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Sample records for terbutaline treatment aggravates

  1. Terbutaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant women who took the medication for this purpose. Terbutaline has also caused serious side effects in ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  2. Disregarding Graduated Treatment: Why Transfer Aggravates Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…

  3. Pain in Breast Cancer Treatment: Aggravating Factors and Coping Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pain in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema and the characteristics of aggravating factors and coping mechanisms. The study was conducted in the Clinica Godoy, São Jose do Rio Preto, with a group of 46 women who had undergone surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. The following variables were evaluated: type and length of surgery; number of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sessions; continued feeling of the removed breast (phantom limb, infection, intensity of pain, and factors that improve and worsen the pain. The percentage of events was used for statistical analysis. About half the participants (52.1% performed modified radical surgery, with 91.3% removing only one breast; 82.6% of the participants did not perform breast reconstruction surgery. Insignificant pain was reported by 32.60% of the women and 67.3% said they suffered pain; it was mild in 28.8% of the cases (scale 1–5, moderate in 34.8% (scale 6–9, and severe in 4.3%. The main mechanisms used to cope with pain were painkillers in 41.30% of participants, rest in 21.73%, religious ceremonies in 17.39%, and chatting with friends in 8.69%. In conclusion, many mastectomized patients with lymphedema complain of pain, but pain is often underrecognized and undertreated.

  4. BUDESONIDE AND TERBUTALINE OR TERBUTALINE ALONE IN CHILDREN WITH MILD ASTHMA - EFFECTS ON BRONCHIAL HYPERRESPONSIVENESS AND DIURNAL-VARIATION IN PEAK FLOW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAALKENS, HJ; GERRITSEN, J; KOETER, GH; KROUWELS, FH; VANAALDEREN, WMC; KNOL, K

    The effects of treatment with budesonide (200-mu-g twice daily) and terbutaline (500-mu-g four times daily) has been compared with the effects of placebo and terbutaline in 27 children with mild asthma, aged 7-14 years, in a double blind, randomised placebo controlled study over eight weeks.

  5. Budesonide and terbutaline or terbutaline alone in children with mild asthma: effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and diurnal variation in peak flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens, H. J.; Gerritsen, J.; Koëter, G. H.; Krouwels, F. H.; van Aalderen, W. M.; Knol, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of treatment with budesonide (200 micrograms twice daily) and terbutaline (500 micrograms four times daily) has been compared with the effects of placebo and terbutaline in 27 children with mild asthma, aged 7-14 years, in a double blind, randomised placebo controlled study over eight

  6. Bambuterol: dose response study of a new terbutaline prodrug in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Laursen, L C; Madsen, F

    1986-01-01

    to the plasma terbutaline concentration in each treatment group, so bambuterol produced more prolonged bronchodilatation than treatment with terbutaline. Tremor and cardiac side-effects were most pronounced after administration of bambuterol 0.34 mg/kg. No severe side-effects were seen. Bambuterol produced...

  7. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N

  8. Terbutaline: level the playing field for inhaled β2-agonists by introducing a dosing and urine threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Hostrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Terbutaline, a short-acting β2-agonist similar to salbutamol, is widely used in Europe in the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Unlike salbutamol, terbutaline requires therapeutic use exemption (TUE) for therapeutic inhaled use in competitive sport. There is now compel...

  9. Nifedipine--a calcium channel blocker--in asthmatic patients. Interaction with terbutaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedmyr, K; Löfdahl, C G; Svedmyr, N

    1984-01-01

    Seven asthmatic patients were studied in a single-blind randomized, crossover study after oral administration of 20 mg nifedipine or placebo. Four increasing doses of i.v. terbutaline were then given with 30 min interval. The study was concluded with inhalation of five terbutaline puffs. FEV1 measurements 30 min after intake of nifedipine did not show any difference compared to placebo. During the terbutaline treatment, however, there was a more pronounced bronchodilation after nifedipine than after placebo (P less than 0.05). Terbutaline-induced skeletal muscle tremor was similar after nifedipine and placebo pretreatments. After nifedipine intake there was a decrease of diastolic blood pressure and a reflexogenic tachycardia. Thus, this study showed a small potentiation of the beta 2-adrenoceptor mediated bronchodilation, which is of importance when treating patients with simultaneous asthma and hypertension or angina pectoris.

  10. Acute kidney injury aggravated by treatment initiation with apixaban: Another twist of anticoagulant-related nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Brodsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant-related nephropathy (ARN was initially described in patients on warfarin (as warfarin-related nephropathy and recently in those using dabigatran. Herein, we report clinical history and kidney biopsy findings in a patient on apixaban (Eliquis. Initiation of treatment with apixaban resulted in aggravation of preexisting mild acute kidney injury (AKI. A few days after apixaban therapy, the patient became oligoanuric, and kidney biopsy showed severe acute tubular necrosis with numerous occlusive red blood cell casts. Only one out of 68 glomeruli with open capillary loops had small segmental cellular crescent. Therefore, there was major discrepancy between the degree of glomerular injury and the glomerular hematuria. Considering that the onset of this AKI was associated with apixaban treatment initiation, we propose that this patient had ARN associated with factor Xa inhibitor (apixaban, which has not previously been described. Monitoring of kidney function is recommended after initiation of anticoagulant therapy.

  11. Influence of terbutaline on natural killer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenius-Aarniala, B.; Vesterinen, E.; Kiviranta, K.; Timonen, T.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on the effect of cAMO-inducing agents on NK activity have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of beta-agonists on NK activity in vivo in 15 asthmatics and 3 healthy volunteers. Blood samples of NK activity were taken at regular intervals after placebo and after subcutaneous injection of 7 μg/kg of terbutaline. NK activity was measured by the standard 4-h Chromium 51 release assay against the leukemic line K 562 at a 50:1 effector/target cell ratio. Compared with placebo, terbutaline induced within 30-60 min a significant increase in NK activity which lasted less than 2 h. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effect of long-term beta-agonist treatment on NK activity. (author)

  12. Enantioselective resolution of Rac-terbutaline and evaluation of optically pure R-terbutaline hydrochloride as an efficient anti-asthmatic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng, Huimin; Zhang, Hao; Jayachandra, R; Li, Junxiao; Wu, Jie; Tan, Wen

    2018-06-01

    Terbutaline is a β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among the two isomers of terbutaline (TBT 2), R-isomer was found to be the potent enantiomer in generating therapeutic effect, while S-isomer has been reported to show side effects. In this study, R-terbutaline hydrochloride (R-TBH 6) was synthesized through chiral resolution from the racemic terbutaline sulfate (rac-TBS 1) with 99.9% enantiomeric excess (ee) in good overall yield (53.6%). Further, R-TBH 6 nebulized solution was prepared in half dosage of Bricanyl®, which is a marketed product of racemic terbutaline and evaluated in vitro aerosol performance and in vivo anti-asthmatic effect on guinea pigs via. pulmonary delivery. From the investigation, it is evident that R-TBH 6 nebulized solution of half dosage performed similar fine aerosol characteristics and anti-asthmatic effect with Bricanyl®. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of terbutaline in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiansen, Anders; Eggert, Sarah; Pedersen, Erland

    2013-11-01

    In healthy individuals upwards of 90 % of an injected dose of terbutaline is excreted in the urine. The purpose of this study is to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of terbutaline in patients with severe renal impairment as defined by a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 30 mL/min. Ten patients were included in the study. GFR was measured with Cr-EDTA clearance. They were given an intravenous injection of 0.500 mg of terbutaline. Blood samples were collected at intervals for 60 h and urine samples were collected for 96 h. The concentration of terbutaline in the blood and in the urine was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. In patients with normal renal function the total clearance of terbutaline is 2.23-3 mL/min/kg. In our population the total clearance of terbutaline was found to be 1.72 (SD: 0.49) mL/min/kg of which approximately 15 % (0.25 mL/min/kg) was renal clearance. We calculated a distribution volume at steady state of 0.74 (SD: 0.22) L/kg with a terminal half-life of 7.93 (SD: 4.06) hours. The mean residence time (MRT) was 8.35 (SD: 4.93) hours. In healthy individuals the excretion of terbutaline is foremost renal but this study shows that severe renal impairment does not lower the total clearance of terbutaline to a degree that might be expected from the Cr-EDTA clearance. However, more research is needed to determine if dosage adjustment is warranted in patients with CKD.

  14. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, Atsushi; Takamatsu, Junta; Kubota, Sumihisa; Miyauchi, Akira; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-08-09

    We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)) and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD) patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD) were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients. Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment. In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI) were found for 44 patients (69%). For 15 (23%) of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%). Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%), and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%). The remaining 5 patients (8%) had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351) greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305) lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%). The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of thyrotoxicosis and that it aggravates hyperthyroidism

  15. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyauchi Akira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients. Methods Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment. Results In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI were found for 44 patients (69%. For 15 (23% of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%. Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%, and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%. The remaining 5 patients (8% had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351 greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305 lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%. Conclusion The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of

  16. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)) and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD) patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD) were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients. Methods Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment. Results In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI) were found for 44 patients (69%). For 15 (23%) of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%). Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%), and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%). The remaining 5 patients (8%) had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351) greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305) lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%). Conclusion The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of thyrotoxicosis and

  17. Terbutaline accumulates in blood and urine following daily therapeutic inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nanna; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Dyreborg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ×d) of inhaled terbutaline. After inhalation of terbutaline at each trial, subjects performed 90 min of bike ergometer exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption after which they stayed inactive. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after inhalation of terbutaline. Samples were analyzed by high...

  18. Vibrational spectroscopic study of terbutaline hemisulphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. R. H.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Kendrick, J.; Scowen, I. J.

    2009-05-01

    The Raman spectrum of terbutaline hemisulphate is reported for the first time, and molecular assignments are proposed on the basis of ab initio BLYP DFT calculations with a 6-31G* basis set and vibrational frequencies predicted within the quasi-harmonic approximation; these predictions compare favourably with the observed vibrational spectra. Comparison with previously published infrared data explains several spectral features. The results from this study provide data that can be used for the preparative process monitoring of terbutaline hemisulphate, an important β 2 agonist drug in various dosage forms and its interaction with excipients and other components.

  19. Formulation and evaluation and terbutaline sulphate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the use of low rugosity lactose, product of controlled crystallization of this carrier, in the formulation of terbutaline sulphate and beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder inhalers. The deposition patterns obtained with inhalation mixtures consisting of the modified lactose and each of the micronised drugs ...

  20. Terbutaline depot tablets in childhood asthma. A double-blind controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N; Høst, A; Ljungholm, K

    1985-01-01

    Thirty children 8-13 years old, with perennial asthma and with a reversibility of greater than or equal to 20% in lung function (FEV1) were given a sustained-release preparation of terbutaline sulphate 5 mg twice a day and ordinary tablets 2.5 mg three times a day; each treatment lasted 1 week...

  1. Effect of inhaled terbutaline on substrate utilization and 300-kcal time trial performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Karlsson, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    . There was no difference between PLA and TER in net muscle glycogen utilization and lactate accumulation during the time trial. IMTG did not change with treatment or exercise. PDH-E1α Ser(293) and Ser(300) phosphorylation were lower (P...In a randomized double-blind crossover design, we investigated the effect of the beta2-agonist terbutaline on endurance performance and substrate utilization in nine moderately trained males (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max): 58.9±3.1 mL min(-1) kg(-1)). Subjects performed 60 min of submaximal...... exercise (65-70% of VO2max) immediately followed by a 300-kcal time trial with inhalation of either terbutaline (TER) or placebo (PLA). Pulmonary gas exchange was measured during the submaximal exercise and muscle biopsies were collected before and after the exercise bouts. Time trial performance...

  2. Of Malthus and Methuselah: does longevity treatment aggravate global catastrophic risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Global catastrophic risk is a term that refers to the risk of the occurrence of an event that kills at least millions of people across several continents. While it has been argued by a number of scholars that one major potential risk comes from technology, the obscure nature of future technologies makes it difficult to utilize traditional probabilistic risk for the meaningful study of these risks. This article describes an alternative approach and applies it to a research program that has attracted a considerable amount of resources recently: namely longevity research. The aim of this research is to delay or reverse the ageing process. This article argues that this research program is much more risky or less beneficial than its proponents argue. In particular, they tend to underestimate the concerns associated with the potentially drastic population growth that longevity treatment could cause. The ethical benefit often ascribed to longevity treatment is that such treatment would add more subjective life-years that are worth living. However, in light of contemporary environmental problems, such an increase of the human population might be reckless. Drastically reducing fertility to reduce risks associated with environmental stress would make the benefits of such technology much less compelling.

  3. Of Malthus and Methuselah: does longevity treatment aggravate global catastrophic risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebari, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Global catastrophic risk is a term that refers to the risk of the occurrence of an event that kills at least millions of people across several continents. While it has been argued by a number of scholars that one major potential risk comes from technology, the obscure nature of future technologies makes it difficult to utilize traditional probabilistic risk for the meaningful study of these risks. This article describes an alternative approach and applies it to a research program that has attracted a considerable amount of resources recently: namely longevity research. The aim of this research is to delay or reverse the ageing process. This article argues that this research program is much more risky or less beneficial than its proponents argue. In particular, they tend to underestimate the concerns associated with the potentially drastic population growth that longevity treatment could cause. The ethical benefit often ascribed to longevity treatment is that such treatment would add more subjective life-years that are worth living. However, in light of contemporary environmental problems, such an increase of the human population might be reckless. Drastically reducing fertility to reduce risks associated with environmental stress would make the benefits of such technology much less compelling. (invited comment)

  4. Streptozotocin Aggravated Osteopathology and Insulin Induced Osteogenesis Through Co-treatment with Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Yagang; Wang, Yan; Mao, Weixian; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-12-01

    The role of insulin in the mechanism underlying the excessive fluoride that causes skeletal lesion was studied. The in vitro bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) collected from Kunming mice were exposed to varying concentrations of fluoride with or without insulin. The cell viability and early differentiation of BMSC co-treated with fluoride and insulin were measured by using cell counting kit-8 and Gomori modified calcium-cobalt method, respectively. We further investigated the in vivo effects of varying dose of fluoride on rats co-treated with streptozotocin (STZ). Wistar rats were divided into six groups which included normal control, 10 mg fluoride/kg day group, 20 mg fluoride/kg day group, STZ control, STZ+10 mg fluoride/kg day group, and STZ+20 mg fluoride/kg day group. The rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) by gavage with water at doses 10 and 20 mg fluoride/kg day for 2 months. In a period of one month, half of rats in every group were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) once through intraperitoneal injection at 52 mg/kg body weight. The serum glucose, HbA1c, and insulin were determined. Bone mineral content and insulin release were assessed. The results showed insulin combined with fluoride stimulated BMSC cell viability in vitro. The bone mineral content reduced in rats treated with higher dose of fluoride and decreased immensely in rat co-treated with fluoride and STZ. Similarly, a combination treatment of a high dose of fluoride and STZ decreased insulin sensitivity and activity. To sum up, these data indicated fluoride influenced insulin release, activity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, the insulin state in vivo interfered in the osteogenesis in turn and implied there was a close relation between insulin and bone pathogenesis in the mechanism of fluoride toxicity.

  5. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Aldridge, Justin E.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides

  6. Erosive arthritis and hepatic granuloma formation induced by peptidoglycan polysaccharide in rats is aggravated by prasugrel treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Analia E; Rico, Mario C; Liverani, Elisabetta; DeLa Cadena, Raul A; Bray, Paul F; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2013-01-01

    Administration of the thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, clopidogrel, increased the erosive arthritis induced by peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS) in rats or by injection of the arthritogenic K/BxN serum in mice. To determine if the detrimental effects are caused exclusively by clopidogrel, we evaluated prasugrel, a third-generation thienopyridine pro-drug, that contrary to clopidogrel is mostly metabolized into its active metabolite in the intestine. Prasugrel effects were examined on the PG-PS-induced arthritis rat model. Erosive arthritis was induced in Lewis rats followed by treatment with prasugrel for 21 days. Prasugrel treated arthritic animals showed a significant increase in the inflammatory response, compared with untreated arthritic rats, in terms of augmented macroscopic joint diameter associated with significant signs of inflammation, histomorphometric measurements of the hind joints and elevated platelet number. Moreover, fibrosis at the pannus, assessed by immunofluorescence of connective tissue growth factor, was increased in arthritic rats treated with prasugrel. In addition to the arthritic manifestations, hepatomegaly, liver granulomas and giant cell formation were observed after PG-PS induction and even more after prasugrel exposure. Cytokine plasma levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, MIP1 alpha, MCP1, IL-17 and RANTES were increased in arthritis-induced animals. IL-10 plasma levels were significantly decreased in animals treated with prasugrel. Overall, prasugrel enhances inflammation in joints and liver of this animal model. Since prasugrel metabolites inhibit neutrophil function ex-vivo and the effects of both clopidogrel and prasugrel metabolites on platelets are identical, we conclude that the thienopyridines metabolites might exert non-platelet effects on other immune cells to aggravate inflammation.

  7. Erosive arthritis and hepatic granuloma formation induced by peptidoglycan polysaccharide in rats is aggravated by prasugrel treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia E Garcia

    Full Text Available Administration of the thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonist, clopidogrel, increased the erosive arthritis induced by peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS in rats or by injection of the arthritogenic K/BxN serum in mice. To determine if the detrimental effects are caused exclusively by clopidogrel, we evaluated prasugrel, a third-generation thienopyridine pro-drug, that contrary to clopidogrel is mostly metabolized into its active metabolite in the intestine. Prasugrel effects were examined on the PG-PS-induced arthritis rat model. Erosive arthritis was induced in Lewis rats followed by treatment with prasugrel for 21 days. Prasugrel treated arthritic animals showed a significant increase in the inflammatory response, compared with untreated arthritic rats, in terms of augmented macroscopic joint diameter associated with significant signs of inflammation, histomorphometric measurements of the hind joints and elevated platelet number. Moreover, fibrosis at the pannus, assessed by immunofluorescence of connective tissue growth factor, was increased in arthritic rats treated with prasugrel. In addition to the arthritic manifestations, hepatomegaly, liver granulomas and giant cell formation were observed after PG-PS induction and even more after prasugrel exposure. Cytokine plasma levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, MIP1 alpha, MCP1, IL-17 and RANTES were increased in arthritis-induced animals. IL-10 plasma levels were significantly decreased in animals treated with prasugrel. Overall, prasugrel enhances inflammation in joints and liver of this animal model. Since prasugrel metabolites inhibit neutrophil function ex-vivo and the effects of both clopidogrel and prasugrel metabolites on platelets are identical, we conclude that the thienopyridines metabolites might exert non-platelet effects on other immune cells to aggravate inflammation.

  8. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  9. Effectiveness of terbutaline pump for the prevention of preterm birth. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Gaudet

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous terbutaline (SQ terbutaline infusion by pump is used in pregnant women as a prolonged (beyond 48-72 h maintenance tocolytic following acute treatment of preterm contractions. The effectiveness and safety of this maintenance tocolysis have not been clearly established. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous (SQ terbutaline infusion by pump for maintenance tocolysis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, post-marketing surveillance data and grey literature were searched up to April 2011 for relevant experimental and observational studies. Two randomized trials, one nonrandomized trial, and 11 observational studies met inclusion criteria. Non-comparative studies were considered only for pump-related harms. We excluded case-reports but sought FDA summaries of post-marketing surveillance data. Non-English records without an English abstract were excluded. Evidence of low strength from observational studies with risk of bias favored SQ terbutaline pump for the outcomes of delivery at <32 and <37 weeks, mean days of pregnancy prolongation, and neonatal death. Observational studies of medium to high risk of bias also demonstrated benefit for other surrogate outcomes, such as birthweight and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. Several cases of maternal deaths and maternal cardiovascular events have been reported in patients receiving terbutaline tocolysis.Although evidence suggests that pump therapy may be beneficial as maintenance tocolysis, our confidence in its validity and reproducibility is low, suggesting that its use should be limited to the research setting. Concerns regarding safety of therapy persist.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of oral and inhaled terbutaline after exercise in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreborg, Anders; Krogh, Nanna; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    that compared 10 mg oral terbutaline with 4 mg inhaled dry powder terbutaline. During each trial, subjects performed 90 min of bike ergometer exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. Blood (0-4 h) and urine (0-24 h) samples were collected before and after administration of terbutaline. Samples were...

  11. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören; Nordvall, S Lennart; Pedroletti, Christophe; Bengtsson, Thomas; Johannes-Hellberg, Ingegerd; Rosenborg, Johan

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis) 4.5 microg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl) 500 microg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. Formoterol and terbutaline had significant beta2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration and PR interval, the systemic effects were significantly more pronounced with terbutaline than with formoterol. Thus, mean minimum plasma potassium, was suppressed from 3.56 (95% confidence interval, CI: 3.48-3.65) mmol l(-1) on the day of no treatment to 2.98 (CI: 2.90-3.08) after 10 x F4.5 and 2.70 (CI: 2.61-2.78) mmol l(-1) after 10 x T500, and maximum Q-Tc (heart rate corrected Q-T interval [Bazett's formula]) was prolonged from 429 (CI: 422-435) ms on the day of no treatment, to 455 (CI: 448-462) ms after 10 x F4.5 and 470 (CI: 463-476) ms after 10 x T500. Estimates of relative dose potency indicated that F4.5 microg had the same systemic activity as the clinically less effective dose of 250 microg terbutaline. The duration of systemic effects differed marginally between treatments. Spontaneously reported adverse events (most frequently tremor) were fewer with formoterol (78% of the children) than with terbutaline (95%). A serious adverse event occurred after inhalation of 45 microg formoterol over the 1 h dosing time, that prompted the extension of dosing time to 2.5 h. Multiple inhalations over 2.5 h of

  12. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6–11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören; Nordvall, S Lennart; Pedroletti, Christophe; Bengtsson, Thomas; Johannes-Hellberg, Ingegerd; Rosenborg, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. Methods Twenty boys and girls (6–11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis®) 4.5 µg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl®) 500 µg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler®) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. Results Formoterol and terbutaline had significant β2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration and PR interval, the systemic effects were significantly more pronounced with terbutaline than with formoterol. Thus, mean minimum plasma potassium, was suppressed from 3.56 (95% confidence interval, CI: 3.48–3.65) mmol l−1 on the day of no treatment to 2.98 (CI: 2.90–3.08) after 10 × F4.5 and 2.70 (CI: 2.61–2.78) mmol l−1 after 10 × T500, and maximum Q-Tc (heart rate corrected Q-T interval [Bazett's formula]) was prolonged from 429 (CI: 422–435) ms on the day of no treatment, to 455 (CI: 448–462) ms after 10 × F4.5 and 470 (CI: 463–476) ms after 10 × T500. Estimates of relative dose potency indicated that F4.5 µg had the same systemic activity as the clinically less effective dose of 250 µg terbutaline. The duration of systemic effects differed marginally between treatments. Spontaneously reported adverse events (most frequently tremor) were fewer with formoterol (78% of the children) than with terbutaline (95%). A serious adverse event occurred after inhalation of 45 µg formoterol over the 1 h dosing time, that prompted the extension of dosing time to 2.5 h

  13. High-dose inhaled terbutaline increases muscle strength and enhances maximal sprint performance in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. After administration of inhaled terbutaline (30 × 0.5 mg) or placebo, subjects' maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m.quadriceps was measured. After MVC, subjects performed a 30-s Wingate test. Sixty minutes following the Wingate test......, subjects exercised for 10 min at 80 % of [Formula: see text] and completed a 100-kcal time trial. Aerobic contribution was determined during the Wingate test by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, plasma terbutaline, lactate, glucose, and K(+) were measured. RESULTS: Inhalation of 15 mg terbutaline resulted...... = 0.019) and 3.3 ± 1.0 % (P = 0.009) higher for terbutaline than placebo. Net accumulation of plasma lactate was higher (P = 0.003) for terbutaline than placebo during the Wingate test, whereas [Formula: see text] above baseline was unchanged by terbutaline (P = 0.882). Time-trial performance...

  14. Effect of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline on cytokines in children with bronchopneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Che

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children and the effect on cytokines. Methods: A total of 70 children with bronchopneumonia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given anti-infection, oxygen inhalation, cough and asthma relieving, acidosis correcting, mask+oxygen driven aerosol inhalation of budesonide (0.5 mg/time and terbutaline (1.0 mg/time, with an oxygen flow rate of 5-7 L/min, 5-10 min every time, twice a day. On the above basis, the patients in the study group were given additional ipratropium bromide (1.0 mg/time. After 7-day treatment, the efficacy was evaluated. The levels of IL-6, TNF-毩, CRP, and WBC before and after treatment were detected. PEF, FVC, and FEV1 before and after treatment were detected. The improvement of clinical symptoms and signs, and the occurrence of adverse reactions were observed. Results: The levels of IL-6, TNF-毩, CRP, and WBC counting after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. Conclusions: Ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children can rapidly relieve the symptoms, and improve the cytokine level, without obvious adverse reactions; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  15. Terbutaline versus salbutamol for suppression of preterm labor: A randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motazedine, Shabhodokht

    2010-01-01

    Preterm labor (PTL) is a common medical problem during pregnancies and is associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity. Beta-adrenergic agonists are among the most commonly used tocolytic agents. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness, safety and adverse effects of terbutaline with those of salbutamol in the prolongation of pregnancy beyond 48 hours and until 37 weeks of gestation. Patients and Two hundred women with PTL were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous terbutaline (250 μg) or intravenous salbutamol (0.1 mg) followed by oral terbutaline (20 mg/d) or oral salbutamol (24 mg/d) as maintenance. The efficacy, side effects and complications after 48 hours and until 37 weeks of gestation were analyzed and compared.There was no significant difference between the two groups in success rate within 48 hours (P= .091). Gestational age at delivery (P=.031) and the number of days for which the gestation was prolonged (P=.024) were significantly higher in those receiving terbutaline. Adverse effects, including tachycardia (P=.007) and anxiety (P=.006), were experienced more in the salbutamol group. Birth weight was significantly lower in the salbutamol group (P=.001).Terbutaline provided more effective tocolysis with fewer adverse effects and a better neonatal outcome. However, terbutaline and salbutamol are equally effective in the first 48 hours (Author).

  16. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour for reducing adverse neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawanpaiboon, Saifon; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-03-23

    After successful inhibition of threatened preterm labour women are at high risk of recurrent preterm labour. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy has been used to reduce adverse neonatal outcomes. This review replaces an earlier Cochrane review, published in 2002, which is no longer being updated by the team. To determine the effectiveness of terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing terbutaline pump therapy with alternative therapy, placebo, or no therapy after arrest of threatened preterm labour. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and then extracted data as eligible for inclusion in qualitative and quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). Four studies were included with a total of 234 women randomised. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was mixed; two studies provided very little information on study methods, there was high sample attrition in one study and in three studies the risk of performance bias was high. We found no strong evidence that terbutaline maintenance therapy offered any advantages over saline placebo or oral terbutaline maintenance therapy in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes by prolonging pregnancy among women with arrested preterm labour. The mean difference (MD) for gestational age at birth was -0.14 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.66 to 1.38) for terbutaline pump therapy compared with saline placebo pump for two trials combined. One trial reported a risk ratio (RR) of 1.17 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.73) for preterm birth (less than 37 completed weeks) and a RR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.84) of very preterm birth (less than 34 completed weeks) for terbutaline pump compared with saline placebo pump. We found no evidence that terbutaline pump therapy was

  17. Chemoradioprotection of the rat parotid gland by the beta-sympathomimetic agonist, terbutaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinesi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of the beta-adrenergic stimulator known as terbutaline in providing increased radioresistance to the normal, (i.e. nonmalignant) rat parotid salivary gland. Radiation damage was assessed by gland weight and microscopic examination of saline-treated and terbutaline-treated groups during days 1 to 10 and at 60 days post-irradiation. Terbutaline-treated groups exhibited both a sparing of gland weight loss as well as better preservation of glandular microstructure at all periods examined post-irradiation. Radioprotection of human parotid glands would provide relief from the xerostomia and its severe sequelae which often follow radiotherapy to the head and neck region in cancer patients. Terbutaline, with its preferential affinity for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor may provide a therapeutic advantage without the cardiac effects which normally accompany less specific (beta-1 + beta-2) adrenergic stimulation. In addition to providing a model for clinical protection of the salivary glands, this demonstration of protection of the rat parotid may also serve as a model for investigation of the mechanisms of action of terbutaline and other radioprotective compounds

  18. Developmental exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos: pharmacotherapy of preterm labor and an environmental neurotoxicant converge on serotonergic systems in neonatal rat brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, Justin E.; Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental exposure to unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar neurobehavioral outcomes. We examined the effects of developmental exposure to terbutaline, a tocolytic β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphate pesticide, on serotonin (5HT) systems. Treatments were chosen to parallel periods typical of human developmental exposures, terbutaline (10 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF (5 mg/kg) on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45, comparing each agent alone as well as sequential administration of both. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited similar alterations in factors that are critical to the function of the 5HT synapse: 5HT 1A receptors, 5HT 2 receptors, and the presynaptic 5HT transporter (5HTT). Either agent elicited global increases in 5HT receptors and the 5HTT in brain regions possessing 5HT cell bodies (midbrain, brainstem) as well as in the hippocampus, which contains 5HT projections. For both terbutaline and CPF, males were affected more than females, although there were some regional disparities in the sex selectivity between the two agents. Both altered 5HT receptor-mediated cell signaling, suppressing stimulatory effects on adenylyl cyclase and enhancing inhibitory effects. When animals were exposed sequentially to both agents, the outcomes were no more than additive and, for many effects, less than additive, suggesting convergence of the two agents on a common set of developmental mechanisms. Our results indicate that 5HT systems represent a target for otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens

  19. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO_2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770 mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660 mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO_2. The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645 mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10–160 nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25 nM (based on 3S_b/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Graphical abstract: A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A composite electrode was prepared using nanoparticles of ZrO_2 and MWCNTs. • The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of terbutaline • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 2.25 nM. • The proposed electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long

  1. Genetics Home Reference: potassium-aggravated myotonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aggravated by eating potassium-rich foods such as bananas and potatoes. Stiffness occurs in skeletal muscles throughout the body. Potassium-aggravated myotonia ranges in severity from mild episodes ...

  2. Prolonged utilization of proton pump inhibitors in patients with ischemic and valvular heart disease is associated with surgical treatments, weight loss and aggravates anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Marko; Zulj, Marinko; Persic, Viktor; Medved, Igor; Zekanovic, Drazen; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2016-09-15

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the commonest drugs used nowadays. The aim of our study was to analyze prolonged utilization of proton pump inhibitors in medical therapy of patients with ischemic and valvular heart disease. Secondly, profile of utilization was scrutinized to patient characteristics and type of cardiovascular treatments. The study included consecutive patients scheduled for cardiovascular rehabilitation 2-6months after index cardiovascular treatment. Two hundred ninety-four patients (n=294/604; 48.7%) have been using proton pump inhibitor in their therapy after index cardiovascular treatment. Cardiovascular treatments were powerfully connected with utilization of PPIs; surgery 5.77 (95%-confidence intervals [CI]: 4.05-8.22; pvalvular heart disease utilized proton pump inhibitor in prolonged courses. Prolonged courses of PPIs were connected with existence and worsening of red blood count indexes, older age, lesser weight of patients and underutilization of cardioprotective drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative effects of acute O/sub 2/ breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschopp, J M; Gabathuler, J; Righetti, A; Junod, A F

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O/sub 2/(O/sub 2/) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O/sub 2/ breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exercise. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established.

  4. Comparative effects of acute O2 breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, J.M.; Gabathuler, J.; Righetti, A.; Junod, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O 2 (O 2 ) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O 2 breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exersice. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established. (author)

  5. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González

    2010-09-01

    a low birth weight. Most of patients were treated with luminotherapy (90,17%. CONCLUSION. The severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a health problem. Aggravating factors include the prematurity and the low birth weight. Luminotherapy is an effective therapeutic measure for its treatment.

  6. Spectrophotometric Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate and Tetracycline Hydrochloride via ion pair Complex Formation Using Eosin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Dhamra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 μg/mL, R2 were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were ≤ 0.72 and ≤ 0.19 (n=5 with average recovery % 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD were 0.030 and 0.613 μg/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.103 and 2.00 μg/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169  103 and 6.347  103 l. mol-1. cm-1 and the relative standard deviation values ≤0.720 and ≤ 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride via ion pair complex formation using eosin y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamra, M.Y.; Sabha, T.N.A.; Ghabsha, T.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 micro g/mL, R/sub 2/ were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were 0.72 and 0.19 (n=5) with average recovery 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.030 and 0.613 micro g/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.103 and 2.00 micro g/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169 10/sup 3/ and 6.347 10/sup 3/l. mol/sup -1/. Cm/sup -1/ and the relative standard deviation values 0.720 and 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms. (author)

  8. Potassium and magnesium distribution, ECG changes, and ventricular ectopic beats during beta 2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveskov, C; Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intravenous (i.v.) terbutaline on potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, ECG changes, and prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover. Subjects received either placebo or terbu......OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intravenous (i.v.) terbutaline on potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, ECG changes, and prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover. Subjects received either placebo......-potassium pump number. Urinary excretion of potassium and magnesium. ECG changes (T-wave and QTC interval) and the number of ventricular ectopic beats. MAIN RESULTS: Terbutaline produced an immediate decrease in serum potassium level from 4.17 (4.04 to 4.30) mmol/L to a nadir of 3.32 (3.06 to 3.58) mmol/L (p ... of sodium-potassium pumps. Furthermore, terbutaline induced changes in ECG with a highly significant lengthening of the QTc interval but with an unchanged number of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects....

  9. A validated HPTLC method for determination of terbutaline sulfate in biological samples: Application to pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Faiyazuddin, Md.; Rauf, Abdul; Ahmad, Niyaz; Ahmad, Sayeed; Iqbal, Zeenat; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Khar, Roop K.; Ahmad, Farhan J.

    2011-01-01

    Terbutaline sulfate (TBS) was assayed in biological samples by validated HPTLC method. Densitometric analysis of TBS was carried out at 366 nm on precoated TLC aluminum plates with silica gel 60F254 as a stationary phase and chloroform–methanol (9.0:1.0, v/v) as a mobile phase. TBS was well resolved at RF 0.34 ± 0.02. In all matrices, the calibration curve appeared linear (r2 ⩾ 0.9943) in the tested range of 100–1000 ng spot−1 with a limit of quantification of 18.35 ng spot−1. Drug recovery f...

  10. In vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, detomidine, xylazine, butorphanol, terbutaline, isoproterenol, and dantrolene on smooth and skeletal muscles of the equine esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Eades, Susan C; Hosgood, Giselle L; Moore, Rustin M

    2002-12-01

    To characterize the in vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, butorphanol, detomidine, dantrolene, isoproterenol, and terbutaline on skeletal and smooth muscle from the equine esophagus. 14 adult horses without digestive tract disease. Circular and longitudinal strips from the skeletal and smooth muscle of the esophagus were suspended in tissue baths, connected to force-displacement transducers interfaced with a physiograph, and electrical field stimulation was applied. Cumulative concentration-response curves were generated for oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, detomidine, butorphanol, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and dantrolene. Mean maximum twitch amplitude for 3 contractions/min was recorded and compared with predrug-vehicle values for the skeletal muscle segments, and area under the curve (AUC) for 3 contractions/min was compared with predrug-vehicle values for the smooth muscle segments. No drugs caused a significant change in skeletal muscle response. In smooth muscle, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin significantly reduced AUC in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum reduction in AUC was 69% at 10(-4) M for isoproterenol, 63% at 10(-6) M for terbutaline, and 64% at 10(-4) M for oxytocin. Isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin cause relaxation of the smooth muscle portion of the esophagus. The clinical relaxant effects on the proximal portion of the esophagus reported of drugs such as oxytocin, detomidine, and acepromazine may be the result of centrally mediated mechanisms.

  11. Investigation of the causes of clinical symptom aggravation in process of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Chen-hua

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the causes of aggravation of microcirculation disorders in the process of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase and the clinical outcomes. Methods The clinical data of the aggravated signs and symptoms of 13 cases treated by alteplase were reported, and the onset characteristics and clinical outcomes were analysed to summarize emergency experiences. Results There were 13 patients with stenosis of intracranial large arteries occurred perforating branch infarctions caused by the blocking of carried arteries (8 cases in internal carotid system, 5 cases in vertebral-basilar system. In the process of thrombolytic therapy, main aggravated presentations including cortical ischemic symptom, quadriplegia, exacerbated disturbance of consciousness were seen. Imaging examinations showed multiple new petechial ischemic foci in cortex and watershed region or increasing of infarct foci in cerebellum and brain stem. The prognosis was favorable after expectant treatment. NIHSS score was 8.69 ± 3.42 at 24 h after treatment, and mRS score was 0.94 ±0.37 at 3 month-follow-up. Neurologic deficit and quality of life were evidently improved. Conclusion In the course of intravenous thrombolytic therapy with alteplase. Aggravated clinical signs and symptoms may be related to various factors. Emboli disintegration inducing microcirculation disorder is inferred to be the main cause. For patients presenting aggravated signs and symptoms in thrombolysis process, favorable outcomes may occur as long as intensive care and timely treatment are performed.

  12. Preparation of a Sustained-Release Nebulized Aerosol of R-terbutaline Hydrochloride Liposome and Evaluation of Its Anti-asthmatic Effects via Pulmonary Delivery in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingrui; Zhan, Shuyao; Liu, Qing; Su, Hao; Dai, Xi; Wang, Hai; Beng, Huimin; Tan, Wen

    2018-01-01

    An aerosolized liposome formulation for the pulmonary delivery of an anti-asthmatic medication was developed. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for a sustained bronchodilator response. Liposomes are known for their sustained drug release capability and thus would be a suitable delivery system for prolonging the therapeutic effect of anti-asthmatic medication. Liposomes prepared by thin film hydration were loaded with a model drug, R-terbutaline hydrochloride(R-TBH), using an ammonium sulfate-induced transmembrane electrochemical gradient. This technique provided an encapsulation efficiency of up to 71.35% and yielded R-TBH liposomes with a particle size of approximately 145 ± 20 nm. According to stability studies, these R-TBH liposomes should be stored at 4°C before usage. Compared to R-TBH solution, which showed 90.84% release within 8 h, liposomal R-TBH had a cumulative release of 73.53% at 37°C over 192 h. A next generation impactor (NGI) was used to analyze the particle size distribution in the lungs of R-TBH liposome aerosol in vitro at 5°C. The therapeutic efficacy of the nebulized aerosol of the R-TBH liposomes was assessed via pulmonary delivery in guinea pigs. The results showed that, compared to the R-TBH solution group, the R-TBH liposome group had a prolonged anti-asthma effect.

  13. Maternal Stress Combined with Terbutaline Leads to Comorbid Autistic-Like Behavior and Epilepsy in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercum, Florencia M; Rodgers, Krista M; Benison, Alex M; Smith, Zachariah Z; Taylor, Jeremy; Kornreich, Elise; Grabenstatter, Heidi L; Dudek, F Edward; Barth, Daniel S

    2015-12-02

    Human autism is comorbid with epilepsy, yet, little is known about the causes or risk factors leading to this combined neurological syndrome. Although genetic predisposition can play a substantial role, our objective was to investigate whether maternal environmental factors alone could be sufficient. We examined the independent and combined effects of maternal stress and terbutaline (used to arrest preterm labor), autism risk factors in humans, on measures of both autistic-like behavior and epilepsy in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to mild stress (foot shocks at 1 week intervals) throughout pregnancy. Pups were injected with terbutaline on postnatal days 2-5. Either maternal stress or terbutaline resulted in autistic-like behaviors in offspring (stereotyped/repetitive behaviors and deficits in social interaction or communication), but neither resulted in epilepsy. However, their combination resulted in severe behavioral symptoms, as well as spontaneous recurrent convulsive seizures in 45% and epileptiform spikes in 100%, of the rats. Hippocampal gliosis (GFAP reactivity) was correlated with both abnormal behavior and spontaneous seizures. We conclude that prenatal insults alone can cause comorbid autism and epilepsy but it requires a combination of teratogens to achieve this; testing single teratogens independently and not examining combinatorial effects may fail to reveal key risk factors in humans. Moreover, astrogliosis may be common to both teratogens. This new animal model of combined autism and epilepsy permits the experimental investigation of both the cellular mechanisms and potential intervention strategies for this debilitating comorbid syndrome. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515894-09$15.00/0.

