junichi; Emami, Amir; Springer, Jochen; Sandek, Anja; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, has recently been identified as a serious comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the impact of sarcopenia on endothelial dysfunction in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cross-sectional study. Ambulatory patients with HF were recruited at Charité Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany. We assessed peripheral blood flow (arm and leg) in 228 patients with HF and 32 controls who participated in the Studies Investigating Comorbidities Aggravating HF (SICA-HF). The appendicular skeletal muscle mass of the arms and the legs combined was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular muscle mass two standard deviations below the mean of a healthy reference group of adults aged 18 to 40 years, as suggested for the diagnosis of muscle wasting in healthy aging. All patients underwent a 6-minute walk test and spiroergometry testing. Forearm and leg blood flow were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Peak blood flow was assessed after a period of ischemia in the limbs to test endothelial function. Sarcopenia was identified in 37 patients (19.5%). Patients with sarcopenia presented with lower baseline forearm blood flow (2.30 ± 1.21 vs. 3.06 ± 1.49 vs. 4.00 ± 1.66 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P = .02) than those without sarcopenia or controls. The group of patients with sarcopenia showed similar baseline leg blood flow (2.06 ± 1.62 vs. 2.39 ± 1.39 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P = .11) to those without but lower values when compared to controls (2.06 ± 1.62 vs. 2.99 ± 1.28 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P = .03). In addition, patients with and without sarcopenia presented with lower peak flow in the forearm when compared to controls (18.37 ± 7.07 vs. 22.19 ± 8.64 vs. 33.63 ± 8.57 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P sarcopenia, and coronary artery

  12. Hydrochlorothiazide, but not Candesartan, Aggravates Insulin Resistance and Causes Visceral and Hepatic Fat Accumulation: The Mechanisms for the Diabetes Preventing Effect of Candesartan (MEDICA) Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eriksson, Jan W; Jansson, Per-Anders; Carlberg, Bo; Hägg, Anders; Kurland, Lisa; Svensson, Maria K; Ahlström, Håkan; Ström, Conny; Lönn, Lars; Öjbrandt, Kristina; Johansson, Lars; Lind, Lars

    2008-01-01

    .... The Mechanisms for the Diabetes Preventing Effect of Candesartan Study addressed insulin action and secretion and body fat distribution after treatment with candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and placebo...

  13. The mechanism by which NaCl treatment alleviates PSI photoinhibition under chilling-light treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Zi-shan; Gao, Hui-yuan; Fan, Xing-li; Liu, Mei-jun; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-11-01

    The effects of chilling-light stress combined with additional stress on PSI and PSII photoinhibition and their interrelationship have not been known. To explore whether NaCl affects the PSI and PSII photoinhibition and their interrelationship under chilling-light treatment, the PSI and PSII activities were studied under chilling-light with or without NaCl treatment. The results showed that the extent of PSI and PSII photoinhibition both increased under chilling-light, while NaCl aggravated PSII photoinhibition and severely damaged cytochrome b₆/f complex but alleviated PSI photoinhibition. Moreover, DCMU had a similar effect as NaCl in this study, which indicates that NaCl alleviated PSI photoinhibition through reducing electrons transported to PSI. It was also showed that the increased damage to PSII by NaCl did not depend on the inhibition of PSII repair and PSI electron transportation. In conclusion, NaCl alleviated PSI photoinhibition by inhibiting electron transport from PSII under chilling-light conditions. In addition, PSII photoinhibition was not affected by PSI photoinhibition because of a full inhibition of PSII repair by chilling-light treatment. We also speculate that NaCl aggravates PSII photoinhibition by enhancing the damage instead of inhibiting the repair of it under chilling-light conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Andrea J; Lewis, Erin I

    2013-11-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is comprised of a cluster of affective, behavioral and somatic symptoms recurring monthly during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The disorder affects 3-8% of menstruating women and represents the more severe and disabling end of the spectrum of premenstrual disorders, which includes premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual aggravation of underlying affective disorder. Rigorous and specific diagnostic criteria for PMDD were specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (1994) and reaffirmed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (2013) and, consequently, there has been a marked increase in well-designed, placebo-controlled studies evaluating treatment modalities. Although the exact pathogenesis of PMDD is still elusive, treatment of PMDD and severe premenstrual syndrome has centered on neuromodulation via serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, and ovulation suppression utilizing various contraceptive and hormonal preparations. Unlike the approach to the treatment of depression, serotonergic antidepressants need not be given daily, but can be effective when used cyclically, only in the luteal phase or even limited to the duration of the monthly symptoms. Less, well-substantiated alternative treatments, such as calcium supplementation, agnus castus (chasteberry), Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and cognitive/behavioral/relaxation therapies, may be useful adjuncts in the treatment of PMDD. This review provides an overview of current information on the treatment of PMDD.

  15. Oral azithromycin for treatment of intractable rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Yoon Seok; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-05-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder that primarily occurs on the convex surfaces of the central face and is often characterized by exacerbations and remissions. A case of a 52-yr-old woman visited our clinic in February 2008 complaining typical features of rosacea including multiple pinhead to rice-sized erythematous papules. We applied various conventional treatments including topical benzoyl peroxide and metronidazole as well as oral metronidazole, isotretinoin, and doxycycline. The lesions were not controlled but were rather aggravated by complications from these treatments. Therefore, we prescribed oral azithromycin, which has anti-inflammatory effects and reduces reactive oxygen species. Ten weeks after the administration of oral azithromycin, 500 mg per day for 2 weeks, the lesions had mostly disappeared and no specific side effects related to the azithromycin were noted. Oral azithromycin dosing 500 mg/day for 2 weeks is effective for treatment of intractable rosacea.

  16. Hydrochlorothiazide, but not Candesartan, aggravates insulin resistance and causes visceral and hepatic fat accumulation: the mechanisms for the diabetes preventing effect of Candesartan (MEDICA) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.W.; Jansson, P.A.; Carlberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with angiotensin II receptor blockers is associated with lower risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with thiazide diuretics. The Mechanisms for the Diabetes Preventing Effect of Candesartan Study addressed insulin action and secretion and body fat distribution...... after treatment with candesartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and placebo. Twenty-six nondiabetic, abdominally obese, hypertensive patients were included in a multicenter 3-way crossover trial, and 22 completers (by predefined criteria; 10 men and 12 women) were included in the analyses. They underwent 12-week...... treatment periods with candesartan (C; 16 to 32 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (H; 25 to 50 mg), and placebo (P), respectively, and the treatment order was randomly assigned and double blinded. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (56 mU/m(2) per minute) clamps were performed...

  17. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background and aims: Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.Methods: Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.Results: Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.Conclusion: Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: preclinical, oral iron treatment, tolerability, colonic tissue erosion

  18. [The biological rhythms of cardiac activity based on cardiointervalography in children with rheumatism during readaptation after sanatorium treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alymkulov, D A; Smanova, D K

    1997-01-01

    Heart rate as an integral characteristic of systemic condition in rheumatism was studied in 11-13-year-old children with rheumatic heart disease. The children achieved remission by clinical and laboratory tests and were experiencing postsanatorium readaptation. Pretreatment amplitude of the fluctuations from the mean circadian values were reduced in the patients compared to healthy controls. This shows low compensatory potential of the rheumatic children. Adaptation after sanatorium treatment aggravates the above amplitude diminution, acrophases shifted to later local time.

  19. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats. Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed. Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment. Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed. Results Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment. Conclusion Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26005335

  1. [Diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy and narcolepsy comorbid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-xian; Han, Fang; Qin, Jiong; Liu, Xiao-yan

    2013-09-01

    To analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment process of narcolepsy and epilepsy co-existence, and thereby to improve awareness of such cases. The clinical manifestations of 2 cases were observed, and video-electroencephalogram (VEEG), multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) were performed. Hypocretin 1 level in cerebrospinal fluid was examined in one case. The onset of disease of case one was started with epilepsy with myoclonic seizure. After half a year, catalepsy induced by emotion especially laughing and excessive daytime sleepiness appeared. MSLT was positive and hypocretin 1 level decreased. Narcolepsy-cataplexy was definitely diagnosed in this case. Valproate was given and seizure was controlled completely, but the excessive daytime sleepiness was aggravated. Combination of valproate, methylphenidate and clomipramine treatment improved the symptoms of narcolepsy and the patient was still free of epileptic seizures. The onset symptoms of case 2 were catalepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. MSLT was positive. The treatment was ineffective because of bad compliance. After 2 years, episodes of impairment of consciousness with automatism occurred. VEEG showed slow waves and spikes in right temporal area. Complex partial seizure was determined. Oxcarbazepine was used and then the patients became seizures free, but the symptoms of narcolepsy were still obvious. Comorbidity of narcolepsy and epilepsy is a rare phenomenon. Clinical symptoms, predisposing factor, VEEG and MSLT can help diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The antiepileptic drugs might aggravate drowsiness. Based on therapy of epilepsy by using antiepileptic drugs, low dosage of central nervous system stimulants might improve the drowsiness and catalepsy symptoms of narcolepsy.

  2. HMGB1/Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) does not aggravate inflammation but promote endogenous neural stem cells differentiation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Mei, Xifan; Cao, Yang; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Ziming; Guo, Zhanpeng; Bi, Yunlong; Shen, Zhaoliang; Yuan, Yajiang; Guo, Yue; Song, Cangwei; Bai, Liangjie; Wang, Yansong; Yu, Deshui

    2017-09-04

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling is involved in a series of cell functions after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our study aimed to elucidate the effects of RAGE signaling on the neuronal recovery after SCI. In vivo, rats were subjected to SCI with or without anti-RAGE antibodies micro-injected into the lesion epicenter. We detected Nestin/RAGE, SOX-2/RAGE and Nestin/MAP-2 after SCI by Western blot or immunofluorescence (IF). We found that neural stem cells (NSCs) co-expressed with RAGE were significantly activated after SCI, while stem cell markers Nestin and SOX-2 were reduced by RAGE blockade. We found that RAGE inhibition reduced nestin-positive NSCs expressing MAP-2, a mature neuron marker. RAGE blockade does not improve neurobehavior Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores; however, it damaged survival of ventral neurons via Nissl staining. Through in vitro study, we found that recombinant HMGB1 administration does not lead to increased cytokines of TNF-α and IL-1β, while anti-RAGE treatment reduced cytokines of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by LPS via ELISA. Meanwhile, HMGB1 increased MAP-2 expression, which was blocked after anti-RAGE treatment. Hence, HMGB1/RAGE does not exacerbate neuronal inflammation but plays a role in promoting NSCs differentiating into mature neurons in the pathological process of SCI.

  3. Is nitric oxide and heparin treatment justified in inflammatory bowel disease? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, M; Mionskowska, L; Dobrowolski, S; Dymecki, D; Makarewicz, W; Hrabowska, M; Wajda, Z

    1996-11-01

    Microcirculatory disturbances of the colon may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the alterations of rectal blood perfusion in experimental colitis with reference to nitric oxide and heparin treatment. The study was carried out on 36 rats, divided into six groups: group I, control; group II, control + NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA); group III, colitis without treatment; group IV, colitis + L-arginine; group V, colitis + L-NNA; group VI, colitis + heparin treatment. Experimental colitis was induced by 4% acetic acid enema, and 48 h after the enema, besides the measurement of rectal capillary blood flow by means of laser Doppler flowmetry, the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level and histopathological alterations within the rectal mucosa were examined. Experimental colitis resulted in a drop in rectal wall perfusion. L-Arginine and heparin treatment improved the microcirculatory values. The highest IL-6 level and the most advanced histopathological alterations were observed in the rats treated with L-NNA. L-Arginine treatment had no influence on IL-6 concentration, however it aggravated the inflammatory changes within the rectal mucosa. Heparin administration reduced the IL-6 values and also had a positive impact on the microscopic alterations within the rectal wall. It is concluded that heparin treatment has a beneficial effect on the microcirculatory disturbances and inflammatory changes observed in experimental colitis. The inhibition of nitric oxide-synthase aggravated the course of experimental colitis. L-Arginine administration improves the rectal blood flow but aggravates the histopathological alterations within the rectal wall.

  4. Influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujeong; Baek, Seunghee; Shin, Bomi; Yoon, Sun-young; Park, So Young; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Yoon Su; Bae, Yun-Jeong; Kwon, Hyouk Soo; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%), stress (31.5%) and fatigue (21.6%). Most patients (82.2%) used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment.

  5. Influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a common cutaneous disorder but the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features, and the influence of initial treatment modality on long-term control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 641 CIU patients were enrolled from the allergy clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. Disease duration, aggravating factors and treatment modality at each visit were evaluated. Times required to reach a controlled state were analyzed according to initial treatment modality, using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the Cox proportional-hazards model, and propensity scores. Female to male ratio was 1.7: 1; mean age at onset was 40.5 years. The most common aggravating factors were food (33.5%, stress (31.5% and fatigue (21.6%. Most patients (82.2% used H1-antihistamines alone as initial treatment while 17% used a combination treatment with oral corticosteroids. There was no significant difference in the time taken to reach a controlled state between patients treated with single vs multiple H1-antihistamines or between those who received H1-antihistamine monotherapy vs. a combination therapy with oral corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: The time required to control CIU is not reduced by use of multiple H1-antihistamines or oral corticosteroids in the initial treatment.

  6. Activation of the c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase pathway aggravates proteotoxicity of hepatic mutant Z alpha1‐antitrypsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Nunzia; Attanasio, Sergio; Granese, Barbara; Castello, Raffaele; Teckman, Jeffrey; Wilson, Andrew A.; Ballabio, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Alpha1‐antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disease that can affect both the lung and the liver. The vast majority of patients harbor a mutation in the serine protease inhibitor 1A (SERPINA1) gene leading to a single amino acid substitution that results in an unfolded protein that is prone to polymerization. Alpha1‐antitrypsin defciency‐related liver disease is therefore caused by a gain‐of‐function mechanism due to accumulation of the mutant Z alpha1‐antitrypsin (ATZ) and is a key example of an disease mechanism induced by protein toxicity. Intracellular retention of ATZ triggers a complex injury cascade including apoptosis and other mechanisms, although several aspects of the disease pathogenesis are still unclear. We show that ATZ induces activation of c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase (JNK) and c‐Jun and that genetic ablation of JNK1 or JNK2 decreased ATZ levels in vivo by reducing c‐Jun–mediated SERPINA1 gene expression. JNK activation was confirmed in livers of patients homozygous for the Z allele, with severe liver disease requiring hepatic transplantation. Treatment of patient‐derived induced pluripotent stem cell‐hepatic cells with a JNK inhibitor reduced accumulation of ATZ. Conclusion: These data reveal that JNK is a key pathway in the disease pathogenesis and add new therapeutic entry points for liver disease caused by ATZ. (Hepatology 2017;65:1865‐1874). PMID:28073160

  7. Update in treatment of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loup, Guillaume; Pialoux, Gilles; Lescure, François Xavier

    2011-10-01

    This review discusses the recent data about the pathogenesis of Chagas disease, tolerance of drugs, and follow-up of patients impacting the treatment of Chagas disease in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The role of the parasite to promote direct or indirect organ damage in the chronic phase of the disease as well as the usefulness of antiparasitic treatment to slow or prevent the deterioration of cardiac function and the aggravation of Chagasic cardiomyopathy lead to an extension of the indications of treatment. Tolerance is poor for the two drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox. The rates of adverse events and treatment discontinuation before 60 days are higher with nifurtimox. PCR, and in the near future immunologic tests, might allow assessment of the early success or failure of the antiparasitic treatment. Assessment of alternative drugs, such as posaconazole, and of new strategies of treatment (combination of two antiparasitic drugs, association of antiparasitic and immunomodulatory drugs, and re-treatment), and follow-up are a global health priority.

  8. Despair of Treatment: A Qualitative Study of Cirrhotic Patients' Perception of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanloei, Reza; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Dolatkhah, Roya

    Cirrhotic patients are exposed to illness progression and life-threatening side effects. The nature of the disease, its incurability, limitations of liver transplantation, and the intensity of threatening conditions lead to psychological distress for the patients and change in their perception of the treatment. To provide holistic care, it is necessary to clarify the patient's perception of the treatment. The aim of this study was to clarify cirrhotic patients' perception of their treatment. This qualitative study was carried out through a content analysis approach. The participants were 15 cirrhotic patients. Data were collected via semistructured, in-depth interviews and analyzed on the basis of the Granheme and Landman method. Despair of treatment was revealed through four categories: (1) disease perception (quiet start and quiet death, living in an aggravating limitation, intensifying threatening conditions), (2) self-perception (living in the shadow of death, loss of self, preferring family to oneself), (3) perception of treatment (difficulty of treatment compliance, believed to be incurable, treatment conditioned to die, treatment limitation), and (4) spirituality-religion (destiny and divine test, asking God instead of doctors). The study shows that despair of treatment is considered as one of the main concerns of cirrhotic patients. Nurses should program their surveillance to support patients effectively based on the study findings.

  9. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S Ghosh

    Full Text Available A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD, exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx or WD (Nx+WD. The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control and WD (WD. To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM, a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU, a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD, was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively. Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency.

  10. Homocysteine aggravates ROS-induced depression of transmitter release from motor nerve terminals: potential mechanism of peripheral impairment in motor neuron diseases associated with hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellya eBukharaeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine (HCY is a pro-inflammatory sulphur-containing redox active endogenous amino acid, which concentration increases in neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. A widely held view suggests that HCY could contribute to neurodegeneration via promotion of oxidative stress. However, the action of HCY on motor nerve terminals has not been investigated so far. We previously reported that oxidative stress inhibited synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction, targeting primarily the motor nerve terminals. In the current study, we investigated the effect of HCY on oxidative stress-induced impairment of transmitter release at the mouse diaphragm muscle. The mild oxidant H2O2 decreased the intensity of spontaneous quantum release from nerve terminals (measured as the frequency of miniature endplate potentials, MEPPs without changes in the amplitude of MEPPs, indicating a presynaptic effect. Pre-treatment with HCY for 2 h only slightly affected both amplitude and frequency of MEPPs but increased the inhibitory potency of H2O2 almost two fold. As HCY can activate certain subtypes of glutamate NMDA receptors we tested the role of NMDA receptors in the sensitizing action of HCY. Remarkably, the selective blocker of NMDA receptors, AP-5 completely removed the sensitizing effect of HCY on the H2O2-induced presynaptic depressant effect. Thus, at the mammalian neuromuscular junction HCY largely increases the inhibitory effect of oxidative stress on transmitter release, via NMDA receptors activation. This combined effect of HCY and local oxidative stress can specifically contribute to the damage of presynaptic terminals in neurodegenerative motoneuron diseases, including ALS.

  11. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin C.

    2003-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely common cause of consultation, and at present is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and a few simple exclusion tests. Exclusion diets can be successful, but many patients have already attempted and failed such treatments before consulting. Anxiety and somatization may be an important driver of consultation. Patients' concerns should be understood and addressed. Those with prominent psychiatric disease may benefit from psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy benefits symptoms in those without psychologic disturbance, but its availability is limited. Antidepressants are effective in improving both mood and IBS symptoms globally, and the evidence is particularly good for tricyclic antidepressants. Although antispasmodics are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs, most responses (75%) are due to the placebo effect and not specific to the drug. Bulk laxatives such as ispaghula can increase stool frequency and help pain, but bloating may be aggravated. Loperamide is effective treatment for urgency and loose stools, but less effective for bloating and pain. 5-HT(3) antagonists such as alosetron improve urgency, stool consistency, and pain in diarrhea-predominant-IBS. The 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod shows modest benefit in constipation-predominant IBS, improving stool frequency, consistency, and bloating as well as global improvement. There are many new drugs, such as cholecystokinin, neurokinin, and corticotropin receptor antagonists, in development.

  12. Vγ4+γδT Cells Aggravate Severe H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection-Induced Acute Pulmonary Immunopathological Injury via Secreting Interleukin-17A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxue Xue

    2017-08-01

    promising new target for the prevention and treatment of ALI induced by influenza A (H1N1 pdm09.

  13. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

  14. Clinical features and treatment status of hemifacial spasm in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hu, Xingyue; Dong, Hongjuan; Wang, Wenzhao; Huang, Yue; Jin, Lingjing; Luo, Yumin; Zhang, Weixi; Lian, Yajun; Liang, Zhanhua; Shang, Huifang; Feng, Yabo; Wu, Yiwen; Chen, Jun; Luo, Weifeng; Wan, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial nerve disorder characterized by episodic involuntary ipsilateral facial muscle contraction. Information on Chinese patients with HFS has not been well-characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical feature and the treatment status of HFS across China. A cross-sectional study including 1003 primary HFS patients had been carried out in 15 movement disorder clinics in China in 2012. The investigated information was acquired from questionnaires and medical records including demographic data, site of onset, aggravating and relieving factors, treatments prior to the investigation, etc. In this study, the ratio of male to female was 1.0:1.8, the mean age at onset was (46.6 ± 11.5) years. About 1.0% patients were bilaterally affected. The most often site of initial onset was the orbicularis oculi muscle. The most often affected sites were orbicularis oculi, zygomatic, and orbicularis oris muscles. Stress/anxiety and relaxation were most often aggravating and relieving factors, respectively; 2.3% patients had family history, 28.4% cases were combined with hypertension, and 1.4% patients were with trigeminal neuralgia. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection was the most commonly used treatment, followed by acupuncture and oral medication. BTX-A maintained the highest repeat treatment ratio (68.7%), while 98.4% patients gave up acupuncture. The mean latency of BTX-A effect was (5.0 ± 4.7) days, the mean total duration of the effect was (19.5 ± 11.7) weeks, and 95.9% patients developed improvements no worse than moderate in both severity and function. The most common side effect was droopy mouth. The onset age of HFS in China is earlier than that in western countries. The most often used two treatments are BTX-A injection and acupuncture, while the latter kept the poor repeat treatment ratio because of dissatisfactory therapeutic effect.

  15. A Surgical Treatment Of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sex, craniofacial skeletal abnormalities and adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Moreover, alcohol and sedatives are known to aggravate OSA3-5. Therapy for snoring and .... 165(6):456-458. 4. Sullivan CF, Issa FG, Berthone-Jones M,. Eves I. Reversal of obstructive sleep apnea by CPAP applied through the nares. Lancet 1981,1.

  16. Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a common clinical problem caused by cancers. Pleural effusion can be the first sign of cancer in more than 25% of patients. Lung cancer and breast cancer are the most common cancers that metastasize to the pleura in men and women, respectively. Other cancers, including, but not limited to, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and several unknown primary cancers can also lead to MPE. Dyspnea and chest pain are the most common symptoms of MPE along with other symptoms such as a cough, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and weakness. Aggravation of these symptoms is closely related to the rate of accumulation of pleural effusion. Treatment options to MPE are determined by the type and extent of the underlying malignancy. The major goals of the treatment are to relieve symptoms, restore functions, improve the quality of life, and minimize the duration of hospital stay and costs. Although some patients can be treated with systemic therapies, most of these treatments are temporary, and MPE would recur soon. Hence, further palliative treatments to effectively control pleural effusions and relieve symptoms are necessary. This review addresses the pathophysiology of MPE and the treatment options for patients with MPE.

  17. Exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes results in aggravation of airway inflammation and remodeling and in increased production of epithelium-derived innate cytokines in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzani, Carole; Casset, Anne; Pons, Françoise

    2014-02-01

    With the development of nanotechnologies, the potential adverse effects of nanomaterials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the respiratory tract of asthmatics are questioned. Furthermore, investigations are necessary to understand how these effects might arise. In the present study, we hypothesized that epithelium-derived innate cytokines that are considered as important promoting factors in allergy may contribute to an aggravating effect of MWCNT on asthma. We investigated in the mouse the effect of MWCNT on systemic immune response and airway inflammation and remodeling induced by the most frequent allergen so far associated with asthma, house dust mite (HDM), and we examined the production of the innate cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF. Mice exposed to HDM exhibited specific IgG1 in serum and inflammatory cell infiltration, and increased Th2 cytokine production, mucus hyperproduction, and collagen deposition in the airways when compared to naïve animals. Levels of total IgG1 and HDM-specific IgG1, influx of macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils, production of collagen, TGF-β1, and mucus, as well as levels of IL-13, eotaxin, and TARC, were dose-dependently increased in mice exposed to HDM and MWCNT compared to HDM alone. These effects were associated with an increased production of TSLP, IL-25, IL-33, and GM-CSF in the airways. Our data demonstrate that MWCNT increase in a dose-dependent manner systemic immune response, as well as airway allergic inflammation and remodeling induced by HDM in the mouse. Our data suggest also a role for airway epithelium and innate cytokines in these effects.

  18. Metabolic acidosis aggravates experimental acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Patrícia Andréa da Fonseca; de Brito, Teresinha Silva; Freire, Rosemayre Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Vale, Mariana Lima; de Menezes, Dalgimar Beserra; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Libório, Alexandre Braga

    2016-02-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and metabolic acidosis (MA) are two critical conditions that may simultaneously occur in clinical practice. The result of this combination can be harmful to the kidneys, but this issue has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study evaluated the influence of low systemic pH on various parameters of kidney function in rats that were subjected to an experimental model of renal I/R injury. Metabolic acidosis was induced in male Wistar rats by ingesting ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in tap water, beginning 2 days before ischemic insult and maintained during the entire study. Ischemia/reperfusion was induced by clamping both renal arteries for 45 min, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. Four groups were studied: control (subjected to sham surgery, n=8), I/R (n=8), metabolic acidosis (MA; 0.28 M NH4Cl solution and sham surgery, n=6), and MA+I/R (0.28 M NH4Cl solution plus I/R, n=9). Compared with I/R rats, MA+I/R rats exhibited higher mortality (50 vs. 11%, p=0.03), significant reductions of blood pH, plasma bicarbonate (pBic), and standard base excess (SBE), with a severe decline in the glomerular filtration rate and tubular function. Microscopic tubular injury signals were detected. Immunofluorescence revealed that the combination of MA and I/R markedly increased nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), but it did not interfere with the decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression that was caused by I/R injury. Acute ischemic kidney injury is exacerbated by acidic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concomitant use of an infrared fractional laser with low-dose isotretinoin for the treatment of acne and acne scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Hyun; Park, Eun Joo; Kwon, In Ho; Kim, Chul Woo; Lee, Geun Soo; Hann, Seung Kyung; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2014-04-01

    Acne scarring has lifelong sequelae. Fractional photothermolysis (FP) has been shown to provide fast recovery from acne within a short period, thereby aiding skin rejuvenation. Isotretinoin is a well-known, effective drug for the treatment of severe recalcitrant acne. This study investigated the safety and the efficacy of infrared fractional laser treatment in conjunction with low-dose isotretinoin for the treatment of acne and acne scars. A 1550 nm Erbium-doped fiber laser was used to treat 35 patients with acne scarring. All the patients had taken isotretinoin (10 mg/day) for more than one month prior to the commencement of the fractional laser treatment. There was no aggravation of acne scars, hypertrophic scars, or keloids. Most of the patients (33 patients) received reduced microthermal damage zone (MTZ) treatment. Eighty percent of the treated patients (28 patients) demonstrated more than a fair improvement. The total average score on the global acne scarring classification before treatment was 13.5, and the score after treatment was 11.2. Acne and acne scars can be treated more effectively by concomitant use of an infrared fractional laser with low-dose isotretinoin with reduced MTZ densities. Most patients showed more than a fair improvement, and there was no aggravation of the scars.

  20. [Place of the precocious surgical treatment in facial hemangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adouani, Ali; Bouguila, Jed; Abdelali, Mouhamed Ali; Ben Aicha, Mahdi; Landolsi, Amani; Hellali, Mouna; Zitouni, Karima; Mahri, Imen; Zairi, Issam

    2008-10-01

    Infantile cutaneous hemangioma is a benign vascular tumour present at 10% of the infants. It forms part of the group of the vascular tumours in the classification of international society for vascular anomalies (ISSVA). Usual surgical attitude is abstention and surgery is proposed only in order to treat sequelae. But some particular situations require early surgery to avoid functional impairment, deformation or growth delay due to the lesion's development. Using our observations, we recall the epidemiology, the physiopathology, the clinical aspects, the particularities of the facial localizations and their treatments. In these localizations the time intervenes like a fourth dimension that is going to modify, to improve or to aggravate the prognosis. Treatment requires a strategy and precocious surgery. We insist on the fact that the dogma of the therapeutic abstention remained true for a majority of children with small size hemangioma and that a precocious surgery must be proposed for some localizations in the face.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of atypical odontalgia: a review of the literature and two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Marcello; Secci, Simona

    2007-03-01

    This report presents two cases diagnosed with atypical odontalgia (AO) and successfully treated with amitriptyline as well as providing a review of the current literature on the subject. The literature indicates the most important issue is an accurate differential diagnosis to distinguish between AO, pulpal pain, myofascial pain, and trigeminal neuralgia. Once the correct diagnosis is made the prognosis of AO is usually fair and the administration of tricyclic antidepressants often resolves symptoms. An effort should be made to avoid any unnecessary dental treatment that would only aggravate the problem.

  2. Environmental Stress and Atopic Dermatitis: Cure with Steroid-Free Treatment and Mutual Trust in a Good Life Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H.

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin diseasewith severe itching. The exact causes for AD still remain to be elucidated. However, there are at least following 3 causes: 1) allergy, 2) bacterial infection, and 3) environmental stress. These 3 causes are mixed in AD, and consequently symptoms of AD are very complex. In addition, patients with AD are reluctant to take steroid ointment treatment. This is due to the fact that steroid is an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. Thus steroid ointment treatment only temporally improved AD by reduction of inflammation, while it failed to cure bacterial infection. Patients had to apply steroid ointment for long-term, which caused many side effects, including enhancement of IgE production, aggravation of skin infection, and rebound phenomenon. Rebound was aggravation of symptoms upon cessation of steroid ointment use. Enhancement of IgE production augmented allergic responses, while aggravation of skin infecti on worsened skin symptoms. Collectively, lone-term use of steroid ointment complicated AD instead of cure. Patients with AD suffered from these side effects, and they did not trust steroid treatment. Recently, tacrolimus ointment was widely used instead of steroid ointment. However, tacrolimus was more potent immunosuppressive drug, and US FDA warned cancer concern. Therefore, steroid- and tacrolimus-free treatment was considered safer and ideal. Patients with AD were susceptible to stress, which worsened symptoms. Recently, new environmental stress emerged, and patients with AD were suffering from them. In this article, I describe the effect of environmental stress on allergic responses, and explain the details of cases of AD with steroid-free treatment and mutual trust, which resulted in cure of AD.

  3. NKP30-B7-H6 Interaction Aggravates Hepatocyte Damage through Up-Regulation of Interleukin-32 Expression in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Bao, Junjie; Pan, Xingfei; Lu, Ying; Liao, Sihong; Wang, Xicheng; Wang, Guoying; Lin, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Previous work conducted by our group has shown that the accumulation of hepatic natural killer (NK) cells and the up-regulation of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKP30 and NKP46) on NK cells from patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) were correlated with disease progression in HBV-ACLF. The natural cytotoxicity receptors expressed on NK cells are believed to be probable candidates involved in the NK cell-mediated hepatocyte damage in HBV-ACLF. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to discover the role of NKP30-B7-H6 interaction in NK cells-mediated hepatocyte damage in HBV-ACLF. Hepatic expressions of B7-H6 and interleukin-32 (IL-32) were examined by immunochemistry staining in samples from patients with HBV-ACLF or mild chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The cytotoxicity of NK-92 cell against target cells (Huh-7 and LO2) was evaluated by CCK8 assay. Expression of IL-32 in liver NK cell, T cells and NK-92 cell line was detected by the flow cytometric analysis. The effect of IL-32 on the apoptosis of Huh7 cells was evaluated using Annexin V/PI staining analysis. An enhancement of hepatic B7-H6 and IL-32 expression was associated with the severity of liver injury in HBV-ACLF. And there was a positive association between hepatic B7-H6 and IL-32 expression. Expressions of IL-32 in liver NK cells and T cells were increased in HBV-ACLF patients. In vitro NK-92 cells are highly capable of killing the high B7-H6 expressing Huh7 cells and B7-H6-tansfected hepatocyte line LO2 cells dependent on NKP30 and B7-H6 interaction. Furthermore, NK-92 cells exhibited elevated IL-32 expression when stimulated with anti-NKP30 antibodies or when co-cultured with Huh7 cells. IL-32 can induce the apoptosis of Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that NKP30-B7-H6 interaction can aggravate hepatocyte damage, probably through up-regulation of IL-32 expression in HBV-ACLF.

  4. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  5. Trauma and women: course, predictors, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, E B

    1997-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from aggravated assault, rape, or noncrime trauma affects over 4 million women in the United States, according to retrospective studies. Prospective studies reviewed here found that 3 months post assault the prevalence of PTSD was 48% in rape victims and 25% in nonsexual crime victims. Prolonged exposure treatment and stress inoculation training are both effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD. Prolonged exposure involves having the patient relive the traumatic memory and recount the event in detail. This description is audiotaped and the patient is asked to listen to it as part of assigned homework. In vivo exposure to feared objects or situations is also assigned as homework. Stress inoculation training consists of teaching patients a variety of techniques for managing anxiety, including controlled breathing, deep muscle relaxation, thought-stopping, cognitive restructuring, preparation for stressors, covert modeling, and role-play. Both treatments have been proven to be effective alone and in combination in ameliorating chronic PTSD in women after traumatic sexual or nonsexual assault. This efficacy was maintained for 3 months of follow-up.

  6. Gingival recession and adult orthodontics: a clinical evidence-based treatment proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersot, Jean-Marc

    2012-03-01

    The presence of a gingival recession prior to orthodontic treatment is a real problem. Patients are concerned about losing their teeth but may also complain of their unpleasant appearance or root sensitivity in the exposed area. The orthodontist is not sure whether orthodontic treatment can be performed or whether the tooth movement will not aggravate the recession and whether periodontal surgery needs to be done before or after orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper is to present recent data from the literature and several clinical situations in adults in order to submit a treatment sequence and clarify the role of different periodontal plastic surgery root coverage procedures. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. MIGRAIN AND TENSION TYPE HEADACHE IN CHILDREN: THE APPROACH TO EFFECTIVE TREATMENT. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is one of the most common complaints of children and adolescents. The most often causes of cephalgia in children are primary headaches (mainly migraine and tension-type headache. Recently there has been a significant increase in prevalence of primary headaches, which can be due to the changes of children’s way of life. The lack of the strict recommendations on symptomatic and preventive treatment of primary headaches in children in Russia often leads to erroneous indications. Inappropriate treatment can result in migraine and tension-type headache course aggravation with the formation of chronic daily headache, development of medicine-induced headache and other undesirable side-effects. The literature review covers the questions of therapy of the main forms of primary headaches in children: migraines and tension-type headaches. In the first part of the article the issues of diagnostics, algorithm of treatment and non-medicinal methods of treatment of headaches are discussed.

  8. Preventive Treatment with Methylprednisolone Paradoxically Exacerbates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Wüst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs represent the standard treatment for acute disease bouts in multiple sclerosis (MS patients, for which methylprednisolone (MP pulse therapy is the most frequently used protocol. Here, we compared the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive MP application in MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. When administered briefly after the onset of the disease, MP efficiently ameliorated EAE in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, MP administration around the time of immunization was contraindicated as it even increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS and worsened the disease symptoms. Our analyses suggest that in the latter case an incomplete depletion of peripheral T cells by MP triggers homeostatic proliferation, which presumably results in an enhanced priming of autoreactive T cells and causes an aggravated disease course. Thus, the timing and selection of a particular GC derivative require careful consideration in MS therapy.

  9. [Child and adolescent obesity, psychosocial consequences and treatment strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Hilbert, A

    2013-04-01

    Being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence is associated with various somatic and psychosocial sequelae. Psychosocial problems can negatively influence the future weight trajectory. Therefore, weight reduction or stabilization should be complemented by the treatment of significant psychosocial problems. This review provides an overview of the psychosocial problems associated with being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence. Evidence on weight-related stigmatization and discrimination, eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impaired quality of life, lowered self-esteem, social skill deficits, as well as academic problems is summarized. Furthermore, state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the psychosocial problems are summarized. Future research should focus on the development of interventions targeting the destigmatization of obesity, as experiences of stigmatization and discrimination likely aggravate the psychosocial sequelae of overweight and obesity.

  10. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  11. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  12. Chronic beta2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn; Wilson, Richard; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-10-05

    Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized 21 trained men to four weeks of high intensity training with (HIT + β2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg d(-1) ). Of 486 proteins identified by mass-spectrometry proteomics of muscle biopsies sampled before and after the intervention, 32 and 85 were changing (FDR ≤ 5%) with the intervention in HIT and HIT + β2 A. Proteome signature changes were different in HIT and HIT + β2 A (P = 0.005), wherein β2 -agonist caused a repression of 25 proteins in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT, and an upregulation of 7 proteins compared to HIT. β2 -agonist repressed or even downregulated training-induced enrichment of pathways related to oxidative phosphorylation and glycogen metabolism, but upregulated pathways related to histone trimethylation and the nucleosome. Muscle contractile phenotype changed differently in HIT and HIT + β2 A (P ≤ 0.001), with a fast-to-slow twitch transition in HIT and a slow-to-fast twitch transition in HIT + β2 A. β2 -agonist attenuated training-induced enhancements in maximal oxygen consumption (P ≤ 0.01) and exercise performance (11.6 vs. 6.1%, P ≤ 0.05) in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT. These findings indicate that daily β2 -agonist treatment attenuates the beneficial effects of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, and causes remodelling of muscle proteome signature towards a fast-twitch phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  13. Effects of β-Adrenoceptor Subtypes on Cardiac Function in Myocardial Infarction Rats Exposed to Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure (HF stems were mainly from longstanding overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies highlighted the potential benefits of β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AR blocker combined with β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR agonist in patients with HF. Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution, such as particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5, has been found associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI which is the most common cause of congestive HF. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combined metoprolol and terbutaline on cardiac function in a rat model of AMI exposed to PM2.5. Our results demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 contributes to aggravate cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. The combined use of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist is superior to β1-AR blocker alone for the treatment of AMI rats exposed to PM2.5. The combination of β1-AR blocker and β2-AR agonist may decrease the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction who have been exposed to PM2.5.

  14. Actigraphy for measurements of sleep in relation to oncological treatment of patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Gögenur, Ismail; Tvilling Madsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    sleep disturbances in the patient population. 19 studies were included in the final review of which 13 had a descriptive study design and six included some kind of intervention. The studies were primarily performed in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We found that sleep disturbances...... are prevalent, and persistent in patients with cancer. The sleep disturbances seem to be aggravated by chemotherapy treatment and accumulate as the treatment continues. Sleep disturbances need further attention among clinicians working with patients with cancer.......Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and disabling problem for patients with cancer. Sleep disturbances are present throughout the cancer trajectory, especially during oncological treatment. Previously sleep disturbances have primarily been quantified with subjective rating scales. Actigraphy...