  14. Inhibition of common cold-induced aggravation of childhood asthma by leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Fukuda, Hironobu; Abe, Toshio; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Yumi; Kanno, Noriko; Arisaka, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged cold and aggravation of asthma were significantly higher in patients aged cold-induced aggravation was significantly less effective in patients aged cold, asthma control was significantly more effective for those treated with leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) compared to treatment without LTRAs. Asthma control did not differ between patients who did or did not take inhaled corticosteroids or long-acting β2 stimulants. These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  15. Pregnancy aggravates proteinuria in subclinical glomerulonephritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Poelman, RT; Schuiling, GA

    Because subclinical renal disease may be aggravated during pregnancy-as reflected in the occurrence of proteinuria, for example-we investigated whether a subclinical glomerulonephritis (SG) in the non-pregnant rat (passive Heymann nephritis), a condition without proteinuria, is aggravated when the

  16. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. METHODS: Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxi...

  17. β1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hypoxia Aggravates Inactivity-Related Muscle Wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg, (ii bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P < 0.001 was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027. Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47. Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017 and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P < 0.001 muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P < 0.05. Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

  19. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over the other? ... findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. ... Keywords: Context, Culture, Structures, Systems ...

  20. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Hostrup; Onslev, Johan; Jessen, Søren Kaare

    2017-01-01

    of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K+ . Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na+ ,K+ ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 n......M with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na+ ,K+ ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline...

  1. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, M.; Jessen, S.; Onslev, J.

    2017-01-01

    of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K+. Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na+,K+ ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 n......M with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na+,K+ ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline...

  2. [Migraine type childhood headache aggravated by sexual abuse: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleağasi, Hakan; Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Kar, Hakan

    2009-04-01

    Although the vast majority of chronic headache is idiopathic in origin, child abuse can be a very rare cause of paroxysmal headaches in children. The aim of this report was to present a case of migraine headache aggravated after sexual abuse, which did not respond to treatment. An 11-year-old girl admitted to the outpatient department of the Neurology Clinic with headache complaint for the past two years. Neurological examination, neuroimaging and laboratory tests were normal. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II criteria, the headache was diagnosed as migraine without aura and treatment as prophylaxis was planned. Her headache did not respond to treatment, so she was consulted with the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and diagnosed as major depressive disorder. During one of the psychological interviews, she confessed that she had been sexually abused by her mother's boyfriend for two years. After this confession and punishment of the abuser, her headache improved dramatically. The prevalence of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood has been estimated between 13% and 27%, and these children may suffer chronic pain, headache or depression. Sexual abuse has been strongly associated with the migraine-depression phenotype when abuse first occurred before the age of 12 years. Despite the high prevalence of abuse, many physicians do not routinely ask about abuse history. In conclusion, child abuse must be kept in mind in intractable childhood headache. A multidisciplinary approach with the Departments of Forensic Sciences and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and detailed psychiatric evaluation should be useful in these cases.

  3. Aggravation of dyspnea in stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients following stereotactic body radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan, Merete; Traberg Hansen, Anders; Petersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    the association of dose-volume histogram parameters with changes in dyspnea. The study concerns 28 medically inoperable stage I NSCLC patients that received SBRT at our department between 2000 and 2003. A central dose of 45 Gy/3 fractions was delivered in 5-8 days. WHO toxicity scoring of dyspnea...... consistent temporal variations of dyspnea after SBRT. We identified COPD as the factor showing the closest association with aggravation of dyspnea. The observed aggravation of dyspnea following SBRT reflects habitual exacerbations of COPD rather than treatment-related toxicity. Concern about pulmonary...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Maillard Reaction Products of Salbutamol and Terbutaline with Lactose and Development and Validation of an LC Method for the Determination of Salbutamol and Terbutaline in the Presence of These Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa A. El-Zaher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary amines, both salbutamol (SLB and terbutaline (TRB react by Maillard reaction (MR with lactose, which is added as an inactive ingredient in tablets. The Amadori rearrangement products were synthesized, isolated, and characterized by mass spectrometry. In addition, a simple, selective, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC method was developed and validated for the determination of SLB and TRB in tablets, each in the presence of its MR impurity. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Symmetry® Waters C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm using a mobile phase consisting of 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid to acetonitrile (90:10, v/v at a flow rate of 0.7 mL minute −1 . Quantitation was achieved using UV detection at 230 nm. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable for the determination of SLB and TRB in the concentration range of 0.2-60 and 0.5-80 μg mL −1 , respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SLB and TRB in bulk and in their tablets.

  5. Is Lymphostasis an Aggravant of Lipedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old female patient reported that a characteristic of her family was ‘fat legs’ with postural edema since adolescence. Over the years the patient had been gaining weight with an increase in fatty tissue in the legs and arms. At the age of 24 years she started taking oral contraceptives and noted worse swelling and pain in the lower limbs. She was advised to suspend the use of the contraceptives and to start using a transdermal lymphatic system drug and physical exercise which partially improved the symptoms. Three years ago she noted that the swelling was increasing without improvement and sought a physician who raised the hypothesis of lymphedema and referred her to a specialized center. Lipedema and lymphedema was diagnosed in the physical examination. A 3-day intensive treatment program (8 h daily was started for lymphedema which included manual and mechanical lymph drainage associated with short-strech (<50 mm Hg compression stockings custom made using a cotton-polyester fabric. Volumetry and perimetry were performed before starting and after the treatment and the legs were photographed. Volumetric and perimetric reductions were obtained suggesting the involvement of regional cutaneous lymphostasis in this disease.

  6. Inducing and Aggravating Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhiyatam Mardhiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (subsequently abbreviated as GERD is a disease commonly found in the community. Several factors have been recognized as inducing and aggravating factors of GERD symptoms such as older age, female gender, obesity, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, certain diet and poor eating habit like eating fatty, spicy, and acid food.

  7. Beyond Bullying: Aggravating Elements of Peer Victimization Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry; Mitchell, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify features of peer victimization that aggravate negative outcomes in children. The features that were assessed include "power imbalance," a commonly used criterion in defining bullying, and 5 other characteristics: injury, weapon involvement, Internet involvement, sexual content, and bias content. Three…

  8. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  9. Two-week inhalation of budesonide increases muscle Na,K ATPase content but not endurance in response to terbutaline in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, M; Jessen, S; Onslev, J; Clausen, T; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-07-01

    While chronic systemic administration of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na + ,K + ATPase content, such effect is unexplored after therapeutic inhalation. We investigated the effect of therapeutic inhalation of the glucocorticoid budesonide on Na + ,K + ATPase content of skeletal muscle in men. Ten healthy trained subjects, aged 23 ± 4 years (mean ± 95% CI), participated in the study. Before and after 2 weeks of daily inhalation of budesonide (1.6 mg/day), a biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle for measurement of Na + ,K + ATPase content and blood samples were drawn for determination of plasma budesonide, cortisol, and K + . Subjects' performance during cycling to fatigue at 90% of incremental peak power output (iPPO) was measured in response to 4 mg inhaled terbutaline to maximally stimulate Na + ,K + ATPase activity. Plasma concentrations of budesonide rose to 5.0 ± 1.6 nM with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in plasma cortisol. Muscle Na + ,K + ATPase content increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 46 ± 34 pmol/(g wet wt) (17% increase) with the intervention. Cycling performance at 90% of iPPO did not change (P = 0.21) with the intervention (203 vs 214 s) in response to terbutaline. The present observations show that therapeutic inhalation of glucocorticoids increases muscle Na + ,K + ATPase content, but does not enhance high-intensity cycling endurance in response to terbutaline. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Reciprocal modulation of helper Th1 and Th17 cells by the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug terbutaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Gonczi, Catalina M; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Mahdieh; East, Ashley; Martire, Erika; Maurice-Ventouris, Meagane H I; Darlington, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Catecholamine hormones are powerful regulators of the immune system produced by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). They regulate the adaptive immune system by altering T-cell differentiation into T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell subsets, but the effect on Th17 cells is not known. Th17 cells, defined, in part, by chemokine receptor CCR6 and cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A, are crucial for mediating certain pathogen-specific responses and are linked with several autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated that a proportion of human Th17 cells express beta 2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to catecholamines. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which were obtained from venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers, with anti-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and anti-CD28 and with a β2-agonist drug, terbutaline (TERB), augmented IL-17A levels (P < 0.01) in the majority of samples. TERB reduced interferon gamma (IFNγ) indicating that IL-17A and IFNγ are reciprocally regulated. Similar reciprocal regulation was observed with dbcAMP. Proliferation of Th cells was monitored by carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester labeling and flow cytometry with antibody staining for CD3 and CD4. TERB increased proliferation by a small but significant margin (P < 0.001). Next, Th17 cells (CD4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + ) were purified using an immunomagnetic positive selection kit, which removes all other mononuclear cells. TERB increased IL-17A from purified Th17 cells, which argues that TERB acts directly on Th17 cells. Thus, hormone signals from the SNS maintain a balance of Th cells subtypes through the β2AR. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature...... of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Results: Model estimates show that cyclist fragility (children under 10 years old and elderly cyclists over 60 years of age) and cyclist intoxication are aggravating individual factors,while helmet use is a mitigating factor. Speed limits above 70...

  12. Does simultaneous bilingualism aggravate children's specific language problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Stenroos, Maria; Mickos, Annika; Westman, Martin; Ekholm, Pia; Byring, Roger

    2012-09-01

    There is little data on whether or not a bilingual upbringing may aggravate specific language problems in children. This study analysed whether there was an interaction of such problems and simultaneous bilingualism. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old children with specific language problems (LANG group, N = 56) or who were typically developing (CONTR group, N = 60). Seventy-three children were Swedish-Finnish bilingual and 43 were Swedish-speaking monolingual. Assessments (in Swedish) included tests of expressive language, comprehension, repetition and verbal memory. Per definition, the LANG group had lower scores than the CONTR group on all language tests. The bilingual group had lower scores than the monolingual group only on a test of body part naming. Importantly, the interaction of group (LANG or CONTR) and bilingualism was not significant on any of the language scores. Simultaneous bilingualism does not aggravate specific language problems but may result in a slower development of vocabulary both in children with and without specific language problems. Considering also advantages, a bilingual upbringing is an option also for children with specific language problems. In assessment, tests of vocabulary may be sensitive to bilingualism, instead tests assessing comprehension, syntax and nonword repetition may provide less biased methods. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. A Behaviorally Specific, Empirical Alternative to Bullying: Aggravated Peer Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2016-11-01

    To test a behaviorally specific measure of serious peer victimization, called aggravated peer victimization (APV), using empirically derived aggravating elements of episodes (injury, weapon, bias content, sexual content, multiple perpetrators, and multiple contexts) and compare this measure with the conventional Olweus bullying (OB) measure, which uses repetition and power imbalance as its seriousness criteria. The data for this study come from The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence 2014, a study conducted via telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample. This analysis uses the 1,949 youth ages 10-17 from that survey. The APV measure identified twice as many youth with serious episodes involving injury, weapons, sexual assaults, and bias content as the OB measure. In terms of demographic and social characteristics, the groups were very similar. However, the APV explained significantly more of the variation in distress than the OB (R 2  = .19 vs. .12). An empirical approach to identifying the most serious incidents of peer victimization has advantages in identifying more of the youth suffering the effects of peer victimization. Moreover, its behaviorally specific criteria also bypass the difficult challenge of trying to reliably assess what is truly bullying with its ambiguous definitional element of power imbalance. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aggravating Impact of Nanoparticles on Immune-Mediated Pulmonary Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichiro Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the adverse health effects of nanoparticles have been proposed and are being clarified, their aggravating effects on pre-existing pathological conditions have not been fully investigated. In this review, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of both airborne and engineered nanoparticles as an exacerbating factor on hypersusceptible subjects, especially those with immune-mediated pulmonary inflammation, using our in vivo experimental model. First, we exhibit the effects of nanoparticles on pulmonary inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS as a disease model in innate immunity, and demonstrate that nanoparticles instilled through both an intratracheal tube and an inhalation system can exacerbate the lung inflammation. Second, we introduce the effects of nanoparticles on allergic pulmonary inflammation as a disease model in adaptive immunity, and show that repetitive pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles has aggravating effects on allergic inflammation, including adjuvant effects on Th2-milieu. Third, we show that very small nanoparticle exposure exacerbates emphysematous pulmonary inflammation, which is concomitant with enhanced lung expression of proinflammatory molecules (including those that are innate immunity related. Taken together, nanoparticle exposure may synergistically facilitate pathological pulmonary inflammation via both innate and adaptive immunological impairment.

  15. Chronic Exposure to Subtherapeutic Antibiotics Aggravates Ischemic Stroke Outcome in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subtherapeutic antibiotics have been widely used in agriculture since the 1950s, which can be accumulated in human body through various approaches and may have long-term consequences. However, there is limited information about the link between chronic subtherapeutic antibiotic exposure and the outcome of ischemic brain injury. Here we showed that long-term treatment with subtherapeutic chlortetracycline, penicillin or vancomycin, which were widely used in agriculture approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, could impair EPC functions, reduce ischemic brain angiogenesis and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury and long-term stroke outcomes in mice. In addition, transplantated EPCs from chronic antibiotic-treated mice showed a lower therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemic injury reduction and local angiogenesis promotion compared to those from control mice, and EPCs from the donor animals could integrate into the recipient ischemic brain in mice. Furthermore, transplanted EPCs might exert paracrine effects on cerebral ischemic injury reduction in mice, which could be impaired by chronic antibiotic exposure. In conclusion, chronic subtherapeutic antibiotic exposure aggravated cerebral ischemic injury in mice, which might be partly attributed to the impairment of both EPC-mediated angiogenesis and EPCs' paracrine effects. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized impact of chronic subtherapeutic antibiotic exposure on ischemic injury.

  16. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  17. Gas power in Norway claimed to aggravate the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langseth, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    In this article it is asserted that gas power production in Norway will displace the rehabilitation of hydroelectric power stations and energy economization. Hence, gas power will aggravate the environment. The introduction of gas power should be postponed until the market price covers the environmental cost. A principle argument for rapid development of gas power in Norway is the statement that this will reduce the total emission of carbon dioxide. The article challenges this view. Although the electricity market has well supplied with cheap energy, almost all the debate about energy policy the last years has concentrated on the ''problem'' of failing national energy coverage in a so-called normal year. Both market prices and pure logic based on cost-effectiveness indicate that energy import is not the problem, but rather the solution. Indeed, the problem is not kWh, but kW

  18. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available Aortocaval fistula (AV in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX rats.Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into Sham (n = 10, UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10, AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18 and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22, respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements.UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats.Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals.

  19. Selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced injury of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Pan, Shengchi; Gan, Fang; Hao, Shu; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Haibin; Huang, Kehe

    2018-04-01

    Keshan disease is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy in humans. Selenium deficiency, T-2 toxin, and myocarditis virus are thought to be the major factors contributing to Keshan disease. But the relationship among these three factors is poorly described. This study aims to explore whether selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying mechanism. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat and cultured at the physiological (2.0 μM) or lower concentrations of selenium with different concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results showed that selenium deficiencies aggravated T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by MTT bioassay, LDH activity, reactive oxygen species levels and caspase 3 protein expressions. T-2 toxin treatment significantly increased mRNA expressions for stress proteins GRP78 and CHOP in cardiomyocytes compared with the control. Selenium deficiencies further promoted GRP78, CHOP and p-eIF2α expressions. Knockdown of CHOP by the specific small interfering RNA eliminated the effect of selenium deficiencies on T-2 toxin-induced injury. It could be concluded that selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury through initiating more aggressive endoplasmic reticulum stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic mice through interleukin-12 regulation on Klotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiuli

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that periodontitis can contribute to adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance in the obese rat model. However, the related inflammatory mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of periodontitis on the function of pancreatic β-cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines-related immune mechanism in a mouse model. C57BL/6-db/db and inbred C57BL/6 mice were chosen here to establish a mouse model with periodontitis, which was induced by ligatures for 8 weeks. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was introduced to evaluate the function of pancreatic islets and β-cells. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Klotho were also measured, and the correlation between immunostimulation and Klotho level was deeply investigated in vitro. Pancreatic β-cell failure, with insulin resistance, was observed in db/db mice, while periodontitis could aggravate β-cell dysfunction-related features. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and Klotho showed a negatively synergistic change, whereas the expression of Klotho was also inhibited under IL-12 treatment in MIN6 β-cells or isolated islets. Furthermore, IL-12-induced immune stimulation and also decreased insulin secretion were proven to be reversed by Klotho overexpression. Periodontitis aggravated pancreatic β-cell failure in diabetic mice. Further in vitro studies showed IL-12 regulation on Klotho, while Klotho also acted as an inhibitor on IL-12, indicating the potential of Klotho for preserving pancreatic β-cell function in diabetes.

  1. Helium bubbles aggravated defects production in self-irradiated copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wu, Qiang; Li, XinZhu; Wang, Pei; Wu, HengAn

    2017-12-01

    Under the environment of high radiation, materials used in fission and fusion reactors will internally accumulate numerous lattice defects and bubbles. With extensive studies focused on bubble resolution under irradiation, the mutually effects between helium bubbles and displacement cascades in irradiated materials remain unaddressed. Therefore, the defects production and microstructure evolution under self-irradiation events in vicinity of helium bubbles are investigated by preforming large scale molecular dynamics simulations in single-crystal copper. When subjected to displacement cascades, distinguished bubble resolution categories dependent on bubble size are observed. With the existence of bubbles, radiation damage is aggravated with the increasing bubble size, represented as the promotion of point defects and dislocations. The atomic mechanisms of heterogeneous dislocation structures are attributed to different helium-vacancy cluster modes, transforming from the resolved gas trapped with vacancies to the biased absorption of vacancies by the over-pressured bubble. In both cases, helium impedes the recombination of point defects, leading to the accelerated formation of interstitial loops. The results and insight obtained here might contribute to understand the underlying mechanism of transmutant solute on the long-term evolution of irradiated materials.

  2. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  3. Oral Candida as an aggravating factor of mucositis Induced by radiotherapy; Candida Oral como fator agravante da mucosite radioinduzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Cristiane Araujo; Castro, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; Cazal, Claudia [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de odontologia

    2011-07-01

    Antineoplastic treatment induces some undesirable consequences in head and neck cancer patients. Often, the emergence of major clinical manifestations, such as oral mucositis, results in temporary interruption of the treatment, decreasing the patients' quality of life, and increasing hospital costs. Radio-induced or chemo-induced oral mucositis is possibly aggravated by opportunist fungal infections, which turn the mucositis more resistant to the conventional treatments. Objective: this study aims to identify the presence of Candida sp. as a possible aggravating factor of oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer under antineoplastic treatment. Method: all patients with radio- or chemo-induced oral mucositis from the Cancer Hospital of Pernambuco, treated between October 2008 and April 2009, were selected for the study. The prevalence of Candida sp was measured through the cytological analysis of oral mucosa in patients with oral mucositis. The fungal presence was correlated with the mucositis severity. Results: the results showed a positive association between fungal colonization and more several lesions (degrees III and IV of mucositis). Conclusion: The outcomes shown may contribute to a solution for unconventional mucosites, which do not respond to the usual treatment. (author)

  4. Tolbutamide attenuates diazoxide-induced aggravation of hypoxic cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissarek, M; Reichelt, C; Krauss, G J; Illes, P

    1998-11-23

    ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels of neurons are closed in the presence of physiological levels of intracellular ATP and open when ATP is depleted during hypoxia or metabolic damage. The present study investigates hypoxic alterations of purine and pyrimidine nucleotide levels supposed to intracellularly modulate KATP channels. In addition, the effects of the KATP channel activator diazoxide and its antagonist tolbutamide were investigated on ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP levels in slices of the parietal cortex. Hypoxia was evoked by saturation of the medium with 95% N2-5% CO2 instead of 95% O2-5% CO2 for 5 min. Nucleotide contents were measured by anion-exchange HPLC in neutralized perchloric acid extracts obtained from slices frozen immediately at the end of incubation. Hypoxia per se decreased purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate contents. Thus, ATP and GTP contents were reduced to 69.9 and 77.6% of the respective normoxic levels. UTP and CTP contents were even more decreased (to 60.9 and 41.6%),, probably because the salvage pathway of these pyrimidine nucleotides is less effective than that of the purine nucleotides ATP and GTP. While tolbutamide (30 microM) had no effect on the hypoxia-induced decrease of nucleotides, diazoxide at 300, but not 30 microM aggravated the decline of ATP, UTP and CTP to 51.8, 37.5 and 28.5% of the contents observed at normoxia; GTP levels also showed a tendency to decrease after diazoxide application. Tolbutamide (300 microM) antagonized the effects of diazoxide (300 but not 30 microM aggravated the decline of ATP, UTP and CTP to 51.8, 37.5 and 28.5% of the contents observed at normoxia; GTP levels also showed a tendency to decrease after diazoxide application. Tolbutamide (300 microM) antagonized the effects of diazoxide (300 MicroM). Nucleoside diphosphate (ADP, GDP and UDP) levels were uniformly increased by hypoxia. There was no hypoxia-induced increase of ADP contents in the presence of tolbutamide (300 microM). The ATP

  5. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou; Peng, Shuangqing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  6. Metallothionein deficiency aggravates depleted uranium-induced nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yuhui; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Liu, Cong; Li, Hong; Liu, Jing; Ren, Jiong; Yang, Zhangyou [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China); Peng, Shuangqing [Evaluation and Research Center for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Science, 20 Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071 (China); Wang, Weidong, E-mail: wwdwyl@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: yuhui_hao@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities, and the kidney is the main target organ of DU during acute high-dose exposures. In this study, the nephrotoxicity caused by DU in metallothionein-1/2-null mice (MT −/−) and corresponding wild-type (MT +/+) mice was investigated to determine any associations with MT. Each MT −/− or MT +/+ mouse was pretreated with a single dose of DU (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivalent volume of saline. After 4 days of DU administration, kidney changes were assessed. After DU exposure, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in MT −/− mice significantly increased than in MT +/+ mice, with more severe kidney pathological damage. Moreover, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde increased in MT −/− mice. The apoptosis rate in MT −/− mice significantly increased, with a significant increase in both Bax and caspase 3 and a decrease in Bcl-2. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) and sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-II) were significantly reduced after DU exposure, and the change of SGLT was more evident in MT −/− mice. Finally, exogenous MT was used to evaluate the correlation between kidney changes induced by DU and MT doses in MT −/− mice. The results showed that, the pathological damage and cell apoptosis decreased, and SOD and SGLT levels increased with increasing dose of MT. In conclusion, MT deficiency aggravated DU-induced nephrotoxicity, and the molecular mechanisms appeared to be related to the increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and decreased SGLT expression. - Highlights: • MT −/− and MT +/+ mice were used to evaluate nephrotoxicity of DU. • Renal damage was more evident in the MT −/− mice after exposure to DU. • Exogenous MT also protects against DU-induced nephrotoxicity. • MT deficiency induced more ROS and apoptosis after exposure to

  7. Terbutaline causes immobilization of single β2-adrenergic receptor-ligand complexes in the plasma membrane of living A549 cells as revealed by single-molecule microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Anne; Kaminski, Tim; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Häberlein, Hanns

    2011-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are important targets for various drugs. After signal transduction, regulatory processes, such as receptor desensitization and internalization, change the lateral receptor mobility. In order to study the lateral diffusion of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) complexed with fluorescently labeled noradrenaline (Alexa-NA) in plasma membranes of A549 cells, trajectories of single receptor-ligand complexes were monitored using single-particle tracking. We found that a fraction of 18% of all β2ARs are constitutively immobile. About 2/3 of the β2ARs moved with a diffusion constant of D2 = 0.03+/-0.001 μm2/s and about 17% were diffusing five-fold faster (D3 = 0.15+/-0.02 μm2/s). The mobile receptors moved within restricted domains and also showed a discontinuous diffusion behavior. Analysis of the trajectory lengths revealed two different binding durations with τ1 = 77+/-1 ms and τ2 = 388+/-11 ms. Agonistic stimulation of the β2AR-Alexa-NA complexes with 1 μM terbutaline caused immobilization of almost 50% of the receptors within 35 min. Simultaneously, the mean area covered by the mobile receptors decreased significantly. Thus, we demonstrated that agonistic stimulation followed by cell regulatory processes results in a change in β2AR mobility suggesting that different receptor dynamics characterize different receptor states.

  8. Inhibition of Common Cold-Induced Aggravation of Childhood Asthma by Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Shigemi Yoshihara; Hironobu Fukuda; Toshio Abe; Mitsuhiro Nishida; Yumi Yamada; Noriko Kanno; Osamu Arisaka

    2012-01-01

    Background: : Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Methods: : Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged

  9. Homocysteine Aggravates Cortical Neural Cell Injury through Neuronal Autophagy Overactivation following Rat Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqian Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine (Hcy levels have been reported to be involved in neurotoxicity after ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood to date. In the current study, we hypothesized that neuronal autophagy activation may be involved in the toxic effect of Hcy on cortical neurons following cerebral ischemia. Brain cell injury was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL staining. The level and localization of autophagy were detected by transmission electron microscopy, western blot and immunofluorescence double labeling. The oxidative DNA damage was revealed by immunofluorescence of 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Hcy treatment aggravated neuronal cell death, significantly increased the formation of autophagosomes and the expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 in the brain cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO. Immunofluorescence analysis of LC3B and Beclin-1 distribution indicated that their expression occurred mainly in neurons (NeuN-positive and hardly in astrocytes (GFAP-positive. 8-OHdG expression was also increased in the ischemic cortex of Hcy-treated animals. Conversely, LC3B and Beclin-1 overexpression and autophagosome accumulation caused by Hcy were partially blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA. Hcy administration enhanced neuronal autophagy, which contributes to cell death following cerebral ischemia. The oxidative damage-mediated autophagy may be a molecular mechanism underlying neuronal cell toxicity of elevated Hcy level.

  10. Impairment of PPARα and the Fatty Acid Oxidation Pathway Aggravates Renal Fibrosis during Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Mi Kyung; Oh, Goo Taeg; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2018-04-01

    Defects in the renal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathway have been implicated in the development of renal fibrosis. Although, compared with young kidneys, aged kidneys show significantly increased fibrosis with impaired kidney function, the mechanisms underlying the effects of aging on renal fibrosis have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α ) and the FAO pathway as regulators of age-associated renal fibrosis. The expression of PPAR α and the FAO pathway-associated proteins significantly decreased with the accumulation of lipids in the renal tubular epithelial region during aging in rats. In particular, decreased PPAR α protein expression associated with increased expression of PPAR α -targeting microRNAs. Among the microRNAs with increased expression during aging, miR-21 efficiently decreased PPAR α expression and impaired FAO when ectopically expressed in renal epithelial cells. In cells pretreated with oleic acid to induce lipid stress, miR-21 treatment further enhanced lipid accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with miR-21 significantly exacerbated the TGF- β -induced fibroblast phenotype of epithelial cells. We verified the physiologic importance of our findings in a calorie restriction model. Calorie restriction rescued the impaired FAO pathway during aging and slowed fibrosis development. Finally, compared with kidneys of aged littermate controls, kidneys of aged PPAR α -/- mice showed exaggerated lipid accumulation, with decreased activity of the FAO pathway and a severe fibrosis phenotype. Our results suggest that impaired renal PPAR α signaling during aging aggravates renal fibrosis development, and targeting PPAR α is useful for preventing age-associated CKD. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. [Intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria aggravates pulmonary immune pathological injury of mice infected with influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sha; Yan, Yuqi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Jiang, Zhenyou

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria and influenza virus infection, and the effect on pulmonary inflammatory cytokines in mice. Totally 36 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, virus-infected group and metronidazole treatment group (12 mice in each group). Mice in the metronidazole group were administrated orally with metronidazole sulfate for 8 days causing anaerobic bacteria flora imbalance; then all groups except the normal control group were treated transnasally with influenza virus (50 μL/d FM1) for 4 days to establish the influenza virus-infected models. Their mental state and lung index were observed, and the pathological morphological changes of lung tissues, caecum and intestinal mucosa were examined by HE staining. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17 in the lung homogenates were determined by ELISA. Compared with the virus control group, the metronidazole group showed obviously increased lung index and more serious pathological changes of the lung tissue and appendix inflammation performance. After infected by the FM1 influenza virus, IFN-γ and IL-17 of the metronidazole group decreased significantly and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were raised, but there was no statistically difference between the metronidazole and virus control groups. Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection.

  12. Vitamin C deficiency aggravates tumor necrosis factor α-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Wu; Xi-Mei, Wu; Chao-Chun, Zou

    2018-06-15

    Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a major role in the development of insulin resistance. The potential role and underlying mechanism of vitamin C, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, was investigated in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance. Gulonolactone oxidase knockout (Gulo -/- ) mice genetically unable to synthesize vitamin C were used to induce insulin resistance by continuously pumping small doses of TNF-α for seven days, and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells) were used to induce insulin resistance by treatment with TNF-α. Vitamin C deficiency aggravated TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in Gulo -/- mice, resulting in worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) results, higher fasting plasma insulin level, and the inactivation of the protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway in the liver. Vitamin C deficiency also worsened liver lipid accumulation and inflammation in TNF-α-treated Gulo -/- mice. In HepG2 cells, vitamin C reversed the TNF-α-induced reduction of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, which were mediated by increasing GLUT2 levels and the activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1)/AKT/GSK3β pathway. Furthermore, vitamin C inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of not only the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), but also nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Taken together, vitamin C is essential for preventing and improving insulin resistance, and the supplementing with vitamin C may be an effective therapeutic intervention for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  14. Imprecise methods may both obscure and aggravate a relation between fat and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2007-01-01

    Bias in diet reporting may be both random and non-random, and may be found with simpler as well as more advanced dietary instruments. A random bias will contribute to obscure relations between diet and disease. A systematic bias may obscure or aggravate such associations. Underreporting of non-pr...

  15. Inhibition of Common Cold-Induced Aggravation of Childhood Asthma by Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigemi Yoshihara

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: : These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  16. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at $250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

  17. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  18. TRPM2 Channel Aggravates CNS Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment via Activation of Microglia in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanohara, Jun; Kakae, Masashi; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mori, Yasuo; Arai, Ken; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Kaneko, Shuji

    2018-04-04

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a characteristic seen in widespread CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative and mental disorders, and is commonly accompanied by cognitive impairment. Recently, several studies demonstrated that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can induce the excessive inflammatory responses that precede neuronal dysfunction; however, the precise mechanism of cognitive impairment due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is abundantly expressed in immune cells and is involved in aggravation of inflammatory responses. Therefore, we investigated the pathophysiological role of TRPM2 in a mouse chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model with bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). When male mice were subjected to BCAS, cognitive dysfunction and white matter injury at day 28 were significantly improved in TRPM2 knock-out (TRPM2-KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas hippocampal damage was not observed. There were no differences in blood-brain barrier breakdown and H 2 O 2 production between the two genotypes at 14 and 28 d after BCAS. Cytokine production was significantly suppressed in BCAS-operated TRPM2-KO mice compared with WT mice at day 28. In addition, the number of Iba1-positive cells gradually decreased from day 14. Moreover, daily treatment with minocycline significantly improved cognitive perturbation. Surgical techniques using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that activated Iba1-positive cells in white matter could be brain-resident microglia, not peripheral macrophages. Together, these findings suggest that microglia contribute to the aggravation of cognitive impairment by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and that TRPM2 may be a potential target for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-related disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is manifested in a wide variety of CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative

  19. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor 9 attenuates cartilage degradation and aggravates osteophyte formation in post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Wang, Z; Tang, J; Li, W; Huang, J; Xu, W; Luo, F; Xu, M; Wang, J; Wen, X; Chen, L; Chen, H; Su, N; Shen, Y; Du, X; Xie, Y; Chen, L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of exogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF)9 on the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). The expression of FGF9 in articular cartilage with OA is detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The effects of intra-articular exogenous FGF9 injection on post-traumatic OA induced by the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery are evaluated. Cartilage changes and osteophyte formation in knee joints are investigated by histological analysis. Changes in subchondral bone are evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). The effect of exogenous FGF9 on an interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced ex vivo OA model of human articular cartilage tissues is also evaluated. FGF9 expression was down-regulated in articular chondrocytes of OA but ectopically induced at sites of osteophyte formation. Intra-articular injection of exogenous FGF9 attenuated articular cartilage degradation in mice after DMM surgery. Exogenous FGF9 suppressed collagen X and MMP13 expressions in OA cartilage, while promoted collagen II expression. Similar results were observed in IL-1β-induced ex vivo OA model. Intra-articular injection of FGF9 had no significant effect on the subchondral bone of knee joints after DMM surgery, but aggravated osteophyte formation. The expressions of SOX9 and collagen II, and cell proliferation were up-regulated at sites of initial osteophyte formation in mice with exogenous FGF9 treatment. Intra-articular injection of exogenous FGF9 delays articular cartilage degradation in post-traumatic OA, while aggravates osteophyte formation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. RGD-tagged helical rosette nanotubes aggravate acute lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarabjeet Singh Suri1, Steven Mills1, Gurpreet Kaur Aulakh1, Felaniaina Rakotondradany2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon; 2National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, CanadaAbstract: Rosette nanotubes (RNT are a novel class of self-assembled biocompatible nanotubes that offer a built-in strategy for engineering structure and function through covalent tagging of synthetic self-assembling modules (G∧C motif. In this report, the G∧C motif was tagged with peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Lys (RGDSK-G∧C and amino acid Lys (K-G∧C which, upon co-assembly, generate RNTs featuring RGDSK and K on their surface in predefined molar ratios. These hybrid RNTs, referred to as Kx/RGDSKy-RNT, where x and y refer to the molar ratios of K-G∧C and RGDSK–G∧C, were designed to target neutrophil integrins. A mouse model was used to investigate the effects of intravenous Kx/RGDSKy-RNT on acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lung inflammation. Healthy male C57BL/6 mice were treated intranasally with Escherichia coli LPS 80 µg and/or intravenously with K90/RGDSK10-RNT. Here we provide the first evidence that intravenous administration of K90/RGDSK10-RNT aggravates the proinflammatory effect of LPS in the mouse. LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT treatment groups showed significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at all time points compared with the saline control. The combined effect of LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT was more pronounced than LPS alone, as shown by a significant increase in the expression of interleukin-1ß, MCP-1, MIP-1, and KC-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues. We conclude that K90/RGDSK10-RNT promotes acute lung inflammation, and when used along with LPS, leads to exaggerated immune response in the lung.Keywords: RGD peptide, helical rosette

  1. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.

  2. The thyroid function of Graves' disease patients is aggravated by depressive personality during antithyroid drug treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Miyauchi Akira; Kubota Sumihisa; Takamatsu Junta; Fukao Atsushi; Hanafusa Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)) and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD) patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD) were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stress...

  3. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  4. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes aggravated biochemical and subcellular damages in leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seedlings under combined stress of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengrun; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Jinyun; Tian, Yuan; Shi, Jian; Li, Dongdong; Guo, Chen; Ma, Qingping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MWCNTs-COOH disturb mineral elements and cause oxidative damages in the leaves. • Cd and Pb combination result in reduction of mineral elements and enrichment of Na, involving in toxicity mechanisms. • MWCNTs-COOH facilitate Cd and Pb uptake, and aggravate biochemical and subcellular damages. - Abstract: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L) and their combination with 20 μM Pb and 5 μM Cd (shortened as Pb + Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb + Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb + Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb + Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals

  5. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Guadall, Anna; Orriols, Mar; Navas, Miquel; Aguiló, Silvia; de Diego, Alicia; Navarro, María A; García-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) controls matrix remodeling, a key process that underlies cardiovascular diseases and heart failure; however, a lack of suitable animal models has limited our knowledge with regard to the contribution of LOX to cardiac dysfunction. Here, we assessed the impact of LOX overexpression on ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in a transgenic LOX (TgLOX) mouse model with a strong cardiac expression of human LOX. TgLOX mice exhibited high expression of the transgene in cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts, which are associated with enhanced LOX activity and H 2 O 2 production and with cardiofibroblast reprogramming. LOX overexpression promoted an age-associated concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and impaired diastolic function. Furthermore, LOX transgenesis aggravated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which triggered a greater fibrotic response that was characterized by stronger collagen deposition and cross-linking and high expression of fibrotic markers. In addition, LOX transgenesis increased the Ang II-induced myocardial inflammatory infiltrate, exacerbated expression of proinflammatory markers, and decreased that of cardioprotective factors. Mechanistically, LOX overexpression enhanced oxidative stress and potentiated the Ang II-mediated cardiac activation of p38 MAPK while reducing AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that LOX induces an age-dependent disturbance of diastolic function and aggravates Ang II-induced hypertrophy, which provides novel insights into the role of LOX in cardiac performance.-Galán, M., Varona, S., Guadall, A., Orriols, M., Navas, M., Aguiló, S., de Diego, A., Navarro, M. A., García-Dorado, D., Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Martínez-González, J., Rodriguez, C. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy. © FASEB.

  6. Acute patellofemoral pain: aggravating activities, clinical examination, MRI and ultrasound findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Holmich, P.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate acute anterior knee pain caused by overuse in terms of pain location, aggravating activities, findings on clinical examination and ultrasound/MRI examination. To determine if acute anterior knee pain caused by overuse should be classified as a subgroup of patellofemoral......%)), but other synovial covered structures including the fat pad of Hoffa (12 patients (40%)), the medial plica and the joint line (12 patients (40%)) were also involved. Only eight patients (27%) experienced pain on the patellofemoral compression test. Only discrete changes was detected on MRI...

  7. Free cholesterol accumulation impairs antioxidant activities and aggravates apoptotic cell death in menadione-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Waisin; Xu, Mingjing; Li, Yue; Gu, Yong; Chen, Jianping; Wong, Derek; Fung, Peter C W; Shen, Jiangang

    2011-10-01

    Although the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress has been extensively investigated, direct evidence regarding to the roles of cholesterol accumulation in the generations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death under oxidative stress is lack. In this study, we investigated productions of superoxide anions (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), and apoptotic cell death in wild type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and cholesterol accumulated CHO cells genetically and chemically. Oxidative stress was induced by menadione challenge. The results revealed that abundance of free cholesterol (FC) promoted menadione-induced O(2)(-) and NO productions. FC accumulation down-regulated eNOS expression but up-regulated NADPH oxidases, and inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Treatment of menadione increased the expressions of iNOS and qp91 phox, enhanced the activities of SOD and catalase in the wild-type CHO cells but inhibited the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the cholesterol accumulated CHO cells. Moreover, FC abundance promoted apoptotic cell death in these cells. Taken together, those results suggest that free cholesterol accumulation aggravates menadione-induced oxidative stress and exacerbates apoptotic cell death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Lisa R; de Vries, Margreet R; de Jong, Rob C M; Katiraei, Saeed; Pronk, Amanda; Quax, Paul H A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2018-02-03

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden ( E3L ) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  9. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hoving

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  10. Airway Surface Dehydration Aggravates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Hallmarks of COPD in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seys, Leen J M; Verhamme, Fien M; Dupont, Lisa L; Desauter, Elke; Duerr, Julia; Seyhan Agircan, Ayca; Conickx, Griet; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G; Mall, Marcus A; Bracke, Ken R

    2015-01-01

    Airway surface dehydration, caused by an imbalance between secretion and absorption of ions and fluid across the epithelium and/or increased epithelial mucin secretion, impairs mucociliary clearance. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of airway surface dehydration in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD remains unknown. We aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of airway surface dehydration on several CS-induced hallmarks of COPD in mice with airway-specific overexpression of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (βENaC). βENaC-Tg mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to air or CS for 4 or 8 weeks. Pathological hallmarks of COPD, including goblet cell metaplasia, mucin expression, pulmonary inflammation, lymphoid follicles, emphysema and airway wall remodelling were determined and lung function was measured. Airway surface dehydration in βENaC-Tg mice aggravated CS-induced airway inflammation, mucin expression and destruction of alveolar walls and accelerated the formation of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Moreover, lung function measurements demonstrated an increased compliance and total lung capacity and a lower resistance and hysteresis in βENaC-Tg mice, compared to WT mice. CS exposure further altered lung function measurements. We conclude that airway surface dehydration is a risk factor that aggravates CS-induced hallmarks of COPD.