  15. A Comprehensive Review of the Treatment of Atopic Eczema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder which usually develops in early childhood. In spite of intensive investigations, the causes of AE remain unclear, but are likely to be multifactorial in nature. Environmental factors or genetic-environmental interactions seem to play a key role in disease progression. Among various measures of AE managment, cutaneous hydration, which improves barrier function and relieve itchiness, may be helpful to reduce the need for topical steroid use and therefore should be used as a basic treatment. Avoiding aggravating factors is also a basic treatment of AE. Standard medical treatment with a pharmacologic approach may be necessary if basic treatment fails to control symptoms satisfactorily. Recently, more attention is given to a proactive therapeutic by regular intermittent application of low potency steroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors to prevent new flares. Furthermore, various targeted biologics are being introduced for AE control and are proposed as promising therapies. This paper provides a summary of the recent literature on the manangement of AE and a treatment guideline. PMID:26922927

  16. Successful treatment with Ipilimumab and Interleukin‑2 in two patients with metastatic melanoma and systemic autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Magnus; Andersen, Rikke; Larsen, Peter Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Two patients were treated with immunotherapy for metastatic malignant melanoma (MM) despite suffering from systemic autoimmune disease, i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Behcets disease (BD), respectively. Both patients benefitted from the treatment. The patient with UC achieved partial remission...... of all measurable parameters after treatment with Ipilimumab, while the patient with BD achieved a complete remission of MM after treatment with Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Interferon-α (IFN-α). Moreover, no aggravation of symptoms related to the autoimmune diseases was seen during treatment, in contrast......, clinical indications of improvement were observed. These two cases illustrate that the presence of autoimmune disease does not necessarily predict increased autoimmune toxicity in connection with immunotherapy. They also raise the question of whether autoimmune disease should continue to be an absolute...

  17. Taxonomy of the burden of treatment: a multi-country web-based qualitative study of patients with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Barnes, Caroline; Montori, Victor M; Falissard, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-05-14

    Management strategies for patients with chronic conditions are becoming increasingly complex, which may result in a burden of treatment for patients. To develop a Minimally Disruptive Medicine designed to reduce the burden of treatment, clinicians need to understand which healthcare tasks and aggravating factors may be responsible for this burden. The objective of the present study was to describe and classify the components of the burden of treatment for patients with chronic conditions from the patient's perspective. We performed a multi-country qualitative study using an online survey and a purposive sampling strategy to select English-, French-, and Spanish-speaking participants with different chronic conditions. Participants were recruited by physicians, patients' associations, advertisement on social media, and 'snowballing'. The answers were analyzed by i) manual content analysis with a grounded theory approach, coded by two researchers, and ii) automatic textual analysis by Reinert's method. Between 2013 and 2014, 1,053 participants from 34 different countries completed the online survey using 408,625 words. Results from both analyses were synthesized in a taxonomy of the burden of treatment, which described i) the tasks imposed on patients by their diseases and by their healthcare system (e.g., medication management, lifestyle changes, follow-up, etc.); ii) the structural (e.g., access to healthcare resources, coordination between care providers), personal, situational, and financial factors that aggravated the burden of treatment; and iii) patient-reported consequences of the burden (e.g., poor adherence to treatments, financial burden, impact on professional, family, and social life, etc.). Our findings may not be applicable to patients with chronic conditions who differ from those who responded to our survey. Our taxonomy of the burden of treatment, provided by patients with chronic conditions from different countries and settings, supports the

  18. Treatment of irregular word spelling in acquired dysgraphia: selective benefit from visual mnemonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, Laura; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2006-02-01

    In contrast to the numerous treatment studies of spoken language deficits, there have been relatively few studies concerned with the treatment of spelling disorders. Among these, there have been only a small number that have targeted specific components of the spelling process. We describe a successful single case treatment study for FME, a woman with acquired dysgraphia, which was conducted within a cognitive neuropsychological framework. Pre-treatment assessment revealed a semantic deficit, impaired access to output orthography and probable additional degradation of the actual representations within the orthographic output lexicon. The treatment study was therefore directed towards relearning spellings by strengthening, and facilitating access to, specific orthographic representations for writing. In order to maximise the functional outcome for FME, treatment was focused on high frequency, irregular words. The treatment programme was carried out in two phases, one without and one with the use of mnemonics, and the results showed a selective training effect with the mnemonics alone. Treatment benefits were item specific but long lasting, and a significant improvement in FME's spelling performance was still evident at 2 months post-treatment. The current study confirms how cognitive neuropsychological theories and methods can be successfully applied to the assessment of acquired spelling impairments, and exemplifies how treatment with carefully designed mnemonics is of benefit if the inability to retrieve orthographic representations for writing is aggravated by a semantic deficit.

  19. Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome Associated With Treatment-Resistant Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. C. Ong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness that autoimmune diseases can present with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We present the case of a 17-year-old female requiring psychiatric hospitalization for obsessive–compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder with mixed affective features, who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Treatment with potent immunosuppression resulted in remission of psychiatric illness. Due to a lack of awareness and/or the lack of specific biomarkers, clinicians may not associate psychiatric symptoms with autoimmune disease, including primary Sjogren’s syndrome. This case demonstrates that Sjogren’s syndrome may be a causative or aggravating factor in mental disorders and that autoimmune diseases should be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness especially in cases of concurrent physical symptomatology and severity or treatment resistance of psychiatric disease.

  20. Severe Periodontal Disease Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jôice Dias Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is used in the treatment of neuropathy. This case report presents, for the first time, a patient with severe periodontal destruction after chronic therapy with IVIG. The patient reported having extracted his maxillary anterior teeth himself due to high mobility. Clinical examination and radiographic images show a generalized and severe periodontitis. No significant alterations in genetic or microbiological features were observed. The present case suggests that periodontal disease aggravation could be considered a new adverse effect of IVIG therapy. Postulated mechanisms are immune complexes formation, complement activation, and a direct effect in osteoclasts. In conclusion, it is important that patients that will receive IVIG treatment underwent dental evaluation.

  1. Stroke Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Stroke Treatment Stroke used to rank fourth in leading causes of ... type of treatment depends on the type of stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a clot blocks a ...

  2. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens Oscar; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...... of acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP...... in an increase in EDVI, and increased levels of BNP and NT-proBNP suggesting an initial decrease in cardiac function....

  3. TREATMENT AND VACCINE PREVENTION OF ROTAVIRAL INFECTION AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the level of healthcare system development rotaviral infection is a serious medical, social and economic problem at all times. Any infant has to undergo rotaviral gastroenteritis. The run of the disease among infants is mostly often aggravated by dehydration and needs intense treatment of exicosis. The standard of treatment is an oral rehydration, which is in most cases contributes to a quicker improvement of the children’s status. In the meantime, according to the metaphor put forward by the who experts «the best solution» to prevent acute rotaviral diarrhea today may become a rotaviral vaccine. Nowadays, in different countries of the world, two vaccines, which showed high efficiency and safety in clinical research, have been registered. Application of these vaccines may contribute to the significant reduction of the acute forms of rotaviral infection among infants, hospitalizations and mortality caused by rotaviral gastroenteritis. This article highlights the principles of treatment and possibility for vaccine prevention of rotaviral infection among children.Key words: rotaviral infection, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, children, rehydration, vaccine prevention, rotaviral vaccine.

  4. How Ocular Surface Disease Impacts the Glaucoma Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment goals for glaucoma are lowering the intraocular pressure and preservation of vision. Topical hypotensive drops are the standard form of therapy which is often associated with some symptoms of toxicity, ocular inflammation, allergy, or ocular surface disease (OSD. OSD is a common comorbidity in glaucoma patients, and its prevalence with glaucoma increases with age. Use of topical treatment could additionally increase symptoms of OSD mostly due to preservatives added to multidose medication bottles used to reduce the risk of microbial contamination. This toxicity has been particularly associated with BAK, the most commonly used preservative which damages conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells and significantly aggravates OSD symptoms. OSD adversely affects patients’ quality of life causing discomfort and problems with vision which in turn may result in noncompliance, lack of adherence, and eventually visual impairment. In the management of glaucoma patients OSD symptoms should not be overlooked. If they are present, topical glaucoma treatment should be adapted by decreasing the amount of drops instilled daily, using BAK-free or preservative-free medication and lubricants if necessary. Awareness of the presence and importance of OSD will in turn improve patients' adherence and compliance and thus ultimately the preservation of long-term vision.

  5. Interaction between cigarettes and propranolol in treatment of angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K; Jonathan, A; Williams, H; Selwyn, A

    1980-07-19

    To determine whether cigarette smoking interferes with the medical management of angina pectoris, 10 patients with angina pectoris who smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day were studied before, during, and after a standardised maximal exercise test. This was done at the end of four randomly allocated one-week treatment periods during which the patients took glyceryl trinitrate while not smoking, took glyceryl trinitrate while smoking, took glycerly trinitrate and propranolol (380 mg/day) while not smoking, and took glyceryl trinitrate and propranolol while smoking. Carboxyhaemoglobin was measured to ensure compliance. Smoking was associated with a significantly higher heart rate, blood pressure, number of positions with ST-segment depression, and total ST-segment depression after exercise than non-smoking (p < 0.01) whether or not the patients were taking propranolol. These results suggest that smoking aggravates the simple haemodynamic variables used to assess myocardial oxygen requirements and the exercise-induced precordial electrocardiographic signs of myocardial ischaemia. These effects were still evident after treatment with propranolol and represent a hindrance to the effective medical treatment of angina pectoris.

  6. Evidence - based pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis: An expert opinion and new expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P Oranje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most common skin diseases with a complex multifactorial background. The clinical presentation, the aggravating factors and the complications vary according to the age of the patients. Most cases, approximately 60-80%, present for the 1 st time before the age of 12 months. Adult-onset AD has been observed as a special variant. Pruritus is the worst sign of AD, which also often indicates an exacerbation and is considered to be the most annoying symptom of AD. Treatment is preferably started based on the severity of AD. In only 10% of the cases, AD is so severe that systemic treatment is necessary. Systemic treatment including topical wet-wrap treatment is indicated in the worst and recalcitrant cases of AD. Systemic treatment of AD is discussed with regards to the evidence-based efficacy and safety aspects. I prefer wet-wraps as a crisis intervention in severe childhood cases, whereas UV and systemic treatments are the choices in patients older than 10 years. Probiotics are not useful in the treatment. If they have any effect at all it may only be in food-allergic children with AD. Finally, anti-histamines are not effective against pruritus in AD. They are only effective against urticarial flares and in cases with food-allergy. This article consists of an expert opinion on evidence-based pharmacological treatment of AD, but it is not a systemic review.

  7. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  8. Osteoporosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative study in 2002 marginalized the use of hormone replacement therapy and established bisphosphonates as the first line of treatment for osteoporosis. Denosumab could be used in selected patients. Although bisphosphonates only maintain the structure of bone......; although an antiresorptive, it maintains bone formation, in contrast with bisphosphonates, and can be probably used for long-term treatment. Rare adverse effects of bisphosphonates, namely osteonecrosis of the jaws and atypical femoral fractures, have been disproportionally emphasized relative...... to their benefits/harm ratio. Treatment of osteoporosis is a long process, and many patients will require treatment with more than one type of drug over their lifetime....

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kobayashi, MD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of syncope is essential because it ranges from cardiac syncope with a very poor prognosis to neurally-mediated syncope (NMS with a relatively favorable prognosis. Diagnosis of syncope, however, is difficult in many patients even by HUT, so a new loading method for HUT or implanted Holter ECG monitoring will be required in the future. The prognosis of NMS itself may be favorable, but it may cause the aggravation of complications.

  10. Treatment Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up for our weekly e-news and stay up-to-date on the latest advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care ... Sign up for our weekly e-newsletter Stay up-to-date on the latest advances in Alzheimer's treatments, care ...

  11. 10 years of successful treatment with dextrothyroxine in a girl with TSH-induced hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynska, H; Wojcik-Musialek, K; Illig, R

    1991-01-01

    14 years ago, a 5.7-year-old healthy girl was treated with desiccated thyroid for a goiter and elevated TSH levels. The goiter disappeared and TSH levels were normalized. However, hyperthyroidism appeared. Without therapy, the goiter reappeared and hyperthyroidism aggravated. Based on hormone values, TSH-induced hyperthyroidism was diagnosed. After exclusion of neoplastic TSH secretion, treatment with dextrothyroxine (DT4) was initiated at age of 10 years and continued during the last 10 years (except for short periods). The girl became euthyroid, has no goiter and normal TSH values. Since thyrotrophs and peripheral tissues are probably normally sensitive to T4, we postulate that her hypothalamopituitary-thyroid control is operating on a higher set point level for T4.

  12. [Treatment motivation in patients with chronic cardiorenal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, E V; Shutov, A M; Borodulina, E O

    2015-01-01

    To study treatment motivation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and in those with CHF concurrent with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 203 patients (130 men and 73 women; mean age, 61.8±9.6 years) with CHF diagnosed and assessed in accordance with the National Guidelines of the All-Russian Research Society of Cardiology and the Heart Failure Society for the diagnosis and treatment of CHF (third edition, 2009) were examined. CKD was diagnosed according to the 2012 National Guidelines of the Research Nephrology Society of Russia. A group of patients with chronic cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) included those with CHF and CKD with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of motivation for non-drug and drug treatments were assessed in patients with chronic CRS. CFR was 67.7±17.2 ml/min/1.73 m2; chronic CRS was observed in 89 (44%) patients. Psychological functioning assessment showed that the patients with chronic CRS as compared with those with CHF without CKD had high anxiety and maladaptive disease attitudes. CHF treatment motivation (compliance with lifestyle modification and medication) was proved inadequate and detected only in 31 (15.3%) patients with CHF regardless of the presence of CKD. The specific features of psychological functioning, which affected treatment motivation, were seen in patients with chronic CRS: those who were lowly motivated had a euphoric attitude towards their disease (p=0.03); those who were satisfactorily motivated showed an emotive accentuation of character (p=0.002). The presence of CKD aggravates the clinical course of CHF and negatively affects the psychological functioning of patients with CHF. The patients with chronic CRS are characterized by a low level of motivation for both drug and non-drug treatments, which should be taken into account when managing this cohort of patients.

  13. Experimental treatments for mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection. Sepsis, which can lead to severe sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, is an important cause of mortality. Pathogenesis is extremely complex. In recent years, cell hypoxia caused by mitochondrial dysfunction has become a hot research field. Sepsis damages the structure and function of mitochondria, conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction aggravated sepsis. The treatment of sepsis lacks effective specific drugs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a narrative review of the current experimental treatment for mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis. The search was conducted in PubMed databases and Web of Science databases from 1950 to January 2014. A total of 1,090 references were retrieved by the search, of which 121 researches met all the inclusion criteria were included. Articles on the relationship between sepsis and mitochondria, and drugs used for mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis were reviewed retrospectively. The drugs were divided into four categories: (1 Drug related to mitochondrial matrix and respiratory chain, (2 drugs of mitochondrial antioxidant and free radical scavengers, (3 drugs related to mitochondrial membrane stability, (4 hormone therapy for septic mitochondria. In animal experiments, many drugs show good results. However, clinical research lacks. In future studies, the urgent need is to develop promising drugs in clinical trials.

  14. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  15. Alzheimer's Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. Because it is a complex disease, scientists believe ...

  16. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  17. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    understand the problem of non-compliance with TB treatment. .... solving the stressful changes of the disease and are able to comply with ... Probability plotting, gave no evidence of vast skewness. Inferential statistics, Pearson's correlation.

  18. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feel so awful. Likewise, the most effective tinnitus treatment tools address the aspects of tinnitus that so often make the condition feel burdensome: anxiety, stress, social isolation, sound sensitivity, hearing difficulties, and perceived volume. ...

  19. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Montgomery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42–45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  1. New antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco CHIARELLI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lennox–Gastaut syndrome is a childhood epileptic encephalopathy characterised by polymorphic seizures and neuropsychological decline. The most characteristic seizures are tonic fits, atypical absences and atonic seizures, in that order. Treatment options for patients with LGS are limited because of the resistance of seizures to pharmacological treatment. Owing to the many seizure types, many drugs are used in combinations that are mostly guided by anecdotal evidence or personal experience. Opinions towards treatment are further complicated because an antiepileptic drug might be of some benefit for the control of one type of seizure while aggravating another type. Concomitantly, polytherapy increases the potential for adverse events. The ultimate goal of epilepsy treatment is to achieve seizure control in a safe manner. Seizure freedom appears to be unrealistic in some refractory epilepsies, especially LGS. In this Review, we discuss newer antiepileptic drugs (Felbamate, Lamotrigine, Levetiracetam, Topiramate, Rufinamide, Vigabatrin, Zonisamide in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Investigation of the effects of newer medications might help to identify treatments that, when used in the early stages of the disorder, might have long-term beneficial effects on seizures and the associated comorbidities.

  2. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Louise; Seys, Jan; Mees, Jan

    2016-07-08

    There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42-45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  3. Intense pulsed light vs. pulsed-dye laser in the treatment of facial acne: a randomized split-face trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y S; Suh, H S; Yoon, M Y; Min, S U; Lee, D H; Suh, D H

    2010-07-01

    Various laser and light therapy have been increasingly used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Twenty patients with facial acne were treated using intense pulsed light (IPL) on one side of the face and pulsed dye laser (PDL) on the other to compare the efficacy and safety of IPL and PDL. Treatment was performed 4 times at 2-week intervals. Treatment effectiveness was determined using lesion counts, acne severity, patient subjective self-assessments of improvement, and histopathological examinations, which included immunohistochemical staining for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Numbers of total acne lesions decreased following both treatments. For inflammatory lesions such as papules, pustules and nodules, IPL-treated sides showed an earlier and more profound improvement than PDL-treated sides. However, at 8 weeks after the 4th treatment, a rebound aggravation of acne was observed on IPL-treated sides. On the contrary, PDL produced gradual improvements during the treatment sessions and these improvements lasted 8 weeks after the 4th treatment. Non-inflammatory lesions as open and closed comedones also showed improvement following both treatments and PDL-treated sides showed better improvement as the study proceeded. Histopathological examinations showed amelioration in inflammatory reactions and an increase in TGF-beta expression after both treatments, which were more prominent for PDL-treated sides. Both PDL and IPL were found to treat acne effectively, but PDL showed a more sustained effect. TGF-beta might play a key role in the resolution of inflammatory acne lesions.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Koji; Izawa, Masahiro; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan). Neurological Inst.

    1996-02-01

    The treatment outcome of the metastatic brain tumor in Tokyo Women`s Medical College was reported, and it was described on present state and problem of radiosurgery (RS). One hundred five lesions of 50 patients (male 36, female 12, age 27-85 years) undertaken RS by gamma knife were studied. The primary lesions were the lungs in 23 patients, digestive tract in 12, mammary gland in 4, kidney in 3, thyroid gland in 13, prostate gland in 2 and the other in 3. Thirty nine patients had primary tumor, and 11 patients had recurrent tumor. The volume of 105 lesions was 0.03-56 ml (mean 6.4 ml), and the treatment was carried out for these tumors at average maximum dose 47Gy, average limbic dosage 23Gy. In the image findings, elimination of 46 lesions (44%), reduction of 39 lesions (37%), unchangeable 7 lesions (7%), increase of 13 lesions (13%) were recognized, and tumor reduction rate 81%, local control rate 88% were obtained. The local control rate was around 90% of the tumor, which seize was 15 ml or less. After the treatment, radionecrosis were suspected in 2 lesions of 1 patient. Appearance or aggravation of the edema by the radiation were observed 1-2 month after the treatment in 6 lesions of 5 patients. By the treatment, the following were improved: the hemiplegia in 9 patients, the aphasia in 2, the vertigo in 3. On prognosis, 21 of 46 patients except for the uncertain 4 were alive and 25 died. Through RS is the therapy which is very effective for the metastatic brain tumor, it also exists on some problems to be reached. (A.N.).

  5. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil Características agravantes por infestación residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, en una región del Noreste de Brasil Características agravantes por infestação residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, em Olinda, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.OBJETIVO: Analizar como las condiciones de saneamiento básico, abastecimiento de agua y habitaciones afectan la densidad de Culex quinquefasciatus MÉTODOS: se monitoreó la población de C. quinquefasciatus en 61 residencias del municipio de Olinda, PE, Brasil, de octubre de 2009 a octubre de

  6. Treatment Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie; Krystal, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Developing pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol dependence and associated health problems traditionally has been based on gaining a better understanding of the neuroscience underlying alcohol-drinking behavior. To date, three medications have been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (Revia®, Vivitrol®, and Naltrel®), and acamprosate (Campral®). However, these medications have modest efficacy, and there is a great need for newer medications that target different neurochemical systems and which could be used either as adjunctive treatments or to treat subpopulations of drinkers. Furthermore, it also is important to improve current treatment options by understanding and incorporating differences in how people with certain genes respond to medication (i.e., pharmacogenetic differences). PMID:23584013

  7. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  8. WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  9. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and...

  10. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. More than 1.5 million TB cases occur in sub-. Saharan Africa every year. Lack of compliance to. TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in Zambia. The prevalence of TB was 511 per 100,000 population in 2000. Much of the increase in incidence has been attributed to co- infection with ...

  11. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and arsenic can have acute and chronic toxic effects on species. other substances such as some pharmaceutical and personal care products, primarily entering the environment in wastewater effluents, may also pose threats to human health, aquatic life and wildlife. Wastewater treatment The major ...

  12. Chronic urticaria in children: Etiologies, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria is defined as a skin disease with central induration (wheal and erythema formation around it (flare that appears at least twice a week and remains at least for 6 weeks continually. The incidence of urticaria in children is about 0.1-3%. Most cases of chronic urticaria occur in children between 6-11 years. Autoimmune and allergy immaturity is one of the reasons of lower incidence of chronic urticaria in younger children. Quality of life impairment in children with urticaria has been known to be similar to diseases with severe atopic dermatitis, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus and asthma. There are several causes for chronic urticaria in children in different reports. In most of cases the known etiologic agents are varies from 21 to 83%. Overall, infectious causes of chronic urticaria in children are more common and obvious than other in adults .In most cases, the cause of chronic urticaria are idiopathic or autoimmune. Urticaria severity divided to mild, moderate and severe was based on the number of wheals and severity of pruritus. Diagnosis of chronic urticaria is based on a good history and physical examination. The treatment of chronic urticaria is a patient education that is to remove the triggering and aggravating agents, resolving and treating of the known disease and the use of various medicines based on the history and clinical findings. The first medical therapeutics lines in children are anti-histamines, beta-blocker H1 and new generation of non-sedating agents.

  13. Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie; Krystal, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Developing pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol dependence and associated health problems traditionally has been based on gaining a better understanding of the neuroscience underlying alcohol-drinking behavior. To date, three medications have been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (Revia®, Vivitrol®, and Naltrel®), and acamprosate (Campral®). However, these medications have modest efficacy, and there is a great need for newer medications that t...

  14. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  15. The use of lisuride in the treatment of multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure (Shy-Drager syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A J; Bannister, R

    1981-04-01

    In a controlled trial lisuride, an ergolene derivative with dopamine receptor agonist properties was given maximum tolerated doses (2.4 mg/day) to seven patients with multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure (Shy-Drager syndrome). Improvement in Parkinsonian features occurred in only one patient and another patient who had been deriving marked benefit from levodopa treatment before the study began failed to respond to large doses of lisuride. Psychiatric side effects (including nightmares, isolated visual hallucinations and toxic confusional states) were the dose-limiting factor in six patients. A modest reduction in orthostatic hypotension occurred in two patients, one of whom had experienced an aggravation of this disturbance on levodopa and bromocriptine. Destruction of post-synaptic dopamine receptors and damage to central noradrenergic systems may offer an explanation for the lack of therapeutic effect of lisuride.

  16. [Impact of sleep deprivation on coronary heart disease and progress in prevention and treatment with traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rong; Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li

    2015-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been taken as an independent predictor for cardiovascular risks, which was closely related to the increased morbidity and mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). In this article, after reviewing the impact of modern medical method sleep deprivation on CHD and studies on principle method recipe medicines for preventing and treating CHD, the authors observed the autonomic nerve dysfunction, hormonal metabolism dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory responses after sleep deprivation, which can cause or aggravate CHD. On the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine theories of "heart dominating the blood and vessels and the mind", the authors considered that traditional Chinese medicines can tonify heart and soothe the nerves, reducing all of the risk factors through multi-target and multi-pathway, and improve sleep and decrease the risk factors caused by sleep deprivation, which provides a new idea for the prevention and treatment of CHD.

  17. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  19. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  20. Longitudinal relationships between antiretroviral treatment adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race, and sexual orientation among African-American men with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J

    2010-10-01

    African-Americans show worse HIV disease outcomes compared to Whites. Health disparities may be aggravated by discrimination, which is associated with worse health and maladaptive health behaviors. We examined longitudinal effects of discrimination on antiretroviral treatment adherence among 152 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men. We measured adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Hierarchical repeated-measures models tested longitudinal effects of each discrimination type on adherence. Over 6 months, participants took 60% of prescribed medications on average; substantial percentages experienced discrimination (HIV-serostatus, 38%; race/ethnicity, 40%; and sexual orientation, 33%). Greater discrimination due to all three characteristics was significantly bivariately associated with lower adherence (all p's discrimination was significant (p < 0.05). Efforts to improve HIV treatment adherence should consider the context of multiple stigmas, especially racism.

  1. Coagulation aggravates blood-induced joint damage in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meegeren, Monique E R; Roosendaal, Goris; Barten-van Rijbroek, Angelique D; Schutgens, Roger E G; Lafeber, Floris P J G; Mastbergen, Simon C

    2012-10-01

    Joint bleeding due to trauma, major joint surgery, or hemophilia leads to joint damage. It is unclear if there are differences between coagulating blood and anticoagulated blood with respect to joint degeneration, especially in vivo. Therefore, we undertook this study to evaluate in a canine in vivo model whether intraarticular exposure to coagulating blood is more destructive than exposure to anticoagulated blood, and whether inflammation plays a role in the cartilage- damaging process. In 7 dogs the left knees were injected with coagulating blood 4 times a week during weeks 1 and 4, and the right knees were injected with saline. In 7 other dogs, anticoagulated heparinized blood was injected, and heparinized saline was used as control. Ten weeks after the last injection, cartilage matrix turnover and synovial inflammation were analyzed. To study inflammation-independent cartilage damage, explants of cartilage from at least 6 human donors per group were exposed in vitro to coagulating and anticoagulated blood, plasma, and serum for 4 days. Cartilage matrix turnover was determined after a recovery period of 12 days. Canine knees injected with coagulating blood showed more disturbed proteoglycan turnover than knees injected with anticoagulated blood. Synovial inflammation was present only after intraarticular injections with coagulating blood. In in vitro experiments, exposure of human cartilage explants to coagulating blood resulted in more damage than did exposure to anticoagulated blood, while exposure to plasma and serum did not alter cartilage matrix turnover. This study shows that coagulating blood causes more long-lasting in vivo joint damage than anticoagulated blood, thereby suggesting that along with joint bleeding in hemophilia, exposure to intraarticular blood should also be avoided during surgery and trauma to prevent joint damage. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Morre-Pedersen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of arteriovenous fistulas combined with varying degrees of stenosis on distal bypass hemodynamics and Doppler spectral parameters. METHODS: In an in vitro flow model bypass stenoses causing 30%, 55%, and 70% diameter reduction were induced...... hemodynamic conditions of a more severe stenosis. Assessment of the hemodynamic impact of fistulas must be undertaken in the evaluation of in situ vein bypass stenoses....

  3. Oropharyngeal Crowding Closely Relates to Aggravation of OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eiki; Tsuiki, Satoru; Maeda, Keiko; Okajima, Isa; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is known to be an important risk factor for OSA; however, OSA can also be seen in nonobese patients with a small maxilla and/or mandible as well as in all obese patients with such features. Thus, we hypothesized that regional factors, oropharyngeal crowding associated with fat deposition, and maxillomandibular enclosure size closely related to the severity of OSA. A total of 703 male Japanese subjects were enrolled; theywere classified into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); n = 158) and nonobese (BMI OSA subjects, although BMI and TG/LFC were significantly associated with AHI in both groups. In particular, the contribution of TG/LFC to AHI was larger than that of BMI in the obese group. Oropharyngeal crowding is a local anatomic factor that independently relates to the severity of OSA in both obese and nonobese patients; the more crowded the upper airway, the more severe the OSA. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Public Administration Efficiency and the Aggravation of Public Health Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ilyin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available December 3, 2015, the President of Russia Vladimir Putin delivered his annual Address to the Federal Assembly. Having analyzed the Address, experts pointed out the President’s worries and concerns about the efficiency of execution of development priorities he had set out. Vladimir Putin repeatedly urged the Government to implement effective measures on specific issues in the shortest time possible. However, it has not been done so far; therefore, we think that the President’s concern is reasonable. Recent research carried out by ISEDT RAS reveals certain alarming trends in the social health of the regional society

  5. Lowering barometric pressure aggravates depression-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukaya, Kanoko; Mori, Rarami; Itoh, Mariko; Funakubo, Megumi; Sato, Jun

    2011-03-17

    Weather change has been known to influence the condition of patients with mood disorder. However, no animal studies have tested the influence of climatic factor on emotional impairment. In this study, we examined the effect of lowering barometric pressure (LP) in a climate-controlled room on immobility time in the forced swim test in rats, which is considered to be an index of behavioral despair (helplessness). When the rats were exposed to daily repeated forced swim, the immobility time gradually increased. This increment was inhibited by repeated administration of the antidepressant imipramine, suggesting that the immobility is an anxiety/depression-like behavior. LP exposure (20 hPa below the natural atmospheric pressure) further increased immobility time in rats submitted to repeated forced swim. In another series of experiments, we examined the effect of daily repeated LP exposure on the maintenance of immobility after withdrawal from 6-day repeated forced swim. When the rats were challenged with forced swim under natural atmospheric pressure on day 14 after the withdrawal, immobility time was significantly longer than in non-conditioned rats. These findings demonstrated that LP in the range of natural weather change augmented the depression-like behavior in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low barometric pressure aggravates neuropathic pain in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Itano, Yuya; Funakubo, Megumi; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Mariko; Mori, Rarami

    2011-10-03

    Several clinical studies have demonstrated a consistent relationship between changes in meteorological factors, particularly barometric pressure, and pain intensity in subjects with chronic pain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to artificially low barometric pressure (LP) intensifies pain-related behaviors in rats with neuropathic pain. In the present study, guinea pigs with unilateral L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) were placed in a pressure-controlled chamber and subjected to LP of 10 or 27hPa below the ambient pressure. The SNL surgery led to increased hindpaw withdrawal frequencies to 34-, 59-, and 239-mN von Frey filaments (VFFs). When the SNL animals were subjected to both LP exposures consecutively, the hindpaw withdrawal frequencies further increased; the effect was most significant when the animals were exposed to LP 27hPa below ambient pressure. In contrast, no change was seen in a group of sham-operated control animals. These results indicate that fluctuations in LP within the range of natural weather patterns can potentiate neuropathic pain in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic kidney disease aggravates arteriovenous fistula damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Stephan; Kokozidou, Maria; Heiss, Christian; Kranz, Jennifer; Kessler, Tina; Paulus, Niklas; Krüger, Thilo; Jacobs, Michael J; Lente, Christina; Koeppel, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) and impaired dilatation are important contributors to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. It is unclear whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) itself causes adverse remodeling in arterialized veins. Here we determined if CKD specifically triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling and assessed whether these changes affect the function of AVFs. For this purpose, we used rats on a normal diet or on an adenine-rich diet to induce CKD and created a fistula between the right femoral artery and vein. Fistula maturation was followed noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound (US), and groups of rats were killed on 42 and 84 days after surgery for histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the AVFs and contralateral femoral vessels. In vivo US and ex vivo morphometric analyses confirmed a significant increase in NIH in the AVFs of both groups with CKD compared to those receiving a normal diet. Furthermore, we found using histological evaluation of the fistula veins in the rats with CKD that the media shrank and their calcification increased significantly. Afferent artery dilatation was significantly impaired in CKD and the downstream fistula vein had delayed dilation after surgery. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased peak systolic velocity at the site of the anastomosis, implying stenosis. Thus, CKD triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling in AVFs, all of which contribute to anatomical and/or functional stenosis.

  8. Possible aggravating impact of gene polymorphism in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya, Rozati; Baludu, Giragalla Simha; Reddy, B Satyanarayana

    2009-04-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most commonly encountered benign problems in gynaecology. It is frequently associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia and dyspareunia, which lead to infertility. To determine the possible association between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and GSTM1 null (*0/*0) mutation and their possible impact in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Ninety seven women with endometriosis mean age (28.5 +/- 6.5 yr) diagnosed by laparoscopy and 102 women without endometriosis (28.4 +/- 4.8 yr) were included. Heparinised blood samples were collected from all for DNA isolation and estimation of PCBs. GSTM1 genotyping was done by PCR and PCBs were estimated by gas chromatography. Women with endometriosis showed significantly higher concentrations of PCBs compared with control group. Twenty six (26.8%) women with endometriosis and 15 (14.7%) of the controls had the GSTM1 null (*0/*0) genotype [odds ratio (OR = 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.045-4.314], which showed significant association (P = 0.03) with endometriosis. The association between the concentrations of PCBs, GSTM1 null genotype and different severity of endometriosis was significant (P<0.05) for all four compounds and GSTM1 (PCB1: r = +0.5388, P<0.0001; PCB5: r = +0.6753, P<0.0001; PCB29: r = +0.6471, P<0.0001; and PCB98: r = +0.4357, P<0.0001; GSTM1: r = +0.9439, P = 0.05). The study results suggested that women having higher concentration of PCBs and GSTM1 null (*0/*0) polymorphism might have an increased susceptibility of endometriosis. The findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample.

  9. Does Electroconvulsive therapy aggravate the rise in potassium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium and creatine kinase levels increase after the administration of suxamethonium. This rise may be exaggerated by the combination of suxamethonium fasciculation and the modified tonic/clonic convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy. This study compared the magnitude of increase in ...

  10. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Morre-Pedersen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Doppler spectra obtained 10 cm downstream of the fistula. All measurements were carried out with open and clamped fistula. RESULTS: At 30% diameter reducing stenosis opening of the fistula induced a 12% systolic pressure drop across the stenosis but had no adverse effect on the Doppler waveform parameters......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of arteriovenous fistulas combined with varying degrees of stenosis on distal bypass hemodynamics and Doppler spectral parameters. METHODS: In an in vitro flow model bypass stenoses causing 30%, 55%, and 70% diameter reduction were induced...

  11. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpress......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...

  12. Aggravating conditions: Cynical hostility and neighborhood ambient stressors

    OpenAIRE

    King, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate neighborhood clustering of a personality trait – cynical hostility (a sense of mistrust of others amplified by suspicious antagonism.) Cynical hostility increases physiological reactivity by influencing appraisal and coping when stressful events occur and that has been well established as a predictor of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and all-cause mortality. The analysis examines the associations of a variety of neighborhood physical and social co...

  13. Aggravating conditions: Cynical hostility and neighborhood ambient stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is the first to investigate neighborhood clustering of a personality trait e cynical hostility (a sense of mistrust of others amplified by suspicious antagonism.) Cynical hostility increases physiological reactivity by influencing appraisal and coping when stressful ev...

  14. Aggravating conditions: cynical hostility and neighborhood ambient stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine

    2012-12-01

    This study is the first to investigate neighborhood clustering of a personality trait--cynical hostility (a sense of mistrust of others amplified by suspicious antagonism.) Cynical hostility increases physiological reactivity by influencing appraisal and coping when stressful events occur and that has been well established as a predictor of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and all-cause mortality. The analysis examines the associations of a variety of neighborhood physical and social conditions (especially ambient stressors) with individual cynical hostility, controlling for individual sociodemographics. Data are from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, a clustered population-based study of 3105 adults. Variation by neighborhood in cynical hostility is larger than variation of other selected health outcomes, which are commonly studied using ecological methods or for other personality measures. Controlling for neighborhood context reduces the black/white cynical hostility disparity by one-third. A measure of neighborhood ambient stressors (notably noise) significantly predicts cynical hostility, even after individual characteristics are controlled, and the effect size is larger than for other contextual predictors. Health-related psychosocial and personality traits may both cluster in and be influenced by contemporaneous neighborhoods rather than mere exogenous results of genes or early life conditions. Health-relevant psychosocial characteristics may also mediate effects of neighborhood deleterious physical conditions, thereby influencing downstream health outcomes and social disparities therein. Because residential location and neighborhood physical conditions are both modifiable, research on how ambient stressors influence health psychology may be particularly fruitful for health policy and practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. Secondly, stereotyping characterising some males, sustains them in doubting the capabilities of people of different gender. Thirdly, inappropriate socialisation of the male folk is behind their inability to ...

  16. Fibrogenic Cell Plasticity Blunts Tissue Regeneration and Aggravates Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pessina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cell identity is necessary for homeostasis of most adult tissues. This process is challenged every time a tissue undergoes regeneration after stress or injury. In the lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines gradually as fibrosis increases. Using genetically engineered tracing mice, we demonstrate that, in dystrophic muscle, specialized cells of muscular, endothelial, and hematopoietic origins gain plasticity toward a fibrogenic fate via a TGFβ-mediated pathway. This results in loss of cellular identity and normal function, with deleterious consequences for regeneration. Furthermore, this fibrogenic process involves acquisition of a mesenchymal progenitor multipotent status, illustrating a link between fibrogenesis and gain of progenitor cell functions. As this plasticity also was observed in DMD patients, we propose that mesenchymal transitions impair regeneration and worsen diseases with a fibrotic component.

  17. Inflammation aggravates disease severity in Marfan syndrome patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonic, T.; Witte, P. de; Groenink, M.; Waard, V. de; Lutter, R.; Eijk, M. van; Jansen, J.L.M.; Timmermans, J.; Kempers, M.J.; Scholte, A.J.H.A.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Berg, M.P van den; Tintelen, J.P. van; Pals, G.; Baars, M.J.; Mulder, B.J.; Zwinderman, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with major features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems, associated with large clinical variability. Numerous studies reveal an involvement of TGF-beta signaling. However, the contribution of tissue inflammation is not

  18. Inflammation Aggravates Disease Severity in Marfan Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonic, Teodora; de Witte, Piet; Groenink, Maarten; de Waard, Vivian; Lutter, Rene; van Eijk, Marco; Jansen, Marnix; Timmermans, Janneke; Kempers, Marlies; Scholte, Arthur J.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Pals, Gerard; Baars, Marieke J. H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with major features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems, associated with large clinical variability. Numerous studies reveal an involvement of TGF-beta signaling. However, the contribution of tissue inflammation is not

  19. Syndecan-1 deficiency aggravates anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, A.L.; Gotte, M.; Baselmans, M.H.; Hoven, M.J.W. van den; Steenbergen, E.; Lensen, J.F.M.; Wijnhoven, T.J.M.; Cevikbas, F.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Berden, J.H.M.; Vlag, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    During the heterologous phase of experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis, leukocyte influx peaks within hours, whereas albuminuria occurs within 1 day. In the subsequent autologous phase, endogenous anti-GBM IgG develops and albuminuria persists. Heparan sulfate (HS)

  20. How uncomplicated total thyroidectomy could aggravate the laryngopharyngeal reflux disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Alessia; Macaione, I; Fiorentino, E

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing, voice disorders, throat discomfort and subjective neck discomfort are usually reported by patients with a known thyroid nodule and are correlated to nodular thyroid disease itself. Moreover, in endemic goitrous areas, total thyroidectomy (TT) is the most frequently performed surgical procedure. We are used to relate swallowing, voice and throat discomfort to the mechanical effects of nodular goiter or to thyroidectomy itself, but in both these cases the relationship between symptoms and the thyroid mass or its removal is not always clear or easily demonstrated. How can we explain the persistence of local neck symptoms after TT? And how can TT worsen the dysphagic or dysphonic disorders attributed to the goiter's effect over the surrounding structures? During these years, many articles have analyzed the relationship between the thyroid disease and the laryngopharyngeal reflux, finding more and more evidences of their consensuality, leading to important new management considerations and notable medico-legal implications; if the reason of local neck symptoms is not the thyroid disease, we have to study and specially cure the reflux disease, with specific test and drugs. Therefore, the aim of our study, relying on the published literature, was to investigate how, in demonstrated presence of reflux laryngopharyngitis in patients with nodular goiter and local neck symptoms before and after uncomplicated TT, the surgery could influence our anti-reflux mechanism analyzing the anatomical connection as well as the functional coordination; can we play a part in the post-operative persistence of swallowing and voice alterations and throat discomfort?