  11. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  12. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R after high (25 mM or low (5.5 mM glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system.

  13. Transmitted Holocaust trauma: curse or legacy? The aggravating and mitigating factors of Holocaust transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Natan P F

    2008-01-01

    For children of Holocaust survivors, the trauma of their parents can be perceived both as a curse and as a legacy. On the one hand, it may fill their inner lives with terrible anxiety-provoking associations; on the other, it may be a source of creative inspiration that motivates them to make the world a better place. As a result, most of them struggle with the contradictory forces of vulnerability and resilience that they inherited from their parents. Since there is such a wide spectrum of adaptive reactions to the Holocaust, it is important to identify the various aggravating and mitigating factors that are assumed to increase or decrease the risk of children to absorb the trauma of their parents and to develop specific second-generation psychopathology as a result. In an effort to understand more clearly some of the aggravating factors, a demographic study of a clinical sub-population of the "Second Generation" was conducted. Results indicated that most of this clinical population was born soon after the war ended, to parents who were both Holocaust survivors, and that they were mostly female, married, highly educated, working as teachers or in the helping professions, were the first or the second child, and had parents who were inclined not to share their Holocaust experiences with their children. Parents were mostly rated as fully functioning, without severe mental and physical disease and as not overly preoccupied with the Holocaust.

  14. Diisononyl phthalate aggravates allergic dermatitis by activation of NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Song, Jing; Shen, Shiping; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2016-12-20

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and the development of allergies. These findings remain controversial since there is insufficient scientific evidence to assess the ability of DINP to influence allergic immune responses. In addition, the mechanisms behind DINP-caused allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated. In this study, Balb/c mice were orally exposed to DINP for 3 weeks and were then sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). We showed that oral exposure to DINP could aggravate allergic-dermatitis-like lesions, indicated by an increase in the number of mast cells, and in increased skin edema in FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity. This deterioration was concomitant with increased total serum immunoglobulin-E and Th2 cytokines. We determined the oxidative damage and the activation of nuclear factor-kb (NF-kB). The data demonstrated that DINP could promote oxidative damage and the activation of NF-kB in the skin. The expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcriptions 3, 5 and 6 were enhanced concomitant with exacerbated allergic dermatitis effects and the activation of NF-kB induced by DINP. These effects were alleviated by pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-kB. The results suggest that oral exposure to DINP aggravated allergic contact dermatitis, which was positively regulated via NF-kB.

  15. Effect of dopamine-related drugs on duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine or propionitrile: prevention and aggravation may not be mediated by gastrointestinal secretory changes in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.; Brown, A.; Szabo, S.

    1987-01-01

    Dose- and time-response studies have been performed with dopamine agonists and antagonists using the cysteamine and propionitrile duodenal ulcer models in the rat. The experiments demonstrate that the chemically induced duodenal ulcer is prevented by bromocriptine, lergotrile and reduced by apomorphine or L-dopa. Aggravation of cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer was seen especially after (-)-butaclamol, (-)-sulpiride, haloperidol and, less effectively, after other dopaminergic antagonists. The duodenal antiulcerogenic action of dopamine agonists was more prominent after chronic administration than after a single dose, whereas the opposite was found concerning the proulcerogenic effect of dopamine antagonists. In the chronic gastric fistula rat, both the antiulcerogens bromocriptine or lergotrile and the proulcerogens haloperidol, pimozide or (-)-N-(2-chlorethyl)-norapomorphine decreased the cysteamine- or propionitrile-induced gastric secretion. No correlation was apparent between the influence of these drugs on duodenal ulcer development and gastric and duodenal (pancreatic/biliary) secretions. In the chronic duodenal fistula rat, decreased acid content was measured in the proximal duodenum after haloperidol, and diminished duodenal pepsin exposure was recorded after bromocriptine. Furthermore, the aggravation by dopamine antagonists of experimental duodenal ulcer probably involves a peripheral component. The site of dopamine receptors and physiologic effects which modulate experimental duodenal ulcer remain to be identified, but their elucidation may prove to be an important element in the pathogenesis and treatment of duodenal ulcer

  16. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Case of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia Which Was Aggravated by Acid Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiomi Nakade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE is known to be characterized by red patches or spots in a diffuse or linear array in the antrum of the stomach. The precise etiology of GAVE remains to be elucidated. Argon plasma laser coagulation (APC has been used to control oozing from GAVE; however, there is no satisfactory long-term effect of APC in the control of oozing from GAVE. An acid reducer is used after APC because even physiological acid exposure might delay post-APC ulcer healing. We describe the case of a patient who had used an acid reducer and experienced repeated gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to GAVE. After ceasing to administer the acid reducer, incidences of hospitalization due to oozing from GAVE stopped. After the administration of the acid reducer was restarted, the patient had tarry stool, and diffuse oozing of blood was seen again. We report a first case of GAVE which was aggravated by acid reducer.

  18. Localized hypothermia aggravates bleeding in the collagenase model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Roseleen F; Williamson, Michael R; Dietrich, Kristen; Colbourne, Frederick

    2015-03-01

    Animal studies testing whether therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been inconclusive. In rodents, ICH is often produced in the striatum by infusing collagenase, which causes prolonged hemorrhaging from multiple vessels. Our previous data shows that this bleeding (hematoma) is worsened by systemic hypothermia given soon after collagenase infusion. In this study we hypothesized that localized brain hypothermia would also aggravate bleeding in this model (0.2 U of collagenase in 1.2 μL of saline). We also evaluated cooling after intrastriatal thrombin infusion (1 U in 30 μL of saline)-a simplified model of ICH thought to cause bleeding. Focal hypothermia was achieved by flushing cold water through an implanted cooling device attached to the skull underneath the temporalis muscle of adult rats. Previous work and data at this time shows this method cools the striatum to ∼33°C, whereas the body remains normothermic. In comparison to normothermic groups, cooling significantly worsened bleeding when instituted at 6 hours (∼94 vs. 42 μL, p=0.018) and 12 hours (79 vs. 61 μL, p=0.042) post-ICH (24-hour survival), but not after a 24-hour delay (36-hour survival). Rats were cooled until euthanasia when hematoma size was determined by a hemoglobin-based spectrophotometry assay. Cooling did not influence cerebral blood volume after just saline or thrombin infusion. The latter is explained by the fact that thrombin did not cause bleeding beyond that caused by saline infusion. In summary, local hypothermia significantly aggravates bleeding many hours after collagenase infusion suggesting that bleeding may have confounded earlier studies with hypothermia. Furthermore, these findings serve as a cautionary note on using cooling even many hours after cerebral bleeding.

  19. Obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury in mouse embryos: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wenhong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but few reports have examined thawed embryo transfer in obese women. Many studies have shown that increased lipid accumulation aggravates vitrification injury in porcine and bovine embryos, but oocytes of these species have high lipid contents (63 ng and 161 ng, respectively. Almost nothing is known about lipids in human oocytes except that these cells are anecdotally known to be relatively lipid poor. In this regard, human oocytes are considered to be similar to those of the mouse, which contain approximately 4 ng total lipids/oocyte. To date, no available data show the impact of obesity on vitrification in mouse embryos. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of maternal diet-induced obesity and to characterize the effect of obesity on vitrification by investigating the survival rate and embryo developmental competence after thawing. Methods Prospective comparisons were performed between six–eight-cell embryos from obese and normal-weight mice and between fresh and vitrified embryos. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow (normal-weight group or a high-fat diet (obese group for 6 weeks. The mice were mated, zygotes were collected from oviducts and cultured for 3 days, and six–eight-cell embryos were then selected to assess lipid content in fresh embryos and to evaluate differences in apoptosis, survival, and development rates in response to vitrification. Results In fresh embryos from obese mice, the lipid content (0.044 vs 0.030, Pvs.9.3%, Pvs. 93.1%, P Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in survival and developmental rates between embryos from obese and normal-weight mice were eliminated after vitrification. Thus, maternal obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury, but obesity alone greatly impairs pre-implantation embryo survival and development.

  20. Dapagliflozin Aggravates Renal Injury via Promoting Gluconeogenesis in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingli; He, Jinzhao; Wang, Liang; Su, Limin; Lei, Lei; Huang, Wei; Geng, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shun; Meng, Xiaolu; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2018-01-01

    A sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin is widely used for lowering blood glucose and its usage is limited in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with moderate renal impairment. As its effect on kidney function is discrepant and complicated, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of dapagliflozin on the progression of diabetic nephropathy and related mechanisms. Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 wild-type and db/db mice were treated with vehicle or 1 mg/kg dapagliflozin for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose, insulin tolerance, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and 24-hour urine were measured every 4 weeks. At 24 weeks of age, renal function was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen level, creatinine clearance, urine output, urinary albumin excretion, Periodic Acid-Schiff staining, Masson's trichrome staining and electron microscopy. Changes in insulin signaling and gluconeogenic key regulatory enzymes were detected using Western blot analysis. Dapagliflozin did not alleviate but instead aggravated diabetic nephropathy manifesting as increased levels of microalbuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, and glomerular and tubular damage in db/db mice. Despite adequate glycemic control by dapagliflozin, urinary glucose excretion increased after administration before 24 weeks of age and was likely associated with renal impairment. Increased urinary glucose excretion was mainly derived from the disturbance of glucose homeostasis with elevated hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis induced by dapagliflozin. Although it had no effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, dapagliflozin further induced the expression of gluconeogenic key rate-limiting enzymes through increasing the expression levels of FoxO1 in the kidney and liver. These experimental results indicate that dapagliflozin aggravates diabetes mellitus-induced kidney injury, mostly through increasing gluconeogenesis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Work aggravated asthma in Great Britain: a cross-sectional postal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Lisa; Sumner, Jade; Delic, Julian; Henneberger, Paul; Fishwick, David

    2018-04-12

    Work aggravated asthma (WAA), asthma made worse by but not caused by workplace exposures, can have a negative impact on personal, social, financial and societal costs. There is limited data on prevalence levels of WAA in Great Britain (GB). The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WAA in GB, and to assess its potential causes.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional postal questionnaire study was carried out. A total of 1620 questionnaires were sent to three populations of adults with asthma. The questionnaire recorded; demographic details, current job, self-reported health status, presence of asthma and respiratory symptoms, duration and severity of symptoms and medication requirements. Questions relating to work environment and employers' actions were included, and each participant completed an assessment of health-related quality of life using the EuroQol Research Foundation EQ-5D. There were 207 completed questionnaires; response rates were 6% primary care, 45% secondary care and 71% Asthma UK. This represented a 13% overall response rate. Self-reported prevalence of WAA was 33% (95% CI 24.4-41.6%). In all, 19% of workers had changed their job because of breathing problems. Workers with WAA reported higher levels of work-related stress. Quality of life using the EQ-5D utility index was lower in those with WAA. WAA is a common problem in asthmatics in GB. This result is in keeping with international prevalence rates. Further research could assist the understanding of the most significant aggravants to asthma at work and help define appropriate interventions by workplaces.

  2. Obesity does not aggravate osteoporosis or osteoblastic insulin resistance in orchiectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Rattanachote, Pinyada; Pintana, Hiranya; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that testosterone deprivation impairs osteoblastic insulin signaling, decreases osteoblast survival, reduces bone density, and that obesity aggravates those deleterious effects in testosterone-deprived rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats underwent either a bilateral orchiectomy (O, n=12) or a sham operation (S, n=12). Then the rats in each group were further divided into two subgroups fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks. At the end of the protocol, blood samples were collected to determine metabolic parameters and osteocalcin ratios. The tibiae were collected to determine bone mass using microcomputed tomography and for osteoblast isolation. The results showed that rats fed with HF (sham-operated HF-fed rats (HFS) and ORX HF-fed rats (HFO)) developed peripheral insulin resistance and had decreased trabecular bone density. In ND-fed rats, only the ORX ND-fed rats (NDO) group had decreased trabecular bone density. In addition, osteoblastic insulin resistance, as indicated by a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, were observed in all groups except the sham-operated ND-fed rats (NDS) rats. Those groups, again with the exception of the NDS rats, also had decreased osteoblastic survival. No differences in the levels of osteoblastic insulin resistance and osteoblastic survival were found among the NDO, HFS, and HFO groups. These findings suggest that either testosterone deprivation or obesity alone can impair osteoblastic insulin signaling and decrease osteoblastic survival leading to the development of osteoporosis. However, obesity does not aggravate those deleterious effects in the bone of testosterone-deprived rats. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac hypertrophy in nonobese Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Ittichaichareon, Jitjiroj; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Aeimlapa, Ratchaneevan; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-10-31

    Both Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in nonobese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated. We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into two subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) ( n = 6/subgroup). Four months after the operation, the rats were killed, and the heart was excised rapidly. Metabolic parameters, cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and biochemical parameters were determined. GK rats had hyperglycemia with hypoinsulinemia, and estrogen deprivation did not increase the severity of T2DM. Cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac oxidative stress, and phosphor-antinuclear factor κB were higher in WTO and GKS rats than WTS rats, and they markedly increased in GKO rats compared with GKS rats. Furthermore, cardiac fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β, Bax, phosphor-p38, and peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ coactivator-1α expression were increased in GKS and GKO rats compared with the lean rats. However, mitochondrial dynamics proteins including dynamin-related protein 1 and mitofusin-2 were not altered by T2DM and estrogen deprivation. Although estrogen deprivation did not aggravate T2DM in GK rats, it increased the severity of cardiac hypertrophy by provoking cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress in nonobese GK rats. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Seawater immersion aggravates burn-associated lung injury and inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wu, Qi; Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Jiahan; Yang, Lei

    2017-08-01

    With the increasing frequency of marine development activities and local wars at sea, the incidence of scald burns in marine accidents or wars has been increasing yearly. Various studies have indicated that immersion in seawater has a systemic impact on some organs of animals or humans with burn. Thus, for burn/scald injuries after immersion in seawater, it is desirable to study the effects and mechanisms of action on important organs. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of immersion in seawater on lung injury, inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses in scalded rats. The structural damage to lungs was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and the results showed that seawater immersion aggravated structural lung injury in scalded rats. The expression of HMGB1 in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis and the results showed that seawater immersion increased HMGB1 expression in lung tissues of scalded rats. Apoptosis in lung tissues was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and the results showed that seawater immersion increased apoptosis rate in lung tissues of scalded rats. In addition, the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, SOD, and MDA in serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the results showed that seawater immersion induced secretion of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8), increased MDA protein level, and suppressed SOD activity in the serum of scalded rats. Furthermore, measurement of plasma volume and pH showed that seawater immersion decreased plasma volume and pH value. Overall, the results indicated that all effects induced by immersion in seawater in scalded rats are more pronounced than those induced by freshwater. In conclusion, seawater immersion may aggravate lung injury and enhance inflammatory and oxidative-stress responses after burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  5. Tau-Induced Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase-IV Activation Aggravates Nuclear Tau Hyperphosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ping; Ye, Jin-Wang; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2018-04-01

    Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tau hyperphosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. Among these sites, tau phosphorylated at Thr205 and Ser214 was almost exclusively found in the nuclear fraction at the conditions used in the present study. With the intracellular tau accumulation, the Ca 2+ concentration was significantly increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Further studies using site-specific mutagenesis and pharmacological treatment demonstrated that phosphorylation of tau at Thr205 increased nuclear Ca 2+ concentration with a simultaneous increase in the phosphorylation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) at Ser196. On the other hand, phosphorylation of tau at Ser214 did not significantly change the nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling. Finally, expressing calmodulin-binding protein-4 that disrupts formation of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex abolished the okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the nuclear fraction. We conclude that the intracellular accumulation of phosphorylated tau, as detected in the brains of AD patients, can trigger nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling, which in turn aggravates tau hyperphosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights for tauopathies: hyperphosphorylation of intracellular tau and an increased Ca 2+ concentration may induce a self-perpetuating harmful loop to promote neurodegeneration.

  6. Sleep deprivation aggravates median nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and enhances microglial activation by suppressing melatonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. 77 FR 24415 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a Federal Railroad Safety Law...'') raised the maximum civil penalties available under the railroad safety laws and made individuals liable..., the RSIA raised the maximum civil penalties for violations of the Federal rail safety laws...

  8. Aggravation of Risk and Precautionary Measures in Non-Life Insurance: A Tricky Scope for the Insurer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi-Jüri Luik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggravation of risk and failure to take precautionary measures are focal issues in non-life insurance in terms of potential partial or full release of the insurer from the duty to perform. Not infrequently, it is difficult to draw a line between the aggravation of risk on the one hand, and non-compliance with precautionary measures on the other, since a particular action by a policyholder may present both situations. At the same time, the legal remedies available to the insurer regarding these two situations are different in scope. The aggravation of risk and non-compliance with precautionary measures are precisely the bases on which insurers actually reduce indemnity or refuse to compensate for damages. This article explores the differences between insurance laws in the Baltic states—specifically, the Estonian Law of Obligations Act, the Latvian Insurance Contract Law and Lithuanian rules contained in the Civil Code and Insurance Law. The article explores the differences between the Baltic states’ insurance laws and the Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL with regard to a policyholder’s duty in relation to aggravation of risk and precautionary measures, as the rights and obligations of policyholders do change where the optional instrument is applied. The article also includes comparisons to German, Finnish and Russian insurance law.

  9. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 228 and 231 [Docket No. FRA-2004-17529; Notice No. 9] RIN 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil... rule, pursuant to the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, which increased the...

  10. Cardiomyocyte Overexpression of FABP4 Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. It is considered to express mainly in adipose tissues, and be strongly associated with inflammation, obesity, diabetes and cardiovasculardiseases. Here we report that FABP4 is also expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in regulating heart function under pressure overload. We generated heart-specific transgenic FABP4 (FABP4-TG mice using α myosin-heavy chain (α-MHC promoter and human FABP4 sequence, resulting in over-expression of FABP4 in cardiomyocytes. The FABP4-TG mice displayed normal cardiac morphology and contractile function. When they were subjected to the transverse aorta constriction (TAC procedure, the FABP4-TG mice developed more cardiac hypertrophy correlated with significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, compared with wild type controls. FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes activated phosphor-ERK signal and up-regulate the expression of cardiac hypertrophic marker genes. Conversely, FABP4 induced phosphor-ERK signal and hypertrophic gene expressions can be markedly inhibited by an ERK inhibitor PD098059 as well as the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403. These results suggest that FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes can aggravate the development of cardiac hypertrophy through the activation of ERK signal pathway.

  11. Norepinephrine as a Potential Aggravator of Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm: Two Cases and Argument for Milrinone Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During hypertensive therapy for post-subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH symptomatic vasospasm, norepinephrine is commonly used to reach target blood pressures. Concerns over aggravation of vasospasm with norepinephrine exist. Objective. To describe norepinephrine temporally related deterioration in neurological examination of two post-SAH patients in vasospasm. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed two charts of patients with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI post-SAH who deteriorated with norepinephrine infusions. Results. We identified two patients with DCI post-SAH who deteriorated during hypertensive therapy with norepinephrine. The first, a 43-year-old male presented to hospital with DCI, failed MABP directed therapy with rapid deterioration in exam with high dose norepinephrine and MABP of 140–150 mm Hg. His exam improved on continuous milrinone and discontinuation of norepinephrine. The second, a 39-year-old female who developed DCI on postbleed day 8 responded to milrinone therapy upfront. During further deterioration and after angioplasty, norepinephrine was utilized to drive MABP to 130–140 mm Hg. Progressive deterioration in examination occurred after angioplasty as norepinephrine doses escalated. After discontinuation of norepinephrine and continuation of milrinone, function dramatically returned but not to baseline. Conclusions. The potential exists for worsening of DCI post-SAH with hypertensive therapy directed by norepinephrine. A potential role exists for vasodilation and inotropic directed therapy with milrinone in the setting of DCI post-SAH.

  12. Strenuous exercise aggravates MDMA-induced skeletal muscle damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jose A.; Leao, Anabela; Magalhaes, Jose; Ascensao, Antonio; Bastos, Maria L.; Amado, Francisco L.; Vilarinho, Laura; Quelhas, Dulce; Appell, Hans J.; Carvalho, Felix

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ecstasy (MDMA) administration on body temperature and soleus muscle histology in exercised and non-exercised mice. Charles-River mice were distributed into four groups: Control (C), exercise (EX), MDMA treated (M), and M + EX. The treated animals received an i.p. injection (10 mg/kg) of MDMA (saline for C and EX), and the exercise consisted of a 90 min level run at a velocity of 900 m/h, immediately after the MDMA or saline administration. Body temperature was recorded every 30 min via subcutaneous implanted transponder. Animals were sacrificed 1.5, 25.5, and 49.5 h after i.p. injection and the soleus muscles were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. The MDMA-treated animals showed a significant increase in body temperature (similar in M and M + EX groups), reaching the peak 90 min after i.p. administration; their temperature remained higher than control for more than 5 h. The EX group evidenced a similar and parallel, yet lower temperature increase during exercise and recovery. Morphological signs of damage were rarely encountered in the EX group; they were more pronounced in M group and even aggravated in M + EX group. In conclusion, MDMA and exercise per se increased body temperature but in conjunction did not have a cumulated effect. However, ecstasy and concomitant physical activity might severely accumulate with regard to skeletal muscle toxicity and may lead to rhabdomyolysis

  13. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia aggravates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Jia, Pengyu; Jia, Dalin

    2015-12-01

    The effect of hypercholesterolemia on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is in controversy and the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. In the present study, we firstly detected the effects of hypercholesterolemia on MIRI and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathway in this process. The infarct size was determined by TTC staining, and apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL method. The marker proteins of ER stress response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway were detected by Western blot. The results showed that high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia significantly increased the myocardial infarct size, the release of myocardium enzyme and the ratio of apoptosis, but did not affect the recovery of cardiac function. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia also remarkably up-regulated the expressions of ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78 and calreticulin) and critical molecules in ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway (CHOP, caspase 12, phospho-JNK). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia enhanced myocardial vulnerability/sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion injury involved in aggravation the ER stress and activation of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway and it gave us a new insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with hypercholesterolemia-induced exaggerated MIRI and also provided a novel target for preventing MIRI in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Salt stress aggravates boron toxicity symptoms in banana leaves by impairing guttation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, O R; Israeli, Yair; Shani, Uri; Schwartz, Amnon

    2013-02-01

    Boron (B) is known to accumulate in the leaf margins of different plant species, arguably a passive consequence of enhanced transpiration at the ends of the vascular system. However, transpiration rate is not the only factor affecting ion distribution. We examine an alternative hypothesis, suggesting the participation of the leaf bundle sheath in controlling radial water and solute transport from the xylem to the mesophyll in analogy to the root endodermis. In banana, excess B that remains confined to the vascular system is effectively disposed of via dissolution in the guttation fluid; therefore, impairing guttation should aggravate B damage to the leaf margins. Banana plants were subjected to increasing B concentrations. Guttation rates were manipulated by imposing a moderate osmotic stress. Guttation fluid was collected and analysed continuously. The distribution of ions across the lamina was determined. Impairing guttation indeed led to increased B damage to the leaf margins. The kinetics of ion concentration in guttation samples revealed major differences between ion species, corresponding to their distribution in the lamina dry matter. We provide evidence that the distribution pattern of B and other ions across banana leaves depends on active filtration of the transpiration stream and on guttation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The cytolethal distending toxin of Haemophilus ducreyi aggravates dermal lesions in a rabbit model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wising, Catharina; Mölne, Lena; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Ahlman, Karin; Lagergård, Teresa

    2005-05-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, produces a cytolethal distending toxin (HdCDT) that inhibits cultured cell proliferation, leading to cell death. A rabbit model of dermal infection was used to investigate the roles of H. ducreyi bacteria and HdCDT in the development, clinical appearance, and persistence of infection. A non-toxin producing H. ducreyi strain, and for comparison purposes a non-capsulated Haemophilus influenzae strain, were inoculated intradermally, with and without co-administration of purified HdCDT. Co-administration of HdCDT resulted in significant aggravation of H. ducreyi-induced inflammatory lesions, and development of ulcers in rabbit skin. Less pronounced inflammatory lesions and lack of epithelial eruption were observed after inoculation with H. influenzae. Histopathological sections of the H. ducreyi-induced lesions, in both the presence and absence of HdCDT, showed dense infiltrates of the same type inflammatory cells, with the exception of a prominent endothelial cell proliferation noted in sections from lesions caused by H. ducreyi and toxin. Signs of chronic inflammation with involvement of T cells, macrophages, eosinophils, and granuloma formation were observed after H. ducreyi inoculation both with and without toxin. In conclusion, H. ducreyi causes a pronounced, chronic inflammation with involvement of T cells and macrophages, and in combination with HdCDT production of ulcers in the rabbit model. These pathogenic mechanisms may promote the development and persistence of chancroid ulcers.

  17. Histones from Dying Renal Cells Aggravate Kidney Injury via TLR2 and TLR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Scherbaum, Christina Rebecca; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Hägele, Holger; Lichtnekert, Julia; Hagemann, Jan Henrik; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Ryu, Mi; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Uhl, Bernd; Reichel, Christoph A.; Krombach, Fritz; Monestier, Marc; Liapis, Helen; Moreth, Kristin; Schaefer, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    In AKI, dying renal cells release intracellular molecules that stimulate immune cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, which trigger leukocyte recruitment and renal inflammation. Whether the release of histones, specifically, from dying cells contributes to the inflammation of AKI is unknown. In this study, we found that dying tubular epithelial cells released histones into the extracellular space, which directly interacted with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 (TLR2) and TLR4 to induce MyD88, NF-κB, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Extracellular histones also had directly toxic effects on renal endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, direct injection of histones into the renal arteries of mice demonstrated that histones induce leukocyte recruitment, microvascular vascular leakage, renal inflammation, and structural features of AKI in a TLR2/TLR4-dependent manner. Antihistone IgG, which neutralizes the immunostimulatory effects of histones, suppressed intrarenal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and tubular cell necrosis and improved excretory renal function. In summary, the release of histones from dying cells aggravates AKI via both its direct toxicity to renal cells and its proinflammatory effects. Because the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells requires TLR2 and TLR4, these results support the concept that renal damage triggers an innate immune response, which contributes to the pathogenesis of AKI. PMID:22677551

  18. Liver Cholesterol Overload Aggravates Obstructive Cholestasis by Inducing Oxidative Stress and Premature Death in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is one of the leading causes of liver disease. Dietary factors determine the clinical presentation of steatohepatitis and can influence the progression of related diseases. Cholesterol has emerged as a critical player in the disease and hence consumption of cholesterol-enriched diets can lead to a progressive form of the disease. The aim was to investigate the impact of liver cholesterol overload on the progression of the obstructive cholestasis in mice subjected to bile duct ligation surgery. Mice were fed with a high cholesterol diet for two days and then were subjected to surgery procedure; histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were conducted to address the effect of cholesterol in liver damage. Mice under the diet were more susceptible to damage. Results show that cholesterol fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis and oxidative stress as well as reduction in cell proliferation. Mortality following surgery was higher in HC fed mice. Liver cholesterol impairs the repair of liver during obstructive cholestasis and aggravates the disease with early fatal consequences; these effects were strongly associated with oxidative stress.

  19. NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS OF PUERPERAE WITH POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION AGGRAVATED BY STRESSFUL CHILDBIRTH-RELATED EVENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Yu, S

    2015-01-01

    In the period of gestation, delivery and post-delivery, fear and tension produced in puerperae are likely to evolve into depression as they worry too much about delivery pain. In recent years, it has been noted that stressful events during this period aggravate postpartum depression. To discuss the effect of these childbirth-related stressful events on neuroendocrine functions of patients with postpartum depression, 300 full-term puerperae who had been admitted to the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University between October, 2011 and October, 2013 and who had suffered from stressful childbirth-related events were enrolled as a study group. This group was divided into six subgroups, i.e., A, B, C, D, E and F, based on the number of stressful events they had suffered which were labeled by numbers 1 to 6. Additionally, 100 puerperae from the same hospital who had not suffered from childbirth-related stressful events were taken as controls. Relevant clinical indexes, including serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), noradrenaline ELISA (NE), dopamine (DA) and cortisol level were measured and compared. It was found that incidence probability of postpartum depression was significantly different between the study group (13.67%, 41/300) and the control group (7%, 7/100). Moreover, the incidence probability of postpartum depression of puerperae suffering from no less than 4 childbirth-related stressful events was higher than those suffering from no more than 3, and the difference was statistically significant (Pdepression.

  20. Bisphenol A (BPA) aggravates multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Thinamany, Sinduja; Bruner, Kylie A

    2017-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder characterized by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Whereas epidemiological data implicate environmental factors in the increasing incidence of T1D, their identity remains unknown. Though exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with several disorders, no epidemiologic evidence has linked BPA exposure and T1D. The goal of this study was to elucidate diabetogenic potentials of BPA and underlying mechanisms in the context of T-cell immunity, in a multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced autoimmune mouse T1D model. C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to 1 or 10 mg BPA/L starting at 4 wk of age; diabetes was induced at 9 wk of age with STZ. T-cell composition, function, and insulitis levels were studied at Days 11 and 50 during diabetes development (i.e. post-first STZ injection). Results showed both BPA doses increased diabetes incidence and affected T-cell immunity. However, mechanisms of diabetogenic action appeared divergent based on dose. Low-dose BPA fits a profile of an agent that exhibits pro-diabetogenic effects via T-cell immunomodulation in the early stages of disease development, i.e. decreases in splenic T-cell subpopulations [especially CD4 + T-cells] along with a trend in elevation of splenic T-cell formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6). In contrast, high-dose BPA did not affect T-cell populations and led to decreased levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both treatments did not affect insulitis levels at the disease early stage, but aggravated it later on. By the study end, besides decreasing T-cell proliferative capacity, low-dose BPA did not affect other T-cell-related parameters, including cytokine secretion, comparable to the effects of high-dose BPA. In conclusion, this study confirmed BPA as a potential diabetogenic compound with immunomodulatory mechanisms of action - in the context of T-cell immunity - that seemed to be dose

  1. Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

  2. Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity by Regulatory NKT10 Cells Aggravates Alcoholic Hepatosteatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kele Cui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We and others have found that the functions of hepatic natural killer (NK cells are inhibited but invariant NKT (iNKT cells become activated after alcohol drinking, leaving a possibility that there exists interplay between NK cells and iNKT cells during alcoholic liver disease. Here, in a chronic plus single-binge ethanol consumption mouse model, we observed that NK cells and interferon-γ (IFN-γ protected against ethanol-induced liver steatosis, as both wild-type (WT mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 antibody and IFN-γ-deficient GKO mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty livers. As expected, IFN-γ could directly downregulate lipogenesis in primary hepatocytes in vitro. On the contrary, iNKT cell-deficient Jα18−/− or interleukin-10 (IL-10−/− mice showed fewer alcoholic steatosis, along with the recovered number and IFN-γ release of hepatic NK cells, and exogenous IL-10 injection was sufficient to compensate for iNKT cell deficiency. Furthermore, NK cell depletion in Jα18−/− or IL-10−/− mice caused more severe hepatosteatosis, implying NK cells are the direct effector cells to inhibit liver steatosis. Importantly, adoptive transfer of iNKT cells purified from normal but not IL-10−/− mice resulted in suppression of the number and functions of NK cells and aggravated alcoholic liver injury in Jα18−/− mice, indicating that IL-10-producing iNKT (NKT10 cells are the regulators on NK cells. Conclusion: Ethanol exposure-triggered NKT10 cells antagonize the protective roles of NK cells in alcoholic hepatosteatosis.

  3. Behavioural and physical effects of arsenic exposure in fish are aggravated by aquatic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magellan, Kit; Barral-Fraga, Laura; Rovira, Marona; Srean, Pao; Urrea, Gemma; García-Berthou, Emili; Guasch, Helena

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic contamination has global impacts and freshwaters are major arsenic repositories. Arsenic toxicity depends on numerous interacting factors which makes effects difficult to estimate. The use of aquatic algae is often advocated for bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters as they absorb arsenate and transform it into arsenite and methylated chemical species. Fish are another key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. Contamination in natural systems is often too low to cause mortality but sufficient to interfere with normal functioning. Alteration of complex, naturally occurring fish behaviours such as foraging and aggression are ecologically relevant indicators of toxicity and ideal for assessing sublethal impacts. We examined the effects of arsenic exposure in the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, in a laboratory experiment incorporating some of the complexity of natural systems by including the interacting effects of aquatic algae. Our aims were to quantify the effects of arsenic on some complex behaviours and physical parameters in mosquitofish, and to assess whether the detoxifying mechanisms of algae would ameliorate any effects of arsenic exposure. Aggression increased significantly with arsenic whereas operculum movement decreased non-significantly and neither food capture efficiency nor consumption were notably affected. Bioaccumulation increased with arsenic and unexpectedly so did fish biomass. Possibly increased aggression facilitated food resource defence allowing fish to gain weight. The presence of algae aggravated the effects of arsenic exposure. For increase in fish biomass, algae acted antagonistically with arsenic, resulting in a disadvantageous reduction in weight gained. For bioaccumulation the effects were even more severe, as algae operated additively with arsenic to increase arsenic uptake and/or assimilation. Aggression was also highest in the presence of both algae and arsenic. Bioremediation of arsenic contaminated waters

  4. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  5. Aggravation of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Cigarette Smoke in Mice Is CD44-Dependent.

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    Smitha Kumar

    Full Text Available Although epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoke (CS facilitates the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, these studies offer limited information on the mechanisms involved. The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is involved in cell adhesion and acts as a receptor for hyaluronic acid and osteopontin. We aimed to investigate the role of CD44 in a murine model of CS-facilitated allergic airway inflammation.Wild type (WT and CD44 knock-out (KO mice were exposed simultaneously to house dust mite (HDM extract and CS. Inflammatory cells, hyaluronic acid (HA and osteopontin (OPN levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Proinflammatory mediators, goblet cell metaplasia and peribronchial eosinophilia were assessed in lung tissue. T-helper (Th 1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production was evaluated in mediastinal lymph node cultures.In WT mice, combined HDM/CS exposure increased the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of HA and OPN in BALF and Th2 cytokine production in mediastinal lymph nodes compared to control groups exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS/CS, HDM/Air or PBS/Air. Furthermore, HDM/CS exposure significantly increased goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial eosinophilia and inflammatory mediators in the lung. CD44 KO mice exposed to HDM/CS had significantly fewer inflammatory cells in BALF, an attenuated Th2 cytokine production, as well as decreased goblet cells and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice. In contrast, the levels of inflammatory mediators were similar or higher than in WT mice.We demonstrate for the first time that the aggravation of pulmonary inflammation upon combined exposure to allergen and an environmental pollutant is CD44-dependent. Data from this murine model of concomitant exposure to CS and HDM might be of importance for smoking allergic asthmatics.

  6. Ocean Acidification May Aggravate Social-Ecological Trade-Offs in Coastal Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Kapaun, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) will influence marine ecosystems by changing species abundance and composition. Major effects are described for calcifying organisms, which are significantly impacted by decreasing pH values. Direct effects on commercially important fish are less well studied. The early life stages of fish populations often lack internal regulatory mechanisms to withstand the effects of abnormal pH. Negative effects can be expected on growth, survival, and recruitment success. Here we study Norwegian coastal cod, one of the few stocks where such a negative effect was experimentally quantified, and develop a framework for coupling experimental data on OA effects to ecological-economic fisheries models. In this paper, we scale the observed physiological responses to the population level by using the experimentally determined mortality rates as part of the stock-recruitment relationship. We then use an ecological-economic optimization model, to explore the potential effect of rising CO2 concentration on ecological (stock size), economic (profits), consumer-related (harvest) and social (employment) indicators, with scenarios ranging from present day conditions up to extreme acidification. Under the assumptions of our model, yields and profits could largely be maintained under moderate OA by adapting future fishing mortality (and related effort) to changes owing to altered pH. This adaptation comes at the costs of reduced stock size and employment, however. Explicitly visualizing these ecological, economic and social tradeoffs will help in defining realistic future objectives. Our results can be generalized to any stressor (or stressor combination), which is decreasing recruitment success. The main findings of an aggravation of trade-offs will remain valid. This seems to be of special relevance for coastal stocks with limited options for migration to avoid unfavorable future conditions and subsequently for coastal fisheries, which are often small scale local

  7. Administration of Mycobacterium leprae rHsp65 aggravates experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice.

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    Eliana B Marengo

    Full Text Available The 60 kDa heat shock protein family, Hsp60, constitutes an abundant and highly conserved class of molecules that are highly expressed in chronic-inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Experimental autoimmune uveitis [EAU] is a T cell mediated intraocular inflammatory disease that resembles human uveitis. Mycobacterial and homologous Hsp60 peptides induces uveitis in rats, however their participation in aggravating the disease is poorly known. We here evaluate the effects of the Mycobacterium leprae Hsp65 in the development/progression of EAU and the autoimmune response against the eye through the induction of the endogenous disequilibrium by enhancing the entropy of the immunobiological system with the addition of homologous Hsp. B10.RIII mice were immunized subcutaneously with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein [IRBP], followed by intraperitoneally inoculation of M. leprae recombinant Hsp65 [rHsp65]. We evaluated the proliferative response, cytokine production and the percentage of CD4(+IL-17(+, CD4(+IFN-gamma(+ and CD4(+Foxp3(+ cells ex vivo, by flow cytometry. Disease severity was determined by eye histological examination and serum levels of anti-IRBP and anti-Hsp60/65 measured by ELISA. EAU scores increased in the Hsp65 group and were associated with an expansion of CD4(+IFN-gamma(+ and CD4(+IL-17(+ T cells, corroborating with higher levels of IFN-gamma. Our data indicate that rHsp65 is one of the managers with a significant impact over the immune response during autoimmunity, skewing it to a pathogenic state, promoting both Th1 and Th17 commitment. It seems comprehensible that the specificity and primary function of Hsp60 molecules can be considered as a potential pathogenic factor acting as a whistleblower announcing chronic-inflammatory diseases progression.

  8. Loss of vagal tone aggravates systemic inflammation and cardiac impairment in endotoxemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Astrid; Lichtenstern, Christoph; Henrich, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Uhle, Florian

    2014-05-15

    During the course of sepsis, often myocardial depression with hemodynamic impairment occurs. Acetylcholine, the main transmitter of the parasympathetic Nervus vagus, has been shown to be of importance for the transmission of signals within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. Hypothesizing a potential correlation between this dysfunction and hemodynamic impairment, we wanted to assess the impact of vagal stimulation on myocardial inflammation and function in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. As the myocardial tissue is (sparsely) innervated by the N. vagus, there might be an important anti-inflammatory effect in the heart, inhibiting proinflammatory gene expression in cardiomyocytes and improving cardiac function. We performed stimulation of the right cervical branch of the N. vagus in vagotomized, endotoxemic (1 mg/kg body weight LPS, intravenously) rats. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed over time using a left ventricular pressure-volume catheter. After the experiments, hearts and blood plasma were collected, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After vagotomy, the inflammatory response was aggravated, measurable by elevated cytokine levels in plasma and ventricular tissue. In concordance, cardiac impairment during septic shock was pronounced in these animals. To reverse both hemodynamic and immunologic effects of diminished vagal tone, even a brief stimulation of the N. vagus was enough during initial LPS infusion. Overall, the N. vagus might play a major role in maintaining hemodynamic stability and cardiac immune homeostasis during septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocean acidification may aggravate social-ecological trade-offs in coastal fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jörn O; Kapaun, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) will influence marine ecosystems by changing species abundance and composition. Major effects are described for calcifying organisms, which are significantly impacted by decreasing pH values. Direct effects on commercially important fish are less well studied. The early life stages of fish populations often lack internal regulatory mechanisms to withstand the effects of abnormal pH. Negative effects can be expected on growth, survival, and recruitment success. Here we study Norwegian coastal cod, one of the few stocks where such a negative effect was experimentally quantified, and develop a framework for coupling experimental data on OA effects to ecological-economic fisheries models. In this paper, we scale the observed physiological responses to the population level by using the experimentally determined mortality rates as part of the stock-recruitment relationship. We then use an ecological-economic optimization model, to explore the potential effect of rising CO2 concentration on ecological (stock size), economic (profits), consumer-related (harvest) and social (employment) indicators, with scenarios ranging from present day conditions up to extreme acidification. Under the assumptions of our model, yields and profits could largely be maintained under moderate OA by adapting future fishing mortality (and related effort) to changes owing to altered pH. This adaptation comes at the costs of reduced stock size and employment, however. Explicitly visualizing these ecological, economic and social tradeoffs will help in defining realistic future objectives. Our results can be generalized to any stressor (or stressor combination), which is decreasing recruitment success. The main findings of an aggravation of trade-offs will remain valid. This seems to be of special relevance for coastal stocks with limited options for migration to avoid unfavorable future conditions and subsequently for coastal fisheries, which are often small scale local

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Aggravates Renal Injury through Cytokines and Direct Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhui Zhai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC activation state were examined. The results showed that renal injury was more serious in the reinfection group than in the primary infection group. At a higher infection dose, 6×106 PFU, the renal injury was more severe, accompanied by higher levels of proteinuria and urinary GAGs excretion, and lower levels of serum albumin. Podocyte foot effacement was more extensive, and hyperplasia of mesangial cells and proliferation of mesangial matrix were observed. The maturation state of DCs was specific, compared with the primary infection. There was also a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+T lymphocytes, due to an increase in the percentage of CD8+T lymphocytes and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+T lymphocytes, and a dramatic increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-17. In terms of the different reinfection times, the day 14 reinfection group yielded the most serious renal injury and the most significant change in immune function. RSV F protein was still expressed in the glomeruli 56 days after RSV infection. Altogether, these results reveal that RSV infection could aggravate renal injury, which might be due to direct renal injury caused by RSV and the inflammatory lesions caused by the anti-virus response induced by RSV.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency aggravates chronic kidney disease progression after ischemic acute kidney injury.