  1. [Simultaneous treatment of small children with the combined otolaryngological and dental pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushenkova, A P; Losev, F F; Kishinets, T A

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen children 2-4 years old with combined dental-and-otorhinolaryngologic pathologies were examined and treated. The children had the following otorhinolaryngologic pathologies: third-degree adenoid hypertrophy in 14 (77.8%) patients, second/third-degree adenoid hypertrophy and second/third-degree tonsil hypertrophy in 4 (22.2%) patients, and snoring in 7 (38.9%) patients, two (11.1%) of whom suffered from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The dental pathologies were: ankyloglossia in 8 (44.4%) patients, milk teeth caries in 7 (38.9%) of patients, milk teeth pulpitis in 6 (33.3%) of patients, and chronic milk teeth periodontitis in 3 (16.7%) patients. All children underwent general clinical treatment, otorhinolaryngologic examination, and in-patient dental examination during preparation to surgical endoscopic treatment of the otorhinolaryngologic pathology. In children with aggravated chronic periodontitis, the inflammatory process was alleviated prior to surgery, the tooth was opened and its channels were washed with antiseptic solution. Surgery was performed in a single step. Dental manipulations were performed upon intubation anesthesia. Therapeutic dentistry was performed using the W&H Dentalwerk Buermoos portable dental system. Otorhinolaryngologic treatment involved endoscopic adenotomy and tonsillotomy (in 4 children). Post-surgical examination 1 and 7 days upon intervention and a catamnesis study 6 months after surgery revealed high efficiency of the treatment.

  2. Evidence in Support of Potential Applications of Lipid Peroxidation Products in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, stimulation of oncogenes, abnormal metabolism, and aggravated inflammatory activities. Available evidence also suggests that cancer cells depend on intrinsic ROS level for proliferation and survival. Both physiological and pathophysiological roles have been ascribed to ROS which cause lipid peroxidation. In spite of their injurious effects, the ROS and the resulting lipid peroxidation products could be beneficial in cancer treatment. This review presents research findings suggesting that ROS and the resulting lipid peroxidation products could be utilized to inhibit cancer growth or induce cancer cell death. It also underscores the potential of lipid peroxidation products to potentiate the antitumor effect of other anticancer agents. The review also highlights evidence demonstrating other potential applications of lipid peroxidation products in cancer treatment. These include the prospect of lipid peroxidation products as a diagnostic tool to predict the chances of cancer recurrence, to monitor treatment progress or how well cancer patients respond to therapy. Further and detailed research is required on how best to successfully, effectively, and selectively target cancer cells in humans using lipid peroxidation products. This may prove to be an important strategy to complement current treatment regimens for cancer patients. PMID:24369491

  3. Fatigue in breast cancer patients on adjuvant treatment: Course and prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi S Manir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fatigue is a major complain in breast cancer patients and survivors. Patterns and degree varies with schedule and type of the treatment. Different co-factors may aggravate fatigue. Multimodal approach is helpful in managing fatigue. Aim: To quantify prevalence, course and degree of fatigue in breast cancer patients on adjuvant treatment and effectiveness of different management approach. Materials and Methods: One Hundred and ten post-mastectomy breast cancer patients (Stage I to Stage III were assessed. Patients on chemotherapy were assessed one week before, day after chemotherapy and two weeks later in every cycle. Patients on External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT were assessed one week before and every week during radiation. Assessment was continued on second and fourth week of follow up. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue subscale (FACIT-F was used for assessment. Significant cofactors were also searched for. Results: Eighty four percent patients experienced fatigue. Fatigue was more prevalent during chemotherapy (91% than EBRT (77%. Patients on Chemotherapy exhibit peak fatigue day after Chemotherapy and decreased level until the next cycle. Significant increase of fatigue was seen only in first cycle. Patient on EBRT had gradually increased fatigue during the course of treatment. Lower degree of fatigue was present in post treatment period. Anemia was a significant cofactor causing fatigue (P < 0.05. Blood Transfusion improved fatigue scores. Conclusion: Fatigue increases during chemotherapy and or EBRT. Different intervention strategies are needed to address the issue.

  4. Mesothelioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Bárbara

    2008-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a locally aggressive advanced tumour, with bad prognosis and many times fatal, who have been growing in the last two decades with possibilities to be continue in all the world until 2020, showing use of pic asbestos to the years 1960/1970. Next 35 years the previsions of the deaths is more than 250 000. In Portugal (ROR) incidence is 1,2/1 000 000/year for total of the patients. Until now any new therapy showed advantage in the median survival and time to progression. The more important change whose the news than the antifolatos, particularly pemetrexed in combination with cisplatinum were actives in MM. Chemoterapy as soon as possible and second lines treatment it is very important thinking in the survival this fatal tumor. Rev Port Pneumol 2008; XIV (Sup.2): S35-S44. © 2008 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia/SPP.

  5. Cancer cachexia and diabetes: similarities in metabolic alterations and possible treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Stéphanie; Farsijani, Samaneh

    2014-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a metabolic syndrome featuring many alterations typical of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While muscle wasting is a hallmark of cachexia, epidemiological evidence also supports an accelerated age-related muscle loss in T2D. Insulin resistance manifests in both conditions and impairs glucose disposal and protein anabolism by tissues. A greater contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production may limit amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, further aggravating muscle loss. In the context of inter-dependence between glucose and protein metabolism, the present review summarizes the current state of knowledge on alterations that may lead to muscle wasting in human cancer. By highlighting the similarities with T2D, a disease that has been more extensively studied, the objective of this review is to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia and to consider potential treatments usually targeted for T2D. Nutritional approaches aimed at stimulating protein anabolism might include specially formulated food with optimal protein and amino acid composition. Because the gradual muscle loss in T2D may be attenuated by diabetes treatment, anti-diabetic drugs might be considered in cachexia treatment. Metformin emerges as a choice candidate as it acts both on reducing gluconeogenesis and improving insulin sensitivity, and has demonstrated tumour suppressor properties in multiple cancer types. Such a multimodal approach to slow or reverse muscle wasting in cachexia warrants further investigation.

  6. [Treatment of LUTS in BPS. When and when not to administer pills?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, R

    2009-03-01

    Benign prostatic syndrome (BPS) is considered a diagnosis of exclusion and needs a thorough work-up. One of the pitfalls for a tailored medical treatment scheme is the objective evaluation of benign prostatic obstruction. Characteristics of the various medical therapy options and the multifactorial origin of LUTS in BPH patients imply an individualized approach. LUTS involving mostly urine storage disorders and a small prostate are suitably managed with alpha(1)-receptor antagonists, which may be combined with antimuscarinics if OAB symptoms predominate. Long-term treatment addressing clinical progression may favor combination therapy of alpha(1)-receptor antagonists with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors if prostate size is sufficient. Age, symptom severity at baseline, a large prostate volume, or a high PSA value are indicative of progression. However, combination therapy aggravates side effects, and thus a risk-benefit analysis is essential. The potential of any medication for BPS to treat obstruction is rather low. If deobstruction is the main aim of therapy, medical treatment is not suitable.

  7. Influence of annealing heat treatment on pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel type 316

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Bakhtiari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of annealing heat treatment on pitting resistance of stainless steel type 316L has been studied using Tafel polarization and ASTM G150 for estimating of the pitting potential and CPT, respectively. The materials were tested in 3.5% NaCl solution. The chemical composition of the material was analyzed via optical emission spectrometry. It was found that the sample treated at 940°C shows better pitting corrosion resistance than samples treated at 520°C and 820°C. The treatment at 940°C produced two types of morphologies, austenitic-ferritic matrix with δ-ferrite and only small amount of the σ phase. In the range up to 820°C the σ phase embedded in the γ phase matrix and at δ/γ interface was causing brittleness of the material and aggravated corrosion resistance. The treatment at 940°C produced the microstructure which prevented the corrosion attack to develop. It was revealed that the pitting size in samples treated at 520°C and 820°C is greater than that at 940°C. In addition, depth of pitting has been considered as a factor of pitting corrosion resistance. The depth of pitting in sample treated at 940°C is low since the pitting is almost superficial, while the pitting size in samples treated in 520°C and 820°C is higher and deeper.

  8. Clinical outcomes of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis: a retrospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThis study evaluated the clinical outcomes of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO for the treatment of hemorrhage from gastric varices (GV in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis (LC.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed data from 183 LC patients who underwent BRTO for GV bleeding in 6 university-based hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010.ResultsOf the 183 enrolled patients, 49 patients had Child-Pugh (CP class A LC, 105 had CP class B, and 30 had CP class C at the time of BRTO. BRTO was successfully performed in 177 patients (96.7%. Procedure-related complications (e.g., pulmonary thromboembolism and renal infarction occurred in eight patients (4.4%. Among 151 patients who underwent follow-up examinations of GV, 79 patients (52.3% achieved eradication of GV, and 110 patients (72.8% exhibited marked shrinkage of the treated GV to grade 0 or I. Meanwhile, new-appearance or aggravation of esophageal varices (EV occurred in 54 out of 136 patients who underwent follow-up endoscopy (41.2%. During the 36.0±29.2 months (mean±SD of follow-up, 39 patients rebled (hemorrhage from GV in 7, EV in 18, nonvariceal origin in 4, and unknown in 10 patients. The estimated 3-year rebleeding-free rate was 74.8%, and multivariate analysis showed that CP class C was associated with rebleeding (odds ratio, 2.404; 95% confidence-interval, 1.013-5.704; P=0.047.ConclusionsBRTO can be performed safely and effectively for the treatment of GV bleeding. However, aggravation of EV or bleeding from EV is not uncommon after BRTO; thus, periodic endoscopy to follow-up of EV with or without prophylactic treatment might be necessary in LC patients undergoing BRTO.

  9. Adaptive multimodal treatment for children with attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder: an 18 month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpfner, Manfred; Ise, Elena; Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Tanja; Schürmann, Stephanie; Rademacher, Christiane; Breuer, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    The Cologne Adaptive Multimodal Treatment (CAMT) study demonstrated that adaptive and individually tailored multimodal treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [consisting of behavior therapy (BT) and/or stimulant medication] is highly effective. This study reports findings of the 18 month follow-up assessment. Parents and teachers completed broad range behavior scales (Child Behavior Checklist/Teacher Report Form) and standardized ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptom rating scales. Children that used medication to treat ADHD at follow-up (N = 32) and those that did not (N = 34) were analyzed separately. Parents did not report significant changes in child behavior from posttest to follow-up. Teacher ratings revealed some aggravation of ADHD symptoms in children that received medication, but this was not significant after Bonferroni correction. The initial advantage of combined treatment over BT was no longer evident. It can be concluded that treatment for ADHD that is tailored to the assessed needs of children results in large treatment effects that are maintained for at least 18 months.

  10. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Treatment Jet Lag Overview Symptoms & Self Test Treatment Narcolepsy Overview & Facts Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self- ...

  11. Bronchodilators for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G Y; da, S; Ohlsson, A

    2001-01-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) occurs frequently in preterm infants (effect of dilating small airways with muscle hypertrophy. Increase in compliance and tidal volume and decrease in pulmonary resistance have been documented with use of bronchodilators in short term studies of pulmonary mechanics in infants with CLD. Therefore it is possible that bronchodilators might have a role in the prevention and treatment of CLD. To evaluate the effect of bronchodilators, given prophylactically or as treatment for chronic lung disease, on mortality and other complications of preterm births. The search strategy used to identify studies was according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Searches were made of MEDLINE 1966 to December 2000, EMBASE 1980 to January 2001, CINAHL 1982 to December 2000, the Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2001, personal files and reference lists of identified trials. The following terms were used: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, chronic lung disease, bronchodilator agents, adrenergic agents, anticholinergic agents, albuterol, aminophylline, atropine, caffeine, clenbuterol, cromakalim, ephedrine, epinephrine, fenoterol, hexoprenaline, ipratropium, isoetharine, isoproterenol, orciprenaline, procaterol, terbutaline, theophylline, tretoquinol. newborn, infant; human, clinical trial or controlled clinical trial, meta analysis, multicenter study or randomised controlled trial. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled clinical trials involving preterm infants. Initiation of bronchodilator therapy had to occur within two weeks of birth for prevention of CLD. For treatment of CLD treatment should have been initiated before discharge from the neonatal unit. The intervention had to include the randomised administration of a bronchodilator either by nebulisation, metered dose inhaler with or without a spacer device, intravenously or orally, versus placebo or no intervention. Eligible studies had to include at least one of the following

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  13. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  14. Contributions of myofascial pain in diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Calvo Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy and subacromial impingement syndrome present complex patomechanical situations, frequent difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of effectiveness in treatment. Based on clinical experience, we have therefore considered the existence of another pathological entity as the possible origin of pain and dysfunction. The hypothesis of this study is to relate subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, since myofascial trigger points (MTrPs cause pain, functional limitation, lack of coordination and alterations in quality of movement, even prior to a tendinopathy. MTrPs can coexist with any degenerative subacromial condition. If they are not taken into consideration, they could perpetuate and aggravate the problem, hindering diagnosis and making the applied treatments ineffective. The aims and methods of this study are related with providing evidence of the relationship that may exist between this condition and MPS in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff tendonitis and/or SIS. Method/design A descriptive transversal study will be made to find the correlation between the diagnosis of SIS and rotator cuff tendonitis, positive provocation test responses, the existence of active MTrPs and the results obtained with ultrasonography (US and Magnetic Renonance Imaging (MRI. A randomized double blinded clinical trial will be carried out in experimental conditions: A Protocolized treatment based on active and passive joint repositioning, stabilization exercises, stretching of the periarticular shoulder muscles and postural reeducation. B. The previously described protocolized treatment, with the addition of dry needling applied to active MTrPs with the purpose of isolating the efficacy of dry needling in treatment. Discussion This study aims to provide a new vision of shoulder pain, from the perspective of MPS. This syndrome can, by itself, account for shoulder pain and

  15. Contributions of myofascial pain in diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Palomares, Sara; Oliván-Blázquez, Bárbara; Arnal-Burró, Ana M; Mayoral-Del Moral, Orlando; Gaspar-Calvo, Elena; de-la-Torre-Beldarraín, M Luisa; López-Lapeña, Elena; Pérez-Benito, Marina; Ara-Loriente, Victoria; Romo-Calvo, Laura

    2009-07-24

    Rotator cuff tendinopathy and subacromial impingement syndrome present complex patomechanical situations, frequent difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of effectiveness in treatment. Based on clinical experience, we have therefore considered the existence of another pathological entity as the possible origin of pain and dysfunction. The hypothesis of this study is to relate subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), since myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause pain, functional limitation, lack of coordination and alterations in quality of movement, even prior to a tendinopathy. MTrPs can coexist with any degenerative subacromial condition. If they are not taken into consideration, they could perpetuate and aggravate the problem, hindering diagnosis and making the applied treatments ineffective.The aims and methods of this study are related with providing evidence of the relationship that may exist between this condition and MPS in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff tendonitis and/or SIS. A descriptive transversal study will be made to find the correlation between the diagnosis of SIS and rotator cuff tendonitis, positive provocation test responses, the existence of active MTrPs and the results obtained with ultrasonography (US) and Magnetic Renonance Imaging (MRI). A randomized double blinded clinical trial will be carried out in experimental conditions: A Protocolized treatment based on active and passive joint repositioning, stabilization exercises, stretching of the periarticular shoulder muscles and postural reeducation. B. The previously described protocolized treatment, with the addition of dry needling applied to active MTrPs with the purpose of isolating the efficacy of dry needling in treatment. This study aims to provide a new vision of shoulder pain, from the perspective of MPS. This syndrome can, by itself, account for shoulder pain and dysfunction, although it can coexist with real conditions involving

  16. Risk factors for postoperative anxiety and depression after surgical treatment for lung cancer†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samina; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hwang, Yoohwa; Seong, Yong Won; Lee, Hyun Joo; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Young Tae

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress associated with cancer treatment is an emerging issue in the management of cancer patients. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of postoperative anxiety and depression after surgical treatment for lung cancer, and to assess the risk factors associated with these phenomena. Patients who underwent curative surgical resection for primary lung cancer were included in this study. Patients with complex treatment histories (recurrent or metastatic lung cancer or neoadjuvant treatment) and those taking psychiatric medication were excluded. We prospectively evaluated the degrees of pre- and postoperative anxiety and depression using a Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale questionnaire. The relationships between clinical and patient factors and anxiety and depression after surgical treatment for lung cancer were assessed. A total of 278 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 62 years. Thoracoscopic resection was performed in 246 patients (89%). The prevalence rates of preoperative anxiety and depression were 8% (n = 22) and 12% (n = 32), and changed to 9% (n = 26) and 19% (n = 54) postoperatively (P = 0.37 and pulmonary function and preoperative comorbidities were not associated with postoperative anxiety and depression. Multivariate analysis revealed that thoracotomy was a risk factor for postoperative anxiety after adjusting for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 4.5, P = 0.002). Thoracotomy (OR = 3.4, P = 0.009), postoperative dyspnoea (OR = 4.8, P mental health professionals and provided with supportive psychotherapy or pharmacological intervention. Of these, 14 patients (56%) were diagnosed with an adjustment disorder. Postoperative psychological distress and, in particular, depression increased after surgical treatment for lung cancer. Postoperative anxiety and depression were aggravated by residual symptoms after surgery. Careful psychological evaluation and appropriate management are required to improve patients' quality of

  17. Mucometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, and pyometra in the bitch: advances in treatment and assessment of future reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, J; Dhaliwal, G; Verstegen-Onclin, K

    2008-08-01

    Pyometra is a common reproductive disorder which affects nearly one fourth of all female dogs before they reach 10 y of age. An association between pyometra and the most common uterine disease of the bitch, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, has been established, as the latter allows commensal bacteria originating from the vagina to proliferate in the uterus at the end of estrus. The progressive degenerative process in the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia is usually proposed as the initiating lesion for pyometra in bitches; this is mediated by progesterone and potentially aggravated by estrogens. However, a separate process caused by local uterine irritation to trophoblastic reaction and bacterial proliferation has been recently proposed as an alternate mechanism leading to the development of pyometra. Pyometra is clinically distinct in pathogenesis, signs, treatment and prognosis from postpartum metritis or mucometra. Treatment of pyometra has historically involved ovariohysterectomy, however, during the last 10 y, numerous effective treatments have been proposed to treat both open and closed cervix pyometra with good success and future fertility. Among the treatments available, the use of repeated low doses of prostaglandins alone or in association with either dopamine agonists or progesterone-receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative for valuable breeding dogs.

  18. Innovative approach to safely induce controlled lipolysis by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-mediated hyperthermic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, Maria Rosaria; Pandolfi, Laura; Malatesta, Manuela; Colombo, Miriam; Collico, Veronica; Lievens, Patricia Marie-Jeanne; Tambalo, Stefano; Lasconi, Chiara; Vurro, Federica; Boschi, Federico; Mannucci, Silvia; Sbarbati, Andrea; Prosperi, Davide; Calderan, Laura

    2017-10-27

    During last years, evidence has been provided on the involvement of overweight and obesity in the pathogenesis and aggravation of several life-threatening diseases. Here, we demonstrate that, under appropriate administration conditions, polyhedral iron oxide nanoparticles are efficiently and safely taken up by 3T3 cell line-derived adipocytes (3T3 adipocytes) in vitro. Since these nanoparticles proved to effectively produce heat when subjected to alternating magnetic field, 3T3 adipocytes were submitted to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-mediated hyperthermia treatment (SMHT), with the aim of modulating their lipid content. Notably, the treatment resulted in a significant delipidation persisting for at least 24h, and in the absence of cell death, damage or dedifferentiation. Interestingly, transcript expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key gene involved in canonical lipolysis, was not modulated upon SMHT, suggesting the involvement of a novel/alternative mechanism in the effective lipolysis observed. By applying the same experimental conditions successfully used for 3T3 adipocytes, SMHT was able to induce delipidation also in primary cultures of human adipose-derived adult stem cells. The success of this pioneering approach in vitro opens promising perspectives for the application of SMHT in vivo as an innovative safe and physiologically mild strategy against obesity, potentially useful in association with balanced diet and healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Choice of a General Anesthesia Technique in the Surgical Treatment of Postinfarct Left Ventricular Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To choose the optimum technique of general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of patients with postinfarct left ventricular aneurysms (PLVA.Materials and methods. Fifty-four patients operated on for PLVA were examined. They were divided into 4 groups according to the basic technique of general anesthesia: 1 intravenous anesthesia based on propofol and fentanyl; 2 inhalation sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 3 inhalation isoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 4 general anesthesia in combination with epidural blockade. Central hemodynamics was investigated by the thermodilution technique and the perioperative period was also studied.Results and discussion. None of the general anesthesia techniques affected the development of perioperative complications. However, with decreased myocardial reserves, high thoracic epidural anesthesia should be applied with caution as it causes a significant desympathization, which may lead to impairments of the autoregulatory mechanisms of coronary blood flow and aggravate existing contractile disorders. Intravenous and inhalation anesthesia techniques provide a fair hemodynamic stability at all stages of surgical treatment. Inhalation anesthesia has a number of advantages: less cost and the possibility of rapid activation of patients in the early postoperative period.

  20. Perampanel for the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohracher, Alexandra; Brigo, Francesco; Höfler, Julia; Kalss, Gudrun; Neuray, Caroline; Dobesberger, Judith; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Leitinger, Markus; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-07-01

    The non-competitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) - receptor antagonist perampanel (PER) was approved in 2015 for treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (pGTCS). The aim of this narrative review is to summarize available data on pharmacological properties, efficacy and tolerability of PER in pGTCs. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov, conference proceedings of the ILAE congresses and the most recent conference proceedings of the American Epilepsy Society (2013 to 2015). A placebo-controlled clinical phase III study including 164 patients (≥ 12 years) with pGTCS in idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) demonstrated efficacy of PER in reducing pGTCS with good tolerability profile, and without aggravating absence seizures or myoclonic seizures. Dizziness, the main adverse event (AE), can be avoided by bedtime administration. Psychiatric AEs ranging from mild depression to aggression and suicidal attempts should be especially monitored in patients with a history of psychiatric disorders. Co-administration of enzyme inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) might decrease PER plasma levels and make dose adjustment necessary. A reduced efficacy of progesterone-containing oral contraceptives should be considered when administering PER to young women. There is lack of evidence on PER treatment in pregnancy. Although no teratogenic effects were observed in animal models, PER is not recommended for women of childbearing age without contraception.

  1. Epidemiological profile of patients with nephropathy and the difficulties in access to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Maria Monteiro Sampaio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing treatment for renal replacement therapy in dialysis modality, and to identify the difficulties in its realization. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Itapipoca-CE, comprising 35 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. The general data was analyzed descriptively using absolute and percentage frequencies. Results: The epidemiological profile of patients shows a higher frequency of: males (19 - 54.3% aged between 31 and 60 (24 - 68.6%, low education (29 - 82.8%, family incomes of 1 to 2 minimum wages (25 - 71.4%, living in houses of masonry (30 - 85.7% with treated water provided in their homes (17 - 48.6%. The main signs and symptoms that led to seeking medical consultation were: general weakness (21 - 60.0%, nausea (19 - 54.3%, edema (18 - 51.4% and lack of appetite (14 - 40.0%. The features most frequently mentioned by the patients as probable causes to CRF were: association of hypertension with diabetes mellitus (11 - 31.4%, hypertension (9 - 25.7% and glomerulonephritis (5 - 14.3%. Most patients reported difficulty in obtaining medical appointment (25 - 71.4% and scheduling/receiving exams (20 - 57.1%. Conclusion: The epidemiological profile of patients studied is marked by a low socioeconomic status. As aggravating factors to this situation, there was the difficulty in getting appointments, scheduling and performing diagnostic tests, which undermines the treatment.

  2. Hospital treatment - Is it affordable? A structured cost analysis of vaginal deliveries and planned caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, I M; Kahlert, S; Rummel, S; Kümper, C; Jonat, W; Strauss, A

    2009-11-03

    The analysis of cost effectiveness in hospitals is as difficult as treating the patients properly. We are yet not able to answer the simple question of what costs are caused by a certain diagnosis and its treatment during an average hospital stay. To answer some issues of the global problem of cost effectiveness during hospitalisation, we analysed the costs and the cost structure of a normal obstetrical hospital stay during an uncomplicated vaginal delivery and a planned caesarean section. Cost data was collected and summarized from the patients file, the hospital's computer system gathering all cost centres, known material expenses and expenses of non obstetrical medical services. For vaginal deliveries/planned caesareans we can calculate with a surplus of about 83Euro/1432Euro. About 45% of the summarized costs are calculated on a reliable database. The introduction of the DRG based clearing system in Germany has aggravated the discussion on cost effectiveness. Our meticulous work-up of expenses excluded personal precautionary costs and personnel costs of documentation because no tools are described to depict such costs. If we would add these costs to the known expenses of our study, we strongly suspect that hospital treatment of vaginal deliveries or planned caesarean sections is not cost effective.

  3. The Dual Treatment of Political Offenses Within the Framework of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Fontoura de Barcellos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the expression political offense means every harmful act against the domestic or international public order and against national security. However, there is a double treatment for this behavior in the Brazilian system. On one hand, the expression was used especially during the era of Brazilian authoritarian regimes to designate any activity against the public order policy and national security. In these cases, the political nature of the offense served to justify the loss of rights and guarantees, such as the prohibition of habeas corpus, the trial of civilians by military personnel and the aggravation of penalties. On the other, the characterization of a crime as a political may prevent the extradition of foreigners by granting them the possibility of obtaining asylum in the country, which hinders the criminal persecution action from the other State. Hence, this paper aims to demonstrate this duplicity of treatment of political offenses in Brazilian law, as well as the criteria used for this categorization. The methodology consists of a historical analysis of the aforementioned concept and presents the current state of the art as to its uses in Brazil. In order to achieve our purposes, we have employed as sources the national and international norms that display the category political offense and their empiric interpretation in the rulings of the Brazilian Supreme Court, since the Vargas Era until today.

  4. Leverage, the treatment relationship, and treatment participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, Dale E; Gormley, Barbara; Binder, Renée L

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Although many psychiatric patients experience various forms of pressure or leverage to participate in community treatment, the association between such experiences and treatment participation is controversial. This study evaluated the hypothesis that aspects of the treatment relationship, such as the working alliance, psychological reactance, and perceived coercion, could be important in understanding treatment adherence and satisfaction in a group of patients at risk of experiencing leverage. METHODS A total of 198 outpatients at two community mental health centers completed structured interviews including measures of the treatment relationship, treatment participation, experience of leverage, and clinical functioning. Regression analyses were used to assess associations between the treatment relationship and treatment adherence and satisfaction while concomitantly considering experiences of leverage, demographic characteristics, and clinical functioning. RESULTS Approximately four in ten participants reported experiencing some form of leverage to adhere to treatment during the previous six months, such as pressures related to the criminal justice system, money, housing, and outpatient commitment. Patients who perceived greater coercion to participate in treatment were more likely to report taking their medications as prescribed. Higher satisfaction with treatment was associated with lower perceived coercion, a better working alliance, and lower levels of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS Benefits in medication adherence associated with interventions that patients perceive as coercive may come at a cost of decreased satisfaction with treatment. Aspects of the treatment relationship hold promise for individualizing treatment planning in a way that addresses satisfaction as well as adherence.

  5. Stress Fractures: Etiology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Reynolds, Katy; Hoedebecke, Kyle L

    Stress fractures are part of a continuum of changes in healthy bones in response to repeated mechanical deformation from physical activity. If the activity produces excessive repetitive stress, osteoclastic processes in the bone may proceed at a faster pace than osteoblastic processes, thus weakening the bone and augmenting susceptibility to stress fractures. Overall stress fracture incidence is about three cases per 1,000 in active duty Servicemembers, but it is much higher among Army basic trainees: 19 per 1,000 for men and 80 per 1,000 for women. Well-documented risk factors include female sex, white ethnicity, older age, taller stature, lower aerobic fitness, prior physical inactivity, greater amounts of current physical training, thinner bones, cigarette smoking, and inadequate intake of vitamin D and/or calcium. Individuals with stress fractures present with focal tenderness and local pain that is aggravated by physical activity and reduced by rest. A sudden increase in the volume of physical activity along with other risk factors is often reported. Simple clinical tests can assist in diagnosis, but more definitive imaging tests will eventually need to be conducted if a stress fracture is suspected. Plain radiographs are recommended as the initial imaging test, but magnetic resonance imaging has higher sensitivity and is more likely to detect the injury sooner. Treatment involves first determining if the stress fracture is of higher or lower risk; these are distinguished by anatomical location and whether the bone is loaded in tension (high risk) or compression (lower risk). Lowerrisk stress fractures can be initially treated by reducing loading on the injured bone through a reduction in activity or by substituting other activities. Higher-risk stress fractures should be referred to an orthopedist. Investigated prevention strategies include modifications to physical training programs, use of shock absorbing insoles, vitamin D and calcium supplementation

  6. [Clinical treatment (non surgical) of spasticity in cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-González, R; Calderón-Sepúlveda, R F

    A review about the procedures used in the non surgical management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Therapeutic modalities for the management of spasticity in cerebral palsy include: (1) elimination of factors aggravating spasticity: pain, fatigue, stress, excitement, cold, illness, sleep disturbance, immobility, and hormonal changes; (2) rehabilitative therapies, there are four major groups: (a) biomechanical approach, (b) neurophysiologic approach, (c) developmental approach and (d) sensory approach; (3) orthosis; (4) oral pharmacotherapy: baclofen, tizanidine, diacepam and dantroleno; (5) chemical denervation: phenol injections and botulinum toxin injections. The medical management of spasticity in cerebral palsy is based on: 1. Oral pharmacotherapy: (a) baclofen, binds GABAB receptors of spinal interneurons presynaptically, inhibits release of excitatory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord; (b) tizanidine, binds alfa 2 adrenergic receptors presinaptically, inhibits release of excitatory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord; (c) diacepam, augments GABA mediated inhibition in the spinal cord and supraspinally;(d) dantrolene, inhibits release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle, weakens muscle contraction in response to myofiber excitation. 2. Chemical denervation: (a) phenol injection perineurally or into the motor point disrupts efferent signals from hyperexcitable anterior horn cells causing necrosis of axons or muscle; (b) botulinum toxin injection in selected muscles blocks the release of acetylcholine presynaptically and weakens the force of muscle contraction produced by hyperexcitable motoneurons. At the present time, there is not irrefutable evidence of a sustain benefit of physical rehabilitation in the management of spasticity. There are few studies with oral pharmacological agents involving children with cerebral palsy to define its role. On the other hand, botulinum toxin A is effective, well tolerated, and safe in the

  7. Treatment goals and treatment in exercise therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of treatment in exercise therapy according to Cesar and according to Mensendieck. Information was gathered from saurvey on exercise therapy in the Netherlands. Characteristics of treatment are described including treatment goals, emphasis of

  8. Two-Point Discrimination Test in the Treatment of Right-handed Females with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Saeidian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-somatic causes of pain may aggravate painful complaints and complicate the conservative management of diseases such as lumbo-sacral disk root disease. The two-point discrimination test has been used for assessment of diseases, which change patients' skin sensation. This study aims to find out how applicable is two-point discrimination test in the conservative treatment of lumbo-sacral disk diseases. Twenty right-handed females suffering from unilateral lumbo-sacral disk disease were admitted for a conservative treatment from 2006 to 2009. The treatment con-sisted of a week bed rest, physiotherapy, and medication. They were subjected to straight leg raising tests, and their pains were evaluated using visual analog scale. The values of two-point discrimination test were obtained bilaterally for L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Changes between the involved and intact lower limbs as well as values of two-point discrimination test before and after the treatment were also compared. In addition, the correlation between the outcome of two-point discrimination, straight leg raising tests, or pain scores were evaluated. There was a significant (P<0.001 difference between the changes in the values of two-point discrimination test, pain scales, or straight leg raising tests in the involved and intact limbs before and after the treatment. However, correlation among variables did not reach statistical significance (P<0.94, r=0.017. The results indicated that although two-point discrimination test is a feasible and objective tool to evaluate patients' improvements during the conservative management of lumbo-sacral disk diseases, there were no strong correlations between two-point discrimination test and straight leg raising tests, or pain scale.

  9. Two-Point Discrimination Test in the Treatment of Right-handed Females with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Moghaddam, Hadi Fathi; Ahangarpour, Akram; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Non-somatic causes of pain may aggravate painful complaints and complicate the conservative management of diseases such as lumbo-sacral disk root disease. The two-point discrimination test has been used for assessment of diseases, which change patients' skin sensation. This study aims to find out how applicable is two-point discrimination test in the conservative treatment of lumbo-sacral disk diseases. Twenty right-handed females suffering from unilateral lumbo-sacral disk disease were admitted for a conservative treatment from 2006 to 2009. The treatment consisted of a week bed rest, physiotherapy, and medication. They were subjected to straight leg raising tests, and their pains were evaluated using visual analog scale. The values of two-point discrimination test were obtained bilaterally for L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Changes between the involved and intact lower limbs as well as values of two-point discrimination test before and after the treatment were also compared. In addition, the correlation between the outcome of two-point discrimination, straight leg raising tests, or pain scores were evaluated. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference between the changes in the values of two-point discrimination test, pain scales, or straight leg raising tests in the involved and intact limbs before and after the treatment. However, correlation among variables did not reach statistical significance (P<0.94, r=0.017). The results indicated that although two-point discrimination test is a feasible and objective tool to evaluate patients' improvements during the conservative management of lumbo-sacral disk diseases, there were no strong correlations between two-point discrimination test and straight leg raising tests, or pain scale. PMID:23115415

  10. Efficacy of manual therapy treatments for people with cervicogenic dizziness and pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Rivett, Darren A; Katekar, Michael G; Callister, Robin

    2012-10-18

    Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition characterised by postural unsteadiness that is aggravated by cervical spine movements and associated with a painful and/or stiff neck. Two manual therapy treatments (Mulligan's Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs) and Maitland's passive joint mobilisations) are used by physiotherapists to treat this condition but there is little evidence from randomised controlled trials to support their use. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomised controlled trial to compare these two forms of manual therapy (Mulligan glides and Maitland mobilisations) to each other and to a placebo in reducing symptoms of cervicogenic dizziness in the longer term and to conduct an economic evaluation of the interventions. Participants with symptoms of dizziness described as imbalance, together with a painful and/or stiff neck will be recruited via media releases, advertisements and mail-outs to medical practitioners in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia. Potential participants will be screened by a physiotherapist and a neurologist to rule out other causes of their dizziness. Once diagnosed with cervciogenic dizziness, 90 participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Maitland mobilisations plus range-of-motion exercises, Mulligan SNAGs plus self-SNAG exercises or placebo. Participants will receive two to six treatments over six weeks. The trial will have unblinded treatment but blinded outcome assessments. Assessments will occur at baseline, post-treatment, six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months post treatment. The primary outcome will be intensity of dizziness. Other outcome measures will be frequency of dizziness, disability, intensity of cervical pain, cervical range of motion, balance, head repositioning, adverse effects and treatment satisfaction. Economic outcomes will also be collected. This paper describes the methods for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two manual

  11. Extraction treatment of a class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and changes in stomatognathic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihiro; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kitashima, Fumiaki; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the successful extraction treatment of a Class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor on the left side. The posterior space in the mandibular arch was small, and the mandibular second molars were impacted, with distal tipping. The discrepancies in the maxillary and mandibular arches were resolved by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor on the right side and the mandibular second premolars on both sides. The mesial movement of the mandibular first molars occurred appropriately, with the second molars moving into an upright position. A lip bumper was used with a preadjusted edgewise appliance in the maxillary dentition to reinforce molar anchorage and labial movement of the retroclined incisors. Despite the extraction treatment, a deep bite could be corrected without aggravation as a result of the lip bumper and utility arch in the mandibular dentition. Thus, an Angle Class I molar relationship and an ideal overbite were achieved. The occlusal contact area and masticatory muscle activities during maximum clenching increased after treatment. The maximum closing velocity and the maximum gape during chewing increased, and the chewing pattern changed from the chopping to grinding type. The findings in the present case suggest that the correction of a deep bite might be effective for improving stomatognathic function.

  12. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  13. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  14. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQS Helpful Links Toolkit Find Your Way to Alcohol Treatment The search for alcohol treatment can feel ... and make a choice. Who is the NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator SM for? The Navigator helps adults ...

  15. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... as possible. Learn more about palliative care . Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  16. [Cluster headache treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Anne; Valade, Dominique; Fontaine, Denys

    2015-11-01

    Acute treatment: sumatriptan, oxygen inhalation. Prophylactic treatment: verapamil, lithium carbonate. Transitional treatment. deep brain stimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, stimulation of the sphenopalatin ganglion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Anal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  19. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  20. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  1. Treatment of Facial Acne Scarring With Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser in Asians, a Retrospective Analysis of Efficacy and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Harumi; Tan, Lixian; Tan, Wee Ping; Goh, Chee Leok

    2017-09-01

    Fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser resurfacing unites the idea of fractional photothermolysis with an ablative 10,600-nm wavelength. This technology permits effective treatment of acne scarring, with shorter recovery and a decreased side effect profile as compared to traditional CO2 laser resurfacing. The aims of this study were to study the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser for acne scars in Asian patients. This was a retrospective study of all patients treated with the fractional CO2 laser for facial acne scarring between January 2, 2008, and December 31, 2010, at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. Data reviewed included sex, age, and severity of acne, type of scarring, previous treatment history, frequency of treatments, adverse events, and efficacy. Two hundred and ten fractional CO2 laser treatments for facial acne scars were performed on 107 patients (65 men and 42 women, Fitzpatrick skin Types II to V) during the study period. Sixteen of 107 patients experienced (15.0%) adverse events. The adverse events include hyperpigmentation (6.4%), blistering (4.0%), crusting (2.9%), aggravation of inflammatory acne lesions (1.7%), and scarring (0.6%). There were no reported side effects of hypopigmentation, bacterial or viral infection. Follow-up results after final laser treatment showed that 66.4% of patients reported Grade 1 skin texture improvement, that is, 75% improvement (n = 1). The study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of a fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of acne scars in Asian. Future studies are required to establish optimum treatment parameters and achieve better clinical results.