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    Janaína Garcia Gonçalves

    pathways and involvement of TGF-β1 growth factor, VDD could be considered as an aggravating factor for tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis progression following acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  12. Aggravated phosphorus limitation on biomass production under increasing nitrogen loading: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Niu, Shuli; Yu, Guirui

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), either individually or in combination, have been demonstrated to limit biomass production in terrestrial ecosystems. Field studies have been extensively synthesized to assess global patterns of N impacts on terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to our knowledge, no synthesis has been done so far to reveal global patterns of P impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, especially under different nitrogen (N) levels. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of impacts of P addition, either alone or with N addition, on aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass production (BGB), plant and soil P concentrations, and N : P ratio in terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, our meta-analysis quantitatively confirmed existing notions: (i) colimitation of N and P on biomass production and (ii) more P limitation in tropical forest than other ecosystems. More importantly, our analysis revealed new findings: (i) P limitation on biomass production was aggravated by N enrichment and (ii) plant P concentration was a better indicator of P limitation than soil P availability. Specifically, P addition increased AGB and BGB by 34% and 13%, respectively. The effect size of P addition on biomass production was larger in tropical forest than grassland, wetland, and tundra and varied with P fertilizer forms, P addition rates, or experimental durations. The P-induced increase in biomass production and plant P concentration was larger under elevated than ambient N. Our findings suggest that the global limitation of P on biomass production will become severer under increasing N fertilizer and deposition in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Postoperative neurological aggravation after anesthesia with sevoflurane in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjouji, Salaheddine; Bensghir, Mustapha; Yafat, Bahija; Bouhabba, Najib; Boutayeb, Elhoucine; Azendour, Hicham; Kamili, Nordine Drissi

    2013-03-14

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease that causes changes in skin pigmentation, precancerous lesions and neurological abnormalities. It is a defect in the nucleotide excision repair mechanism. It has been reported that volatile anesthetics has a possible genotoxic side effect and deranged nucleotide excision repair in cells obtained from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum.We report an unusual case of postoperative neurological aggravation in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum anesthetized with sevoflurane. A 24-year-old African woman, who has had xeroderma pigmentosum since childhood, was admitted to our hospital for a femoral neck fracture. A preoperative physical examination revealed that she had a resting tremor with ataxia. She had cutaneous lesions such as keratosis and hyperpigmentation on her face and both hands. There was no major alteration of cognitive function, muscular strength was maintained and her osteotendinous reflexes were preserved. Surgical fixation was performed under general anesthesia after the failure of spinal anesthesia. All parameters were stable during surgery. When she woke up four hours later, the patient presented with confusion and psychomotor agitation, sharpened reflexes and the Babinski reflex was present. Her postoperative test results and a magnetic resonance imaging scan were unremarkable. It was suggested that sevoflurane had had a probable deleterious effect on the neurological status of this patient. The anesthetizing of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum is associated with a risk of worsening neurological disorders. At present, there are no clear recommendations to avoid the use of volatile agents in the anesthetic management of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. More clinical and experimental research is needed to confirm the sensitivity of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum to sevoflurane and other halogenated anesthetics.

  14. Aggravation by paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, of antral lesions generated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Tanaka, Akiko; Nukui, Kazuo; Kojo, Azusa; Gyenge, Melinda; Amagase, Kikuko

    2011-09-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested a risk of adverse gastric reactions from the concomitant use of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We examined the adverse effects of SSRIs on antral lesions produced by indomethacin in rats. Rats fasted for 24 h were refed for 1 h, then administered indomethacin (30 mg/kg s.c.) 1 h after the refeeding and killed 6 h later. Paroxetine (1-10 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before indomethacin. Indomethacin caused antral lesions in refed rats. Paroxetine dose-dependently aggravated these lesions, despite provoking no damage by itself. Similar results were obtained when other NSAIDs such as diclofenac, flurbiprofen, and loxoprofen were coadministered with paroxetine or when indomethacin was coadministered with other antidepressants such as fluvoxamine and milnacipran, but not imipramine or maprotiline. Exogenous 5-HT also worsened the indomethacin-induced antral damage, whereas the aggravating effect of paroxetine was attenuated by ondansetron, a selective 5-HT(3) antagonist, but not antagonists for other 5-HT receptor subtypes. Indomethacin plus paroxetine had no effect on gastric secretion but significantly decreased mucosal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as GSH content. The antral damage induced by indomethacin plus paroxetine was significantly prevented by antisecretory (acid or pepsin) agents and mucosal protective agents as well as SOD and allopurinol. These results suggest that SSRIs aggravate NSAID-induced antral lesions, probably via the activation of 5HT(3) receptors, and the mechanism of aggravation may involve the corrosive action of acid/pepsin as well as an impaired antioxidative system.

  15. Hypothyroidism-induced Reversible Encephalopathy as a Cause of Aggravation of Parkinsonism and Myoclonus in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehm, Gwanhee; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok

    2017-01-01

    Myoclonus and encephalopathy are unusual in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We describe the case of a 59-year-old male with PD who developed myoclonus and encephalopathy. Underlying hypothyroidism was revealed after admission and treated with levothyroxine. Myoclonus and encephalopathy were completely resolved following thyroid hormone replacement. Hypothyroidism can cause reversible myoclonus and encephalopathy along with unusual aggravation of parkinsonism symptoms in patients with PD.

  16. Antibiotic administration alleviates the aggravating effect of orthodontic force on ligature-induced experimental periodontitis bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Liu, Z; Kawai, T; Zhou, Y; Han, X

    2017-08-01

    It is recognized that orthodontic force (OF) has an aggravating effect on the progression of destructive periodontitis if periodontitis have not been well controlled. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study was to investigate the effect of antibiotic administration on OF-aggravated, ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice (male, 8 wk old) were divided into three groups (n = 8). Silk ligatures (SL) were tied around the maxillary right (group 1) or both (groups 2 and 3) first molars on day 0, removed on day 8 and systemic antibiotics was administered through drinking water (group 3) since day 8. OF was applied on the maxillary right first molars since day 13 (groups 2 and 3). All mice were killed on day 20. Total oral bacteria load was significantly higher in group 2 when compared to group 1 on day 20, whereas such count was greatly reduced in group 3 when antibiotics were administered. Periodontal bone loss was significantly increased on SL side vs. control side in group 1. Periodontal bone loss was significantly increased on OF + SL side vs. SL side in group 2 (p periodontal space and tooth movement were observed on OF + SL side in groups 2 and 3. Our results suggest that reduction of oral bacterial load by antibiotic administration alleviate orthodontic force-aggravated periodontitis bone loss. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Estrogen aggravates inflammation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis mice

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    Gagnon Stéphane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, females have worse pulmonary function and survival than males, primarily due to chronic lung inflammation and infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. A role for gender hormones in the causation of the CF "gender gap" has been proposed. The female gender hormone 17β-estradiol (E2 plays a complex immunomodulatory role in humans and in animal models of disease, suppressing inflammation in some situations while enhancing it in others. Helper T-cells were long thought to belong exclusively to either T helper type 1 (Th1 or type 2 (Th2 lineages. However, a distinct lineage named Th17 is now recognized that is induced by interleukin (IL-23 to produce IL-17 and other pro-inflammatory Th17 effector molecules. Recent evidence suggests a central role for the IL-23/IL-17 pathway in the pathogenesis of CF lung inflammation. We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that E2 aggravates the CF lung inflammation that occurs in response to airway infection with P. aeruginosa by a Th17-mediated mechanism. Results Exogenous E2 caused adult male CF mice with pneumonia due to a mucoid CF clinical isolate, the P. aeruginosa strain PA508 (PA508, to develop more severe manifestations of inflammation in both lung tissue and in bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL fluid, with increased total white blood cell counts and differential and absolute cell counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils. Inflammatory infiltrates and mucin production were increased on histology. Increased lung tissue mRNA levels for IL-23 and IL-17 were accompanied by elevated protein levels of Th17-associated pro-inflammatory mediators in BAL fluid. The burden of PA508 bacteria was increased in lung tissue homogenate and in BAL fluid, and there was a virtual elimination in lung tissue of mRNA for lactoferrin, an antimicrobial peptide active against P. aeruginosa in vitro. Conclusions Our data show that E2 increases the

  18. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Amin, Ruhul; Postnov, Andrey; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; Gheysens, Olivier; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; De Geest, Bart

    2017-07-18

    Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher ( p coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64) during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density ( p coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold ( p coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower ( p coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  19. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  20. Orally delivered β-glucans aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, Sigrid E. M.; Williams, David L.; Welting, Olaf; Meijer, Sybren L.; Gordon, Siamon; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2015-01-01

    β-Glucans have beneficial health effects due to their immune modulatory properties. Oral administration of β-glucans affects tumour growth, microbial infection, sepsis, and wound healing. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with orally delivered soluble and particulate β-glucans could ameliorate the

  1. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  2. spv locus aggravates Salmonella infection of zebrafish adult by inducing Th1/Th2 shift to Th2 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yan; Wang, Li-Dan; Xu, Guang-Mei; Yang, Si-di; Deng, Qi-Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) are facultative intracellular enteric pathogens causing disease with a broad range of hosts. It was known that Th1-type cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α etc. could induce protective immunity against intracellular pathogens, while Th2-type cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 etc. are proved to help pathogens survive inside hosts and cause severe infection. One of the critical virulence factor attributes to the pathogenesis of S. typhimurium is Salmonella plasmid virulence genes (spv). Until now, the interaction between spv locus and the predictable generation of Th1 or Th2 immune responses to Salmonella has not been identified. In this study, zebrafish adults were employed to explore the effect of spv locus on Salmonella pathogenesis as well as host adaptive immune responses especially shift of Th1/Th2 balance. The pathological changes of intestines and livers in zebrafish were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscopy. Levels of the transcription factors of Th1 (Tbx21) and Th2 (GATA3) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Expression of cytokines were determined by using RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that spv operon aggravates damage of zebrafish. Furthermore, it demonstrated that spv locus could inhibit the transcription of tbx21 gene and suppress the expression of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α. On the contrary, the transcription of gata3 gene could be promoted and the expression of cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were enhanced by spv locus. Taken together, our data revealed that spv locus could aggravate Salmonella infection of zebrafish adult by inducing an imbalance of Th1/Th2 immune response and resulting in a detrimental Th2 bias of host. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Coconut Oil Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyopathy without Inducing Obesity, Systemic Insulin Resistance, or Cardiac Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilayaraja Muthuramu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05 in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 4.64 during eight weeks of follow-up. The effects of coconut oil on cardiac remodeling occurred in the absence of weight gain and of systemic insulin resistance. Wet lung weight was 1.76-fold (p < 0.01 higher in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial capillary density (p < 0.001 was decreased, interstitial fibrosis was 1.88-fold (p < 0.001 higher, and systolic and diastolic function was worse in coconut oil mice than in standard chow mice. Myocardial glucose uptake was 1.86-fold (p < 0.001 higher in coconut oil mice and was accompanied by higher myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase levels and higher acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels. The coconut oil diet increased oxidative stress. Myocardial triglycerides and free fatty acids were lower (p < 0.05 in coconut oil mice. In conclusion, coconut oil aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  4. Haloperidol aggravates transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuharu Shinoda; Hideaki Tagashira; Md. Shenuarin Bhuiyan; Hideyuki Hasegawa; Hiroshi Kanai; Kohji Fukunaga

    2016-01-01

    Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that inhibits the dopamine D2 receptor among others. Haloperidol also binds the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) and inhibits it irreversibly. A serious outcome of haloperidol treatment of schizophrenia patients is death due to sudden cardiac failure. Although the cause remains unclear, we hypothesized that these effects were mediated by chronic haloperidol inhibition of cardiac σ1R. To test this, we treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with haloperidol, exposed them...

  5. Haloperidol aggravates transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Shinoda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that inhibits the dopamine D2 receptor among others. Haloperidol also binds the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R and inhibits it irreversibly. A serious outcome of haloperidol treatment of schizophrenia patients is death due to sudden cardiac failure. Although the cause remains unclear, we hypothesized that these effects were mediated by chronic haloperidol inhibition of cardiac σ1R. To test this, we treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with haloperidol, exposed them to angiotensin II and assessed hypertrophy, σ1R expression, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and ATP levels. In this context, haloperidol treatment altered mitochondrial Ca2+ transport resulting in decreased ATP content by inactivating cardiac σ1R and/or reducing its expression. We also performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC and then treated mice with haloperidol. After two weeks, haloperidol-treated mice showed enhanced heart failure marked by deteriorated cardiac function, reduced ATP production and increasing mortality relative to TAC only mice. ATP supplementation via sodium pyruvate rescued phenotypes seen in haloperidol-treated TAC mice. We conclude that σ1R inactivation or downregulation in response to haloperidol treatment impairs mitochondrial Ca2+ mobilization, depleting ATP depletion from cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest a novel approach to mitigate haloperidol-related adverse effects in schizophrenia patients by ATP supplementation.

  6. Haloperidol aggravates transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure via mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Yasuharu; Tagashira, Hideaki; Bhuiyan, Md Shenuarin; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2016-07-01

    Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that inhibits the dopamine D2 receptor among others. Haloperidol also binds the sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) and inhibits it irreversibly. A serious outcome of haloperidol treatment of schizophrenia patients is death due to sudden cardiac failure. Although the cause remains unclear, we hypothesized that these effects were mediated by chronic haloperidol inhibition of cardiac σ1R. To test this, we treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with haloperidol, exposed them to angiotensin II and assessed hypertrophy, σ1R expression, mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport and ATP levels. In this context, haloperidol treatment altered mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport resulting in decreased ATP content by inactivating cardiac σ1R and/or reducing its expression. We also performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and then treated mice with haloperidol. After two weeks, haloperidol-treated mice showed enhanced heart failure marked by deteriorated cardiac function, reduced ATP production and increasing mortality relative to TAC only mice. ATP supplementation via sodium pyruvate rescued phenotypes seen in haloperidol-treated TAC mice. We conclude that σ1R inactivation or downregulation in response to haloperidol treatment impairs mitochondrial Ca(2+) mobilization, depleting ATP depletion from cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest a novel approach to mitigate haloperidol-related adverse effects in schizophrenia patients by ATP supplementation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide aggravated DOI-induced Tourette syndrome: elaboration for recurrence of Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Long; Zhenyang, Si; Chunyan, Wang; Qingqing, Pan

    2017-12-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by highest familial recurrence rate among neuropsychiatric diseases with complicated inheritance. Recurrence of Tourette syndrome was frequently observed in clinical. Unexpectedly, the mechanism of recurrence of Tourette syndrome was failure to elucidate. Here, we first shown that lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may played an important role in the recurrence of Tourette syndrome. The TS model in rats was induced by DOI (the selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:(1)Control;(2) Control + LPS; (2)TS; (3)TS + LPS. The results demonstrated that the LPS treatment significantly increased stereotypic score and autonomic activity. LPS treatment also significantly increased inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and striatum. Also, highly expressed TLR4, MyD88, P-NF-κBp65, P-IκBα in TS rats were increased respectively by LPS treatment as indicted in western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis. Thus, it was supposed that lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may played an important role in the recurrence of Tourette syndrome and its mechanism was related to TLR/NF-κB pathway.

  8. Patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure have increased concentrations of extracellular histones aggravating cellular damage and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Gou, C; Yao, L; Lei, Z; Gu, T; Ren, F; Wen, T

    2017-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most common type of liver failure and associated with grave consequences. Systemic inflammation has been linked to its pathogenesis and outcome, but the identifiable triggers are absent. Recently, extracellular histones, especially H4, have been recognized as important mediators of cell damage in various inflammatory conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether extracellular histones have clinical implications in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related ACLF. One hundred and twelve patients with HBV-related ACLF, 90 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 88 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis and 40 healthy volunteers were entered into this study. Plasma histone H4 levels, cytokine profile and clinical data were obtained. Besides, patient's sera were incubated overnight with human L02 hepatocytes or monocytic U937 cells in the presence or absence of antihistone H4 antibody, and cellular damage and cytokine production were evaluated. We found that plasma histone H4 levels were greatly increased in patients with ACLF as compared with chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis and healthy control subjects and were significantly associated with disease severity, systemic inflammation and outcome. Notably, ACLF patients' sera incubation decreased cultured L02 cell integrity and induced profound cytokine production in the supernatant of U937 cells. Antihistone H4 antibody treatment abrogated these adverse effects, thus confirming a cause-effect relationship between extracellular histones and organ injury/dysfunction. The data support the hypothesis that the increased extracellular histone levels in ACLF patients may aggravate disease severity by inducing cellular injury and systemic inflammation. Histone-targeted therapies may have potentially interventional value in clinical practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiple Discriminations – between a Contravention Per Se and an Aggravating Circumstances

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    Cristian Jura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There are some references on multiple discrimination like in the Recital 14 of the Racial Equality Directive, 2000/43/EC: „In implementing the principle of equal treatment irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, the Community should, in accordance with Article 3(2 of the EC Treaty, aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality between men and women, especially since women are often the victims of multiple discrimination”. Even in this case there is no legal definition of multiple discriminations.In 2008, so after 8 years, in the Explanatory Memorandum of the Proposal for a Council Directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation there is a reference regarding multiple discrimination in the sense that „Attention was also drawn to the need to tackle multiple discrimination, for example by defining it as discrimination and by providing effective remedies. These issues go beyond the scope of this Directive but nothing prevents Member States taking action in these areas.”

  10. Cetuximab-induced hypomagnesaemia aggravates peripheral sensory neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Machiko; Asama, Toshiyuki; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Chisato, Naoyuki; Suno, Manabu; Karasaki, Hidenori; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Calcium and magnesium replacement is effective in reducing oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. However, cetuximab treatment has been associated with severe hypomagnesaemia. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated whether cetuximab-induced hypomagnesaemia exacerbated oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Six patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were previously treated with oxaliplatin-fluorouracil combination therapy were administered cetuximab in combination with irinotecan alone or irinotecan and fluorouracil as a second-line treatment. All patients had normal magnesium levels before receiving cetuximab. The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to evaluate the grade of neurotoxicity, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcaemia, and hypokalemia every week. All six patients had grade 1 or higher hypomagnesaemia after starting cetuximab therapy. The serum calcium and potassium levels were within the normal range at the onset of hypomagnesaemia. Oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity occurred in all patients at the beginning of cetuximab therapy, with grade 1 neurotoxicity in five patients and grade 2 in one patient. After cetuximab administration, the neurotoxicity worsened in all six patients, and three progressed to grade 3. Among the three patients with grade 3 neurotoxicity, two required a dose reduction and one had to discontinue cetuximab therapy. A discontinuation or dose reduction in cetuximab therapy was associated with exacerbated oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity due to cetuximab-induced hypomagnesaemia in half of patients who had previously received oxaliplatin. Therefore, when administering cetuximab after oxaliplatin therapy, we suggest serially evaluating serum magnesium levels and neurotoxicity. PMID:22811813

  11. Aggravation of serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor levels during hepato carcinogenesis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ghareeb, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has an essential role during liver development and it plays an important role in the regeneration and repair of injured tissues and acting as a mitogen, motogen and morphogens for a variety of epithelial cells. The role of HGF in carcinogenesis is in straggle and so, the present study aimed to through light through the level of HGF during different steps of carcinogenesis. Forty male rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water (100 mg/l) for up to 16 weeks. Eight rats were sacrificed at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Besides, 8 hepatoma bearing rats were exposed to a single dose gamma irradiation (3 Gy) were sacrificed after 2 weeks from exposure (2 rats died, 36 hrs post irradiation) and 8 hepatoma bearing rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks from receiving a combined antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine and Lmethionine). Serum HGF was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum HGF level in DEN treated rats and in exposed hepatoma bearing rats was significantly higher than in control rats whereas, serum HGF level after treatment with N acetylcysteine and L-methionine for 4 weeks was significantly decreased than DEN treated rats and concluded that serum HGF may play a role during promotion and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and during treatment

  12. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  13. Chronic β2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise......-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized 21 trained men to four weeks of high intensity training with (HIT + β2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg...... (P ≤ 0.01) and exercise performance (11.6 vs. 6.1%, P ≤ 0.05) in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT. These findings indicate that daily β2 -agonist treatment attenuates the beneficial effects of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, and causes remodelling of muscle proteome...

  14. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seung Keun; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Lee, JaeHee; Kim, Hye young; Kim, Hee Jin; Na, Heung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA) exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD) produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air) for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week). So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results suggested that 1

  15. Formaldehyde-Induced Aggravation of Pruritus and Dermatitis Is Associated with the Elevated Expression of Th1 Cytokines in a Rat Model of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Taeho Han

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease of heterogeneous pathogenesis, in particular, genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and their interactions. Indoor air pollution, increasing with urbanization, plays a role as environmental risk factor in the development of AD. However, we still lack a detailed picture of the role of air pollution in the development of the disease. Here, we examined the effect of formaldehyde (FA exposure on the manifestation of atopic dermatitis and the underlying molecular mechanism in naive rats and in a rat model of atopic dermatitis (AD produced by neonatal capsaicin treatment. The AD and naive rats were exposed to 0.8 ppm FA, 1.2 ppm FA, or fresh air (Air for 6 weeks (2 hours/day and 5 days/week. So, six groups, namely the 1.2 FA-AD, 0.8 FA-AD, Air-AD, 1.2 FA-naive, 0.8 FA-naive and Air-naive groups, were established. Pruritus and dermatitis, two major symptoms of atopic dermatitis, were evaluated every week for 6 weeks. After that, samples of the blood, the skin and the thymus were collected from the 1.2 FA-AD, the Air-AD, the 1.2 FA-naive and the Air-naive groups. Serum IgE levels were quantified with ELISA, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines from extracts of the skin and the thymus were calculated with qRT-PCR. The dermatitis and pruritus significantly worsened in 1.2 FA-AD group, but not in 0.8 FA-AD, compared to the Air-AD animals, whereas FA didn't induce any symptoms in naive rats. Consistently, the levels of serum IgE were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-AD than in air-AD, however, there was no significant difference following FA exposure in naive animals. In the skin, mRNA expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the 1.2 FA-AD rats compared to the air-AD rats, whereas mRNA expression levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17A and TSLP were significantly higher in 1.2 FA-naive group than in the Air-naive group. These results

  16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid aggravates nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysepar, Elham; Soltani, Nepton; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a major antineoplastic drug for treatment of solid tumors. CP-induced nephrotoxicity may be gender-related. This is while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that has renoprotective impacts on acute renal injury. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of GABA against CP-induced nephrotoxicity in male and female rats. Sixty Wistar male and female rats were used in eight experimental groups. Both genders received GABA (50 μg/kg/day; i. p.) for 14 days and CP (2.5 mg/kg/day; i. p.) was added from day 8 to the end of the study, and they were compared with the control groups. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA), and magnesium (Mg) were measured. The kidney tissue damage was also determined via staining. CP significantly increased the serum levels of Cr and BUN, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score in both genders (PGABA did not attenuate these markers in males; even these biomarkers were intensified in females. Serum level of Mg, and testis and uterus weights did not alter in the groups. However, the groups were significantly different in terms of nitrite and MDA levels. It seems that GABA did not improve nephrotoxicity induced by CP-treated rats, and it exacerbated renal damage in female rats.

  17. Obesogenic diet-induced gut barrier dysfunction and pathobiont expansion aggravate experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Chul Lee

    Full Text Available Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice. Goblet cell number and secretion of mucin by goblet cells were also decreased, while intestinal permeability was increased in HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice were more susceptible to experimental colitis, and exhibited severe colonic inflammation, accompanied by the expansion of selected pathobionts such as Atopobium sp. and Proteobacteria. Fecal microbiota transplantation transferred the susceptibility to DSS-colitis, and antibiotic treatment abrogated colitis progression. These data suggest that an experimental HFD-induced Paneth cell dysfunction and subsequent intestinal dysbiosis characterized by pathobiont expansion can be predisposing factors to the development of inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Increasing the inspiratory time and I:E ratio during mechanical ventilation aggravates ventilator-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Redetzky, Holger C; Felten, Matthias; Hellwig, Katharina; Wienhold, Sandra-Maria; Naujoks, Jan; Opitz, Bastian; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin

    2015-01-28

    Lung-protective ventilation reduced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality. To minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), tidal volume is limited, high plateau pressures are avoided, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is applied. However, the impact of specific ventilatory patterns on VILI is not well defined. Increasing inspiratory time and thereby the inspiratory/expiratory ratio (I:E ratio) may improve oxygenation, but may also be harmful as the absolute stress and strain over time increase. We thus hypothesized that increasing inspiratory time and I:E ratio aggravates VILI. VILI was induced in mice by high tidal-volume ventilation (HVT 34 ml/kg). Low tidal-volume ventilation (LVT 9 ml/kg) was used in control groups. PEEP was set to 2 cm H2O, FiO2 was 0.5 in all groups. HVT and LVT mice were ventilated with either I:E of 1:2 (LVT 1:2, HVT 1:2) or 1:1 (LVT 1:1, HVT 1:1) for 4 hours or until an alternative end point, defined as mean arterial blood pressure below 40 mm Hg. Dynamic hyperinflation due to the increased I:E ratio was excluded in a separate group of animals. Survival, lung compliance, oxygenation, pulmonary permeability, markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation (leukocyte differentiation in lung and blood, analyses of pulmonary interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and histopathologic pulmonary changes were analyzed. LVT 1:2 or LVT 1:1 did not result in VILI, and all individuals survived the ventilation period. HVT 1:2 decreased lung compliance, increased pulmonary neutrophils and cytokine expression, and evoked marked histologic signs of lung injury. All animals survived. HVT 1:1 caused further significant worsening of oxygenation, compliance and increased pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine expression, and pulmonary and blood neutrophils. In the HVT 1:1 group, significant mortality during mechanical ventilation was observed. According to the "baby lung

  19. A Mycobacterium leprae Hsp65 mutant as a candidate for mitigating lupus aggravation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana B Marengo

    Full Text Available Hsp60 is an abundant and highly conserved family of intracellular molecules. Increased levels of this family of proteins have been observed in the extracellular compartment in chronic inflammation. Administration of M. leprae Hsp65 [WT] in [NZBxNZW]F(1 mice accelerates the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [SLE] progression whereas the point mutated K(409A Hsp65 protein delays the disease. Here, the biological effects of M. leprae Hsp65 Leader pep and K(409A pep synthetic peptides, which cover residues 352-371, are presented. Peptides had immunomodulatory effects similar to that observed with their respective proteins on survival and the combined administration of K(409A+Leader pep or K(409A pep+WT showed that the mutant forms were able to inhibit the deleterious effect of WT on mortality, indicating the neutralizing potential of the mutant molecules in SLE progression. Molecular modeling showed that replacing Lysine by Alanine affects the electrostatic potential of the 352-371 region. The number of interactions observed for WT is much higher than for Hsp65 K(409A and mouse Hsp60. The immunomodulatory effects of the point-mutated protein and peptide occurred regardless of the catalytic activity. These findings may be related to the lack of effect on survival when F(1 mice were inoculated with Hsp60 or K(409A pep. Our findings indicate the use of point-mutated Hsp65 molecules, such as the K(409A protein and its corresponding peptide, that may minimize or delay the onset of SLE, representing a new approach to the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  20. Galectin-1-Driven Tolerogenic Programs Aggravate Yersinia enterocolitica Infection by Repressing Antibacterial Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davicino, Roberto C; Méndez-Huergo, Santiago P; Eliçabe, Ricardo J; Stupirski, Juan C; Autenrieth, Ingo; Di Genaro, María S; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2017-08-15

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y. enterocolitica pathogenicity by undermining protective antibacterial responses. We found higher expression of Gal-1 in the spleen and Peyer's patches of mice infected orogastrically with Y. enterocolitica serotype O:8 compared with noninfected hosts. This effect was prevented when mice were infected with Y. enterocolitica lacking YopP or YopH, two critical effectors involved in bacterial immune evasion. Consistent with a regulatory role for this lectin during Y. enterocolitica pathogenesis, mice lacking Gal-1 showed increased weight and survival, lower bacterial load, and attenuated intestinal pathology compared with wild-type mice. These protective effects involved modulation of NF-κB activation, TNF production, and NO synthesis in mucosal tissue and macrophages, as well as systemic dysregulation of IL-17 and IFN-γ responses. In vivo neutralization of these proinflammatory cytokines impaired bacterial clearance and eliminated host protection conferred by Gal-1 deficiency. Finally, supplementation of recombinant Gal-1 in mice lacking Gal-1 or treatment of wild-type mice with a neutralizing anti-Gal-1 mAb confirmed the immune inhibitory role of this endogenous lectin during Y. enterocolitica infection. Thus, targeting Gal-1-glycan interactions may contribute to reinforce antibacterial responses by reprogramming innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Uric acid and allopurinol aggravate absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Kovács, Zsolt

    2018-05-01

    Uric acid has a role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. For example, uric acid may facilitate seizure generalization while reducing uric acid level may evoke anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects. Allopurinol blocks the activity of xanthine oxidase, by which allopurinol inhibits catabolism of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid and, as a consequence, decreases the level of uric acid. Although the modulation of serum uric acid level is a widely used strategy in the treatment of certain diseases, our knowledge regarding the effects of uric acid on epileptic activity is far from complete. Thus, the main aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of uric acid on absence epileptic seizures (spike-wave discharges: SWDs) in a model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rat. We investigated the influence of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected uric acid (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), allopurinol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) alone and the combined application of allopurinol (50 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) or inosine (500 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) on absence epileptic activity. We demonstrated that both uric acid and allopurinol alone significantly increased the number of SWDs whereas indomethacin abolished the uric acid-evoked increase in SWD number. Our results suggest that uric acid and allopurinol have proepileptic effects in WAG/Rij rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  3. Fluoride Exposure Aggravates the Testicular Damage and Sperm Quality in Diabetic Mice: Protective Role of Ginseng and Banaba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sm, Saumya; Mahaboob Basha, P

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride toxicity is known to pose infertility in fluoride-intoxicated animals as well as in people residing in fluoride endemic zones. The present study addresses the degree of impairments caused due to co-exposure of high fluoride toxicity in diabetic mice. Swiss mice, Mus musculus, were subjected to fluoride toxicity by providing fluoride-supplemented drinking water (600 ppm NaF) for a period of 30 days after the confirmation of streptozotocin-induced diabetes(STZ, 50 mg/kgbw). Consequently, aggravated hyperglycemia and tissue fluoride accumulation were witnessed in fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice; later, these toxicated mice were treated with ginseng extract (GE) and banaba leaf extract, (BLE) at dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day alone and in combination for 15 and 30-day duration to check the efficacy of phytoextracts in reversing the toxicity. The spermatological indices studied, such as sperm density, motility, viability and morphology as well as the testicular biochemical parameters showed enhanced impairment in reproductive status of fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice. Further, 15-days administration of GE and BLE in combination at a dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day was found to be beneficial in normalizing the alterations observed upon fluoride intoxication to diabetic mice. However, the correlates showed moderate association between blood glucose levels and the spermatological as well as biochemical indices wherein the tissue fluoride levels correlate least.

  4. Experimental Warming Aggravates Degradation-Induced Topsoil Drought in Alpine Meadows of The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, X.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic warming is presumed to cause topsoil drought by increasing evapotranspiration and water infiltration, and by progressively inducing land degradation in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, how soil moisture and temperature patterns of degraded alpine meadows respond to climate warming remains unclear. A six-year continuous warming experiment was carried out in both degraded and undegraded alpine meadows in the source region of the Yangtze River. The goal was to identify the effects of climatic warming and land degradation on soil moisture (θ), soil surface temperature (Tsfc), and soil temperature (Ts). In the present study, land degradation significantly reduced θ by 4.5-6.1% at a depth of 0-100 cm (P soil surface. Experimental warming aggravated topsoil drought caused by land degradation, intensified the magnitude of degradation, and caused a positive feedback in the degraded alpine meadow ecosystem. Therefore, an immediate need exists to restore degraded alpine meadow grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in anticipation of a warmer future.

  5. Haloperidol prophylaxis for preventing aggravation of postoperative delirium in elderly patients: a randomized, open-label prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, Shinji; Kawabata, Yasuji; Fujishiro, Ken; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kuroiwa, Kojiro; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Takemura, Marie; Ando, Masahiko; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the early administration haloperidol in preventing the aggravation of postoperative delirium in elderly patients. A total of 201 patients (age ≥75 years) who underwent elective surgery were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: the intervention group (n = 101) received prophylactic haloperidol (5 mg); the control group (n = 100) did not. Haloperidol was administered daily during postoperative days 0-5 to the patients who presented with NEECHAM scores of 20-24 when measured at 18:00. The primary endpoint was the incidence of severe postoperative delirium. The incidence of severe postoperative delirium in all patients was 25.1%. The incidence of severe postoperative delirium in the intervention group (18.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (32.0%) (p = 0.02). The difference between the two groups was larger when the analysis was limited to the 70 patients who had NEECHAM scores of 20-24 for at least one day during postoperative days 0-5. No adverse effects of the haloperidol were observed. The prophylactic administration of haloperidol at the early stage of delirium significantly reduced the incidence of severe postoperative delirium in elderly patients. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000007204.

  6. Aggravation of brain infarction through an increase in acrolein production and a decrease in glutathione with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kenta; Ishibashi, Misaki; Saiki, Ryotaro; Kuni, Kyoshiro; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2016-04-29

    We previously reported that tissue damage during brain infarction was mainly caused by inactivation of proteins by acrolein. This time, it was tested why brain infarction increases in parallel with aging. A mouse model of photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) was studied using 2, 6, and 12 month-old female C57BL/6 mice. The size of brain infarction in the mouse PIT model increased with aging. The volume of brain infarction in 12 month-old mice was approximately 2-fold larger than that in 2 month-old mice. The larger brain infarction in 12 month-old mice was due to an increase in acrolein based on an increase in the activity of spermine oxidase, together with a decrease in glutathione (GSH), a major acrolein-detoxifying compound in cells, based on the decrease in one of the subunits of glutathione biosynthesizing enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase modifier subunit, with aging. The results indicate that aggravation of brain infarction with aging was mainly due to the increase in acrolein production and the decrease in GSH in brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher sleep reactivity and insomnia mutually aggravate depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional epidemiological study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shun; Komada, Yoko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Okajima, Isa; Harada, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kazue; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-05-01

    Sleep reactivity assessed using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) is associated with depression. This study clarified stress reactivity and insomnia effects on depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to 2645 participating government employees (35.4% female, mean age 42.8 years) during health checks conducted at Tottori prefecture, Japan, in June 2012. Questionnaire items included: demographic information; the FIRST; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and a 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The study defined CES-D scores of ≥12 points as positive for depression, PSQI scores of ≥5.5 points as positive for insomnia symptoms, and FIRST scores of ≥19 points as indicating higher sleep reactivity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed insomnia (adjusted OR = 3.40), higher sleep reactivity (adjusted OR = 1.78), presence of disease currently being treated (adjusted OR = 1.84), and being female (adjusted OR = 1.53) as independently associated with depression. Participants with insomnia and a high FIRST score showed higher CES-D scores than those with insomnia alone and those with high FIRST without insomnia (all p insomnia. Elevated sleep reactivity and insomnia symptoms are thought to aggravate depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tomatoes from the sewage treatment works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In Stendsund a sewage cleaning method was developed in which waste water is subjected to a special treatment in order to regain nutrients which would otherwise aggravate the pollution of the Baltic Sea and to use them as fertilizer and food for food plants and fish. Structure and mode of operation of the method are described. (BWI) [de

  9. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M.

    1991-01-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed

  10. Loss of c-Met signaling sensitizes hepatocytes to lipotoxicity and induces cholestatic liver damage by aggravating oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Quiroz, Luis E.; Seo, Daekwan; Lee, Yun-Han; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Gaiser, Timo; Gillen, Matthew; Lee, Seung-Bum; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Ma Concepcion; Conner, Elizabeth A.; Factor, Valentina M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Marquardt, Jens U.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies confirmed a critical importance of c-Met signaling for liver regeneration by modulating redox balance. Here we used liver-specific conditional knockout mice (MetKO) and a nutritional model of hepatic steatosis to address the role of c-Met in cholesterol-mediated liver toxicity. Liver injury was assessed by histopathology and plasma enzymes levels. Global transcriptomic changes were examined by gene expression microarray, and key molecules involved in liver damage and lipid homeostasis were evaluated by Western blotting. Loss of c-Met signaling amplified the extent of liver injury in MetKO mice fed with high-cholesterol diet for 30 days as evidenced by upregulation of liver enzymes and increased synthesis of total bile acids, aggravated inflammatory response and enhanced intrahepatic lipid deposition. Global transcriptomic changes confirmed the enrichment of networks involved in steatosis and cholestasis. In addition, signaling pathways related to glutathione and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction were significantly affected by the loss of c-Met function. Mechanistically, exacerbation of oxidative stress in MetKO livers was corroborated by increased lipid and protein oxidation. Western blot analysis further revealed suppression of Erk, NF-kB and Nrf2 survival pathways and downstream target genes (e.g. cyclin D1, SOD1, gamma-GCS), as well as up-regulation of proapoptotic signaling (e.g. p53, caspase 3). Consistent with the observed steatotic and cholestatic phenotype, nuclear receptors RAR, RXR showed increased activation while expression levels of CAR, FXR and PPAR-alpha were decreased in MetKO. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the critical involvement of c-Met signaling in cholesterol and bile acids toxicity.

  11. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  12. Symptomatic aggravation after corticosteroid pulse therapy in definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with the feature of Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Park, So Young; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Jung E; Kim, SangYun

    2014-09-08

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Hashimoto's encephalopathy often show similar clinical presentation. Among Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimics, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is particularly important as it is treatable with corticosteroids. Thus, in cases of middle-aged woman diagnosed with probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and who exhibit high titers of antithyroid antibodies, corticosteroid pulse therapy is typically performed with expectations of near complete recovery from Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Herein, we provide the first case report that exhibited a negative effect of corticosteroid pulse therapy for a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with features of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. We report a case of 59-year-old Asian woman with blurred vision, dysarthria, myoclonus, and rapidly progressive dementia. Cerebrospinal fluid showed 14-3-3 protein positive. Electroencephalogram showed periodic sharp waves (1.5 Hz) at the bilateral frontal or occipital areas. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensities at the bilateral cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, and putamen. The patient was diagnosed with probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, serum analysis showed a high titer of antithyroid antibodies. We started corticosteroid pulse therapy with subsequent aggravation of seizure activity including generalized myoclonus, epilepsia parialis continua, and ballistic dyskinesia, which was effectively treated with clonazepam. We provide evidence of a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease that exhibited clinical deterioration after corticosteroid therapy. Although histopathological confirmation with brain biopsy is not easily available in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, selective initiation of corticosteroid pulse therapy should be considered in cases of uncertain diagnosis for differentiation with Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

  13. Human Parvovirus B19 NS1 Protein Aggravates Liver Injury in NZB/W F1 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chou; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Hsu, Huai-Sheng; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) has been associated with a variety of diseases. However, the influence of B19 viral proteins on hepatic injury in SLE is still obscure. To elucidate the effects of B19 viral proteins on livers in SLE, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2 proteins were injected subcutaneously into NZB/W F1 mice, respectively. Significant expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected in NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Markedly hepatocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in livers from NZB/WF 1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Additionally, significant increases of Tumor Necrosis Factor –α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor, IκB kinase –α (IKK-α), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor (IκB) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Accordingly, significant increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and U-plasminogen activator (uPA) were also detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Contrarily, no significant variation on livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 was observed as compared to those mice receiving PBS. These findings firstly demonstrated the aggravated effects of B19 NS1 but not VP1u or VP2 protein on hepatic injury and provide a clue in understanding the role of B19 NS1 on hepatic injury in SLE. PMID:23555760

  14. Mitochondrial gene polymorphisms alter hepatic cellular energy metabolism and aggravate diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Schröder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with an enhanced risk for liver and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. NAFLD can progress from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. However, the mechanisms predisposing to this progression remain undefined. Notably, hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is a common finding in patients with NASH. Due to a lack of appropriate experimental animal models, it has not been evaluated whether this mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causative role for the development of NASH. Methods: To determine the effect of a well-defined mitochondrial dysfunction on liver physiology at baseline and during dietary challenge, C57BL/6J-mtFVB/N mice were employed. This conplastic inbred strain has been previously reported to exhibit decreased mitochondrial respiration likely linked to a non-synonymous gene variation (nt7778 G/T of the mitochondrial ATP synthase protein 8 (mt-ATP8. Results: At baseline conditions, C57BL/6J-mtFVB/N mice displayed hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by decreased ATP production and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, genes affecting lipid metabolism were differentially expressed, hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels were changed in these animals, and various acyl-carnitines were altered, pointing towards an impaired mitochondrial carnitine shuttle. However, over a period of twelve months, no spontaneous hepatic steatosis or inflammation was observed. On the other hand, upon dietary challenge with either a methionine and choline deficient diet or a western-style diet, C57BL/6J-mtFVB/N mice developed aggravated steatohepatitis as characterized by lipid accumulation, ballooning of hepatocytes and infiltration of immune cells. Conclusions: We observed distinct metabolic alterations in mice with a mitochondrial polymorphism associated hepatic mitochondrial

  15. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  16. High-fat diet aggravates 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Xu, Hengsen [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Chao [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Ji, Minghui; Gu, Jun [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Yang, Lu; Zhu, Jiansheng [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Dong, Huibin [Changzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 203 Taishan Road, Changzhou 2013022 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Growing evidence has revealed that a high-fat diet (HFD) could lead to disorders of glycolipid metabolism and insulin-resistant states, and HFDs have been associated with the inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could increase the risk of diabetes in humans and reduce testosterone production in rats. However, whether the HFD affects BDE47-inhibited testosterone production by elevating insulin levels and inducing related pathways remains unknown. In male rats treated with BDE47 by gavage for 12 weeks, the HFD significantly increased the BDE47 content of the liver and testis and increased the weight of the adipose tissue; increased macrovesicular steatosis in the liver and the levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin; further aggravated the disruption of the seminiferous epithelium; and lowered the level of testosterone, resulting in fewer sperm in the epididymis. Of note, the HFD enhanced BDE47-induced DAX-1 expression and decreased the expression levels of StAR and 3β-HSD in the testicular interstitial compartments in rats. In isolated primary Leydig cells from rats, BDE47 or insulin increased DAX-1 expression, decreased the expression of StAR and 3β-HSD, and reduced testosterone production, which was nearly reversed by knocking down DAX-1. These results indicated that the HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production through hyperinsulinemia, and the accumulation of testicular BDE47 that induces the up-regulation of DAX-1 and the subsequent down-regulation of steroidogenic proteins, i.e., StAR and 3β-HSD, in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • High-fat diet (HFD) aggravates the accumulation of BDE47 in liver and testis in rats. • HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells. • HFD enhances BDE47-induced the disorder of glycolipid metabolism and hyperinsulinemia. • Both hyperinsulinemia and accumulation of BDE47

  17. High-fat diet aggravates 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Xu, Hengsen; Wang, Chao; Ji, Minghui; Gu, Jun; Yang, Lu; Zhu, Jiansheng; Dong, Huibin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed that a high-fat diet (HFD) could lead to disorders of glycolipid metabolism and insulin-resistant states, and HFDs have been associated with the inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could increase the risk of diabetes in humans and reduce testosterone production in rats. However, whether the HFD affects BDE47-inhibited testosterone production by elevating insulin levels and inducing related pathways remains unknown. In male rats treated with BDE47 by gavage for 12 weeks, the HFD significantly increased the BDE47 content of the liver and testis and increased the weight of the adipose tissue; increased macrovesicular steatosis in the liver and the levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin; further aggravated the disruption of the seminiferous epithelium; and lowered the level of testosterone, resulting in fewer sperm in the epididymis. Of note, the HFD enhanced BDE47-induced DAX-1 expression and decreased the expression levels of StAR and 3β-HSD in the testicular interstitial compartments in rats. In isolated primary Leydig cells from rats, BDE47 or insulin increased DAX-1 expression, decreased the expression of StAR and 3β-HSD, and reduced testosterone production, which was nearly reversed by knocking down DAX-1. These results indicated that the HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production through hyperinsulinemia, and the accumulation of testicular BDE47 that induces the up-regulation of DAX-1 and the subsequent down-regulation of steroidogenic proteins, i.e., StAR and 3β-HSD, in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • High-fat diet (HFD) aggravates the accumulation of BDE47 in liver and testis in rats. • HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells. • HFD enhances BDE47-induced the disorder of glycolipid metabolism and hyperinsulinemia. • Both hyperinsulinemia and accumulation of BDE47

  18. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  19. Experience in treatment of hyperthyroidism with I-131 diagnosis, patient preparation and therapeutic procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongyun, Pan

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of hyperthyroidism with I-131 diagnosis is being performed after clinical diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis based on clinical manifestations of hypermetabolic state, serumT3 and T4 determination; medical preparation of patients and therapeutic procedure is obtained for better efficacy, relieve symptoms and prevent aggravation of thyrotoxicosis after I-131 treatment

  20. Early-Life Stress Does Not Aggravate Spatial Memory or the Process of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult and Middle-Aged APP/PS1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne Hoeijmakers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Life-time experiences are thought to influence the risk to develop the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In particular, early-life stress (ES may modulate the onset and progression of AD. There is recent evidence by our group and others that AD-related neuropathological progression and the associated neuroimmune responses are modulated by ES in the classic APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model for AD. We here extend our previous study on ES mediated modulation of neuropathology and neuroinflammation and address in the same cohort of mice whether ES accelerates and/or aggravates AD-induced cognitive decline and alterations in the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN, a form of brain plasticity. Chronic ES was induced by limiting bedding and nesting material during the first postnatal week and is known to induce cognitive deficits by 4 months in wild type (WT mice. The onset of cognitive decline in APP/PS1 mice generally starts around 6 months of age. We here tested mice at ages 2–4 months to study acceleration and at ages 8–10 months for aggravation of the APP/PS1 phenotype. ES-exposed WT and APP/PS1 mice were able to perform the object recognition (ORT and location tasks (OLT at 2 months of age. Interestingly, at 3 months, ES induced impairments in the performance of the OLT in WT, but not in APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice exhibited alterations in hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation, but ES exposure did not further change this. At 9 months, APP/PS1 mice exhibited impaired performance in the Morris Water Maze (MWM task, as well as reductions in markers of the AHN process, which were not further modulated by ES exposure. In addition, we observed a so far unreported hyperactivity in ES-exposed mice at 8 months of age, which hampered assessment of cognitive functions in the ORT and OLT. In conclusion, while ES has been reported to modulate AD neuropathology and neuroinflammation before, it failed to accelerate or

  1. Chronic administration of recombinant IL-6 upregulates lipogenic enzyme expression and aggravates high-fat-diet-induced steatosis in IL-6-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Vida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver. Administration of IL-6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL-6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion. In this study, we further investigated the role of IL-6 on steatosis induced through a high-fat diet (HFD in wild-type (WT and IL-6-deficient (IL-6−/− mice. Additionally, HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice were also chronically treated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6. Obesity in WT mice fed a HFD associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels, fatty liver, upregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3, increased AMP kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK, and downregulation of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1. The HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice showed severe steatosis, no changes in CPT1 levels or AMPK activity, no increase in STAT3 amounts, inactivated STAT3, and marked downregulation of the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. The IL-6 chronic replacement in HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice restored hepatic STAT3 and AMPK activation but also increased the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. Furthermore, rIL-6 administration was associated with aggravated steatosis and elevated fat content in the liver. We conclude that, in the context of HFD-induced obesity, the administration of rIL-6 might contribute to the aggravation of fatty liver disease through increasing lipogenesis.

  2. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Sertindole, in contrast to clozapine and olanzapine, does not disrupt water maze performance after acute or chronic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Michael; Kreilgaard, Mads; Arnt, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are associated with poor functional outcome, and may be further aggravated by treatment with antipsychotics. In the present study the acute and chronic (3 weeks of treatment) effects of clozapine, olanzapine, and sertindole on performance in the Morris water ma...

  4. Bone loss and aggravated autoimmune arthritis in HLA-DRβ1-bearing humanized mice following oral challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Indra; Karydis, Anastasios; Luo, Jiwen; Prislovsky, Amanda; Whittington, Karen B; Rosloniec, Edward F; Dong, Chen; Novack, Deborah V; Mydel, Piotr; Zheng, Song Guo; Radic, Marko Z; Brand, David D

    2016-10-26

    The linkage between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis is well established. Commonalities among the two are that both are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by bone loss, an association with the shared epitope susceptibility allele, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. To explore immune mechanisms that may connect the two seemingly disparate disorders, we measured host immune responses including T-cell phenotype and anti-citrullinated protein antibody production in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 humanized C57BL/6 mice following exposure to the Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal disease pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. We measured autoimmune arthritis disease expression in mice exposed to P. gingivalis, and also in arthritis-resistant mice by flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine-linked and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We also measured femoral bone density by microcomputed tomography and systemic cytokine production. Exposure of the gingiva of DR1 mice to P. gingivalis results in a transient increase in the percentage of Th17 cells, both in peripheral blood and cervical lymph nodes, a burst of systemic cytokine activity, a loss in femoral bone density, and the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Importantly, these antibodies are not produced in response to P. gingivalis treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and P. gingivalis exposure triggered expression of arthritis in arthritis-resistant mice. Exposure of gingival tissues to P. gingivalis has systemic effects that can result in disease pathology in tissues that are spatially removed from the initial site of infection, providing evidence for systemic effects of this periodontal pathogen. The elicitation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in an HLA-DR1-restricted fashion by mice exposed to P. gingivalis provides support for the role of the shared epitope in both periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability of P. gingivalis to induce disease

  5. Batf3-dependent CD8α+ Dendritic Cells Aggravates Atherosclerosis via Th1 Cell Induction and Enhanced CCL5 Expression in Plaque Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yalin; Liu, Xueyan; Duan, Wei; Tian, Hua; Zhu, Guangming; He, Hao; Yao, Shutong; Yi, Shuying; Song, Wengang; Tang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in controlling T cell-mediated adaptive immunity in atherogenesis. However, the role of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 3 (Batf3)-dependent CD8α + DC subset in atherogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that Batf3 -/- Apoe -/- mice, lacking CD8α + DCs, exhibited a significant reduction in atherogenesis and T help 1 (Th1) cells compared with Apoe -/- controls. Then, we found that CD8α + DCs preferentially induce Th1 cells via secreting interleukin-12 (IL-12), and that the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)or chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) in aorta were significantly decreased in Batf3 -/- Apoe -/- mice. We further demonstrated that macrophages were the major CCL5-expressing cells in the plaque, which was significantly reduced in Batf3 -/- Apoe -/- mice. Furthermore, we found CCL5 expression in macrophages was promoted by IFN-γ. Finally, we showed that Batf3 -/- Apoe -/- mice displayed decreased infiltration of leukocytes in the plaque. Thus, CD8α + DCs aggravated atherosclerosis, likely by inducing Th1 cell response, which promoted CCL5 expression in macrophages and increased infiltration of leukocytes and lesion inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anorexia, functional capacity, and clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure: results from the Studies Investigating Co‐morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA‐HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masakazu; dos Santos, Marcelo R.; Emami, Amir; Ishida, Junichi; Ebner, Nicole; Valentova, Miroslava; Bekfani, Tarek; Sandek, Anja; Lainscak, Mitja; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims We aimed to assess determinants of anorexia, that is loss of appetite in patients with heart failure (HF) and aimed to further elucidate the association between anorexia, functional capacity, and outcomes in affected patients. Methods and results We assessed anorexia status among 166 patients with HF (25 female, 66 ± 12 years) who participated in the Studies Investigating Co‐morbidities Aggravating HF. Anorexia was assessed by a 6‐point Likert scale (ranging from 0 to 5), wherein values ≥1 indicate anorexia. Functional capacity was assessed as peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), 6 min walk test, and short physical performance battery test. A total of 57 patients (34%) reported any anorexia, and these patients showed lower values of peak VO2, 6 min walk distance, and short physical performance battery score (all P anorexia. A total of 22 patients (13%) died during a mean follow‐up of 22.5 ± 5.1 months. Kaplan‐Meier curves for cumulative survival showed that those patients with anorexia presented higher mortality (Log‐rank test P = 0.03). Conclusions Inflammation, use of loop diuretics, and cachexia are associated with an increased likelihood of anorexia in patients with HF, and patients with anorexia showed impaired functional capacity and poor outcomes. PMID:28960880

  7. GSK-3β Inhibition Attenuates LPS-Induced Death but Aggravates Radiation-Induced Death via Down-Regulation of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailong Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of high dose ionizing radiation is lethal. Signal pathways involved in radiation biology reaction still remain illdefined. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, the ligands of Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4, could elicit strong immune responses. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β promotes the production of inflammatory molecules and cell migration. Inhibition of GSK-3β provides protection against inflammation in animal models. The aim of the study was to investigate role of GSK-3β in LPS shock and ionizing radiation. Methods: WT or IL-6-/-mice or cells were pretreated with SB216763, a GSK-3β inhibitor, and survival of the mice was determined. Cell viability was assayed by Cell Counting Kit. Apoptosis was assayed by Annexin V-PI double staining. Serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA. Results: SB216763 attenuated LPS induced mice or cell death but aggravated radiation induced mice or cell death. SB216763 reduced IL-6, but not TNF-α levels in vivo. IL-6-/- mice were more resistant to LPS-induced death but less resistant to radiation-induced death than wild type mice. Conclusions: Inhibition of GSK-3β conferred resistance to LPS shock but fostered death induced by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of GSK-3β was effective by reducing IL-6.

  8. Deposition of terbutaline sulphate and salbutamol sulphate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of current focus on tightening regulatory requirements, it is imperative that reproducibility of the metered dose of drug must be ensured during the formulation, packaging and use. We developed a dry powder inhalation package consisting of drug formulation and design of device (KCHALER, KCL Enterprises) for ...

  9. Multiple anomalies, hypokalaemic paralysis and partial symptomatic relief by terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A; Jensen, B M

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a follow-up is presented of a case report initially described by Andersen in 1971. The patient presented with a syndrome including elements of familial periodic paralysis with hypokalaemia, long QT syndrome, ventricular ectopy, myopathy with fibre-type disproportion and dysmorphic...

  10. Redox imbalance due to the loss of mitochondrial NAD(P)-transhydrogenase markedly aggravates high fat diet-induced fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Claudia D C; Figueira, Tiago R; Francisco, Annelise; Dal'Bó, Genoefa A; Ronchi, Juliana A; Rovani, Juliana C; Escanhoela, Cecilia A F; Oliveira, Helena C F; Castilho, Roger F; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms by which a high fat diet (HFD) promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appear to involve liver mitochondrial dysfunctions and redox imbalance. We hypothesized that a HFD would increase mitochondrial reliance on NAD(P)-transhydrogenase (NNT) as the source of NADPH for antioxidant systems that counteract NAFLD development. Therefore, we studied HFD-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunctions and NAFLD in C57Unib.B6 congenic mice with (Nnt +/+ ) or without (Nnt -/- ) NNT activity; the spontaneously mutated allele (Nnt -/- ) was inherited from the C57BL/6J mouse substrain. After 20 weeks on a HFD, Nnt -/- mice exhibited a higher prevalence of steatohepatitis and content of liver triglycerides compared to Nnt +/+ mice on an identical diet. Under a HFD, the aggravated NAFLD phenotype in the Nnt -/- mice was accompanied by an increased H 2 O 2 release rate from mitochondria, decreased aconitase activity (a redox-sensitive mitochondrial enzyme) and higher susceptibility to Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition. In addition, HFD led to the phosphorylation (inhibition) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and markedly reduced the ability of liver mitochondria to remove peroxide in Nnt -/- mice. Bypass or pharmacological reactivation of PDH by dichloroacetate restored the peroxide removal capability of mitochondria from Nnt -/- mice on a HFD. Noteworthy, compared to mice that were chow-fed, the HFD did not impair peroxide removal nor elicit redox imbalance in mitochondria from Nnt +/+ mice. Therefore, HFD interacted with Nnt mutation to generate PDH inhibition and further suppression of peroxide removal. We conclude that NNT plays a critical role in counteracting mitochondrial redox imbalance, PDH inhibition and advancement of NAFLD in mice fed a HFD. The present study provide seminal experimental evidence that redox imbalance in liver mitochondria potentiates the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis following a HFD. Copyright

  11. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  12. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Yoo, Hyun; Kwak, Woori; Choi, Won Hoon; Cho, Seoae; Choi, Yu Jeong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-01-01

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm 2 fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL-33

  13. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium – Identification of the responsible medium components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pless-Petig Gesine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Results Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199. Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM, a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM, and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640 evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types.

  14. The role of radiation therapy in multimodality treatment for renal-cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikoz, N.G.; Kudryashov, O.G.; Ponomar'ov, V.V.; Osipenkov, R.A.; Anyishchenko, A.O.; Kudryashova, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of multimodality treatment for renal-cell cancer (pT any, N any, M0) using pre- operative large-fraction irradiation. Our findings demonstrate that radiation therapy does not aggravate the conditions for surgery and improves long-term results. The data about efficacy of multimodality treatment (palliative nephrectomy with radiation therapy) in patients with primary metastatic kidney cancer T any, N any, M1) are also reported.

  15. Sarcopenia and Endothelial Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: Results From the Studies Investigating Comorbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marcelo R; Saitoh, Masakazu; Ebner, Nicole; Valentova, Miroslava; Konishi, Masaaki; Ishida, Junichi; Emami, Amir; Springer, Jochen; Sandek, Anja; Doehner, Wolfram; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, has recently been identified as a serious comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the impact of sarcopenia on endothelial dysfunction in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cross-sectional study. Ambulatory patients with HF were recruited at Charité Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany. We assessed peripheral blood flow (arm and leg) in 228 patients with HF and 32 controls who participated in the Studies Investigating Comorbidities Aggravating HF (SICA-HF). The appendicular skeletal muscle mass of the arms and the legs combined was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular muscle mass two standard deviations below the mean of a healthy reference group of adults aged 18 to 40 years, as suggested for the diagnosis of muscle wasting in healthy aging. All patients underwent a 6-minute walk test and spiroergometry testing. Forearm and leg blood flow were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Peak blood flow was assessed after a period of ischemia in the limbs to test endothelial function. Sarcopenia was identified in 37 patients (19.5%). Patients with sarcopenia presented with lower baseline forearm blood flow (2.30 ± 1.21 vs. 3.06 ± 1.49 vs. 4.00 ± 1.66 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P = .02) than those without sarcopenia or controls. The group of patients with sarcopenia showed similar baseline leg blood flow (2.06 ± 1.62 vs. 2.39 ± 1.39 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P = .11) to those without but lower values when compared to controls (2.06 ± 1.62 vs. 2.99 ± 1.28 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P = .03). In addition, patients with and without sarcopenia presented with lower peak flow in the forearm when compared to controls (18.37 ± 7.07 vs. 22.19 ± 8.64 vs. 33.63 ± 8.57 mL min -1 100 mL -1 ; P sarcopenia, and coronary artery

  16. PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN ANTI-CRISIS STRATEGY IN MODERN CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Schedrin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the prospects for the development of Ukraine’s anti-crisis strategy in the current conditions of aggravation of the socio-economic situation. The urgency of the researched subject – namely, the study of the potential directions for the development of the anti-crisis tools of Ukrainian state policy – is determined primarily by the seriousness of the problem, which should be overcome by means of these methods. The purpose of the article is to identify promising tools and mechanisms for an anti-crisis policy that can make a significant contribution to improving the current state of the socio-economic sphere in Ukraine. Its subject is anti-crisis tools and instruments, which could be used in Ukrainian scenario. It is noted that our state is at the stage of the permanent crisis and suffers from the consequences of both global and local crisis phenomena. The scientific novelty of the article is determined by the combination of economic, social, political, and legal approaches to the study of the current state of the Ukrainian economy. The methodology of the research is formed by the combination of economic and political methods of scientific activities, which are based on the principles of objectivism and systematic approach. The findings of scientific research and recommendations of some Ukrainian scientists regarding the necessary anti-crisis tools are considered as the sources for the article. The results of the study show that Ukraine suffers from a series of systemic problems and challenges, which are the main threat to the stability of the national economy. Among the most influential of them we can identify the low level of incomes of citizens, which is associated with the devaluation of the national currency and the increase in utility tariffs; high level of unemployment; shortage of foreign and domestic investments; the decline in production and exports, caused both by military operations in the Donbas and the loss

  17. κ-Carrageenan Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion by Stimulating the Bcl10-NF-κB Pathway in HT-29 Cells and Aggravates C. freundii-Induced Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dietary usage of carrageenan as common food additive has increased observably over the last 50 years. But there is substantial controversy about its safety. Methods. We investigated whether the κ-carrageenan could enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression by studying its actions on the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. The aggravating effect of κ-carrageenan on Citrobacter freundii DBS100-induced intestinal inflammation was also investigated in a mouse model. Results. Our data show that κ-carrageenan pretreatment promoted LPS-induced IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells. Although CD14, MD-2, and TLR4 were upregulated, the binding of LPS was not enhanced. However, the pathway of Bcl10-NF-κB was triggered. Interestingly, κ-carrageenan competitively blocked the binding of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with κ-carrageenan for one week previous to gavage with C. freundii DBS100 markedly aggravated weight loss, mortality, and colonic damage. The secretion of cytokines was unbalanced and the ratio of Tregs was decreased significantly. In addition, κ-carrageenan, together with C. freundii DBS100, enhanced the transcription and secretion of TLR4 and NF-κB. Conclusions. κ-Carrageenan can synergistically activate LPS-induced inflammatory through the Bcl10-NF-κB pathway, as indicated by its aggravation of C. freundii DBS100-induced colitis in mice. General Significance. Our results suggest that κ-carrageenan serves as a potential inflammatory agent that magnifies existing intestinal inflammation.

  18. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon ulceration of acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis via facilitation of NO/COX-2/miR-210 cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M., E-mail: dr_Hanan_el_gowali@hotmail.com; Saad, Evan I.; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A.; Ibrahim, Einas R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine demonstrated significant protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. We proposed that α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine co-administration might modulate their individual effects. Induction of ulcerative colitis in rats was performed by intra-rectal acetic acid (5% v/v) administration for 3 consecutive days. Effects of individual or combined used of α-lipoic acid (35 mg/kg ip) or cyclosporine (5 mg/kg sc) for 6 days starting 2 days prior to acetic acid were assessed. Acetic acid caused colon ulceration, bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Histologically, there was mucosal atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration in submucosa, associated with depletion of colon reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and elevated colon malondialdehyde, serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Colon gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 was also elevated. These devastating effects of acetic acid were abolished upon concurrent administration of α-lipoic acid. Alternatively, cyclosporine caused partial protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis. Cyclosporine did not restore colon reduced glutathione, catalase activity, serum C-RP or TNF-α. Unexpectedly, co-administration of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravated colon ulceration. Concomitant use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine significantly increased nitric oxide production, cyclooxygenase-2 and miR-210 gene expression compared to all other studied groups. The current findings suggest that facilitation of nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-2/miR-210 cascade constitutes, at least partially, the cellular mechanism by which concurrent use of α-lipoic acid and cyclosporine aggravates colon damage. Collectively, the present work highlights the probable risk of using α-lipoic acid/cyclosporine combination in ulcerative colitis patients. - Highlights: • Lipoic acid is more effective than

  19. Hydrochlorothiazide, but not Candesartan, aggravates insulin resistance and causes visceral and hepatic fat accumulation: the mechanisms for the diabetes preventing effect of Candesartan (MEDICA) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.W.; Jansson, P.A.; Carlberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    treatment periods with candesartan (C; 16 to 32 mg), hydrochlorothiazide (H; 25 to 50 mg), and placebo (P), respectively, and the treatment order was randomly assigned and double blinded. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (56 mU/m(2) per minute) clamps were performed....... Intrahepatic and intramyocellular and extramyocellular lipid content and subcutaneous and visceral abdominal adipose tissue were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and MRI. Insulin sensitivity (M-value) was reduced following H versus C and P (6.07+/-2.05, 6.63+/-2.04, and 6.90+/-2.10 mg...

  20. Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toblli JE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Margarita Angerosa Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background and aims: Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.Methods: Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.Results: Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.Conclusion: Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Keywords: preclinical, oral iron treatment, tolerability, colonic tissue erosion

  1. Aggravated unbundling in German energy industry (part 1). Basics: EU acceleration directive and economic monopoly theory; Verschaerftes Unbundling in der deutschen Energiewirtschaft (Teil 1). Grundlagen: EG-Beschleunigungsnovellen und volkswirtschaftliche Monopoltheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedmann, K.P. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Langerfeldt, M. [Lueneburg Univ. (Germany)

    2004-03-15

    The main innovations of the so-called acceleration directive are clearly aggravated regulations for divestiture of vertically integrated enterprises. This difficulty commonly known as unbundling is the topic of this two-part article. Part 1 reviews the process of European legislation. The unbundling regulations of the current and future laws are then presented systematically against the economic background. A microeconomic assessment of the regulations will follow in part 2. [German] Zu den wichtigsten Neuerungen der sog. Beschleunigungsrichtlinien zaehlen deutlich verschaerfte Entflechtungsregelungen fuer vertikal integrierte Versorger. Die gemeinhin mit dem Stichwort 'Unbundling' bezeichnete Problematik ist Gegenstand des vorliegenden zweiteiligen Beitrags. Der 1. Teil blickt kurz zurueck auf das Verfahren der europaeischen Rechtsetzung. Anschliessend werden die Unbundling-Vorschriften des bestehenden und des zukuenftigen Rechts systematisch im Spiegel ihres volkswirtschaftlichen Hintergrunds vorgestellt. Eine betriebswirtschaftliche Bewertung der Neuerungen folgt in Teil 2. (orig.)

  2. Morphological abnormalities and apoptosis in lamellar tissue of equines after intestinal obstruction and treatment with hydrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Laskoski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four experimental groups of equines were used in order to study morphological abnormalities and apoptosis in lamellar tissue. Group Cg (control was composed of animals without any surgical procedure; group Ig (instrumented, animals that underwent enterotomy; group Tg (treated, animals that were subjected to intestinal obstruction and were treated with hydrocortisone; and group Ug (untreated, animals that were subjected to intestinal obstruction without treatment. The lamellar tissue was analyzed regarding the presence of tissue abnormalities and apoptosis. No morphological abnormalities were observed in animals of surgical groups, and no difference in apoptosis was observed between groups. It was concluded that intestinal obstruction allowed laminitis to develop, probably by systemic activation, and that the maneuvers performed in the enterotomy aggravated the process. Hydrocortisone did not aggravate the lesions of the lamellar tissue

  3. Aggravation of Alzheimer's disease due to the COX-2-mediated reciprocal regulation of IL-1β and Aβ between glial and neuron cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Guan, Pei-Pei; Wang, Tao; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Zhan-You

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and displays the characteristics of chronic neurodegenerative disorders; amyloid plaques (AP) that contain amyloid β-protein (Aβ) accumulate in AD, which is also characterized by tau phosphorylation. Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that long-term treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) markedly reduces the risk of AD by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Although the levels of COX-2 and its metabolic product prostaglandin (PG)E2 are elevated in the brain of AD patients, the mechanisms for the development of AD remain unknown. Using human- or mouse-derived glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cell lines as model systems, we delineated the signaling pathways by which COX-2 mediates the reciprocal regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Aβ between glial and neuron cells. In glioblastoma cells, COX-2 regulates the synthesis of IL-1β in a PGE2 -dependent manner. Moreover, COX-2-derived PGE2 signals the activation of the PI3-K/AKT and PKA/CREB pathways via cyclic AMP; these pathways transactivate the NF-κB p65 subunit via phosphorylation at Ser 536 and Ser 276, leading to IL-1β synthesis. The secretion of IL-1β from glioblastoma cells in turn stimulates the expression of COX-2 in human or mouse neuroblastoma cells. Similar regulatory mechanisms were found for the COX-2 regulation of BACE-1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. More importantly, Aβ deposition mediated the inflammatory response of glial cells via inducing the expression of COX-2 in glioblastoma cells. These findings not only provide new insights into the mechanisms of COX-2-induced AD but also initially define the therapeutic targets of AD. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. IDH2 Deficiency Aggravates Fructose-Induced NAFLD by Modulating Hepatic Fatty Acid Metabolism and Activating Inflammatory Signaling in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hoon Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fructose is a strong risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, resulting from the disruption of redox systems by excessive reactive oxygen species production in the liver cells. Of note, recent epidemiological studies indicated that women are more prone to developing metabolic syndrome in response to fructose-sweetened beverages. Hence, we examined whether disruption of the redox system through a deletion of NADPH supplying mitochondrial enzyme, NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2, exacerbates fructose-induced NAFLD conditions in C57BL/6 female mice. Wild-type (WT and IDH2 knockout (KO mice were treated with either water or 34% fructose water over six weeks. NAFLD phenotypes and key proteins and mRNAs involved in the inflammatory pathway (e.g., NF-κB p65 and IL-1β were assessed. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose compared to the WT counterpart. Neutrophil infiltration was observed only in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose. Furthermore, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and expression of IL-1β was remarkably upregulated in IDH2 KO mice fed fructose, and expression of IκBα was decreased by fructose treatment in both WT and IDH2 KO groups. For the first time, we report our novel findings that IDH2 KO female mice may be more susceptible to fructose-induced NAFLD and the associated inflammatory response, suggesting a mechanistic role of IDH2 in metabolic diseases.

  5. Vγ4+γδT Cells Aggravate Severe H1N1 Influenza Virus Infection-Induced Acute Pulmonary Immunopathological Injury via Secreting Interleukin-17A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxue Xue

    2017-08-01

    promising new target for the prevention and treatment of ALI induced by influenza A (H1N1 pdm09.

  6. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

  7. Palliative Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a common clinical problem caused by cancers. Pleural effusion can be the first sign of cancer in more than 25% of patients. Lung cancer and breast cancer are the most common cancers that metastasize to the pleura in men and women, respectively. Other cancers, including, but not limited to, lymphomas, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, and several unknown primary cancers can also lead to MPE. Dyspnea and chest pain are the most common symptoms of MPE along with other symptoms such as a cough, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and weakness. Aggravation of these symptoms is closely related to the rate of accumulation of pleural effusion. Treatment options to MPE are determined by the type and extent of the underlying malignancy. The major goals of the treatment are to relieve symptoms, restore functions, improve the quality of life, and minimize the duration of hospital stay and costs. Although some patients can be treated with systemic therapies, most of these treatments are temporary, and MPE would recur soon. Hence, further palliative treatments to effectively control pleural effusions and relieve symptoms are necessary. This review addresses the pathophysiology of MPE and the treatment options for patients with MPE.

  8. Outcome after surgical treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis: the lumbar extension test is not a predictive factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Lars; Hauerberg, John; Springborg, Jacob B

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective clinical study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictive value of the lumbar extension test for outcome after surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Studies have indicated that aggravation of the symptoms from LSS by extension...... of the lumbar spine has predictive value for the outcome after decompression. The aim of this study was to investigate this theory in a larger group of patients. METHODS: One hundred forty-six consecutive patients surgically treated for LSS were included in the study. The clinical condition was recorded before...... has no predictive value for the outcome after surgical treatment of LSS....

  9. Emergency treatment by intravascular embolization in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Sun Zengtao; Liu Zuoqin; Liu Yanjun; Li Fengxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method of intervenfional intravascular treatment in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) and the significance of clinical application in emergency. Methods: In 297 eases of TCCF, 36 cases were treated by interventional intravascular embolization by detachable balloon, embolization orificium or occlusion in one side of carotid artery. In the 36 cases, serious epistaxis occurred in 22 eases, cortical vein inflow in 9 cases, intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases, aggravation of eyesight in 3 cases, and limb dysfunction in 2 cases. Results: Fistula was successfully embolized and internal carotid artery remained patent in 19 cases. Complete embolization of orificium or internal carotid artery was achieved in 17 eases. The serious epistaxias in 22 cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases stopped. Eyesight recovered in 2 eases and improved in 1 case. Limb dysfunction improved evidently in 2 cases. Conclusion: Intravascular embolization treatment is the first therapeutic choice for TCCF, especially in emergency. It is necessary, safe and effective. (authors)

  10. Actigraphy for measurements of sleep in relation to oncological treatment of patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chenxi; Gögenur, Ismail; Tvilling Madsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and disabling problem for patients with cancer. Sleep disturbances are present throughout the cancer trajectory, especially during oncological treatment. Previously sleep disturbances have primarily been quantified with subjective rating scales. Actigraphy is an...... are prevalent, and persistent in patients with cancer. The sleep disturbances seem to be aggravated by chemotherapy treatment and accumulate as the treatment continues. Sleep disturbances need further attention among clinicians working with patients with cancer.......Sleep disturbances are a prevalent and disabling problem for patients with cancer. Sleep disturbances are present throughout the cancer trajectory, especially during oncological treatment. Previously sleep disturbances have primarily been quantified with subjective rating scales. Actigraphy...... is an easy to use, non-invasive method for objective measurement of sleep. We systematically reviewed the literature for studies using actigraphy to measure sleeping habits of patients with cancer, undergoing oncological treatment. Our study furthermore reviewed studies with interventions designed to reduce...

  11. Cholera Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera Treatment Rehydration Therapy Antibiotic Treatment Zinc Treatment Prevention & Control Five ... page for current cholera treatment recommendations. Cholera Treatments Rehydration therapy , meaning prompt restoration of lost fluids and ...

  12. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  13. Tic Disorders and Tourette Syndrome: Current Concepts of Etiology and Treatment in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagwerker Gloor, Friederike; Walitza, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Tic disorders (TD), including chronic/persistent TD (CTD) and Tourette syndrome, have been described and studied for many years. Within the last two decades, intensified study efforts led to more specific assumptions about genesis and influences of both hereditary and environmental factors. TD in children and adolescents are very often accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) as comorbid disorders. Comorbidities are aggravating factors concerning prognosis and treatment opportunities. Therefore, etiological considerations and treatment strategies have to take associated psychiatric disorders into account. Treatment approaches are symptom targeted and include behavioral treatments and/or medication and show positive outcomes concerning tic symptomatology, global functioning, and associated psychopathology. This review presents an update of the research, definitions, and classification according to ICD-10 and DSM-5 and summarizes the diagnostic procedures and most effective clinical strategies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. MIGRAIN AND TENSION TYPE HEADACHE IN CHILDREN: THE APPROACH TO EFFECTIVE TREATMENT. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is one of the most common complaints of children and adolescents. The most often causes of cephalgia in children are primary headaches (mainly migraine and tension-type headache. Recently there has been a significant increase in prevalence of primary headaches, which can be due to the changes of children’s way of life. The lack of the strict recommendations on symptomatic and preventive treatment of primary headaches in children in Russia often leads to erroneous indications. Inappropriate treatment can result in migraine and tension-type headache course aggravation with the formation of chronic daily headache, development of medicine-induced headache and other undesirable side-effects. The literature review covers the questions of therapy of the main forms of primary headaches in children: migraines and tension-type headaches. In the first part of the article the issues of diagnostics, algorithm of treatment and non-medicinal methods of treatment of headaches are discussed.

  15. Rationale for methods of prevention and treatment of toxic infections complications of combined radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugov, R.S.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Makarov, G.F.; Ul'yanova, L.P.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the results of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of combined radiation and thermal injuries (CRTI) helped single out the factors aggravating the outcomes of such injuries. Potentiation of the hepatotoxic effects of bacterial enteroendotoxicosis and early toxemia associated with burns is the principal factor augmenting the disorders in the reactivity of radiosensitive systems in CRTI. The authors' findings evidence the efficacy of enterosorption, of methods enhancing the gastrointestinal motoricity, and of a number of modifiers of biologic reactions and heterologous immunoglobulins for the prevention and treatment of toxic infectious complications of CRTI

  16. Predialytic treatment of chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-16

    Aug 16, 2007 ... Diabetic nephropathy is a condition where tight control of blood sugar slows the ... patients with renal disease, obesity per se has been shown to aggravate .... supplemented with essential amino acids. In my opinion the ...

  17. Clinical observation of treatment of fungal corneal ulcer with application of iodine tincture and fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fang Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the effect of 30g/L iodine rubbed and debridement of wound together with 2g/L fluconazole in the treatment of fungal corneal ulcers. METHODS: Fifty fungal keratitis cases(50 eyesdiagnosed by corneal smear examination were cleaned locally, iodine blanch. All patients were given 2g/L fluconazole for systemic treatment, treated eye with 2g/L fluconazole eye-drops and loxacin eye-drops, and 30g/L atropine eye ointment dilate the pupils.RESULTS:Fifty cases(50 eyeswere selected, of which, 40 cases were healed, 8 cases were improved and 2 cases were aggravated with operation being given.CONCLUSION:After early and timely diagnosis of fungal keratitis, local debridement, 30g/L iodine rubbed the wound and joint with systemic and local treatment of fluconazole can achieve good effect.

  18. Taxonomy of the burden of treatment: a multi-country web-based qualitative study of patients with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Barnes, Caroline; Montori, Victor M; Falissard, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-05-14

    Management strategies for patients with chronic conditions are becoming increasingly complex, which may result in a burden of treatment for patients. To develop a Minimally Disruptive Medicine designed to reduce the burden of treatment, clinicians need to understand which healthcare tasks and aggravating factors may be responsible for this burden. The objective of the present study was to describe and classify the components of the burden of treatment for patients with chronic conditions from the patient's perspective. We performed a multi-country qualitative study using an online survey and a purposive sampling strategy to select English-, French-, and Spanish-speaking participants with different chronic conditions. Participants were recruited by physicians, patients' associations, advertisement on social media, and 'snowballing'. The answers were analyzed by i) manual content analysis with a grounded theory approach, coded by two researchers, and ii) automatic textual analysis by Reinert's method. Between 2013 and 2014, 1,053 participants from 34 different countries completed the online survey using 408,625 words. Results from both analyses were synthesized in a taxonomy of the burden of treatment, which described i) the tasks imposed on patients by their diseases and by their healthcare system (e.g., medication management, lifestyle changes, follow-up, etc.); ii) the structural (e.g., access to healthcare resources, coordination between care providers), personal, situational, and financial factors that aggravated the burden of treatment; and iii) patient-reported consequences of the burden (e.g., poor adherence to treatments, financial burden, impact on professional, family, and social life, etc.). Our findings may not be applicable to patients with chronic conditions who differ from those who responded to our survey. Our taxonomy of the burden of treatment, provided by patients with chronic conditions from different countries and settings, supports the

  19. Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome Associated With Treatment-Resistant Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. C. Ong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness that autoimmune diseases can present with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We present the case of a 17-year-old female requiring psychiatric hospitalization for obsessive–compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder with mixed affective features, who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Treatment with potent immunosuppression resulted in remission of psychiatric illness. Due to a lack of awareness and/or the lack of specific biomarkers, clinicians may not associate psychiatric symptoms with autoimmune disease, including primary Sjogren’s syndrome. This case demonstrates that Sjogren’s syndrome may be a causative or aggravating factor in mental disorders and that autoimmune diseases should be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness especially in cases of concurrent physical symptomatology and severity or treatment resistance of psychiatric disease.