  2. Therapeutic potential of histaminergic compounds in the treatment of addiction and drug-related cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Livia; Tirelli, Ezio; Brabant, Christian

    2013-01-15

    Addiction is a behavioral disorder characterized by the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs despite serious negative consequences. In particular, the chronic use of drugs impairs memory and cognitive functions, which aggravates the loss of control over drug use and complicates treatment outcome. Therefore, cognitive enhancers targeting acetylcholine have been proposed to treat addiction. Interestingly, histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) antagonists/inverse agonists stimulate acetylcholine transmission in different brain areas, facilitate memory in animal models and can reverse learning deficits induced by drugs such as scopolamine, dizocilpine and alcohol. Moreover, several studies found that compounds capable of activating the histaminergic system generally decrease the reinforcing effects of drugs, namely alcohol and opioids, in preclinical models of addiction. Finally, several H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists increase histamine in the brain and have proven to be safe in humans. However, no studies have yet investigated the therapeutic potential of cognitive enhancing H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of addiction in humans. The present review first describes the impact of addictive drugs on learning processes and cognitive functions that play an important role for addicts to remain abstinent. Second, our work briefly summarizes the relevant literature describing the function of histamine in learning, memory and drug addiction. Finally, the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic agents in the treatment of addiction is discussed. Our review suggests that histaminergic compounds like H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists may improve the treatment outcome of addiction by reversing drug-induced cognitive deficits and/or diminishing the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs, especially opioids and alcohol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential health effects of odor from animal operations, wastewater treatment, and recycling of byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Susan S; Walker, John M; Dalton, Pam; Lorig, Tyler S; Raymer, James H; Shusterman, Dennis; Williams, C Mike

    2004-01-01

    Complaints of health symptoms from ambient odors have become more frequent in communities with confined animal facilities, wastewater treatment plants, and biosolids recycling operations. The most frequently reported health complaints include eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hoarseness, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, nasal congestion, palpitations, shortness of breath, stress, drowsiness, and alterations in mood. Typically, these symptoms occur at the time of exposure and remit after a short period of time. However, for sensitive individuals such as asthmatic patients, exposure to odors may induce health symptoms that persist for longer periods of time as well as aggravate existing medical conditions. A workshop was held at Duke University on April 16-17, 1998 cosponsored by Duke University, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). and National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the health effects of ambient odors. This report summarizes the conclusions from the Workshop regarding the potential mechanisms responsible for health symptoms from ambient odors. Methods for validation of health symptoms, presence of odor, and efficacy of odor management techniques are described as well.

  4. Mendeliome sequencing enables differential diagnosis and treatment of neonatal lactic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Walid; Karakaya, Mert; Herkenrath, Peter; Vierzig, Anne; Dötsch, Jörg; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    Neonatal lactic acidosis can be associated to severe inborn errors of metabolism. Rapid identification of the underlying disorder may improve the clinical management through reliable counseling of the parents and adaptation of the treatment. We present the case of a term newborn with persistent hypoglycemia on postnatal day 1, who developed severe lactic acidosis, aggravating under intravenous glucose administration. Routine metabolic investigations revealed elevated pyruvate and lactate levels in urine, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a lactic acid peak and decreased N-acetylaspartate levels. Mitochondrial disorders, e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency, were the major differential diagnoses. However, both hypoglycemia and the elevated lactate to pyruvate ratio in serum (=55.2) were not typical for PDH deficiency. We used "Mendeliome sequencing", a next-generation sequencing approach targeting all genes which have been previously linked to single-gene disorders, to obtain the correct diagnosis. On day 27 of life, we identified a homozygous stop mutation in the PDHX gene, causing pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency. After starting the ketogenic diet, the infant recovered and is showing delayed but progressive development. Mendeliome sequencing was successfully used to disentangle the underlying cause of severe neonatal lactic acidosis. Indeed, it is one of several targeted sequencing approaches that allow rapid and reliable counseling of the parents, adaptation of the clinical management, and renunciation of unnecessary, potentially invasive and often costly diagnostic measures.

  5. Diagnostic challenges and treatment difficulties in a patient with excoriated acne conglobata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona R. Georgescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne conglobata is a rare and severe form of acne vulgaris, characterized by the presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and sometimes hematic or meliceric crusts. Acne excoriée is a form of self-inflicted skin condition in which the patient picks on imaginary or real acne lesions. We report the case of a 16 year old Caucasian female patient from the urban area who addressed our dermatology department for erythematous, edematous plaques covered by pustules and crusts, located on the face. The anamnesis revealed that during the last weeks she had had a depressive mood after ending a relationship with her boyfriend and started scratching and picking on the lesions. The patient's depressive mood prior to the worsening of the disease was probably aggravated by the condition. This might have determined the picking of the skin which could have impeded the response to standard treatment. The selfexcoriative behavior could also be regarded as an appeal for help.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-traumatic syringomyelia and its surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nunomura, Mitsuru; Akino, Minoru; Koyanagi, Izumi; Abe, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Saito, Hisatoshi

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of post-traumatic syringomyelia and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment. The subjects were 16 patients (13 men and 3 women) whose ages ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 42 years. Nine patients had delayed neurologic symptoms 2 years and 2 months through 32 years after spinal injuries. The site of initial spinal cord injury was the lower cervical region in 4 patients, the thoracic region in 8, and the upper lumbar region in 4. In all patients, post-traumatic syringomyelia was easy to diagnose on MRI. MRI showed the syrinx extending superiorly and/or inferiorly from the area of old trauma, sometimes extending to the medulla oblongata. In the cervical cord and the upper thoracic cord, the syrinx was unilaterally or bilaterally situated in the postero-lateral portion. Below the middle thoracic cord, the syrinx was centrally located. Surgery was performed in 6 patients. At an average follow up of 2 years and 9 months, both pain and numbness were relieved in all patients (100%) and neurologic symptoms improved in 5 patients (83%). Post-traumatic syringomyelia should be considered in all patients having delayed onset or aggravation of neurologic symptoms after spinal injury. MRI appears promising for the early diagnosis of post-traumatic syringomyelia that can be treated favorably by surgical procedures. (N.K.).

  7. [Treatment of recurrent laryngeal papilloma by submucosal resection and the effect on prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiying; Zhang, Qingxiang; Sun, Guoyan; Yu, Zhenkun

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy of submucosal resection by CO2 laser in the treatment of recurrent laryngeal papilloma and the effect on prognosis. A total of 11 patients diagnosed as recurrent laryngeal papilloma were included in this review. Papilloma was marked before operation and checked under fibro-laryngoscope. Papilloma was resected completely including the submucosal tissure with CO2 laser or microequipment. In widespread papilloma, false membrane in raw surface were cleared 7-10 days after operation. Surgical specimens (including membrane) were detected by routine pathology, HPV typing and immunohistochemical pathologic examination. The patients were checked once a month in the first 3 months after operation, and then once for every 3 months. Once the hoarseness and other symptoms aggravated or the disease was recurrent, the patients were treated immediately. HPV viral DNA was found in 10/11 cases, with HPV11 (7/11 cases) and HPV6 (3/11 cases). Cases with regards to follow-up, from 6 months to 1 year, 3 cases were followed up 1 year after operation, without recurrence. Five patients including 2 children were followed up 6 to 12 months after operation, without recurrence. Two children underwent 2 or 3 operations, were followed-up more than 6 months withouting recurrence. Papilloma submucosal resection could decrease postoperative recurrence and is worth to be further investigated.

  8. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  9. Pycnogenol(®) treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol(®) on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol(®) by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P Pycnogenol(®) (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention.

  10. Current Understanding of Molecular Pathology and Treatment of Cardiomyopathy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirsa L. E. van Westering

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a genetic muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene resulting in the loss of the protein dystrophin. Patients do not only experience skeletal muscle degeneration, but also develop severe cardiomyopathy by their second decade, one of the main causes of death. The absence of dystrophin in the heart renders cardiomyocytes more sensitive to stretch-induced damage. Moreover, it pathologically alters intracellular calcium (Ca2+ concentration, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS localization and mitochondrial function and leads to inflammation and necrosis, all contributing to the development of cardiomyopathy. Current therapies only treat symptoms and therefore the need for targeting the genetic defect is immense. Several preclinical therapies are undergoing development, including utrophin up-regulation, stop codon read-through therapy, viral gene therapy, cell-based therapy and exon skipping. Some of these therapies are undergoing clinical trials, but these have predominantly focused on skeletal muscle correction. However, improving skeletal muscle function without addressing cardiac aspects of the disease may aggravate cardiomyopathy and therefore it is essential that preclinical and clinical focus include improving heart function. This review consolidates what is known regarding molecular pathology of the DMD heart, specifically focusing on intracellular Ca2+, nNOS and mitochondrial dysregulation. It briefly discusses the current treatment options and then elaborates on the preclinical therapeutic approaches currently under development to restore dystrophin thereby improving pathology, with a focus on the heart.

  11. Arthroscopic Patelloplasty and Circumpatellar Denervation for the Treatment of Patellofemoral Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral osteoarthritis commonly occurs in older people, often resulting in anterior knee pain and severely reduced quality of life. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of arthroscopic patelloplasty and circumpatellar denervation for the treatment of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA. Methods: A total of 156 PFOA patients (62 males, 94 females; ages 45-81 years, mean 66 years treated in our department between September 2012 and March 2013 were involved in this study. Clinical manifestations included recurrent swelling and pain in the knee joint and aggravated pain upon ascending/descending stairs, squatting down, or standing up. PFOA was treated with arthroscopic patelloplasty and circumpatellar denervation. The therapeutic effects before and after surgery were statistically evaluated using Lysholm and Kujala scores. The therapeutic effects were graded by classification of the degree of cartilage defect. Results: A total of 149 cases were successfully followed up for 14.8 months, on average. The incisions healed well, and no complications occurred. After surgery, the average Lysholm score improved from 73.29 to 80.93, and the average Kujala score improved from 68.34 to 76.48. This procedure was highly effective for patients with cartilage defects I-III but not for patients with cartilage defect IV. Conclusions: For PFOA patients, this procedure is effective for significantly relieving anterior knee pain, improving knee joint function and quality of life, and deferring arthritic progression.

  12. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl-Andersen, B.; Prahl, C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary

  13. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Damkier, P; Lublin, H

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ... treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and ...

  15. Performance of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing physical training, with or without an aggravation of arterial disease: retrospective cohort study Desempenho de pacientes com claudicação intermitente submetidos ao treinamento físico em resposta ao agravamento da doença arterial: estudo retrospectivo de coorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M. A. Rosoky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This was a retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the clinical outcome of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing physical training in whom there was an aggravation of the arterial disease. METHOD: Three hundred and sixty-four patients with claudication who presented with femoropopliteal or tibioperoneal obstructions in at least 1 of the lower limbs and who did not have aortic or bilateral iliac obstructions were included. Forty patients developed new stenoses in previously spared arterial segments (confirmed by duplex scanning, which were proximal to preexisting lesions, and formed the progression group, in contrast to the stable group of patients (n = 324 who did not exhibit this worsening of the disease. Follow-up was 276 and 277 days for stable and progression groups, respectively. All patients underwent an unsupervised program of submaximal walking 4 days a week. Changes in maximal walking distance at a progressive treadmill test were appraised during follow-up, with special interest directed to the periods between admission, diagnosis of arterial worsening, and the end of follow-up. RESULTS: Performance was not significantly different between groups during the entire follow-up period. Furthermore, patients with claudication who evolved with progression of their arteriopathy did not present a reduction of their maximal walking distance in response to the development of new arterial lesions at any time during their follow-up. CONCLUSION: Worsening of the peripheral arterial disease in patients with claudication undergoing physical training, manifested as de novo arterial occlusion in proximal and previously spared segments, does not imply in an impairment of their claudication distance.OBJETIVO: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte para investigar o desfecho clínico de pacientes com claudicação intermitente submetidos a treinamento físico nos quais houve um agravamento da arteriopatia. MÉTODO: Trezentos e

  16. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient......'s self-evaluation of achievement on the Goal Attainment Scale; which skeletal muscles were injected; physiotherapists' and occupational therapists' evaluation of the patients' achievement of objectives on the Goal Attainment Scale; and proposals for optimization of treatment and changing goals....... The evaluation included a satisfaction questionnaire and the WHO-QoL BREF and WHO-5 well-being score. Overall, 10 patients were enrolled in the pilot study. The patients were generally satisfied with the diary, found that it involved them more in their treatment and made it easier to set personal goals...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Nasopharyngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  18. INCREASED FREQUENCY OF THE ATTACKS AFTER THE TREATMENT OF INTERFERON-ALPHA IN A PATIENT WITH BENIGN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Sümbül

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is the most common cause of disability for the individuals between 20-40 years old after the trauma. Benign MS case are also known to exist, although rare. A 55-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of left arm numbness and loss of strength, dizziness, imbalance. She was diagnosed with MS and was treated with corticosteroids at the age of 35. She had no significant health problems for years, had any treatment since then. Two years ago, after the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, IFN-alpha (IFN-alpha was started by gastroenterologists. During treatment, her complaints like numbness, balance problems were linked to the drugs. After a few days the treatment was terminated, she was admitted to our clinic with the complaints described above. Brain MRI revealed a large number of MS plaques that some of them were enhancing. Thus attack treatment was started. IFN-alpha is a molecule secreted by immune cells with antiviral, antiproliferative and immuno-modulatory effects. It was reported that fulminant MS had been developed in HCV patients due to the IFN-alpha therapy where the claim was that IFN-alpha could trigger the T cell-mediated tissue damage, or aggravate. Here, we drew attention to the increased attacks in a patient with benign MS after the IFN-alpha treatment. It is very important to carefully monitor the treatment of the other diseases that are co-exist or subsequently added to multiple sclerosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 85-87

  19. Effect of periodontal treatment on the clinical parameters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: study protocol of the randomized, controlled ESPERA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsarrat, Paul; Vergnes, Jean-Noël; Cantagrel, Alain; Algans, Nadège; Cousty, Sarah; Kémoun, Philippe; Bertrand, Caroline; Arrivé, Elise; Bou, Christophe; Sédarat, Cyril; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Nabet, Cathy; Sixou, Michel

    2013-08-14

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that leads to joint damage, deformity, and pain. It affects approximately 1% of adults in developed countries. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection, caused by inflammatory reactions to gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, and affecting about 35 to 50% of adults. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss. A significant association has been shown to exist between periodontitis and RA in observational studies. Some intervention studies have suggested that periodontal treatment can reduce serum inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We hypothesize that periodontitis could be an aggravating factor in patients with RA, and that its treatment would improve RA outcomes. The aim of this clinical trial is to assess the effect of periodontal treatment on the biological and clinical parameters of patients with RA. The ESPERA (Experimental Study of Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis) study is an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. Subjects with both RA and periodontitis will be recruited at two university hospitals in southwestern France. In total, 40 subjects will be randomized into two arms (intervention and control groups), and will be followed up for 3 months. Intervention will consist of full-mouth supra-gingival and sub-gingival non-surgical scaling and root planing, followed by systemic antibiotic therapy, local antiseptics, and oral hygiene instructions. After the 3-month follow-up period, the same intervention will be applied to the subjects randomized to the control group.The primary outcome will be change of in Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) at the end of the follow-up period. Secondary outcomes will be the percentages of subjects with 20%, 50%, and 70% improvement in disease according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Health-related quality of life assessments (the Health Assessment Questionnaire and the

  20. A prospective, split-face, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of a novel fractionated intense pulsed light treatment for melasma in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Woo Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Han, Ji Su; Lee, Sang Hyung; Chang, Seo Youn; Haw, Sik; Lee, Jung Bok; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Chang, Sung Eun

    2015-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been reported to effectively treat melasma in previous studies, but an aggravation of pigmentation was noted. Fractionated IPL is a novel technique in which microsecond-domain fractionated pulses are delivered to the target area. To compare the safety and efficacy of low-fluency, frequently scheduled fractionated IPL and conventional IPL for melasma treatment. This was a 14-week, split-face study in which 30 Asian women were treated with weekly fractionated IPL on one side of the face and biweekly conventional IPL on the other side. The non-inferiority of a weekly fractionated IPL regimen to a biweekly conventional IPL regimen was verified by a lower margin of the 95% confidence interval for the difference in the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) change from baseline of 2.61 for each side. This value was greater than the previously determined non-inferiority margin of -2.68 (P IPL side, the modified MASI score decreased continuously, but in the conventional IPL group, the MASI score rebounded during the treatment course. Fractionated IPL shows moderate efficacy as a melasma treatment and is therefore a good alternative to conventional IPL as there is no indication of melasma exacerbation. Fractionated IPL can also be used as a maintenance treatment for melasma.

  1. Psychological resilience aspects that mediate the depressive effects of urinary incontinence in prostate cancer survivors 10 years after treatment with radiation and hormone ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H; Bradford, Rosemary; Steigler, Allison; Denham, James W

    2017-01-01

    Repeated surveys of prostate cancer (PCa) patients indicate that their prevalence of depression is well above that for their non-PCa peers. Although standard first-line treatments for depression are only about 35% effective, some recent comments have suggested that a focus upon the possible correlates (factors that aggravate or mediate depression) might help improve treatment efficacy. To investigate this issue, 144 10 year PCa survivors were asked about the frequency of urinary incontinence, a common side effect of some PCa treatments. The 53 patients who suffered urinary incontinence had significantly higher depression scores on the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale than those patients who did not report urinary incontinence. Using mediation analysis, patients' psychological resilience (PR) significantly mediated the depressive effects of urinary incontinence, but those effects were confined to just one of the five components of PR-a sense of control over the things that happen to oneself. Implications for treatment models of psychosocial oncology support for PCa survivors are discussed.

  2. Conservative treatment preferences and the plausible mechanism of Neer's stage 1 of shoulder impingement in younger people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of various factors in the vicious cycle (VC) of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is complex and there are conservative treatment preferences for speedy rehabilitation. The mechanism of SIS is not fully understood and the inappropriate treatment priorities cause delay in rehabilitation. SIS is related to the reduction in the subacromial space (SS). Posterior capsular tightness (PCT) and rotator cuff (RC) dysfunction are the two basic mechanisms in this regard. PCT may cause anterosuperior translation of humeral head (HH) and anterior acromion tipping through scapular dyskinesis, thereby reducing the subacromial space. Alteration in the force couple of muscle secondary to scapular dyskinesis eventually causes injury to subacromial structures. The rotator cuff is important in centring the humeral head in the glenoid cavity and superior translation of humeral head occurs if their function is compromised. Posterior capsular tightness may affect the function of rotator cuff action which leads to early fatigue, dysfunction of these muscles and eventually impingement. Adhesive changes take place in various structures around the shoulder secondary to impingement pain and relative immobility, which further aggravates the problem. To reverse the vicious cycle, conservative intervention should therefore be directed to loosen posterior capsular tightness, restore rotator cuff function through appropriate exercise in a pain-free range through appropriate exercise, mobilisation of adhesion through teraservers friction or pain-free mobilisation or grade I and grade II manipulation. Depending on the level of irritability, pain control intervention could be considered alongside.

  3. Severe Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, Vegetative Instability and Neuropathy with 5-Fluorouracil Treatment – Pyrimidine Degradation Defect or Beriberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rosen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 19-year-old female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, who received two courses of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in combination with folic acid and cisplatin. Upon developing esophageal strictures in the course of her radiotherapy, she required total parenteral nutrition. In the course of therapy, the patient developed severe multisystem failure with encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, vegetative instability and neuropathy. The treatment with 5-FU can lead to severe toxicity due to enzyme deficiencies in the degradation of pyrimidines, but it can also lead to thiamine deficiency with the classic symptoms of beriberi. Beriberi is a rare disorder, usually attributed to malnutrition or alcoholism. 5-FU has been shown to induce thiamine depletion. Reduced food intake or total parenteral nutrition devoid of vitamin supplements may aggravate symptoms. We were unable to find a genetic cause for increased 5-FU toxicity in our patient, ruling out deficiencies of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, dihydropyrimidinase or β-ureidopropionase and double-strand break repair deficits. We come to the conclusion that, even without any definable enzyme deficiency, treatment with 5-FU can lead to high toxicity due to thiamine deficiency if vitamin supplementation is not undertaken.