  20. Severe Periodontal Disease Associated with Long-Term Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jôice Dias Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is used in the treatment of neuropathy. This case report presents, for the first time, a patient with severe periodontal destruction after chronic therapy with IVIG. The patient reported having extracted his maxillary anterior teeth himself due to high mobility. Clinical examination and radiographic images show a generalized and severe periodontitis. No significant alterations in genetic or microbiological features were observed. The present case suggests that periodontal disease aggravation could be considered a new adverse effect of IVIG therapy. Postulated mechanisms are immune complexes formation, complement activation, and a direct effect in osteoclasts. In conclusion, it is important that patients that will receive IVIG treatment underwent dental evaluation.

  1. Early change of thyroid hormone concentration after {sup 131}I treatment in patients with solitary toxic adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirnat, E.; Fidler, V.; Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Hojker, S. [Univ. Medical Centre Ljubljana, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Slovenia)

    2002-08-01

    Aim: In spite of extensive use of {sup 131}I for treatment of hyperthyroidism, the results of early outcome are variable. In our prospective clinical study we tested whether {sup 131}I induced necrosis causing clinical aggravation of hyperthyroidism and increasing the free thyroid hormone concentration in the serum of patients with solitary toxic adenoma not pretreated with antithyroid drugs. Patients and methods: 30 consecutive patients were treated with 925 MBq {sup 131}I. Serum concentration of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), free triiodothyronine (fT{sub 3}), thyroglobulin (Tg), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured before and after application of {sup 131}I. Results: After application of {sup 131}I no clinical worsening was observed. FT{sub 4} and fT{sub 3} concentration did not change significantly within the first five days, whereas both of them significantly decreased after 12 days (p<0.0001). Slight and clinically irrelevant increase in the level of the two thyroid hormones was observed in 9 patients. Furthermore, we observed a prolonged increase in Tg concentration and a transient increase in IL-6 concentration. Conclusion: Neither evidence of any clinical aggravation of hyperthyroidism nor any significant increase in thyroid hormone concentration by {sup 131}I induced necrosis of thyroid cells was found. Therefore, the application of {sup 131}I may be considered as a safe and effective treatment for patients with hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma. (orig.)

  2. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Mallik, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated

  3. Self-reported Symptoms after Induced and Inhibited Bronchoconstriction in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, ANDREW J.; ROMER, LEE M.; KIPPELEN, PASCALE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose A change in the perception of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists is often used to aid diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Our aim was to test the association between subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms and changes in airway caliber after induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction in athletes with EIB. Methods Eighty-five athletes with diagnosed or suspected EIB performed a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) challenge with dry air. Of the 45 athletes with hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction [i.e., post-EVH fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥10%, EVH−], 36 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Terbutaline (0.5 mg) or placebo was administered by inhalation 15 min before EVH. Spirometry (for FEV1) was performed before and after EVH, and respiratory symptoms were recorded 15 min after EVH on visual analog scales. Results Terbutaline inhibited bronchoconstriction (i.e., maximal fall in FEV1 athletes, with an average degree of bronchoprotection of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45% to 62%). Terbutaline reduced group mean symptom scores (P athletes who had less than 10% FEV1 fall after EVH in the terbutaline condition, almost half (48%) rated at least one respiratory symptom higher under terbutaline, and more than one quarter (28%) had a higher total symptom score under terbutaline. Conclusion Self-reports of respiratory symptoms in conditions of induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction do not correlate with changes in airway caliber in athletes with EIB. Therefore, subjective ratings of respiratory symptoms after treatment with inhaled beta2 agonists should not be used as the sole diagnostic tool for EIB in athletes. PMID:25710876

  4. Cryptosporidium: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lt;/label> Parasites Home Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Most people who have healthy immune systems will recover without treatment. Diarrhea can be managed by drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. ...

  5. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's ability to fight ...

  6. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  7. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis Treatment, Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3 ... TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in ... respondents (89.4%) had positive attitude towards TB treatment ..... respondents described feelings of depression, anger and apathy .... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,. 1979, 37:1-11.

  8. Multidisciplinary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayabuchi, Naofumi; Jingu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    1985-01-01

    Multidisciplinary treatment for malignant lymphoma is reported in terms of indication, current status, and outcome of this approach to Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NLH). HD is considered to be most successfully managed with multidisciplinary treatment. Success of treatment of HD in European countries and the US, which has resulted from accurate staging of HD and developments in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is reviewed in the literature. Problems in the treatment of HD in Japan are presented. A treatment policy for NHL is discussed according to the original site, i.e. lymph nodes, Waldeyer's ring or other sites of tumor involvement. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  10. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  11. TREATMENT AND VACCINE PREVENTION OF ROTAVIRAL INFECTION AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the level of healthcare system development rotaviral infection is a serious medical, social and economic problem at all times. Any infant has to undergo rotaviral gastroenteritis. The run of the disease among infants is mostly often aggravated by dehydration and needs intense treatment of exicosis. The standard of treatment is an oral rehydration, which is in most cases contributes to a quicker improvement of the children’s status. In the meantime, according to the metaphor put forward by the who experts «the best solution» to prevent acute rotaviral diarrhea today may become a rotaviral vaccine. Nowadays, in different countries of the world, two vaccines, which showed high efficiency and safety in clinical research, have been registered. Application of these vaccines may contribute to the significant reduction of the acute forms of rotaviral infection among infants, hospitalizations and mortality caused by rotaviral gastroenteritis. This article highlights the principles of treatment and possibility for vaccine prevention of rotaviral infection among children.Key words: rotaviral infection, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, children, rehydration, vaccine prevention, rotaviral vaccine.

  12. Chronic β2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Wilson, Richard; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-15

    While several studies have investigated the effects of exercise training in human skeletal muscle and the chronic effect of β 2 -agonist treatment in rodent muscle, their effects on muscle proteome signature with related functional measures in humans are still incompletely understood. Herein we show that daily β 2 -agonist treatment attenuates training-induced enhancements in exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption, and alters muscle proteome signature and phenotype in trained young men. Daily β 2 -agonist treatment abolished several of the training-induced enhancements in muscle oxidative capacity and caused a repression of muscle metabolic pathways; furthermore, β 2 -agonist treatment induced a slow-to-fast twitch muscle phenotype transition. The present study indicates that chronic β 2 -agonist treatment confounds the positive effect of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, which is of interest for the large proportion of persons using inhaled β 2 -agonists on a daily basis, including athletes. Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β 2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β 2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomly assigned 21 trained men to 4 weeks of high intensity training with (HIT+β 2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β 2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg dose -1 ). Of 486 proteins identified by mass-spectrometry proteomics of muscle biopsies sampled before and after the intervention, 32 and 85 were changing (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤5%) with the intervention in HIT and HIT+β 2 A, respectively. Proteome signature changes were different in HIT and HIT+β 2 A (P

  13. Evidence - based pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis: An expert opinion and new expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P Oranje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most common skin diseases with a complex multifactorial background. The clinical presentation, the aggravating factors and the complications vary according to the age of the patients. Most cases, approximately 60-80%, present for the 1 st time before the age of 12 months. Adult-onset AD has been observed as a special variant. Pruritus is the worst sign of AD, which also often indicates an exacerbation and is considered to be the most annoying symptom of AD. Treatment is preferably started based on the severity of AD. In only 10% of the cases, AD is so severe that systemic treatment is necessary. Systemic treatment including topical wet-wrap treatment is indicated in the worst and recalcitrant cases of AD. Systemic treatment of AD is discussed with regards to the evidence-based efficacy and safety aspects. I prefer wet-wraps as a crisis intervention in severe childhood cases, whereas UV and systemic treatments are the choices in patients older than 10 years. Probiotics are not useful in the treatment. If they have any effect at all it may only be in food-allergic children with AD. Finally, anti-histamines are not effective against pruritus in AD. They are only effective against urticarial flares and in cases with food-allergy. This article consists of an expert opinion on evidence-based pharmacological treatment of AD, but it is not a systemic review.

  14. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Uljanova, L.; Makarov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  15. Osteoporosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative study in 2002 marginalized the use of hormone replacement therapy and established bisphosphonates as the first line of treatment for osteoporosis. Denosumab could be used in selected patients. Although bisphosphonates only maintain the structure of bone...... to their benefits/harm ratio. Treatment of osteoporosis is a long process, and many patients will require treatment with more than one type of drug over their lifetime....

  16. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms....../min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...... with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during...

  17. [Headache Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Hans Christoph; Holle-Lee, Dagny; Nägel, Steffen; Gaul, Charly

    2017-03-01

    A precondition for the successful treatment of headaches is the correct headache diagnosis. Triptans are effective for attack treatment of migraine and cluster headache. However, there are not effective for the treatment of tension-type headache. For the prevention of frequent episodic migraine betablockers, flunarizine, topiramate and amitriptyline are recommended. For the prevention of chronic migraine evidence is only available for onabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate. For prophylactic treatment of tension-type headaches tricyclic antidepressants are used. In cluster headache verapamil (in combination with steroids) is the most frequently used prophylactic agent. This article focusses on the current acute and prophylactic treatment of common headache syndromes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Successful treatment of inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy after severe traumatic brain injury with milrinone after dobutamine failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Ségolène; Srairi, Mohamed; Marhar, Fouad; Delmas, Clément; Gaussiat, François; Abaziou, Timothée; Larcher, Claire; Atthar, Vincent; Menut, Rémi; Fourcade, Olivier; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can occur at the early phase of severe acute brain injuries. In the case of cardiac output decrease or shock, the optimal treatment is still a matter of debate. Due to massive stress hormone release, the infusion of catecholamines may have limited effects and may even aggravate cardiac failure. Other inotropic agents may be an option. Levosimendan has been shown to have potential beneficial effects in this setting, although milrinone has not been studied. We report a case of a young female presenting with inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy syndrome after severe traumatic brain injury. Due to hemodynamic instability and increasing levels of infused norepinephrine, dobutamine infusion was begun but rapidly stopped due to tachyarrhythmia. Milrinone infusion stabilized the patient's hemodynamic status and improved cardiac output without deleterious effects. Milrinone could be a good alternative when inotropes are required in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and when dobutamine infusion is associated with tachyarrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Treatment of children with (Helicobacter pylori) infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, P F [CDU Padre Pio, Cotonou (Benin); De Maio, G; Andriulli, A [Ospedale CSS, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Ghoos, Y [Lab. Digestie Absorptie, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive {sup 13}CO{sub 2} Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by {sup 13}CO{sub 2} Urea Breath Tests. (author)

  1. Modification of bauxite residue generated in the Bayer process by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.C.S.; Pileggi, R.G.; John, V.M.; Gouvea, D.

    2011-01-01

    Red mud is the waste generated by the aluminum industry, and as other industrial waste presents complex characteristics with numerous difficulties in handling, as well as being a hazardous material due to its low granulometry, alkalinity and high amount generated. It is a waste with potential high polluter, aggravated by the generally adopted vulnerable disposal form, being this, the disposition of the residue in ponds designed for this purpose. The study and development of sustainable alternatives for the use of sludge, treated as raw materials from other processes, are important tendency and necessary trends in the global context of environmental preservation. This work deals with the thermal treatment as a method of modification of the characteristics of the residue, suggesting the reduction of alkalinity together with the lower leaching of alkaline ions. This approach can be a more reliable and environmentally safe disposal alternatives

  2. Treatment of children with (Helicobacter pylori) infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, P.F.; De Maio, G.; Andriulli, A.; Ghoos, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive 13 CO 2 Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by 13 CO 2 Urea Breath Tests. (author)

  3. [Treatment motivation in patients with chronic cardiorenal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, E V; Shutov, A M; Borodulina, E O

    2015-01-01

    To study treatment motivation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and in those with CHF concurrent with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 203 patients (130 men and 73 women; mean age, 61.8±9.6 years) with CHF diagnosed and assessed in accordance with the National Guidelines of the All-Russian Research Society of Cardiology and the Heart Failure Society for the diagnosis and treatment of CHF (third edition, 2009) were examined. CKD was diagnosed according to the 2012 National Guidelines of the Research Nephrology Society of Russia. A group of patients with chronic cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) included those with CHF and CKD with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of motivation for non-drug and drug treatments were assessed in patients with chronic CRS. CFR was 67.7±17.2 ml/min/1.73 m2; chronic CRS was observed in 89 (44%) patients. Psychological functioning assessment showed that the patients with chronic CRS as compared with those with CHF without CKD had high anxiety and maladaptive disease attitudes. CHF treatment motivation (compliance with lifestyle modification and medication) was proved inadequate and detected only in 31 (15.3%) patients with CHF regardless of the presence of CKD. The specific features of psychological functioning, which affected treatment motivation, were seen in patients with chronic CRS: those who were lowly motivated had a euphoric attitude towards their disease (p=0.03); those who were satisfactorily motivated showed an emotive accentuation of character (p=0.002). The presence of CKD aggravates the clinical course of CHF and negatively affects the psychological functioning of patients with CHF. The patients with chronic CRS are characterized by a low level of motivation for both drug and non-drug treatments, which should be taken into account when managing this cohort of patients.

  4. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  5. Effect of synthetic detergent and soap on the waste-water treatment. Gosei senzai oyobi sekken no haisui shori ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. (national Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)); Takamatsu, Y. (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of surfactants on purification capability and living life phases in the living life membrane method and the activated sludge method as biological waste water treatment methods. As a result of treating artificial waste water in an immersion hearth process of the living life membrane method, it was found that LAS added concentration at 50 mg/l or higher would not affect noticeably the quality of water treated under a steady-state operation, but that at 100 mg/l has aggravated the treated water quality by increasing COD. In the case of soaps, the COD in the treated water has aggravated when the added concentration is 70 mg/l or higher. The result of discussing the activated sludge process using urban sewage water indicated that COD in the treated water shows higher value for synthetic detergents than for soaps at the detergent added concentration of 140 mg/l or higher, having affected adversely the treated water quality. An activated sludge treatment process was operated to identify the effects of synthetic detergents and soaps on living life phases in the activated sludge and living life membranes. The result suggests that either the LAS added system or the soap added system presents no problems in a long-time aeration, while activated sludge aerated for the standard period of time has a possibility of abnormally proliferating filamentous microorganisms that can cause bulking in the soap system. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Residential characteristics aggravating infestation by Culex quinquefasciatus in a region of Northeastern Brazil Características agravantes por infestación residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, en una región del Noreste de Brasil Características agravantes por infestação residencial de Culex quinquefasciatus, em Olinda, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cavalcanti Correia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse how basic sanitation conditions, water supply and housing conditions affect the concentration of Culex quinquefasciatus METHODS: Populations of C. quinquefasciatus in 61 houses in the municipality of Olinda, PE, were monitored between October 2009 and October 2010. Observations were carried out in homes without the presence of preferred breeding sites in order to identify characteristics that may be aggravating factors for the development of the mosquito. Five aggravating factors were analysed: vegetation cover surrounding the home, number of residents/home, water storage, sewage drainage and water drainage. These characteristics were analysed in terms of presence or absence and as indicators of the degree of infestation, which was estimated through monitoring the concentration of eggs (oviposition traps - BR-OVT and adults (CDC light traps. RESULTS: Sewage drainage to a rudimentary septic tank or to the open air was the most frequent aggravating factor in the homes (91.8%, although the presence of vegetation was the only characteristic that significantly influenced the increase in the number of egg rafts (p = 0.02. The BR-OVT achieved positive results in 95.1% of the evaluations, with the presence of at least one egg raft per month. A total of 2,366 adults were caught, with a mosquito/room/night ratio of 32.9. No significant difference was found in the number of mosquitoes caught in the homes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the sanitation and water supply influence the population density of C. quinquefasciatus, residence features that are not usually considered in control measures can be aggravating factors in sustaining the mosquito population.OBJETIVO: Analizar como las condiciones de saneamiento básico, abastecimiento de agua y habitaciones afectan la densidad de Culex quinquefasciatus MÉTODOS: se monitoreó la población de C. quinquefasciatus en 61 residencias del municipio de Olinda, PE, Brasil, de octubre de 2009 a octubre de

  7. Treatment of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2018-03-01

    Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system afflicts most patients with Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies such as dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure, reducing quality of life and increasing mortality. For example, gastrointestinal dysfunction can lead to impaired drug pharmacodynamics causing a worsening in motor symptoms, and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension can cause syncope, falls, and fractures. When recognized, autonomic problems can be treated, sometimes successfully. Discontinuation of potentially causative/aggravating drugs, patient education, and nonpharmacological approaches are useful and should be tried first. Pathophysiology-based pharmacological treatments that have shown efficacy in controlled trials of patients with synucleinopathies have been approved in many countries and are key to an effective management. Here, we review the treatment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies, summarize the nonpharmacological and current pharmacological therapeutic strategies including recently approved drugs, and provide practical advice and management algorithms for clinicians, with focus on neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, dysphagia, sialorrhea, gastroparesis, constipation, neurogenic overactive bladder, underactive bladder, and sexual dysfunction. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  9. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  10. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  11. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one that is tailored to your symptoms. article Protecting your eyesight when taking Plaquenil Some lupus treatments have the potential for eye health side-effects. Know the warning signs. article ​ ...

  12. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  13. Rotavirus Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  14. Graves hyperthyroidism 131I treatment the clinical curative effect of observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Wang Zuobing; Yu Hui; Wang Jing; Li Xiaoqin; Chen Yuanhao; Wu Jiquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to study the clinical treatment of 131 I Graves hyperthyroidism curative effect. Methods: the clinical data of Graves hyperthyroidism patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 258 cases of patients with hyperthyroidism Graves. 131 I treatment 1∼2 times after healed 200 cases, improvement of 38 patients, a low, 10 cases were invalid 10 cases failure; the total effective 96.12%. 1 year after treatment 131 I thyroid quality by before treatment 43.6 + 20.9 grams shrinks to 1.98 + 18.5 grams (p 131 I before treatment with prominent eyes 68 cases (26.4%) 131 I after treatment, the prominent eyes healed 24 cases (34.8%), improvement 30 patients (43.5%), invalid in 12 cases (17.4%), aggravating in 2 cases (2.9%), efficient for 79.7%. Concurrent hyperthyroidism 131 I before treatment in patients with 31 patients (heart), after the treatment of 131 I 12.0% in 25 patients recovered, 6 patients get better, efficient 100%. After the treatment of 131 I temporary armor low in 25 patients (9.7%) , permanent armour low 27 cases (10.5%). After the treatment of 131 I 15 cases have been reduced to a sex WBC (5.8%), 8 cases of liver function mild damage (3.1%), 13 cases itchy skin (1 case), cholesterol by 5.0% compared appear suspected hyperthyroidism crises (0.4%). 258 patients with thyroid type micronodular 41 cases, treatment cured after 131 I in 25 patients (61.0%), improvement in 16 (39.0%), laseris 100%, Diffuse 217 example, cure 175 cases (80.6%), improvement 22 patients (10%), a low 10 (4.6%), invalid 10 (4.6%), laseris 95.4 percent. Conclusion: 131 I treatment Graves hyperthyroidism is simple, safe, effective, and can be used as the preferred treatment method outperforms that of anti-thyroid drugs. (authors)

  15. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Montgomery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42–45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  16. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behre Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. Conclusion As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  17. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, Gerhard; Theurich, Sebastian; Christopeit, Maximilian; Weber, Thomas

    2009-03-10

    We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  18. Stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Koji; Izawa, Masahiro; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan). Neurological Inst.

    1996-02-01

    The treatment outcome of the metastatic brain tumor in Tokyo Women`s Medical College was reported, and it was described on present state and problem of radiosurgery (RS). One hundred five lesions of 50 patients (male 36, female 12, age 27-85 years) undertaken RS by gamma knife were studied. The primary lesions were the lungs in 23 patients, digestive tract in 12, mammary gland in 4, kidney in 3, thyroid gland in 13, prostate gland in 2 and the other in 3. Thirty nine patients had primary tumor, and 11 patients had recurrent tumor. The volume of 105 lesions was 0.03-56 ml (mean 6.4 ml), and the treatment was carried out for these tumors at average maximum dose 47Gy, average limbic dosage 23Gy. In the image findings, elimination of 46 lesions (44%), reduction of 39 lesions (37%), unchangeable 7 lesions (7%), increase of 13 lesions (13%) were recognized, and tumor reduction rate 81%, local control rate 88% were obtained. The local control rate was around 90% of the tumor, which seize was 15 ml or less. After the treatment, radionecrosis were suspected in 2 lesions of 1 patient. Appearance or aggravation of the edema by the radiation were observed 1-2 month after the treatment in 6 lesions of 5 patients. By the treatment, the following were improved: the hemiplegia in 9 patients, the aphasia in 2, the vertigo in 3. On prognosis, 21 of 46 patients except for the uncertain 4 were alive and 25 died. Through RS is the therapy which is very effective for the metastatic brain tumor, it also exists on some problems to be reached. (A.N.).

  19. [Tics and Tourette syndrome: diagnosis, course and treatment principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houeto, Jean-Luc; Giré, Pauline

    2008-02-01

    The term "Tourette syndrome" designates the combination of tics with other symptoms. Gilles de la Tourette disease is one of its most frequent causes. It combines motor and vocal tics, with no identifiable cause, with self-mutilation and variable psychiatric comorbidity that may include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders, mood and personality disorders, and a syndrome of hyperactivity with attention disorders. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome is estimated at 0.1-1% of the general population. The condition begins during childhood and develops in a succession of periods of relative aggravation and remission of the tics. Most patients show improvement at the end of adolescence, but symptoms can persist into adulthood in approximately one third of patients. The cause of Gilles de la Tourette disease is unknown, but the role of genetic susceptibility has been suggested together with dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system and of neuron networks in associative and limbic areas of the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. Treatment of Tourette syndrome and severe tics is often difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach (neurologist, psychiatrist, psychologist and social workers). In mild forms, information and psychological management are usually recommended. Drug treatments--including neuroleptics--are essential in the moderate to severe forms of the disease. Psychiatric comorbidities, when present, often justify specific treatment. For the most severe forms of Gilles de la Tourette disease, preliminary results of treatment by deep brain stimulation of the associative and limb areas of the thalamus or pallidum have produced real hope of treatment, but nonetheless require confirmation.

  20. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  1. ESCHARS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cioc Liliana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article carry out a modern research and principles of the main solutions for the treatment of eschars, including cleaning solutions for wound debridement, dressings, antibiotics, surgery and adjuvant therapies. The approach taken to achieve the research is justified by the fact that, despite current interest and progress in medicine, surgery, medical care and education for self-care, pressure sores remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting in particular, people with prolonged immobilization and the elderly. The conclusions of the paper are oriented towards to analysis of the efficiency of each treatment solutions presented in active control eschars and negative effects they generate.

  2. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous types of waste are produced by the nuclear industry ranging from high-level radioactive and heat-generating, HLW, to very low-level, LLW and usually very bulky wastes. These may be in solid, liquid or gaseous phases and require different treatments. Waste management practices have evolved within commercial and environmental constraints resulting in considerable reduction in discharges. (UK)

  3. Catalytic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindley, W T.R.

    1931-04-18

    An apparatus is described for the catalytic treatment of liquids, semi-liquids, and gases comprising a vessel into which the liquid, semi-liquid, or gas to be treated is introduced through a common inlet to a chamber within the vessel whence it passes to contact with a catalyst through radially arranged channels or passages to a common outlet chamber.

  4. Fibrogenic Cell Plasticity Blunts Tissue Regeneration and Aggravates Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pessina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of cell identity is necessary for homeostasis of most adult tissues. This process is challenged every time a tissue undergoes regeneration after stress or injury. In the lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, skeletal muscle regenerative capacity declines gradually as fibrosis increases. Using genetically engineered tracing mice, we demonstrate that, in dystrophic muscle, specialized cells of muscular, endothelial, and hematopoietic origins gain plasticity toward a fibrogenic fate via a TGFβ-mediated pathway. This results in loss of cellular identity and normal function, with deleterious consequences for regeneration. Furthermore, this fibrogenic process involves acquisition of a mesenchymal progenitor multipotent status, illustrating a link between fibrogenesis and gain of progenitor cell functions. As this plasticity also was observed in DMD patients, we propose that mesenchymal transitions impair regeneration and worsen diseases with a fibrotic component.

  5. Rapidly aggravated Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: autopsy-proven case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images.

  6. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T G; Djurhuus, C; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    1996-01-01

    Doppler spectra obtained 10 cm downstream of the fistula. All measurements were carried out with open and clamped fistula. RESULTS: At 30% diameter reducing stenosis opening of the fistula induced a 12% systolic pressure drop across the stenosis but had no adverse effect on the Doppler waveform parameters...

  7. Inflammation aggravates disease severity in Marfan syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Radonic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with major features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems, associated with large clinical variability. Numerous studies reveal an involvement of TGF-β signaling. However, the contribution of tissue inflammation is not addressed so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we showed that both TGF-β and inflammation are up-regulated in patients with MFS. We analyzed transcriptome-wide gene expression in 55 MFS patients using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array and levels of TGF-β and various cytokines in their plasma. Within our MFS population, increased plasma levels of TGF-β were found especially in MFS patients with aortic root dilatation (124 pg/ml, when compared to MFS patients with normal aorta (10 pg/ml; p = 8×10(-6, 95% CI: 70-159 pg/ml. Interestingly, our microarray data show that increased expression of inflammatory genes was associated with major clinical features within the MFS patients group; namely severity of the aortic root dilatation (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 genes; r = 0.56 for both; False Discovery Rate(FDR = 0%, ocular lens dislocation (RAET1L, CCL19 and HLA-DQB2; Fold Change (FC = 1.8; 1.4; 1.5, FDR = 0% and specific skeletal features (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, GZMK; FC = 8.8, 7.1, 1.3; FDR = 0%. Patients with progressive aortic disease had higher levels of Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF in blood. When comparing MFS aortic root vessel wall with non-MFS aortic root, increased numbers of CD4+ T-cells were found in the media (p = 0.02 and increased number of CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.003 in the adventitia of the MFS patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, our results imply a modifying role of inflammation in MFS. Inflammation might be a novel therapeutic target in these patients.

  8. European bond markets: do illiquidity and concentration aggravate price shocks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Frost, Jon; Steins Bisschop, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of market liquidity and ownership concentration of European bonds on price volatility during periods of market stress. Specifically, using security-by-security data from euro area investors we examine if market illiquidity and concentrated holdings explain the large price shocks

  9. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats overexpress......INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...... determined once weekly. After three weeks, animals were sacrificed. Heart tissue was examined for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The vitamin D depleted group had higher blood pressure at week 1 (mean difference 23.4mmHg, 95% CI 9.1-37.7) and tended...

  10. Does Electroconvulsive therapy aggravate the rise in potassium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Potassium and creatine kinase levels increase after the administration of suxamethonium. This rise may be exaggerated by the combination of suxamethonium fasciculation and the modified tonic/clonic convulsion induced by electroconvulsive therapy. This study compared the magnitude of increase in ...

  11. The proliferation of ballistic missiles: an aggravating factor of crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Valery

    2015-01-01

    After a brief recall of the history of the development of ballistic missiles from World War II, the author discusses the various uses of these missiles, on the one hand by major powers, and on the other hand by other countries like Israel, Pakistan and India, and also Egypt and Iraq. He recalls the uses of these missiles during regional conflicts (Scuds by Iraq) and then discusses the issue of proliferation of ballistic missiles. He notices that most of these weapons are present in the arsenal of major powers under the form of intercontinental missiles, intermediate range weapons or theatre weapons. On the Third World side, proliferation concerns short- and medium-range missiles produced from technology transfers or national programmes. Mobile systems are now present in all conflicts (notably Libya, Syria) and are now based on more advanced technologies for propellers as well as for control and guidance systems. In the last part, the author discusses the perspectives associated with these missiles which are a strong offensive weapon, and are also modernised to carry nuclear warheads or multiple warheads. These evolutions could put the western superiority into question again

  12. Rapidly aggravated Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: autopsy-proven case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Kang, Hyun Koo; Yu, Hyeon; Lee, Sang Chun

    2005-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (DJD) is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which is mediated by what has been known as 'prion'. It is a rare and fatal progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the middle and old aged. There are a number of subtypes of CJD, one of which is the sporadic type characterized by rapidly progressing clinical symptoms, including progressive dementia, myoclonic jerk, and pyramidal or extrapyramidal syndrome. Patients usually end up dying within 1 to 2 years of contacting the disease. We report an autopsy-proven case of sporadic CJD with clinical symptoms that progressed within several days, along with dramatic changes on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images

  13. TLR2 deficiency aggravates lung injury caused by mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria Theresa; Jongsma, Geartsje; Hegeman, Maria A; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M; Wolthuis, Esther K; Choi, Goda; Bresser, Paul; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J; Wieland, Catharina W

    Innate immunity pathways are found to play an important role in ventilator-induced lung injury. We analyzed pulmonary expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in humans and mice and determined the role of TLR2 in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury in mice. Toll-like receptor 2 gene

  14. Reinfections with strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, of different biodemes as a factor of aggravation of myocarditis and myositis in mice Reinfecções com cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi de diferentes biodemas como fator agravante da miocardite e miosite em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gumes Andrade

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinfections with Trypanosoma cruzi in patients from endemic areas have been claimed to be an aggravation factor of cardiac manifestations in Chagas' disease. In the present study, the influence of triple infections with strains of different biodemes, on cardiac and skeletal muscle lesions was experimentally tested. Fifty eight mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain (Biodeme Type III were successively reinfected as follows: 1st group - reinfected with 21 SF strain (Type II followed by Y strain (Type I ; 2nd - group reinfections with Y strain followed by 21SF strain. Isoenzyme analysis of parasites from hemocultures obtained from triple infected mice, revealed the patterns of three distinct zymodemes in the same animal. Each Trypanosoma cruzi strain was reisolated after four passages in mice on either the 7th, 14th or 30th day after inoculation with the blood of triple infected mice. Histopathology results demonstrated a significant exacerbation of cardiac and skeletal muscle inflammatory lesions, confirmed by morphometric evaluation, in mice with triple infection. No aggravation of parasitism was detected. The possibility of an enhancement of cellular response in the triple infected mice is suggested.Reinfecções pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em pacientes de áreas endêmicas têm sido mencionadas como fator agravante das manifestações cardíacas na doença de Chagas. No presente estudo, a influência da tríplice infecção com cepas de diferentes biodemas, sobre as lesões do miocárdio e de músculo esquelético foi investigada experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e oito camundongos cronicamente infectados com a cepa Colombiana do Trypanosoma cruzi (Biodema Tipo III foram sucessivamente reinoculadas como a seguir: 1º grupo - reinfectados com a cepa 21 SF (Tipo II seguido pela cepa Y (Tipo I; 2º grupo - reinfecção com a cepa Y seguida pela cepa 21SF. A análise isoenzimática dos parasitas das hemoculturas obtidas dos animais com tr

  15. Antimicrobials Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Mataragas, Marios

    The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth.

  16. Chronic urticaria in children: Etiologies, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria is defined as a skin disease with central induration (wheal and erythema formation around it (flare that appears at least twice a week and remains at least for 6 weeks continually. The incidence of urticaria in children is about 0.1-3%. Most cases of chronic urticaria occur in children between 6-11 years. Autoimmune and allergy immaturity is one of the reasons of lower incidence of chronic urticaria in younger children. Quality of life impairment in children with urticaria has been known to be similar to diseases with severe atopic dermatitis, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus and asthma. There are several causes for chronic urticaria in children in different reports. In most of cases the known etiologic agents are varies from 21 to 83%. Overall, infectious causes of chronic urticaria in children are more common and obvious than other in adults .In most cases, the cause of chronic urticaria are idiopathic or autoimmune. Urticaria severity divided to mild, moderate and severe was based on the number of wheals and severity of pruritus. Diagnosis of chronic urticaria is based on a good history and physical examination. The treatment of chronic urticaria is a patient education that is to remove the triggering and aggravating agents, resolving and treating of the known disease and the use of various medicines based on the history and clinical findings. The first medical therapeutics lines in children are anti-histamines, beta-blocker H1 and new generation of non-sedating agents.

  17. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  18. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ...

  19. Longitudinal relationships between antiretroviral treatment adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race, and sexual orientation among African-American men with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J

    2010-10-01

    African-Americans show worse HIV disease outcomes compared to Whites. Health disparities may be aggravated by discrimination, which is associated with worse health and maladaptive health behaviors. We examined longitudinal effects of discrimination on antiretroviral treatment adherence among 152 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men. We measured adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Hierarchical repeated-measures models tested longitudinal effects of each discrimination type on adherence. Over 6 months, participants took 60% of prescribed medications on average; substantial percentages experienced discrimination (HIV-serostatus, 38%; race/ethnicity, 40%; and sexual orientation, 33%). Greater discrimination due to all three characteristics was significantly bivariately associated with lower adherence (all p's discrimination was significant (p < 0.05). Efforts to improve HIV treatment adherence should consider the context of multiple stigmas, especially racism.

  20. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Vorapaxar treatment reduces mesangial expansion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, JanWillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, C Arnold

    2018-04-24

    Twenty years after the onset of diabetes, up to 40% of patients develop diabetic nephropathy. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has recently been shown to aggravate the development of experimental diabetic nephropathy. PAR-1 deficient mice develop less albuminuria and glomerular lesions and PAR-1 stimulation induces proliferation and fibronectin production in mesangial cells in vitro . Vorapaxar is a clinically available PAR-1 inhibitor which is currently used for secondary prevention of ischemic events. The aim of this study was to investigate in a preclinical setting whether vorapaxar treatment may be a novel strategy to reduce diabetes-induced kidney damage. While control treated diabetic mice developed significant albuminuria, mesangial expansion and glomerular fibronectin deposition, diabetic mice on vorapaxar treatment did not show any signs of kidney damage despite having similar levels of hyperglycemia. These data show that PAR-1 inhibition by vorapaxar prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy in this preclinical animal model for type I diabetes and pinpoint PAR-1 as a novel therapeutic target to pursue in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. 22 C57Bl/6 mice were made diabetic using multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg) and 22 littermates served as non-diabetic controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, 11 mice of each group were assigned to control or vorapaxar treatment. Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks of treatment and kidney damage was evaluated.

  2. Platform treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammazi, Rochdi; M'henni, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Our project consists of making of a punt forms test for the radioactive treatment in the research's unit of the CNSTN .First a complete functional analysis is carried out, this analysis comprises a comparative study between our work and a design already established in a preparatory project, it emphasizes the failures whose made proof the old design .Second the metallurgical study which must lead on the choice of materials is in its turn carried out. Thirdly the design with all the details and the plans is carried out by the intermediary of the software CATIA. This design is accompanied by the various bodies's dimensioning and the calculation of the various states of stresses to which the parts of the system are subjected: buckling, inflection fourthly an automatic study is carried out, this study contains the automation's step of the system using the software, SIMATIC STEP 7. It also contains the choice of the various position and velocity pick-ups. Finally we will finish by the presentation of maintenance and safety's instructions of the system and the operator working in this research's . (Author)

  3. Orthodontic treatment in periodontitis‐susceptible subjects: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsten, Rune; Slotte, Christer; Bjerklin, Krister

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim is to evaluate the literature for clinical scientific data on possible effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal status in periodontitis‐susceptible subjects. A systematic literature review was performed on studies in English using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library central databases (1965‐2014). By manually searching reference lists of selected studies, we identified additional articles; then we searched these publications: Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, and European Journal of Orthodontics. Search terms included randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective clinical studies, case series >5 patients, periodontitis, orthodontics, alveolar bone loss, tooth migration, tooth movement, orthodontic extrusion, and orthodontic intrusion. Only studies on orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised dentitions were included. One randomized controlled clinical trial, one controlled clinical trial, and 12 clinical studies were included. No evidence currently exists from controlled studies and randomized controlled clinical trials, which shows that orthodontic treatment improves or aggravates the status of periodontally compromised dentitions. PMID:29744163

  4. Prophylactic IVC Filter Placement during Endovascular Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Byung Suk; Cho, Han Il; Lee, Yeum Sik; Bang, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Young Hwan

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an IVC filter implantation in the prevent of a pulmonary embolism (PE) during endovascular treatment for a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. We implanted IVC filters in 43 patients (22 females, 21 males, average age: 63 years) with DVT and who had undergone treatments including thrombolysis, aspiration and mechanical thrombectomy, as well as stent placement. We evaluated the incidence of PE by capturing the thrombus within the IVC filters, as well as the amount of captured thrombus. New developing PE or aggravating of PE in patients with existing PE was avoided in all patients. No thrombus was evident in the IVC filter of 19 (44%) of the patients, whereas any thrombus was captured in 24 (56%) of the patients. Small amounts of thrombus were captured in 10 patients, whereas large amounts of thrombus were captured in 14 patents within the IVC filter. We performed a retrieval of the IVC filters in 17 patients within an average period of 15.3 days (range 6-45 days). The captured incidence of migrated thrombus in the IVC filters was high in 56% of cases. As a result, PE was effectively prevented by IVC filters during the interventional treatment of DVT in the lower extremities

  5. Prophylactic IVC Filter Placement during Endovascular Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Byung Suk; Cho, Han Il; Lee, Yeum Sik; Bang, Dong Ho; Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Young Hwan [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of an IVC filter implantation in the prevent of a pulmonary embolism (PE) during endovascular treatment for a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. We implanted IVC filters in 43 patients (22 females, 21 males, average age: 63 years) with DVT and who had undergone treatments including thrombolysis, aspiration and mechanical thrombectomy, as well as stent placement. We evaluated the incidence of PE by capturing the thrombus within the IVC filters, as well as the amount of captured thrombus. New developing PE or aggravating of PE in patients with existing PE was avoided in all patients. No thrombus was evident in the IVC filter of 19 (44%) of the patients, whereas any thrombus was captured in 24 (56%) of the patients. Small amounts of thrombus were captured in 10 patients, whereas large amounts of thrombus were captured in 14 patents within the IVC filter. We performed a retrieval of the IVC filters in 17 patients within an average period of 15.3 days (range 6-45 days). The captured incidence of migrated thrombus in the IVC filters was high in 56% of cases. As a result, PE was effectively prevented by IVC filters during the interventional treatment of DVT in the lower extremities.

  6. A case report of life-threatening acute dysphagia in dermatomyositis: Challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jung Soo; Kim, Yeo Hyung

    2018-04-01

    Although dysphagia is a known complication of dermatomyositis, sudden onset of dysphagia without the notable aggravation of other symptoms can make the diagnosis and treatment challenging. A 53-year-old male diagnosed as dermatomyositis 1 month ago came to our emergency department complaining of a sudden inability to swallow solid foods and liquids. The patient showed generalized edema, but the muscle power was not different compared with 1 month ago. Serum creatine kinase level was lower than that measured 2 weeks ago. Computed tomography scan of the larynx, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and brain magnetic resonance imaging were unremarkable. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed inadequate pharyngeal contraction and slightly decreased upper esophageal sphincter opening with silent aspiration. Treatment with oral prednisolone, intravenous methylprednisolone, azathioprine, and intravenous immunoglobulins was applied. During the course of medical treatment for life-threatening dysphagia, he continued with rehabilitative therapy. He could swallow saliva at 2 months and showed normal swallowing function at 3 months from the onset of dysphagia. Dysphagia has not recurred for 3 years after recovery. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to diagnose severe acute dysphagia due to exacerbation of underlying dermatomyositis rather than other structural or neurological causes. Appropriate supportive care is important because dysphagia can be life-threatening and last for a long time.