  4. Successful treatment of thyroid storm presenting as recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiorgan failure by continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare and potentially life-threatening medical emergency. We experienced a case of thyroid storm associated with sepsis caused by pneumonia, which had a catastrophic course including recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiple organ failure (MOF. A 22-year-old female patient with a 10-year history of Graves’ disease was transferred to our emergency department (ED. She had a cardiac arrest at her home and a second cardiac arrest at the ED. Her heart recovered after 20 min of cardiac resuscitation. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm associated with hyperthyroidism complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. Although full conventional medical treatment was given, she had progressive MOF and hemodynamic instability consisting of hyperthermia, tachycardia and hypotension. Because of hepatic and renal failure with refractory hypotension, we reduced the patient’s dose of beta-blocker and antithyroid drug, and she was started on continuous veno-venous renal replacement therapy (CRRT with intravenous albumin and plasma supplementation. Subsequently, her body temperature and pulse rate began to stabilize within 1 h, and her blood pressure reached 120/60 mmHg after 6 h. We discontinued antithyroid drug 3 days after admission because of aggravated hyperbilirubinemia. The patient exhibited progressive improvement in thyroid function even after cessation of antithyroid drug, and she successfully recovered from thyroid storm and MOF. This is the first case of thyroid storm successfully treated by CRRT in a patient considered unfit for antithyroid drug treatment.

  5. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy with amiodarone and type I agents for treatment of inducible ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W; Mletzko, R; Manz, M; Nitsch, J; Lüderitz, B

    1993-04-01

    In a prospective study the efficacy of amiodarone in combination with the three Class I drugs mexiletine, flecainide, or encainide was evaluated consecutively in 12 patients with recurrent ventricular tachycardias (VT) by programmed stimulation. None of the tested drug combinations suppressed induction of sustained VT. The combination of amiodarone with Class IC drugs flecainide and encainide prolonged the cycle length of VT significantly, whereas the combination with mexiletine did not have the same degree of slowing on the VT cycle length. Several proarrhythmic effects occurred during the combination therapy with encainide: (1) frequent, spontaneous recurrences of hemodynamically well tolerated VT in four patients; (2) enhanced inducibility of VT in three patients; (3) impaired termination of VT in three patients. Though a marked increase in QRS and QTc intervals was observed by combined treatment with encainide, no significant correlation could be established between aggravation of arrhythmia and plasma levels of encainide, degree of QRS widening, JT or QTc prolongation. The only predictor for the occurrence of proarrhythmic events was found in left ventricular ejection fraction. These findings suggest that in patients refractory to amiodarone alone or a combination with mexiletine, the combined treatment of amiodarone with other Class IC drugs prolongs the VT cycle length but does not suppress induction of VT during programmed stimulation. Combination therapy of amiodarone with encainide was associated with a high incidence of proarrhythmic effects.

  6. VALPARIN XR IN THE TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY (А REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND A DESCRIPTION OF CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Freidkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although epileptologists have a lot of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs at their disposal now and there are more than 10 novel AEDs; until the present time, two groups of drugs (valproic acid and carbamazepine, which were designed in the 1970s have remained the gold standard for the treatment of epilepsy. These 2 AEDs are called traditional or standard and the European literature on epileptology describes them as first-choice anticonvulsants. Carbamazepine has a narrower spectrum of therapeutic action and may aggravate a few types of seizures. On the contrary, valproates are effective in all forms of epilepsy, both focal and generalized ones. The anticonvulsant properties of valproic acid were discovered in 1962. Now valproates are successfully used in various age groups of patients with different forms of epilepsy and types of seizures during both mono- and polytherapy in more than 100 countries of Europe and the world, by firmly holding the leading position. A lot of cheaper valproic acid generic drugs have emerged in clinical practice in the past decades. By and large, almost 20 valproates that have one common active ingredient (valproic acid and are commonly used to treat epilepsy are now available on the global pharmaceutical market.The authors give the results of trials and describe their own experience with Valparin XR, an extended-release valproic acid drug. The results of the trials and clinical experience show the efficacy and good tolerability of Valparin XR in the treatment of epilepsy.

  7. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  8. Cemented reconstruction of acetabular ceiling using the vertebroplasty set in treatment of metastatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from malignant tumors with bony metastases has been increasing. Surgery makes it possible to preserve physical function and decrease pain. Safe and efficient techniques for filling cancer-related bone defects within the pelvis are still being searched for. A total of 13 patients with cancer metastases to the acetabular ceiling area in the hip were operated on using vertebroplasty sets in the Oncological Orthopedics Department in Brzozów in the years 2010-2013. A percutaneous approach was employed in 4 patients, while in 9 the surgery was combined with acetabulofemoral joint resection and arthroplasty. Patient qualification for the treatment took into account the size and shape of the bone defect as determined per computed tomography. Pain intensity (VAS scale) and gait efficiency were evaluated before and after the treatment. All patients reported a distinct decrease in pain intensity. All of them started to ambulate and loading the joint did not aggravate the symptoms. No thrombo-embolic or infectious complications were observed. The mobility of the operated joints was good. The filling of lytic bone defects in the acetabular ceiling area determines walking efficiency and reduced pain intensity. Surgical procedures take a long time, are complicated and associated with a high risk of complications. Percutaneous administration of bone cement may be an alternative solution in patients with an intact cortical bone layer. The literature data indicate good outcomes of this approach, with a minimal number of complications. Acetabuloplasty with bone cement is a safe and effective treatment method in the case of cancer metastases to the acetabular ceiling area.

  9. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  10. Autotransplantation of human carotid body cell aggregates for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Ventura; Mínguez-Castellanos, Adolfo; Montoro, Rafael J; Ortega, Angel; Escamilla, Francisco; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; Pardal, Ricardo; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Martín, José M; Pérez, Miguel; Katati, Majed J; Valencia, Eduardo; García, Teresa; López-Barneo, José

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the feasibility of autotransplantation of carotid body (CB) cell aggregates into the striatum for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Six patients with advanced PD underwent bilateral autotransplantation of CB cell aggregates into the striatum. They were evaluated clinically preoperatively and for 18 months after surgery according to the recommendations of the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantation. No major complications or adverse events resulted from the cell implantation or surgical procedures. During the course of the study, there was no significant aggravation of dyskinesia or decline in cognitive function in any of the patients. Five of the six patients who underwent transplantation manifested a measurable degree of clinical improvement evidenced by standardized clinical rating scales for PD. A decrease in the blinded Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III in the "off" state, the main measure of transplant efficacy in our study, was found to be maximal (between 26 and 74%) at 6 months after surgery. At 1 year, clear reductions in the blinded Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III were maintained in three patients (24, 38, and 52%, respectively). Modest improvement was seen in two patients (13 and 17%), and the sole patient who showed no improvement had the most fibrosis in the CB. The age of the patient and the state of the CB tissue were adversely correlated with clinical improvement after CB autotransplantation. This pilot study indicates that CB autograft transplantation is a relatively simple, safe, and viable therapeutical approach for the treatment of patients with advanced PD. More studies are needed to optimize the procedure and to assess its general applicability for the treatment of patients with PD.

  11. Use of shoulder pacemaker for treatment of functional shoulder instability: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Minkus, Marvin; Böhm, Elisabeth; Danzinger, Victor; Gerhardt, Christian; Scheibel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Functional shoulder instability (polar type III) is caused by underactivity of rotator cuff and periscapular muscles, which leads to subluxation or dislocation during shoulder movement. While surgical treatment has shown no benefits, aggravates pain, and frequently diminishes function even further, conservative treatment is often ineffective as well. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a "shoulder pacemaker" device that stimulates underactive muscles in patients with functional instability during shoulder movement in order to re-establish glenohumeral stability. Three patients with unsuccessfully treated functional shoulder instability causing pain, emotional stress, as well as limitations during daily activities and sports participation were enrolled in this pilot project. The device was used to stimulate the external rotators of the shoulder and retractors of the scapula. Pain level, subjective shoulder instability, range of motion, visible aberrant muscle activation, and signs of dislocation were compared when the device was switched on and off. No changes were observed when the device was attached but switched off. When the device was switched on, all patients were able to move their arms freely without pain, discomfort, or subjective or objective signs of instability. All patients rated this as an excellent experience and volunteered to train further with the device. No complications were observed. The electric stimulation of hypoactive rotator cuff and periscapular muscles by means of the shoulder pacemaker successfully re-establishes stability in patients with functional shoulder instability during the time of application. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11678-017-0399-z) contains the video: "The Shoulder-Pacemaker: treatment of functional shoulder instability with pathological muscle activation pattern". Video by courtesy of P. Moroder, M. Minkus, E. Böhm, V. Danzinger, C. Gerhardt and M. Scheibel, Charité Universit

  12. Long-term Levodopa Treatment Accelerates the Circadian Rhythm Dysfunction in a 6-hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yue Li

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In the circadian system of advanced PD rat models, circadian dysfunction is not only contributed by the degeneration of the disease itself but also long-term L-DOPA therapy may further aggravate it.

  13. Treatments for Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... premature birth > Treatments for preterm labor Treatments for preterm labor E-mail to a friend Please fill ... you. What kinds of medicines are used during preterm labor? There are three kinds of medicines your ...

  14. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  15. Strabismus: Botox Treatment

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 4 months. However, after repeat treatments the effect can be longer lasting. The reason why the effect ... restored. In adults and cooperative teenagers Botox treatment can be carried out in clinic using anesthetic drops ...

  16. Surgical Treatments for Fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preeclampsia and Eclampsia About NICHD Research Information Find a ... Treatments Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Surgical Treatments for Fibroids If you have moderate or severe ...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news ...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  19. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home Diagnosis & Treatment IC Treatments Surgical Procedures Surgical Procedures For people with interstitial cystitis (IC), the ... latest stories, news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, ...

  20. INSTRUMENTAL TREATMENT OF AMBLYOPIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. F. Lavrent’ev; V. V. Rozhentsov

    2016-01-01

    To develop a device with broad functionality for treatment amblyopia. methods. Analysis of functionality and technical characteristics of devices for amblyopia treatment and the development of multifunctional apparatus. results...

  1. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About AACAP Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain ...

  4. Dengue Fever Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Dengue Fever Treatment Dengue Fever Dengue Fever Biology and Transmission Prevention Diagnosis ... of genomic data, and advances the understanding and treatment of dengue disease. Content last reviewed on February 7, 2011 ...

  5. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between ...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students and Residents Toggle Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Member Resources ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  10. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  11. Porphyria Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe/Unsafe Drugs Search form Search About the APF About Porphyria Testing for Porphyria Treatment Options Panhematin ... Gary Eyster Art Sale Featured Items Support the APF You are here Home Treatment Options Click on ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  13. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  14. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  15. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Home Diagnosis & Treatment IC Treatments Antihistamines Antihistamines Some patients report a decrease in interstitial cystitis (IC) symptoms using other antihistamines or medicines with antihistamine properties. Though the most ...

  16. Shoulder Impingement Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rotator cuff or scapular muscles, postural abnormalities, shoulder joint instability, or improper training or technique. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics summarizing treatment phases ... impingement. Phases and Goals of Shoulder Impingement Treatment ...

  17. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: January 18, 2018 ...

  18. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  19. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  1. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  2. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practice Center Award Opportunities CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ...

  4. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hair treatments? Hair treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. ... dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, ... of medication and behavior therapy is often more effective than receiving only medication or only behavior therapy. ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  8. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  9. Inventtional treatment of varicocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Varicocele is a dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexus and manifests as mass-effect, pain, testicular atrophy, or male infertility. Traditionally, surgical treatment has been the mainstay of treatment of varicocele, while interventional treatment, which is endovascular embolization of the testicular vein, has been gaining popularity recently. In this review, diagnosis of the disease, indications and procedure details of interventional treatment, results, and complications are discussed.

  10. Treatment of pediculosis capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.

  11. [Treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdevant, A

    2002-04-01

    There are three main goals to the treatment of obesity: prevention and treatment of the complications, realistic reduction of excess weight, psychological well-being. Each individual is in a specific clinical situation and interindividual variability is wide so stereotypic therapeutic schemes are of little use. Treatment calls upon physical exercise, dietary counseling, drugs, and exceptionally surgery. Psychological support is an integral part of patient management. Treatment of respiratory complications focuses on preventing thromboembolism and management of sleep apnea syndrome and alveolar hypoventilation.

  12. Local constraints to access appropriate malaria treatment in the context of parasite resistance in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, Jesse; Decroo, Tom; Lim, Dara; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Nguon, Chea; Huy, Rekol; Alkourdi, Yasmine; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Gryseels, Charlotte

    2017-02-17

    Despite emerging drug resistance in Cambodia, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is still the most efficacious therapy. ACT is available free of charge in the Cambodian public sector and at a subsidized rate in the private sector. However, un- and mistreated cases in combination with population movements may lead to the further spread of resistant parasites, stressing the importance of understanding how the perceived aetiology of malaria and associated health-seeking behaviour may delay access to appropriate treatment. A qualitative study explored these factors after an epidemiological survey confirmed parasite resistance in Preah Vihear province. In Cambodian cosmology, illnesses can be inflicted by supernatural beings or originate from 'natural' causes because of disorder in the social, domestic or outdoor environment. Initial treatment options consist of cheap and accessible home-based care (manual therapy, herbs and biomedical medication) targeting single symptoms. If there is no steady recovery or if the condition quickly aggravates, care will be sought from 'village doctors', public health facilities, private pharmacies or, in case of suspicion of a supernatural cause, from a specialized indigenous healer. The choice of provider is mostly based on the family's financial situation, access to and trust in the provider, and the congruence between the suspected aetiology of the illness and the treatment offered by the provider. Different treatment options are often combined during the same illness episode through a serial process of trial and error guided by the observable improvements in the patient's condition. Cambodian perceptions of illness that focus on single symptoms and their perceived severity may lead to the identification of one or multiple illnesses at the same time, rarely suspecting malaria from the start and implying different patterns of health seeking behaviour and treatment choice. However, decisions to self-diagnose and treat at home

  13. Nonpharmacologic treatments of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootzin, R R; Perlis, M L

    1992-06-01

    Nonpharmacologic treatments that have been evaluated for insomnia are reviewed. These include sleep hygiene techniques, stimulus control instructions, sleep restriction, chronotherapy, bright light therapy, relaxation training, biofeedback, paradoxical intention, and cognitive therapy. Comparative studies of the different treatments indicate considerable overlap in effectiveness. Direct comparisons between treatments have shown stimulus control instructions to be more effective than either relaxation training or paradoxical intention. Further research is needed on the tailoring of treatments to patient needs, as are more detailed comparisons between pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments.

  14. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  15. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  16. [Involuntary outpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyffe, Igor; Melamed, Yuval

    2012-03-01

    Much has been written about involuntary outpatient treatment, both in Israel and abroad. Since the amendment of the law in Israel in 1991, there is an option for compulsory outpatient treatment that is Less confining than hospitalization. Research has noted its efficacy in avoiding exacerbation of the mental state, repeat hospitalizations and involvement in dangerous activities among patients with low compliance to treatment. In practice, there is no mechanism for implementation or enforcement. Thus, the main difficulty noted by Spinzy and Krieger, is the lack of tools to supervise involuntary outpatient treatment, thereby making it difficult to implement the law of involuntary outpatient treatment ordered by the regional psychiatrist. In addition, the court interpreted the law in a manner that prevents taking measures against the patient who does not comply with compulsory outpatient treatment unless his condition is so severe that it requires court ordered hospitalization. The issue becomes more problematic with court ordered compulsory outpatient treatment. In the United States there is Assisted Outpatient Treatment (AOT) in 42 states. The criteria include dangerousness to the environment, harm to self, or severe inability to care for one's self. AOT helps prevent hospitalizations and improves the outcome of treatment. According to "Kendra's Law" in the United States, the Court detaiLs the biological and psychosocial treatment programs in the court order recommendations: The recommendations include: create uniformity, determine a mechanism of action, assign skilled manpower to implement compulsory outpatient treatment, establish a plan for compulsory outpatient treatment, and create a legal mechanism to supervise patients in court ordered outpatient treatment. In conclusion, determining a mechanism for intervention, implementation and supervision of compulsory outpatient treatment is first and foremost in the best interest of: the patient, who does not want his

  17. Relationship between aldosterone and the metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

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    Antonia Barceló

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS occurs frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS. We hypothesized that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS and associated with the presence of MS. METHODS: We studied 66 patients with OSAHS (33 with MS and 33 without MS and 35 controls. The occurrence of the MS was analyzed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III clinical criteria. Measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA, aldosterone, aldosterone:PRA ratio, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were obtained at baseline and after CPAP treatment. RESULTS: Aldosterone levels were associated with the severity of OSAHS and higher than controls (p = 0.046. Significant differences in aldosterone levels were detected between OSAHS patients with and without MS (p = 0.041. A significant reduction was observed in the aldosterone levels in patients under CPAP treatment (p = 0.012. CONCLUSION: This study shows that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS in comparison to controls, and that CPAP therapy reduces aldosterone levels. It also shows that aldosterone levels are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, suggesting that aldosterone excess might predispose or aggravate the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of OSAHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is not a randomized controlled trial and was not registered.

  18. Rapid breakdown of microvascular barriers and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation after delayed recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment in a rat embolic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Asahi, Minoru; Wu, Ona; Rosen, Bruce R; Lo, Eng H

    2002-08-01

    Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) after stroke increases risk of hemorrhagic transformation, particularly in areas with blood-brain barrier leakage. Our aim was to characterize acute effects of rtPA administration on the integrity of microvascular barriers. Stroke was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by unilateral embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Six hours after stroke, rtPA was intravenously administered (n=10). Controls received saline (n=4). Extravasation of the large-diameter contrast agent monocrystalline iron oxide nanocolloid (MION) was assessed with susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI during rtPA injection. In addition, we performed perfusion MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI. After MRI, 2 hours after rtPA treatment, intracerebral hemorrhage was quantified with a spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay. Late rtPA treatment resulted in increased hemorrhage volume (8.4+/-1.7 versus 2.9+/-0.9 micro L in controls; Pcerebral blood flow index was 22.8+/-19.7% [of contralateral] at 0.5 hours before and 22.4+/-18.0% at 1 hour after rtPA administration). The DeltaR2* changes during rtPA delivery in MION-injected animals indicate extravasation of MION, which reflects increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This implies that late rtPA treatment rapidly aggravates early ischemia-induced damage to microvascular barriers, thereby enhancing hemorrhagic transformation.

  19. Uterus-relaxing effect of β2-agonists in combination with phosphodiesterase inhibitors: studies on pregnant rat in vivo and on pregnant human myometrium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verli, Judit; Klukovits, Anna; Kormányos, Zsolt; Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Ducza, Eszter; Seres, Adrienn B; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to examine the effects of a simultaneous stimulation of β(2) -adrenergic receptors and inhibition of uterine phosphodiesterases (PDE), in the pregnant rat uterus in vivo and on human uterine tissue in vitro. We also set out to measure cAMP levels and detect the expressions of the isoenzymes PDE4B and PDE4D in human uterine tissue samples. Preterm birth was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The uterine effects of terbutaline alone or in combination with rolipram were tested in vivo. Human myometrial strips from cesarean sections at full-term pregnancy and at preterm labor were stimulated with oxytocin, and the inhibitory effects of theophylline, rolipram and terbutaline were studied. The myometrial accumulation of cAMP in the presence of rolipram and terbutaline was determined by enzyme immunoassay. The expressions of PDE4B and PDE4D proteins were detected by Western blotting. The selective PDE4 inhibitor rolipram was more effective than the non-selective PDE inhibitor theophylline in inhibiting the oxytocin-induced contractions in the human uterus. The uterus-relaxing effects of low doses of terbutaline were markedly potentiated by rolipram, both in rats and in human tissues. The changes in uterine cAMP levels correlated with these results. At preterm labor, PDE4B was the predominant form of PDE4 expressed; at full term, PDE4D was expressed more strongly. A combination of selective PDE4 inhibitors and β(2) -agonists should be considered for the treatment of preterm contractions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953