  7. Related factors of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in patents with Graves' disease after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lian; Lu Keyi; Chen Xia; Zhao Deshan; Liu Jianzhong; Li Sijin; Li Xianfeng; Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analysis the related factors of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy(TAO) in patients with Graves' disease after 131 I treatment. Methods: Five hundred and sixty two patients with Graves' disease were followed up after 131 I treatment, included 243 cases with TAO and 319 cases without TAO. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was used to analyse the data of the improvement of the TAO, stability and progression. Results: Of the patients without TAO, 10 new cases of TAO were diagnosed (3.13%). Of the patients with TAO, 134 (55.14%) had experienced improvement, 99 (40.74%) cases with stable disease and 10 (4.12%) cases with progressed disease. The progression rate were no difference between the part of patients with and without TAO (χ 2 =0.576, P>0.05), and were difference between simple and invasive prominent eyes groups (χ 2 =11.893, P 2 =10.621, P 131 I therapy had no obviously influence between Graves' disease with and without TAO, and early controling the risk factors and treatment with glucocorticoid could prevent aggravation of TAO. (authors)

  8. The diagnosis and treatment of two kinds of pulmonary embolism complications after interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hongying; Xiao Liang; Zhong Hongshan; Xu Ke; Zheng Yanbo; Lu Zaiming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the different types, clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary embolism after interventional therapy in order to promote the diagnosis and treatment for the severe complication. Methods: The cases of pulmonary embolism complications after interventional therapy were collected from three hospitals between 1998 and 2005. The patients were divided into two types of iodized oil and thrombus pulmonary embolism according to the different types of the embolus. The experience of the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment were summarized. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary embolism complication after interventional therapy were collected, including five with thrombus pulmonary embolism and four with iodized oil pulmonary embolism. All 5 cases of the thrombus pulmonary embolism suffered burst dyspnea and apsychia, two died and the others recovered or turned better. Aggravating dyspnea without shock occurred in the five iodized oil pulmonary embolism cases, 1 to 3 days after interventional therapy. The symptoms disappeared 15 to 50 days after combined therapy including majorly oxygen supply therapy. Conclusion: Pulmonary embolism is an emergent and severe complication after interventional therapy including acute thrombus pulmonary embolism without deep vein thrombosis which can be effectively treated be effectively treated with maintaining effective circulation and thrombolysis; and iodized oil pulmonary embolism with slow onsets could disappear within 1 month after combined therapy with mainly oxygen supplying therapy. The diagnosis and antidiastole mainly rely on enhancement of CT scan. (authors)

  9. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  10. Clinical features and surgical treatment of cauda equina schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jun HUANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical features and surgical treatment method of cauda equina schwannoma.Methods Clinical symptoms,imaging characteristics and functional outcomes after surgical treatment of 32 patients with cauda equina schwannoma from June 2007 to March 2009 were retrospectively reviewed.Results Most patients(30 cases suffered lower extremity numbness/pain before operations and 18 of them suffered in both lower extremities.Physical examination showed bilateral nerve damage or unilateral multiple nerve damage in 25 cases.The initial symptom of 12 cases was simple lumbago.Ten cases were misdiagnosed as lumbar disc herniation.Six patients were scanned by computed tomography but none of them was diagnosed correctly.All the patients were definitely diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI,the typical appearance of the schwannoma was a round or ovoid mass with isointense or slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted images,while on T2-weighted images with heterogeneous hyperintense in 25 cases,slightly hyperintense in 2,and homogeneous hyperintense in 5.Gadolinium-enhanced MRI was performed in 13 patients,of whom 10 cases showed heterogeneous or annular enhancing.In all patients,the tumor was resected completely,the functional outcomes were satisfactory except one with a giant tumor,in whom the neurological symptom was aggravated,and no recurrence was found during a short-term follow-up.Conclusions The characteristic features of cauda equina schwannoma were lower extremities numbness/pain and bi-or unilateral polyradiculopathy in physical examination.MRI is helpful for early diagnosis and recommended as the first choice.Functional outcomes are satisfactory in patients with tumor completely resected.

  11. Treatment effect, postoperative complications, and their reasons in juvenile thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing-Yi; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Zhou, Qiang; Luo, Fei; Hou, Tianyong; Zhang, Zehua

    2015-10-01

    Fifty-four juvenile cases under 18 years of age with thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis underwent focus debridement, deformity correction, bone graft fusion, and internal fixation. The treatment effects, complications, and reasons were analyzed retrospectively. There were 54 juvenile cases under 18 years of age with thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis. The average age was 9.2 years old, and the sample comprised 38 males and 16 females. The disease types included 28 thoracic cases, 17 thoracolumbar cases, and 9 lumbar cases. Nerve function was evaluated with the Frankel classification. Thirty-six cases were performed with focus debridement and deformity correction and were supported with allograft or autograft in mesh and fixed with pedicle screws from a posterior approach. Eight cases underwent a combined anterior and posterior surgical approach. Nine cases underwent osteotomy and deformity correction, and one case received focus debridement. The treatment effects, complications, and bone fusions were tracked for an average of 52 months. According to the Frankel classification, paralysis was improved from 3 cases of B, 8 cases of C, 18 cases of D, and 25 cases of E preoperatively. This improvement was found in 3 cases of C, 6 cases of D, and 45 cases of E at a final follow-up postoperatively. No nerve dysfunction was aggravated. VAS was improved from 7.8 ± 1.7 preoperatively to 3.2 ± 2.1 at final follow-up postoperatively. ODI was improved from 77.5 ± 17.3 preoperatively to 28.4 ± 15.9 at final follow-up postoperatively. Kyphosis Cobb angle improved from 62.2° ± 3.7° preoperatively to 37° ± 2.4° at final follow-up postoperatively. Both of these are significant improvements, and all bone grafts were fused. Complications related to the operation occurred in 31.5% (17/54) of cases. Six cases suffered postoperative aggravated kyphosis deformity, eight cases suffered proximal kyphosis deformity, one case suffered pedicle penetration

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  13. Contributions of myofascial pain in diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Calvo Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy and subacromial impingement syndrome present complex patomechanical situations, frequent difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of effectiveness in treatment. Based on clinical experience, we have therefore considered the existence of another pathological entity as the possible origin of pain and dysfunction. The hypothesis of this study is to relate subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, since myofascial trigger points (MTrPs cause pain, functional limitation, lack of coordination and alterations in quality of movement, even prior to a tendinopathy. MTrPs can coexist with any degenerative subacromial condition. If they are not taken into consideration, they could perpetuate and aggravate the problem, hindering diagnosis and making the applied treatments ineffective. The aims and methods of this study are related with providing evidence of the relationship that may exist between this condition and MPS in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff tendonitis and/or SIS. Method/design A descriptive transversal study will be made to find the correlation between the diagnosis of SIS and rotator cuff tendonitis, positive provocation test responses, the existence of active MTrPs and the results obtained with ultrasonography (US and Magnetic Renonance Imaging (MRI. A randomized double blinded clinical trial will be carried out in experimental conditions: A Protocolized treatment based on active and passive joint repositioning, stabilization exercises, stretching of the periarticular shoulder muscles and postural reeducation. B. The previously described protocolized treatment, with the addition of dry needling applied to active MTrPs with the purpose of isolating the efficacy of dry needling in treatment. Discussion This study aims to provide a new vision of shoulder pain, from the perspective of MPS. This syndrome can, by itself, account for shoulder pain and

  14. Negative-pressure in treatment of persistent post-traumatic subcutaneous emphysema with respiratory failure: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Mihanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous emphysema may aggravate traumatic pneumothorax treatment, especially when mechanical ventilation is required. Expectative management usually suffices, but when respiratory function is impaired surgical treatment might be indicated. Historically relevant methods are blowhole incisions and placement of various drains, often with related wound complications. Since the first report of negative pressure wound therapy for the treatment of severe subcutaneous emphysema in 2009, only few publications on use of commercially available sets were published. We report on patient injured in a motor vehicle accident who had serial rib fractures and bilateral pneumothorax managed initially in another hospital. Due to respiratory deterioration, haemodynamic instability and renal failure patient was transferred to our Intensive Care Unit. Massive and persistent subcutaneous emphysema despite adequate thoracic drainage with respiratory deterioration and potentially injurious mechanical ventilation with high airway pressures was the indication for active surgical treatment. Negative-pressure wound therapy dressing was applied on typical blowhole incisions which resulted in swift emphysema regression and respiratory improvement. Negative pressure wound therapy for decompression of severe subcutaneous emphysema represents simple, effective and relatively unknown technique that deserves wider attention.

  15. Cardiac effects of 3 months treatment of acromegaly evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and B-type natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Long-term treatment of acromegaly prevents aggravation and reverses associated heart disease. A previous study has shown a temporary increase in serum levels of the N-terminal fraction of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) suggesting an initial decline in cardiac function when treatment...... of acromegaly is initiated. This was a three months prospective study investigating short-term cardiac effects of treatment in acromegalic patients. Cardiac function was evaluated by the gold standard method cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP......) (95% CI 3-14), P = 0.007) and an increase in levels of BNP (median (ranges) 7 (0.58-286) vs. 20 (1-489) pg/mL, P = 0.033) and of NT-proBNP (63 (20-1004) vs. 80 (20-3391) pg/mL, P = 0.027). Assessed by the highly sensitive and precise CMRI method, 3 months treatment of acromegaly resulted...

  16. Choice of a General Anesthesia Technique in the Surgical Treatment of Postinfarct Left Ventricular Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To choose the optimum technique of general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of patients with postinfarct left ventricular aneurysms (PLVA.Materials and methods. Fifty-four patients operated on for PLVA were examined. They were divided into 4 groups according to the basic technique of general anesthesia: 1 intravenous anesthesia based on propofol and fentanyl; 2 inhalation sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 3 inhalation isoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 4 general anesthesia in combination with epidural blockade. Central hemodynamics was investigated by the thermodilution technique and the perioperative period was also studied.Results and discussion. None of the general anesthesia techniques affected the development of perioperative complications. However, with decreased myocardial reserves, high thoracic epidural anesthesia should be applied with caution as it causes a significant desympathization, which may lead to impairments of the autoregulatory mechanisms of coronary blood flow and aggravate existing contractile disorders. Intravenous and inhalation anesthesia techniques provide a fair hemodynamic stability at all stages of surgical treatment. Inhalation anesthesia has a number of advantages: less cost and the possibility of rapid activation of patients in the early postoperative period.

  17. Epidemiological profile of patients with nephropathy and the difficulties in access to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Maria Monteiro Sampaio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of patients undergoing treatment for renal replacement therapy in dialysis modality, and to identify the difficulties in its realization. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Itapipoca-CE, comprising 35 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. The general data was analyzed descriptively using absolute and percentage frequencies. Results: The epidemiological profile of patients shows a higher frequency of: males (19 - 54.3% aged between 31 and 60 (24 - 68.6%, low education (29 - 82.8%, family incomes of 1 to 2 minimum wages (25 - 71.4%, living in houses of masonry (30 - 85.7% with treated water provided in their homes (17 - 48.6%. The main signs and symptoms that led to seeking medical consultation were: general weakness (21 - 60.0%, nausea (19 - 54.3%, edema (18 - 51.4% and lack of appetite (14 - 40.0%. The features most frequently mentioned by the patients as probable causes to CRF were: association of hypertension with diabetes mellitus (11 - 31.4%, hypertension (9 - 25.7% and glomerulonephritis (5 - 14.3%. Most patients reported difficulty in obtaining medical appointment (25 - 71.4% and scheduling/receiving exams (20 - 57.1%. Conclusion: The epidemiological profile of patients studied is marked by a low socioeconomic status. As aggravating factors to this situation, there was the difficulty in getting appointments, scheduling and performing diagnostic tests, which undermines the treatment.

  18. Treatment of 9 cases of pulmonary atelectasis caused by endobronchial tuberculosis with intraluminal stent implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hongjiang; Li Qiang; Liu Zhongling; Bai Chong; Yao Xiaopeng; Zhao Lijun; Xu Hao; Dong Yuchao; Huang Haidong; Wang Qin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect and safety of intraluminal stent implantation in the treatment of complete airway obstruction with unilateral pulmonary atelectasis caused by endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB). Methods: 9 cases of pulmonary atelectasis caused by EBTB were treated with high- frequency electricity/microwave, balloon dilation and endobronchial stent implantation. At the time of 1 week and 4-6 months after stenting ,the diameters of stenotic segment were measured. Results: All 9 cases with atelectasis of EBTB showed complete re-expansion within 3 days after the stent implantation. The mean diameter of the stenotic segments of 9 EBTB patients increased to 9.17 ± 1.24 mm at 7th day after stent implantation; 3 of 9 EBTB patients occured mild restenosis after implantation of tracheobronchial stents. However, combination therapy of cryotherapy and balloon dilation can effectively prevent the aggravation of restenosis. Conclusion: Comparing with traditional surgical treatment, the intraluminal stent implantation for atelectasis caused by EBTB is a new, effective, safe and microtraumatic method with reliable preservation of pulmonary function. (authors)

  19. Early change of thyroid hormone concentration after 131I treatment in patients with solitary toxic adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirnat, E.; Fidler, V.; Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Hojker, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: In spite of extensive use of 131 I for treatment of hyperthyroidism, the results of early outcome are variable. In our prospective clinical study we tested whether 131 I induced necrosis causing clinical aggravation of hyperthyroidism and increasing the free thyroid hormone concentration in the serum of patients with solitary toxic adenoma not pretreated with antithyroid drugs. Patients and methods: 30 consecutive patients were treated with 925 MBq 131 I. Serum concentration of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT 4 ), free triiodothyronine (fT 3 ), thyroglobulin (Tg), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured before and after application of 131 I. Results: After application of 131 I no clinical worsening was observed. FT 4 and fT 3 concentration did not change significantly within the first five days, whereas both of them significantly decreased after 12 days (p 131 I induced necrosis of thyroid cells was found. Therefore, the application of 131 I may be considered as a safe and effective treatment for patients with hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma. (orig.)

  20. THE RUSSIAN CONSENSUS ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PANCREATITIS: POINTS OF DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Khat'kov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most controversial provisions of the Russian Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis (hereinafter, the Consensus are presented. The debate has been initiated by the Russian Pancreatic Club and performed with the use of the Delphi system, based on interdisciplinary approach with participation of leading gastroenterologists, surgeons and pediatricians. This paper is the first in the series of the Consensus-related publications. Here we discuss the most controversial issues of Chapter 5 "Treatment of acute episodes" and Chapter 8 "Strategies of pain syndrome management". While discussing the conventional recommendation of a period of starvation for patients with clinical symptom of exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, it was noted that for a long time it had been virtually the only way to provide functional rest for the pancreas. However, patients with chronic pancreatitis are frequently in malnutrition, therefore, starving may aggravate nutritional deficit that significantly affects the prognosis; therefore, early nutritional support is indicated. To alleviate functional strain of the pancreas, it is reasonable to use enteral nutrition elemental and semi-elemental formulas. The transition from formulas to conventional nutrition should be accompanied by administration of adequate pancreatin doses. The role of pancreatic enzymes, spasmolytics and proton pump inhibitors in the management of pain syndrome was also controversial.

  1. Suramin-restricted blood volume in the placenta of normal and diabetic rats is normalized by vitamin E treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, P; Eriksson, U J

    2007-01-01

    Previously maternal and fetal alterations resembling human pre-eclampsia were induced in pregnant rats by injections of the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin. These alterations were aggravated by maternal diabetes and partly rectified by vitamin E supplementation. In the present study we evaluated the morphology of placentae and kidneys in this model. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats of two rat strains (U and H) were treated with Suramin or saline, and given standard or vitamin E-enriched food. On gestational day 20 one placenta and the left kidney of the mother were collected for morphological and stereological analysis. In the placental trophospongium Suramin treatment caused cysts, which were further enhanced by maternal diabetes. Vitamin E treatment had no effect on the vacuolization. In the placental labyrinth of the non-diabetic rats Suramin treatment restricted maternal placental blood volume and increased the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. These changes were reversed by vitamin E treatment. Diabetes increased slightly the interface between the circulations in both rat strains. Suramin treatment decreased the interface, and vitamin E further decreased the interface in the diabetic U rats, whereas neither treatment affected the maternal-fetal interface in the diabetic H rats. The kidneys of Suramin-treated and diabetic rats were heavier compared to controls. Suramin treatment and maternal diabetes damaged renal glomeruli to a similar extent. Vitamin E treatment diminished the Suramin- and diabetes-induced glomerular damage in U rats, but not in H rats. The average cell count per glomerulus was decreased by Suramin in the U rats. Vitamin E treatment did not affect cell number per glomerulus in any group. We conclude that Suramin-injected pregnant rats constitute a valid animal model for placental dysfunction and pre-eclampsia, also from the histological perspective. The present work supports the notion that one

  2. Treatment goals and treatment in exercise therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduin, W.M.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study a quantitative description is given of treatment in exercise therapy according to Cesar and according to Mensendieck. Information was gathered from saurvey on exercise therapy in the Netherlands. Characteristics of treatment are described including treatment goals, emphasis of

  3. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient...

  4. Spontaneous Resolution of Chronic Subdural Hematoma : Close Observation as a Treatment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chan; Yoo, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is common condition in neurosurgical field. It is difficult to select the treatment modality between the surgical method and the conservative method when patients have no or mild symptoms. The purpose of this study is to provide a suggestion that the patients could be cured with conservative treatment modality. Methods We enrolled 16 patients who had received conservative treatment for cSDH without special medications which could affect hematoma resolution such as mannitol, steroids, tranexamic acid and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The patients were classified according to the Markwalder's Grading Scale. Results Among these 16 patients, 13 (81.3%) patients showed spontaneously resolved cSDH and 3 (18.7%) patients received surgery due to symptom aggravation and growing hematoma. They were categorized into two groups based on whether they were cured with conservative treatment or not. The first group was the spontaneous resolution group. The second group was the progression-surgery group. The mean hematoma volume in the spontaneous resolution group was 43.1 mL. The mean degree of midline shift in the spontaneous resolution group was 5.3 mm. The mean hematoma volume in the progression-surgery group was 62.0 mL. The mean degree of midline shift in the second group was 6 mm. Conclusion We suggest that the treatment modality should be determined according to the patient's symptoms and clinical condition and close observation could be performed in patients who do not have any symptoms or in patients who have mild to moderate headache without neurological deterioration. PMID:27847578

  5. Efficacy of manual therapy treatments for people with cervicogenic dizziness and pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Susan A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition characterised by postural unsteadiness that is aggravated by cervical spine movements and associated with a painful and/or stiff neck. Two manual therapy treatments (Mulligan’s Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs and Maitland’s passive joint mobilisations are used by physiotherapists to treat this condition but there is little evidence from randomised controlled trials to support their use. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomised controlled trial to compare these two forms of manual therapy (Mulligan glides and Maitland mobilisations to each other and to a placebo in reducing symptoms of cervicogenic dizziness in the longer term and to conduct an economic evaluation of the interventions. Methods Participants with symptoms of dizziness described as imbalance, together with a painful and/or stiff neck will be recruited via media releases, advertisements and mail-outs to medical practitioners in the Hunter region of NSW, Australia. Potential participants will be screened by a physiotherapist and a neurologist to rule out other causes of their dizziness. Once diagnosed with cervciogenic dizziness, 90 participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Maitland mobilisations plus range-of-motion exercises, Mulligan SNAGs plus self-SNAG exercises or placebo. Participants will receive two to six treatments over six weeks. The trial will have unblinded treatment but blinded outcome assessments. Assessments will occur at baseline, post-treatment, six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months post treatment. The primary outcome will be intensity of dizziness. Other outcome measures will be frequency of dizziness, disability, intensity of cervical pain, cervical range of motion, balance, head repositioning, adverse effects and treatment satisfaction. Economic outcomes will also be collected. Discussion This paper describes the methods for a randomised

  6. Ankle Sprain Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Ankle Sprain Treatment Page Content Article Body Acute ankle and ... Pediatrics summarizing the treatment phases of rehabilitation for ankle sprain. Phase Summary Description I Phase I treatment involves ...

  7. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  8. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management After Cancer Treatment After Cancer Treatment Share Print From the day you were diagnosed ... of the questions you may have after your cancer treatment ends. Path to well being Will I need ...

  9. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  10. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  11. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  13. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  14. Role of chemotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer: evolving strategies for non-small cell histologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggia, F.M. (NYU Medical Center, New York); Blum, R.H.; Foreman, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Lung cancer treatment has been considered to have made little progress except for advances in small cell carcinoma. For other histologies an attitude of nihilism has prevailed principally because of lack of effective systemic therapy and of no persuasive evidence that results could be improved by combined modality treatment. On the other hand, favorable results from surgery are confined to a small percent of all patients with this disease. This review emphasizes possibilities for progress in evolving new therapeutic strategies. Although improvement over other systemic therapies is modest, cisplatin-containing regimens yield more consistent response rates and apparent survival advantage relative to single agents. Immediate progression occurs in the minority of patients. In addition, regimens combining cisplatin with vinca alkaloids have no substantial deleterious effects on the lung, marrow or esophagus to aggravate radiation-induced complications. These features encourage the evolution of strategies which begin with chemotherapy and then use consolidation with radiation therapy. Clinical trials using these and newer strategies must be instituted if progress is to occur in the treatment of non-small cell histologies at all stages.

  15. Role of chemotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer: evolving strategies for non-small cell histologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggia, F.M.; Blum, R.H.; Foreman, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Lung cancer treatment has been considered to have made little progress except for advances in small cell carcinoma. For other histologies an attitude of nihilism has prevailed principally because of lack of effective systemic therapy and of no persuasive evidence that results could be improved by combined modality treatment. On the other hand, favorable results from surgery are confined to a small percent of all patients with this disease. This review emphasizes possibilities for progress in evolving new therapeutic strategies. Although improvement over other systemic therapies is modest, cisplatin-containing regimens yield more consistent response rates and apparent survival advantage relative to single agents. Immediate progression occurs in the minority of patients. In addition, regimens combining cisplatin with vinca alkaloids have no substantial deleterious effects on the lung, marrow or esophagus to aggravate radiation-induced complications. These features encourage the evolution of strategies which begin with chemotherapy and then use consolidation with radiation therapy. Clinical trials using these and newer strategies must be instituted if progress is to occur in the treatment of non-small cell histologies at all stages

  16. Effect of Chronic Pioglitazone Treatment on Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in Obese C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Jia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone, a selective ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, is an insulin sensitizer drug that is being used in a number of insulin-resistant conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, there is a discrepancy between preclinical and clinical data in the literature and the benefits of pioglitazone treatment as well as the precise mechanism of action remain unclear. In the present study, we determined the effect of chronic pioglitazone treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in diet-induced obesity (DIO C57BL/6J mice in order to understand the mechanisms of NAFLD induced by PPARγ agonists. DIO mice were treated with pioglitazone (25 mg/kg/day for 38 days, the gene expression profile in liver was evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. Pioglitazone treatment resulted in exacerbated hepatic steatosis and increased hepatic triglyceride and free fatty acids concentrations, though significantly increased the glucose infusion rate in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. The differentially expressed genes in liver of pioglitazone treated vs. untreated mice include 260 upregulated and 86 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology based enrichment analysis suggests that inflammation response is transcriptionally downregulated, while lipid metabolism is transcriptionally upregulated. This may underlie the observed aggravating liver steatosis and ameliorated systemic insulin resistance in DIO mice.

  17. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  18. Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi E; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy. A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups. Human gait analysis laboratory. Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method. Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed. Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.

  19. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  20. Impact of depression on treatment effectiveness and gains maintenance in social phobia: a naturalistic study of cognitive behavior group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Sofi; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Aderka, Idan M; Weizman, Abraham; Hermesh, Haggai

    2009-01-01

    The impact of depression on cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social phobia (SP) in a naturalistic outpatient setting was examined after treatment termination and at 1-year follow-up. Consecutive SP outpatients (N=219) were diagnosed using a structured interview. CBGT was provided in 18 1.5-hr weekly sessions. At pretreatment and posttreatment questionnaires and clinician ratings were administered. Self-report measures were obtained at 1-year follow-up. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. CBGT was found to be effective in reducing both social anxiety (effect size=1.23) as well as depression (effect size=0.94). Individuals with generalized social phobia (GSP) and individuals with specific social phobia (SSP) differed in their presenting psychopathology and in their response to CBGT. Among treatment completers, 44% GSPs and 37% SSPs achieved at least 50% improvement, and 44% GSPs and 87% SSPs reported distress and functioning within the normal range at the end of treatment. Among SPs diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) at the onset of treatment, SP symptoms aggravated during the follow-up period, whereas SPs not diagnosed with MDD experienced a further alleviation of SP symptoms during follow-up. CBGT provided in a public clinic to non-selected, mostly unmedicated and comorbid patients, is an effective treatment for the majority of SP sufferers. MDD at the onset of CBGT was not associated with poorer treatment response, but predicted exacerbation of SP symptoms following treatment termination. Depressed SPs may need additional intervention to maintain CBGT gains. SSPs may benefit from less intensive CBGT than GSPs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Damkier, P; Lublin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  2. Teaching Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Describes approach to teaching treatment planning that author has used successfully in both seminars and graduate courses. Clarifies nature and importance of systematic treatment planning, then describes context in which treatment planning seems more effectively taught, and concludes with step-by-step plan for teaching treatment planning.…

  3. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl-Andersen, B.; Prahl, C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary

  4. The systemic immune response to trauma: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janet M; Midwinter, Mark J; Chen, Yen-Fu; Belli, Antonio; Brohi, Karim; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Koenderman, Leo; Kubes, Paul; Lilford, Richard J

    2014-10-18

    Improvements in the control of haemorrhage after trauma have resulted in the survival of many people who would otherwise have died from the initial loss of blood. However, the danger is not over once bleeding has been arrested and blood pressure restored. Two-thirds of patients who die following major trauma now do so as a result of causes other than exsanguination. Trauma evokes a systemic reaction that includes an acute, non-specific, immune response associated, paradoxically, with reduced resistance to infection. The result is damage to multiple organs caused by the initial cascade of inflammation aggravated by subsequent sepsis to which the body has become susceptible. This Series examines the biological mechanisms and clinical implications of the cascade of events caused by large-scale trauma that leads to multiorgan failure and death, despite the stemming of blood loss. Furthermore, the stark and robust epidemiological finding--namely, that age has a profound influence on the chances of surviving trauma irrespective of the nature and severity of the injury--will be explored. Advances in our understanding of the inflammatory response to trauma, the impact of ageing on this response, and how this information has led to new and emerging treatments aimed at combating immune dysregulation and reduced immunity after injury will also be discussed.

  5. Treatment Result of Postoperative Radiotherapy of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyo Pyo; Shin, Myon Woo; Kim, Jung Soo

    1985-01-01

    The early carcinoma of the uterine cervix may be treated by either radical surgery or radical radiotherapy according to the patient characteristics, and the survival is high with either treatment. But, because of the size of the lesion, metastasis to lymph nodes, and vascular space invasion by tumor have all been shown to influence recurrence and survival, postoperative radiotherapy may be considered as their histopathologic finding after radical surgery. However, there are still debates on the increasing survival rates with postoperative radiotherapy. Two hundreds and three patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix who were treated with postoperative radiotherapy from February 1979 to September 1982 in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University were analyzed and following results were obtained. 3-year actuarial survival rate and 3-year disease free survival rate were 83.4% and 73.4% respectively and 3-year actuarial survival rates by stages were 90.7% for I B, 69.6% for II A, and 85.2% for II b. The overall acute complication rate was 57.6%; tolerable cases was 50.2% and severe cases was 7.4%, Late complication rate was 7.9% and the major late complication were intestinal obstruction, aggravated urinary symptom, radiation cystitis in ORDER of frequency

  6. Novel low fluence combination laser treatment of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wei Cheng Anthony Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement. Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians′ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin.

  7. [Surgical treatment of varices at the stage of trophic disorders in chronic venous insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludin, A; Ammann, J

    1991-01-01

    Most ulcers of the lower limbs are caused by existing chronic venous insufficiency. Later on, true social and professional problems will arise, with serious economic and psychological consequences not only for the patient himself, but for the community as well, such as huge medical costs--hence the importance of prevention and treatment, which must in no case be purely symptomatic. The ligation of the arch and of the perforating veins and stripping of the affected vein are part of the classical management of varices. These procedures can may prove to be virtually impossible in case of chronic venous insufficiency, if the patient also presents with subcutaneous liposclerosis or atrophy in an already pregangrenous skin. This preulcerous stage can be aggravated later on if the requirements for surgical repair are not met. Necrosis can then occur, if too aggressive surgery directly or indirectly injures the microcirculatory system of the damaged skin. Omitted or undesirable acts are dangerous at the stage of trophic disorders and surgery may fail to reach its aim, which of course would be to definitively and quickly eliminate the varicose disease.

  8. Diagnostic challenges and treatment difficulties in a patient with excoriated acne conglobata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona R. Georgescu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne conglobata is a rare and severe form of acne vulgaris, characterized by the presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and sometimes hematic or meliceric crusts. Acne excoriée is a form of self-inflicted skin condition in which the patient picks on imaginary or real acne lesions. We report the case of a 16 year old Caucasian female patient from the urban area who addressed our dermatology department for erythematous, edematous plaques covered by pustules and crusts, located on the face. The anamnesis revealed that during the last weeks she had had a depressive mood after ending a relationship with her boyfriend and started scratching and picking on the lesions. The patient's depressive mood prior to the worsening of the disease was probably aggravated by the condition. This might have determined the picking of the skin which could have impeded the response to standard treatment. The selfexcoriative behavior could also be regarded as an appeal for help.

  9. Analysis of the brain tissues from a patient with Alzheimer's disease and effects of chelating treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.; Fujisawa, S.; Takada, K.; Yoshida, K.; Murayama, H.; Shin, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease and ALS are among major neurodegenerative diseases. The cause of neurodegeneration is unknown, but there are indications that excessive accumulation of essential elements, and sometimes, incorporation of toxic foreign elements in neurons aggravate neurodegeneration. During the past decade, many researchers investigated the causative factors in degenerative diseases to specify genetic or environmental factor. PIXE analysis has been used for these studies because of the sample preparation is easy and detection limit is very low. However, the concentration of matrix elements and foreign elements are extremely low and difficult to detect and to quantify. In this study, specimens from patients with Alzheimer's disease with no chemical treatment, and those with chelating were analyzed. In all analyzed specimens, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Vi, Cr, Fe and Cu were detected. Each specimen in this study consisted of cerebral cortex and substantia alba. From these experiments we can observe a clear tendency that the accumulation of the metal elements use different depending on the constituent tissues, and the method of sample preparation has a dominant role in the measurement results. (author)

  10. Current Understanding of Molecular Pathology and Treatment of Cardiomyopathy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirsa L. E. van Westering

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a genetic muscle disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene resulting in the loss of the protein dystrophin. Patients do not only experience skeletal muscle degeneration, but also develop severe cardiomyopathy by their second decade, one of the main causes of death. The absence of dystrophin in the heart renders cardiomyocytes more sensitive to stretch-induced damage. Moreover, it pathologically alters intracellular calcium (Ca2+ concentration, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS localization and mitochondrial function and leads to inflammation and necrosis, all contributing to the development of cardiomyopathy. Current therapies only treat symptoms and therefore the need for targeting the genetic defect is immense. Several preclinical therapies are undergoing development, including utrophin up-regulation, stop codon read-through therapy, viral gene therapy, cell-based therapy and exon skipping. Some of these therapies are undergoing clinical trials, but these have predominantly focused on skeletal muscle correction. However, improving skeletal muscle function without addressing cardiac aspects of the disease may aggravate cardiomyopathy and therefore it is essential that preclinical and clinical focus include improving heart function. This review consolidates what is known regarding molecular pathology of the DMD heart, specifically focusing on intracellular Ca2+, nNOS and mitochondrial dysregulation. It briefly discusses the current treatment options and then elaborates on the preclinical therapeutic approaches currently under development to restore dystrophin thereby improving pathology, with a focus on the heart.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-traumatic syringomyelia and its surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nunomura, Mitsuru; Akino, Minoru; Koyanagi, Izumi; Abe, Hiroshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine; Saito, Hisatoshi

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of post-traumatic syringomyelia and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment. The subjects were 16 patients (13 men and 3 women) whose ages ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 42 years. Nine patients had delayed neurologic symptoms 2 years and 2 months through 32 years after spinal injuries. The site of initial spinal cord injury was the lower cervical region in 4 patients, the thoracic region in 8, and the upper lumbar region in 4. In all patients, post-traumatic syringomyelia was easy to diagnose on MRI. MRI showed the syrinx extending superiorly and/or inferiorly from the area of old trauma, sometimes extending to the medulla oblongata. In the cervical cord and the upper thoracic cord, the syrinx was unilaterally or bilaterally situated in the postero-lateral portion. Below the middle thoracic cord, the syrinx was centrally located. Surgery was performed in 6 patients. At an average follow up of 2 years and 9 months, both pain and numbness were relieved in all patients (100%) and neurologic symptoms improved in 5 patients (83%). Post-traumatic syringomyelia should be considered in all patients having delayed onset or aggravation of neurologic symptoms after spinal injury. MRI appears promising for the early diagnosis of post-traumatic syringomyelia that can be treated favorably by surgical procedures. (N.K.).

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-traumatic syringomyelia and its surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nunomura, Mitsuru; Akino, Minoru; Koyanagi, Izumi; Abe, Hiroshi; Saito, Hisatoshi.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of post-traumatic syringomyelia and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment. The subjects were 16 patients (13 men and 3 women) whose ages ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 42 years. Nine patients had delayed neurologic symptoms 2 years and 2 months through 32 years after spinal injuries. The site of initial spinal cord injury was the lower cervical region in 4 patients, the thoracic region in 8, and the upper lumbar region in 4. In all patients, post-traumatic syringomyelia was easy to diagnose on MRI. MRI showed the syrinx extending superiorly and/or inferiorly from the area of old trauma, sometimes extending to the medulla oblongata. In the cervical cord and the upper thoracic cord, the syrinx was unilaterally or bilaterally situated in the postero-lateral portion. Below the middle thoracic cord, the syrinx was centrally located. Surgery was performed in 6 patients. At an average follow up of 2 years and 9 months, both pain and numbness were relieved in all patients (100%) and neurologic symptoms improved in 5 patients (83%). Post-traumatic syringomyelia should be considered in all patients having delayed onset or aggravation of neurologic symptoms after spinal injury. MRI appears promising for the early diagnosis of post-traumatic syringomyelia that can be treated favorably by surgical procedures. (N.K.)

  13. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  14. Treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms with willis covered stents: a midterm follow-up result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wu; Li Minghua; Li Yongdong; Gu Binxian; Fang Chun; Tan Huaqiao; Wang Ju; Zhang Peilei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and mid-term follow-up results of endovascular treatment with Willis covered stent for traumatic pseudoaneurysms located in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods: ICA angiography was performed in 38 patients with traumatic brain and neck injury. Of the 38 patients, 13 delayed traumatic pseudoaneurysms were found. All the pseudoaneurysms were treated with Willis covered stents. Follow-up angiography was performed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure, and the results were categorized as complete or incomplete occlusion. Clinical manifestations were graded as full recovery, improvement, unchanged and aggravation. Results: Willis covered stent placement was technically successful in all traumatic pseudoaneurysms. No procedure-related complications occurred. The initial angiographic results showed a complete occlusion in 9 patients, and an incomplete occlusion in 4. The angiographic follow-up within 3-12 months exhibited a complete occlusion in 12 patients and the parent arteries remained patency in all patients. The clinical follow-up observation demonstrated that full recovery was obtained in 11 patients, clinical improvement in one, and unchanged condition in one. No morbidity or mortality occurred. Conclusion: Willis covered stent implantation is a feasible and practical treatment for traumatic pseudoaneurysms located in the ICA. This technique can well preserve the parent artery with excellent therapeutic results. (authors)

  15. Successful treatment of thyroid storm presenting as recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiorgan failure by continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare and potentially life-threatening medical emergency. We experienced a case of thyroid storm associated with sepsis caused by pneumonia, which had a catastrophic course including recurrent cardiac arrest and subsequent multiple organ failure (MOF. A 22-year-old female patient with a 10-year history of Graves’ disease was transferred to our emergency department (ED. She had a cardiac arrest at her home and a second cardiac arrest at the ED. Her heart recovered after 20 min of cardiac resuscitation. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm associated with hyperthyroidism complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. Although full conventional medical treatment was given, she had progressive MOF and hemodynamic instability consisting of hyperthermia, tachycardia and hypotension. Because of hepatic and renal failure with refractory hypotension, we reduced the patient’s dose of beta-blocker and antithyroid drug, and she was started on continuous veno-venous renal replacement therapy (CRRT with intravenous albumin and plasma supplementation. Subsequently, her body temperature and pulse rate began to stabilize within 1 h, and her blood pressure reached 120/60 mmHg after 6 h. We discontinued antithyroid drug 3 days after admission because of aggravated hyperbilirubinemia. The patient exhibited progressive improvement in thyroid function even after cessation of antithyroid drug, and she successfully recovered from thyroid storm and MOF. This is the first case of thyroid storm successfully treated by CRRT in a patient considered unfit for antithyroid drug treatment.

  16. Intracranial structural alteration predicts treatment outcome in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hanna; Lee, Mi Ji; Choi, Hyun Ah; Cha, Jihoon; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2018-02-01

    Background Intracranial structural dislocation in spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) can be measured by various intracranial angles and distances. We aimed to identify the clinical significance of structural dislocation in relation to treatment outcome in patients with SIH. Methods In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with SIH who received an epidural blood patch (EBP) at Samsung Medical Center from January 2005 to March 2015. Structural dislocation in pretreatment MRIs of SIH patients was assessed by measuring tonsillar herniation, mamillopontine distance, the angle between the vein of Galen and straight sinus (vG/SS angle), the pontomesencephalic angle, and the lateral ventricular angle. After the first EBP, poor response was defined as the persistence of symptoms that prompted a repeat EBP. Results Out of the 95 patients included, 31 (32.6%) showed poor response. Among the radiological markers of structural dislocation, the vG/SS angle was associated with poor response (49.82 ± 16.40° vs 66.58 ± 26.08°, p = 0.002). Among clinical variables, premorbid migraine ( p = 0.036) was related to poor response. In multivariate analysis, reduced vG/SS angle was independently associated with poor response (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01 - 1.07] per 1° decrease, p = 0.006). In 23 patients who underwent MRI after successful treatment, the vG/SS angle significantly increased after the EBP ( p < 0.001, by paired t-test), while two patients with aggravation or recurrence showed a further reduction of their vG/SS angles. Conclusions Intracranial structural dislocation, measured by the vG/SS angle, is associated with poor response to the first EBP in patients with SIH. Successful treatment can reverse the structural dislocation.

  17. Treatment of negative symptoms: Where do we stand, and where do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, André; Lincoln, Tania M; Bruggeman, Richard; Melle, Ingrid; Arends, Johan; Arango, Celso; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2017-08-01

    Negative symptoms, e.g. social withdrawal, reduced initiative, anhedonia and affective flattening, are notoriously difficult to treat. In this review, we take stock of recent research into treatment of negative symptoms by summarizing psychosocial as well as pharmacological and other biological treatment strategies. Major psychosocial approaches concern social skills training, cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis, cognitive remediation and family intervention. Some positive findings have been reported, with the most robust improvements observed for social skills training. Although cognitive behavior therapy shows significant effects for negative symptoms as a secondary outcome measure, there is a lack of data to allow for definite conclusions of its effectiveness for patients with predominant negative symptoms. With regard to pharmacological interventions, antipsychotics have been shown to improve negative symptoms, but this seems to be limited to secondary negative symptoms in acute patients. It has also been suggested that antipsychotics may aggravate negative symptoms. Recent studies have investigated glutamatergic compounds, e.g. glycine receptor inhibitors and drugs that target the NMDA receptor or metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor, but no consistent evidence of improvement of negative symptoms was found. Finally, some small studies have suggested improvement of negative symptoms after non-invasive electromagnetic neurostimulation, but this has only been partly replicated and it is still unclear whether these are robust improvements. We address methodological issues, in particular the heterogeneity of negative symptoms and treatment response, and suggest avenues for future research. There is a need for more detailed studies that focus on different dimensions of negative symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb El-Sayed MI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords

  19. [Treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria unresponsive to type 1 antihistamines in monotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, C

    2003-05-01

    The chronic idiopathic urticaria treatment is a difficult and often frustrating problem for physicians. Due to the lack of definitive medical therapeutic programs to relieve the symptoms and prevent from their recurrence, several pharmacologic approaches to the management of chronic idiopathic urticaria are proposed. The chronic urticaria pharmacologic therapy is therefore fit to abrogate effects of histamine and other mediators on cutaneous vasculature and inflammatory cells that participate in the pathogenesis of the urticaria. The most common approach is to avoid all aggravating factors and to block histamine. The mainstay therapy is the H1 antihistamines. A significant number of patients may remain unresponsive even after an increase in the dose or a change in the type of H1 antihistaminic drug. In these cases, several therapies can be associated: combinations of H1 antihistamines, nonsedating one tablet (morning) and one sedating (evening), this approach is very usual but no study has confirmed it rational; addition an H2 antagonist to the previous treatment for some patients may improve control of their symptoms; alternatively, the tricyclic antidepressant, Doxepin is usually prescribed. The results of other drugs reported in the literature is unpredictable, to include them in a strategy therapy. The results with Badrenergic agents, nifedipine, ketotifen, leukotriene antagonists and tranexamic acid are variable and don't appear better than those with H1 antagonists. The efficiency of danazol has to be confirmed by other controlled studies. Warfarin, sulfasalazine and ultraviolet radiation have been used apparently successfully, but no controlled study has been published. Only when the above treatments have failed then immunosuppresive therapies, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis can be proposed for chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  20. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-05

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  1. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  2. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  5. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  6. Research Areas: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  8. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  9. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  11. Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  13. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment for information on diagnosis , staging , and treatment. Polycythemia Vera Key Points Polycythemia vera is a disease ... blood tests are used to diagnose polycythemia vera. Polycythemia vera is a disease in which too many ...

  14. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ...

  17. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  18. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD ... can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy can also help ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Support AACAP Medical Students and Residents Toggle Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Medical Student ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  1. Antimicrobial Treatments and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To limit exposure to indoor biological contamination a risk-management approach which employs various antimicrobial treatments can effectively control contaminants and reduce exposure. Antimicrobial treatment of biological contaminants, especially mold in buildings, it is often n...

  2. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  3. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Demand Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Pathways ... Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  6. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ...

  8. Inventtional treatment of varicocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Varicocele is a dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexus and manifests as mass-effect, pain, testicular atrophy, or male infertility. Traditionally, surgical treatment has been the mainstay of treatment of varicocele, while interventional treatment, which is endovascular embolization of the testicular vein, has been gaining popularity recently. In this review, diagnosis of the disease, indications and procedure details of interventional treatment, results, and complications are discussed.

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ... Connect ...

  10. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  11. [Strongyloidosis. Part IX. Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroczan, Wiesław

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of chronic and massive (uncomplicated) and severe (complicated) disseminated strongyloidosis, was presented from the historical point of view. The sequence of achievements in regard of treatment of the gentian violet, dithiazine iodide, benzimidazoles (thiabendazole, mebendazole, albendazole, cambendazole), ivermectin and cyclosporin A, was described. The recommendations for treatment of strongyloidosis are also given.

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and ... and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include ...

  13. Treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronetskij, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of thyroid cancer, producing direct influence on selection of treatment procedure are enumerated. It is shown that surgical treatment is the determining way of treatment, which is supplemented with hormonotherapy in case of differentiated forms of the tumor. In case of anaplasia cancer, sarcomas, propagation of tumor beyond the limits of the organ, inoperable processes, treatment of recurrences and functional inactivity of bone metastases the remote control gamma-therapy should be performed. Therapy by radioactive iodine is shown for the treatment of remote iodine-concentrating metastases for devitalization of residual thyroid tissue after thyroidectomy

  14. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  16. Relationship between aldosterone and the metabolic syndrome in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Barceló

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS occurs frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS. We hypothesized that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS and associated with the presence of MS. METHODS: We studied 66 patients with OSAHS (33 with MS and 33 without MS and 35 controls. The occurrence of the MS was analyzed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III clinical criteria. Measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA, aldosterone, aldosterone:PRA ratio, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were obtained at baseline and after CPAP treatment. RESULTS: Aldosterone levels were associated with the severity of OSAHS and higher than controls (p = 0.046. Significant differences in aldosterone levels were detected between OSAHS patients with and without MS (p = 0.041. A significant reduction was observed in the aldosterone levels in patients under CPAP treatment (p = 0.012. CONCLUSION: This study shows that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS in comparison to controls, and that CPAP therapy reduces aldosterone levels. It also shows that aldosterone levels are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, suggesting that aldosterone excess might predispose or aggravate the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of OSAHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is not a randomized controlled trial and was not registered.

  17. The comparison of an inexpensive-modified transobturator vaginal tape versus TVT-O procedure for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Min; Tong, Xiao-Wen; Fan, Bo-Zhen; Li, Huai-Fang; Chen, Xin-Liang

    2011-09-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of an inexpensive-modified transobturator vaginal tape procedure with the transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) procedure for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Patients with SUI were randomly allocated to either the test group receiving the inexpensive-modified transobturator vaginal tape procedure or the control group receiving the GYNECARE TVT-O procedure. Treatment outcomes and Quality-of-life scores were recorded and analyzed between two groups. A total of 156 patients were enrolled in this trial. Eighty patients underwent the modified transobturator vaginal tape procedure. Among them 75(93.8%) were cured and 5(6.2%) were improved. The rest of the 76 patients underwent the GYNECARE TVT-O procedure with a 92% (70 of 76) cure rate and an 8% (6 of 76) improvement rate. No inefficient or aggravated cases occurred in both groups. The success rates between groups had no significant statistic difference (p > 0.05). The operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, and medical cost were significantly lower in the test group (p < 0.01); the increases in Quality-of-life scores were comparable between groups. The modified transobturator vaginal tape procedure is an efficacious and economic surgical treatment for female SUI. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Treatment of Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies represent the most severe epilepsies, with onset in infancy and childhood and seizures continuing in adulthood in most cases. New genetic causes are being identified at a rapid rate. Treatment is challenging and the overall outcome remains poor. Available targeted treatments, based on the precision medicine approach, are currently few. To provide an overview of the treatment of epileptic encephalopathies with known genetic determinants, including established treatment, anecdotal reports of specific treatment, and potential tailored precision medicine strategies. Genes known to be associated to epileptic encephalopathy were selected. Genes where the association was uncertain or with no reports of details on treatment, were not included. Although some of the genes included are associated with multiple epilepsy phenotypes or other organ involvement, we have mainly focused on the epileptic encephalopathies and their antiepileptic treatments. Most epileptic encephalopathies show genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The treatment of seizures is difficult in most cases. The available evidence may provide some guidance for treatment: for example, ACTH seems to be effective in controlling infantile spams in a number of genetic epileptic encephalopathies. There are potentially effective tailored precision medicine strategies available for some of the encephalopathies, and therapies with currently unexplained effectiveness in others. Understanding the effect of the mutation is crucial for targeted treatment. There is a broad range of disease mechanisms underlying epileptic encephalopathies, and this makes the application of targeted treatments challenging. However, there is evidence that tailored treatment could significantly improve epilepsy treatment and prognosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Demographic Characteristics and Medical Service Use of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Patients at an Integrated Treatment Hospital Focusing on Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Retrospective Review of Electronic Medical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Seung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the patient demographics and nonsurgical complementary and alternative medicine treatment used at a Korean medicine hospital for low back pain (LBP and/or sciatica after surgery. Methods. Medical records of patients who visited a spine-specialized Korean medicine hospital at 2 separate sites for continuous or recurrent LBP or sciatica following back surgery were reviewed. The demographics, MRI and/or CT scans, and treatments were assessed. Results. Of the total 707 patients, 62% were male and the average age was 50.20 years. Ninety percent of patients presented with LBP and 67% with sciatica. Eighty-four percent were diagnosed with herniated nucleus pulposus at time of surgery. Of these patients, 70% had pain recurrence 6 months or later, but 19% experienced no relief or immediate aggravation of pain after surgery. Many patients selected traditional Korean medicine treatment as primary means of postsurgery care (47%. When time to pain recurrence was short or pain persisted after surgery, return of symptoms at the same disc level and side was frequent. Conclusion. An integrative treatment model focusing on Korean medicine and used in conjunction with radiological diagnostics and conventional medicine is currently used as a treatment option for patients with pain after lumbar spine surgery.

  20. On radiation damage to normal tissues and its treatment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to transiently inhibiting cell cycle progression and sterilizing those cells capable of proliferation, irradiation disturbs the homeostasis effected by endogenous mediators of intercellular communication (humoral component of tissue response to radiation). Changes in the mediator levels may modulate radiation effects either by a assisting a return to normality (e.g., through a rise in H-type cell lineage-specific growth factors) or by aggravating the damage. The latter mode is illustrated with reports on changes in eicosanoid levels after irradiation and on results of empirical treatment of radiation injuries with anti-inflammatory drugs. Prodromal, acute and chronic effects of radiation are accompanied by excessive production of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxanes and leukotrienes). These endogenous mediators of inflammatory reactions may be responsible for the vasodilatation, vasoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, thrombosis and chemotaxis observed after radiation exposure. Glucocorticoids inhibit eicosanoid synthesis primarily by interfering with phospholipase A 2 whilst non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent prostaglandin/thromboxane synthesis by inhibiting cycloxygenase. When administered after irradiation on empirical grounds, drugs belonging to both groups tend to attenuate a range of prodomal, acute and chronic effects of radiation in man and animals. Taken together, these two sets of observations are highly suggestive of a contribution of humoral factors to the adverse responses of normal tissues and organs to radiation. A full account of radiation damage should therefore consist of complementary descriptions of cellular and humoral events. Further studies on anti-inflammatory drug treatment of radiation damage to normal organs are justified and desirable. (orig.)

  1. New insight into the pathogenesis of nail psoriasis and overview of treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Ventura,1 Mauro Mazzeo,1 Roberta Gaziano,2 Marco Galluzzo,1 Luca Bianchi,1 Elena Campione1 1Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Rome, Italy Abstract: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting up to 3% of the general population. The prevalence of nail involvement in psoriasis patients varies between 15% and 79%. While the nails represent a small portion of the body surface area, psoriasis in these areas can have a disproportionate influence on a patient’s physical and psychosocial activities. Differential diagnosis between an onychomycosis and a psoriatic nail could be challenging; nevertheless, coexistence of onychomycosis and nail psoriasis also occurs and both are common disorders in the general population. Nail psoriasis can be difficult to treat. Treatment of nail psoriasis should consider the body surface area of skin disease, psoriatic arthritis, severity of nail disease, and the impairment in the quality of life. All patients should be tested for onychomycosis before starting a therapy. This recommendation is underlined by the fact that nail psoriasis is mostly treated by immunosuppressive drugs, like steroids, methotrexate, or biologics, which may aggravate mycotic nail infections. Conventional systemic therapy, such as use of steroids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and retinoid in the long term, can cause organ toxicities. Currently, use of apremilast and tofacitinib favors an early healing of nail psoriasis because they act directly on the pathogenic targets, distressing the inflammatory signals associated with the initiation and maintenance of the disease activity, and as with several conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, they are characterized by the convenience of oral administration. The number of treatment options has increased considerably in recent years; however, given the heterogeneity of

  2. [Risk behaviour in association with addictive drugs - data and insights on treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J

    2004-02-01

    About one third of the economical costs, which are due to death, sickness and life quality deficits in higher developed industrial countries, are caused by pollutants such as nicotine, alcohol and false eating habits. Within a period of one year 183,000 people in Germany die on tobacco associated sickness effects, 73,000 on direct or indirect aftermath of alcohol usage and a proportional amount of mostly adipoptic people on the hereoff resulting sickness effects. These risk trias, decided by every person mainly for himself by his own behaviour or mis-behaviour, are even aggravated by the free enterprise sanctioned drug politics of the highly profitable mega markets of the tobacco-, alcohol- and fast-food-industry. Health orientated drug politic, which is based on independence and solidarity and an exhaustive primary prevention within the scope of early nationalization authorities can therefore only have a limited effect. Even though, standardized, therapeutic short interventions used by hazardous alcohol- and drug usage, the qualified detoxification on addiction illness and an way to little used meanwhile time- and cost optimized withdrawal treatment have been proven to be quite effective. Exhaustive established ambulant smoking-withdrawal treatment programs are of special importance, because with continuously sinking of first contact, nicotine is know to be the "gate way drug" with the strongest addiction potential among all legalized and non-legalized drugs. In canon of mean while worldwide (except for Germany) started drug-control politics one will be able to start a health orientated drug politic in the future, which is including especially the drug economic aspects for the benefit of all as well as for the national budgets.

  3. Treatment of Functional Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood constipation is ofton a long_term problem requiring treatment over months or years. There is no single treatment metod for constipation and many children do not respond and continue to have chronic problems. Treatment is consisted of: Disimpaction,Drug adminstration , Diet modilation, and behaverial therapy. It is necessary in all cases that not responding to conventional therapy, un diagnosed organic causes, non proper drug, short course therapy, behaverial disorder and withholding should be considered. Internal anal achalasia, Neural tube defect, Neurointestinal dysplasia. and food allergy are the most important predisposing factors in treatment failer . PEG is drug of choice for treatment and therapy must be continued for several months or years. Psycologic consulting should be considered in patients with severe behaverial disorder.   Key words: Children, Functional Constipation, Treatment.

  4. Hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia, the treatment of tumours with elevated temperatures in the range of 40-44 deg. C with treatment times over 30 min, greatly benefits from the development of hyperthermia treatment planning. This review briefly describes the state of the art in hyperthermia technology, followed by an overview of the developments in hyperthermia treatment planning. It particularly highlights the significant problems encountered with heating realistic tissue volumes and shows how treatment planning can help in designing better heating technology. Hyperthermia treatment planning will ultimately provide information about the actual temperature distributions obtained and thus the tumour control probabilities to be expected. This will improve our understanding of the present clinical results of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy, and will greatly help both in optimizing clinical heating technology and in designing optimal clinical trials. (author)

  5. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  6. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  7. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  8. The treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopper, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical picture of hyperthyroidism varies considerably and the diagnosis can easily be missed. The treatment of hyperthyroidism needs to be individualized, taking the patient's condition and preferences into account. There are three possible methods of treating hyperthyroidism, namely, medical treatment, including the use of beta-blockers and other antithyroid medications; surgery, and radio-iodine treatment. These three methods are briefly discussed. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  10. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  11. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  12. Major new developments affecting treatment and prognosis in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubner, R S

    1990-01-01

    Joint studies of the ALIMDA and Society of Actuaries, notably those of 1935, 1959 and 1979, established that there is a progressive rise in cardiovascular mortality with successive increments in blood pressure. This has provided the basis of underwriting. The converse is not true, or at least has not been true until very recently. Drugs that effectively reduce blood pressure have been available for several decades, but reduction and maintenance of blood pressure is still accomplished in only a minority of hypertensives. Long-term trials employing a combination of drugs, i.e., diuretics, vasodilators and reserpine and subsequently beta-blockers, almost without fail have not shown that treatment with these agents significantly reduces heart disease mortality and sudden death. This has been attributed, perhaps without basis, to an unfavorable countering effect of increased lipid levels, aggravating this risk factor, and other undesirable metabolic effect of diuretics, such as hypokalemia and depletion of body magnesium, increasing the propensity to ventricular arrhythmias, hyperglycemia, worsening diabetes, and hyperuricemia. A survey of 674 persons with hypertension seen personally during the period 1985-89, who were under the care of approximately that many physicians, reveals striking changes in drug prescription and use during this brief period that portend a major change in the outlook of hypertension. Two classes of drugs have increased rapidly in popularity: these are the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and the calcium blockers. Both classes of drugs effectively lower blood pressure and have minimal side effects with good compliance. They act not only to reduce peripheral vascular resistance, but also locally in the heart muscle to directly cause left ventricular hypertrophy to regress, an effect of great consequence. The drugs used in former trials such as the vasodilators and diuretics have no effect on left ventricular hypertrophy

  13. Pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases: the case of genetic CJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Michal; Friedman-Levi, Yael; Larush, Liraz; Frid, Kati; Binyamin, Orli; Dori, Dvir; Fainstein, Nina; Ovadia, Haim; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases generate the accumulation of specific misfolded proteins, such as PrP(Sc) prions or A-beta in Alzheimer's diseases, and share common pathological features, like neuronal death and oxidative damage. To test whether reduced oxidation alters disease manifestation, we treated TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease, with Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO). PSO comprises large concentrations of a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid, Punicic acid, among the strongest natural antioxidants. Nano-PSO significantly delayed disease presentation when administered to asymptomatic TgMHu2ME199K mice and postponed disease aggravation in already sick mice. Analysis of brain samples revealed that Nano-PSO treatment did not decrease PrP(Sc) accumulation, but rather reduced lipid oxidation and neuronal loss, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. We propose that Nano-PSO and alike formulations may be both beneficial and safe enough to be administered for long years to subjects at risk or to those already affected by neurodegenerative conditions. This team of authors report that a nanoformulation of pomegranade seed oil, containing high levels of a strong antioxidant, can delay disease onset in a mouse model of genetic prion diseases, and the formulation also indicates a direct neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The review of most frequently occurring medical disorders related to aetiology of autism and the methods of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubala-Kucharska, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The medical understanding of autism has changed since it was first defined by Kanner. Nowadays medicine identifies many medical abnormalities and diseases, which may underline or aggravate the cognitive aspect, behavioural issues and general health in autists. This includes chronic inflammation of gastrointestinal tract, dysbiosis, maldigestion, malabsorption, malnutrition, food intolerance, allergies, chronic viral, fungal and bacterial infections, impaired kidney function, impaired detoxification of endo- and exotoxins, disorders of metal ion transportation. Treatment of the above mentioned conditions combined with improving detoxification mechanisms, followed by a special diet and individually customized supplementation of nutritional deficiencies may lead to the improvement of the functioning of these patients, changing their level of functioning and self-dependence. The aim of this paper is to present medical problems of children with autism which may be identified and treated by general practitioners as a review of current medical papers related to Autism Spectrum Disorder, in the context of author's professional experience, based on the medical cases from author's practice.

  15. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... it does leave the profitability and viability of the more orthodox treatment centres at risk, and they now often seek improved income streams by sourcing patients from abroad. This effectively subsidises local patients whose treatment intervention is remunerated by discounted medical aid rates. South Africa is ...

  16. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged ...

  17. Bell's Palsy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Leer en Español: Tratamiento de la parálisis ...

  18. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  19. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  20. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  1. Immunotherapy in multimodality treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Application of immunotherapy for treatment of oncologic patients is considered. Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) are used for immunotherapy both independently and as carriers of various toxins, chemopreparations and radioactive isotopes. It is shown that immunotherapy should be considered as one of additional methods of multimodulity treatment of patients with malignant tumors

  2. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  3. Current obesity drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  4. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  5. Cyberknife stereotactic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topic discussed included, among others, the following: cyberknife capabilities; autonomous robotics; continuous image guidance; flexible robotics maneuverability; Dynamic motion targeting; intelligent patient positioning; 4D treatment optimization and planning system; X-ray sources; robotic manipulator; linear accelerator; MultiPlan treatment planning system; radiosurgery vs radiotherapy; radiation system delivery comparison; simplified contouring; plan optimization; QA and commissioning. (P.A.)

  6. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Buckley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included.

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  8. Treatment strategies in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Akin, Cem; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Treatment recommendations for mastocytosis are based mostly on expert opinion rather than evidence obtained from controlled clinical trials. In this article, treatment options for mastocytosis are presented, with a focus on the control of mediator-related symptoms in patients with indolent disease....

  9. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... admitted to 47 hospitals in Denmark during 2002-2004 (population 5.4 million) and was combined with results from a questionnaire regarding treatment guidelines in these hospitals. In 36 of 47 departments responding to the questionnaire, 21 recommended early steroid treatment, but none did so initially...... during 2002. Early steroid treatment was given to 15% of patients and was given more often when recommended locally (41% vs 11%, OR=5.7 (2.4-13.5)). Unfavourable outcome was demonstrated rarely in patients treated with early steroids compared to the non-steroid group (17% vs 42%, p

  10. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  11. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  13. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know what to expect after treatment ends. Emotional effects of treatment The last day of treatment It is normal to have different feelings, emotions and fears after treatment ends. Not everyone feels ...

  14. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  15. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-01-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies. - Highlights: ► The history of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is given. ► Generic PI treatments in use today are discussed. ► Suggestions for future research are presented. ► A dose of 250 Gy for most insects may suffice.

  16. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. [Treatment of selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfsen, Siebke; Warnke, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    Selective mutism is a communication disorder of childhood in which the child does not speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak in other situations. A literature review was completed in order to provide practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of children with selective mutism. There are many different behavioral approaches in the treatment of this disorder, e.g. contingency management, shaping, stimulus fading, escape-avoidance, self-modeling, learning theory approaches. A clearer diagnostic understanding of the disorder as part of anxiety or oppositional disorders needs to be realized prior to generalize an effective treatment for this disorder.

  18. [Esthetic treatment of varicosities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin, F

    2000-06-01

    Telangiectasia is dilatation of the subpapillary venous plexus of the epidermis of the lower limbs, which can lead to aesthetic embarrassment. Before treating telangiectasia, patient history and clinical examination help establishing its origin. It can be with isolated, associated reticular drainage veins, or be part of superficial venous insufficiency. Several types of treatment have been proposed. Microsclerotherapy is the most effective and least costly. Muller's phlebectomy can be performed when telangiectasia is fed by large reticular veins, either afferent or efferent. Treatment by laser and pulsed light appear best reserved to treatment of finer venous dilatations, either complementary or after failure of sclerotherapy.

  19. [Treatment possibilities and treatment results in pneumoconioses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, W T

    1983-01-01

    Some types of pneumoconiosis, such as asbestosis, are characterized by marked restrictive functional patterns. Treatment is begun when definite arterial hypoxemia appears, since the inhalation of oxygen clearly lowers pulmonary artery pressure. It is also important that the onset of concomitant airway obstruction is recognized promptly. From the sociomedical standpoint the most significant pneumoconiosis continues to be the miner's anthracosilicosis. The functional pattern of this pneumoconiosis is clearly airway obstruction, and such anthracosilicotic airway obstruction responds like all other forms of airway obstruction to antiobstructive therapy. The fundamentals of this therapy, which is based on the use of bronchodilators, adrenal cortical hormones and antibiotics, are described.

  20. Impacts of treatments on the quality of life among esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y; Hsieh, V C-R; Chang, C-H; Chen, P-R; Liang, W-M; Pan, S-C; Shieh, S-H

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of treatments on the quality of life for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients diagnosed at early and late stages. From a medical center in central Taiwan, patients who had been diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from February 2007 and March 2011 were recruited. Using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire Oesophageal 18 (QLQ-OES18), quality of life scores for 105 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients were obtained and assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed on the quality of life scores after stratification by cancer stage. Among early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, those received only surgery (S-only) performed better in physical and social functioning compared with patients who underwent surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (S+CCRT) (β = 9.0, P = 0.03; β = 12.1, P = 0.04, respectively). For those that received only concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT-only), they performed worse in role and emotional functioning relative to S+CCRT patients (β = -17.2, P = 0.02; β = -15.7, P = 0.05, respectively). Among late-stage patients, CCRT-only treatment gave insignificantly better global health status and functional scale scores and less severe symptoms compared to the S+CCRT option. Better functional scores and less aggravated symptoms are observed in early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who received surgery-only treatment relative to those that underwent both surgery and chemoradiotherapy. For late-stage esophageal cancer patients, the measured difference of quality of life is not significant between CCRT-only and S+CCRT treatments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Successful treatment of radiation-induced proctitis pain by blockade of the ganglion impar in an elderly patient with prostate cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ankur; Adeyefa, Oludayo; Nasir, Syed

    2013-05-01

    Chronic rectal pain secondary to radiation-induced proctitis is fast-becoming a leading cause of chronic pain, especially for prostate cancer survivors. Currently, many elderly patients resort to increased opioid intake to alleviate the pain. However, this increase in opioid consumption often leads to constipation and further aggravates the anorectal pain, thus leading to a perpetual, vicious cycle. We reasoned that blocking the ganglion impar could attenuate this sympathetically maintained pain, which would lead to a reduction in the consumption of opioids, lessen constipation, and lead to an improvement in the patient's quality of life. Case report. An academic tertiary pain management clinic. The authors report the case of a 73-year-old African American man with a history of prostate cancer who presented to the pain management clinic for evaluation and treatment of his chronic anorectal pain secondary to radiation-induced proctitis. The patient underwent a ganglion impar block, using the transcoccygeal technique, and consequently reported excellent pain relief with little or no use for opioid pain medications at a 2-month follow-up. Ultimately, this approach led to improved mobility and an increase in the patient's quality of life. Based on this case's success, a prospective study or randomized control trial evaluating the efficacy of the ganglion impar block as a treatment option for chronic anorectal pain secondary to radiation-induced proctitis appears warranted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of epidural autologous blood patch in the treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and post-dural puncture headache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jon Woo; Lee, Geun Young; Lee, Eu Gene; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fluoroscopy-guided epidural blood patch (EBP) in patients with post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) and spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Between August 2012 and September 2013, 16 patients (12 with PDPH, 4 with SIH; 5 males, 11 females; age range 19-58 years, mean age 32.8 years) who underwent EBP in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. Pain relief within three days after EBP was evaluated based on medical record and classified on a 3-level scale: complete relief; incomplete relief; and failure. Recurrence is defined as aggravated postural headache after three days. We evaluated and compared treatment outcome between PDPH and SIH, using Fisher's exact test (considered as significant when p < 0.05). In 12 PDPH patients, the EBP provided complete relief in 5 patients (41.7%), and incomplete relief in 7 patients (58.3%). In 4 SIH patients, the EBP provided complete relief in 1 patient (25%), and incomplete relief in 3 patients (75%). There was no significant difference (p = 0.511) of pain relief rate between PDPH and SIH. There was recurrence in 5 patients with PDPH and 1 patient with SIH. Five PDPH patients were retreated by EBP with incomplete relief. Fluoroscopy-guided EBP provides effective treatment of postural headache for both SIH and PDPH patients.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of epidural autologous blood patch in the treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and post-dural puncture headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jon Woo; Lee, Geun Young; Lee, Eu Gene; Kang, Heung Sik

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fluoroscopy-guided epidural blood patch (EBP) in patients with post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) and spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Between August 2012 and September 2013, 16 patients (12 with PDPH, 4 with SIH; 5 males, 11 females; age range 19-58 years, mean age 32.8 years) who underwent EBP in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. Pain relief within three days after EBP was evaluated based on medical record and classified on a 3-level scale: complete relief; incomplete relief; and failure. Recurrence is defined as aggravated postural headache after three days. We evaluated and compared treatment outcome between PDPH and SIH, using Fisher's exact test (considered as significant when p < 0.05). In 12 PDPH patients, the EBP provided complete relief in 5 patients (41.7%), and incomplete relief in 7 patients (58.3%). In 4 SIH patients, the EBP provided complete relief in 1 patient (25%), and incomplete relief in 3 patients (75%). There was no significant difference (p = 0.511) of pain relief rate between PDPH and SIH. There was recurrence in 5 patients with PDPH and 1 patient with SIH. Five PDPH patients were retreated by EBP with incomplete relief. Fluoroscopy-guided EBP provides effective treatment of postural headache for both SIH and PDPH patients.

  4. Six-years monitoring the efficacy of the combination of artesunate and mefloquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakoon, Yupaporn; Chittamas, Sunee; Pornkulprasit, Vichitra; Kanda, Tozo; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Rojanawatsirivej, Chaiporn; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Bunnag, Danai

    2003-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand is multi-drug resistant. In a previous study it was shown that artesunate and mefloquine were effective, as follow up, we monitored the efficacy of this regimen for six years. During 1997-2002, 516 adult male volunteer patients in Chanthaburi Province were enrolled (50 patients in the first year, 400 patients in 1998-2001 and 66 patients in 2002). The symptom complex and parasite count (thick blood film) were monitored on days 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dosages used were artesunate (ATS) 150 mg and mefloquine (M) 750 mg at hour 0 and ATS 100 mg and M 500 mg at hour 24. Their ages ranged from 30-35 years and their mean body weights were 54-56 kg. The presenting symptoms were fever 100%, headache 97-100%, anorexia 78-90%, and nausea 28-40%. The geometric mean of parasitemia ranged from 7,357-12,750/mm3. Defervescence in one day was found in 42-76% of patients and 85-100% in 2 days. The sensitivity (S) ranged from 87-94% and RI resistance (recrudescence) ranged from 6-13%. Forty patients demonstrated RI type of response, 37 were cured after being retreated with the same dosage and another 3 patients were cured after the third course of treatment. The aggravated adverse effects included vomiting (8-20%), anorexia (1-41%) and diarrhea (0-16%). These side effects were mild and transient. The efficacy of the artesunate and mefloquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria was high. The RI type of response was possibly due to re-infection or multiple broods and not to drug resistance. The adverse effects of anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were mild and transient for mefloquine. The combination can be used as stand by treatment in areas of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria.

  5. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major study sponsored by ...

  8. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spider veins. These are small varicose veins. Salt water (saline) or a chemical solution is injected into the varicose vein. The vein will harden and then disappear. Laser treatment can be used on the surface of the skin. Small bursts ...

  9. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electrochemical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment, ECT of graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones with respect to the treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A small quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes.

  10. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electroche-- mical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment ECT graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones this is treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A sMall quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes

  11. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the following rare disorders that are inherited (passed down from parent to child): Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome . Treatment with radiation therapy may increase the risk of ...

  12. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  13. Treatment and Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close Celiac Disease Understanding Celiac Disease What is Celiac Disease? Symptoms Screening and Diagnosis Treatment and Follow-Up Dermatitis ... you find the right healthcare practitioner to discuss symptoms, diagnose, and ... Our nationwide Healthcare Practitioner Directory lists primary care ...

  14. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help find the medication and dosage that will work best for your child. Different medications work ... effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With ... to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a child becomes too unruly or ...

  17. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... therapy. Since individual needs vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most ...

  18. Head Lice: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before treatment using the hot water (130°F) laundry cycle and the high heat drying cycle. Clothing ... does not imply endorsement by the Public Health Service or by the U.S. Department of Health and ...

  19. Patient Treatment File (PTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This database is part of the National Medical Information System (NMIS). The Patient Treatment File (PTF) contains a record for each inpatient care episode provided...

  20. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your own, talk to your doctor or mental health professional. Depression treatment may be unsuccessful until you address your substance use. Manage stress. Relationship issues, financial problems, an unhappy work life and many other issues can all contribute ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ... and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact ...

  2. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms ... Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will do a thorough health evaluation. The doctor should continue ...

  4. Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Learn Treatment Options Overview English English Arabic Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Danish French German Greek ... for delivering stereotactic radiation have improved, an increasing number of patients have chosen to receive stereotactic radiosurgery ...

  5. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... or water saving toilets. This opens up for co-treatment of organic waste fractions. Freezing and thawing has also been recognised as being a cost-effective wastewater treatment method in cold regions. Thus it was chosen to concentrate on the effect of the mentioned processes, namely freezing, anaerobic...... spreading of nutrients, diseases and potential pollution issues. Due to the above mentioned challenges alternative treatment methods are needed, especially in small and remotely located communities. Decentralized solutions are well suited for Greenland. Ideal solutions should reduce the need for expensive...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their ... therapy helps the family develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn ...

  7. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been prescribing them for more than 60 years. More recently, non-stimulant medications have become available ... Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Connect With Us Contact Us ...

  9. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  10. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health ...

  12. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... vision, without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no ...

  13. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the base of the brain. It controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. Visual pathway : The group of ... the tumor may cause severe physical, emotional, or learning problems, a biopsy is done and more treatment ...

  14. The presentation and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    tion of single collocations proposals are made for an implicit presentation of complex ... function lexicographers often include items to illustrate the typical use of the ... they have no items explicitly addressed at them to elevate them to treatment.

  15. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... to make any inroads in addressing this important public health problem: • Why does ... health insurance industry is delighted, as competition between various facilities .... the selection of a treatment programme for a particular ...

  17. Treatment of Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES TREATMENT OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR This fact sheet is provided to help you understand which therapies help treat essential tremor. Neurologists from the American Academy of Neurology are ...

  18. Thalassemia: Complications and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If I have thalassemia, how does it affect my body? Since your ... like flu shots and other vaccines. How is thalassemia treated? The type of treatment a person receives ...

  19. Treatment with radioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of 131 I in the treatment of thyroid diseases is described. The therapeutic possibilities of application for ther radionuklide, e.g. phosphorus 32, gold 198, or yttrium 90 are discussed. (VJ) [de

  20. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  1. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the evening. ADHD medications can have side effects. Before medication treatment begins, your child’s doctor will ... should continue to monitor your child for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication ...

  3. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... For example, parents can learn to use point systems or charts to reward good behavior. When a ...

  5. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Lewy Body Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may experience severe neuroleptic sensitivity, such as worsening cognition, heavy sedation, increased or possibly irreversible parkinsonism, or ... addition to these forms of therapy and treatment, music and aroma therapy can also reduce anxiety and ...

  7. Techniques of Wastewater Treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Chemical Engineering in UDCT and works ... tional methods of treatment. Currently the need is ... temperature causes the organic molecule to undergo oxidative degradation. ... When ultrasound is applied to effluent, water undergoes ther-.

  8. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  9. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...

  10. Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bošnjak-Pašić, Marija; Vidrih, Branka; Miškov, Snježana; Demarin, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by multifocal inflammatory destruction of myelin, axonal damage and loss of oligodendrocytes. The disease is carried through two stages: inflammatory and degenerative. The most common form of disease in approximately 85% of the cases is RRMS (relapsing-remitting form). The treatment of MS is divided into: treatment of the acute phase of illness, prevention of new relapses and di...

  11. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  12. Current Treatments of Bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Guaita, Marc; H?gl, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of slee...

  13. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  14. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included. PMID:19724749

  15. Endovascular treatment in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akira; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased risk of stroke during pregnancy and the puerperium. Decisions should be made immediately upon transfer to each institution, particularly with respect to when and how to treat the patient. This review highlights the feasibility of endovascular treatment in pregnancy. Most of the pharmaceutical agents and therapeutic devices used in clinical practice can be utilized in pregnant patients. Comprehensive information on the benefits and risks of treatment should be explained to the patient and her family, with particular attention to the safety of the mother and fetus. Radiation exposure to the fetus is also a concern; the hazard can be minimized with optimal protection. Several studies have demonstrated that conventional procedures do not cause serious radiation exposure exceeding the threshold of safety to the fetus. Endovascular therapy can be safely performed for the treatment of acute stroke as in non-pregnant patients with adequate attention to pharmaceutical agents and shielding from radiation. In contrast to therapy for acute stroke, preventive endovascular treatment for asymptomatic lesions remains controversial. Several conditions, such as cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are known to bleed more frequently in pregnancy, but whether the benefits of preventive treatment outweigh the associated risks is unknown. The decision for preventive treatment should be carefully made on a case-by-case basis after extensive discussion with the patient. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  17. Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy: clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fan; Jia, Yan-Zeng; Lin, Qiao; Mei, Zhen; Chen, Zi-Qian; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hui-Jian; Pei, Jia-Sheng; Tian, Jun; Zhong, Zhong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We reported our experience in the surgical treatment of a relatively large cohort of patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE). We also carried out a systematic review of the literature on OLE. Thirty-five consecutive patients who underwent occipital resection for epilepsy were included. Diagnoses were made following presurgical evaluations, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), scalp video-electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring, and intracranial EEG monitoring. At last follow-up, seizure outcome was classified using the Engel classification scheme. Twenty-five of 35 patients experienced/had experienced ≥1 type of aura before the seizure. Invasive recordings were used to define the epileptogenic area in 30 of 35 patients (85.7 %). All patients underwent occipital lesionectomies or topectomies. Histopathology revealed: cortical dysplasias, gliosis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, and tuberous sclerosis. After a mean follow-up of 44 months, 25 patients (71.4 %) were seizure free (Engel class I), 3 (8.6 %) rarely had seizures (Engel class II), 5 (14.3 %) improved more than 75 % (Engel class III), and 2 (5.7 %) had no significant improvement (Engel class IV). Preoperatively, 12 of 33 patients (36.4 %) had visual field deficits. Postoperatively, 25 patients (75.8 %) had new or aggravated visual field deficits. The management of OLE has been aided greatly by the availability of high-resolution diagnosis. Postoperative visual field deficits occur in a significant proportion of patients. Comprehensive intracranial EEG coverage of all occipital surfaces helps to define the epileptogenic area and preserve visual function, especially in cases of focal cortical dysplasia undetectable by MRI.

  18. Pulmonary actinomycosis: CT studies of diagnostic and post-treatment findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jung; Song, Sun Wha; Bo, Seal Hwang; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Kim, Ki Jun; Kim, Horrim; Park, Seog Hee [College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    To investigate the value of the computed tomography (CT) in the study of diagnostic and post-treatment findings of pulmonary actinomycosis. Clinical data and CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in 10 patients with histopathologically confirmed pulmonary actinomycosis. We analyzed the initial CT findings in search of patterns and distributions which suggest possible lung abnormalities and found the pleura, chest wall, and lymphadenopathy to be involved as part of the indicators of lung abnormalities. We analyzed follow-up CT findings for changes in the lungs after antibiotic therapy and recurrence after surgery. Of the 10 patients analyzed by CT for lung lesions, seven had been diagnosed with alcoholism and nine were male. The initial CTs (n = 10) indicated that all the pulmonary lesions were solitary without chest wall involvement. However, a transfissural extension was observed in 20% of the study population (n = 2). Furthermore, peripheral lung distribution and adjacent pleural thickening was observed in 70% of the study population (n = 7). Within the consolidation (n = 6) or mass (n = 4), a central low density with peripheral enhancement was seen in 70% of the study population (n = 7). A follow-up CT of the seven cases following antiobiotic therapy revealed that four cases showed minimal improvement or aggravation of their lung lesions, whereas three cases showed resolution or improvement. The improvement of the central low density was related to the improvement of consolidation or mass. Furthermore the presence of fibrosis was observed after the resolution of pulmonary lesions (n = 2). No relationship was found between the duration and response of antibiotic therapy. A follow-up CT (n = 4) subsequent to a lung resection revealed the onset of chest wall actinomycosis and a thickened pleura in one case. The results of this study highlight the value of the CT in pulmonary actinomycosis in order to diagnose and evaluate antibiotic responses, complications, or

  19. Leaf density explains variation in leaf mass per area in rice between cultivars and nitrogen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongliang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xi; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Li, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is an important leaf trait; however, correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical features and photosynthesis have not been fully investigated, especially in cereal crops. The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate the correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical traits; and (b) to clarify the response of LMA to nitrogen supply and its effect on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the present study, 11 rice varieties were pot grown under sufficient nitrogen (SN) conditions, and four selected rice cultivars were grown under low nitrogen (LN) conditions. Leaf anatomical traits, gas exchange and leaf N content were measured. There was large variation in LMA across selected rice varieties. Regression analysis showed that the variation in LMA was more closely related to leaf density (LD) than to leaf thickness (LT). LMA was positively related to the percentage of mesophyll tissue area (%mesophyll), negatively related to the percentage of epidermis tissue area (%epidermis) and unrelated to the percentage of vascular tissue area (%vascular). The response of LMA to N supplementation was dependent on the variety and was also mainly determined by the response of LD to N. Compared with SN, photosynthesis was significantly decreased under LN, while PNUE was increased. The increase in PNUE was more critical in rice cultivars with a higher LMA under SN supply. Leaf density is the major cause of the variation in LMA across rice varieties and N treatments, and an increase in LMA under high N conditions would aggravate the decrease in PNUE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Esophageal motor disorders in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices non-submitted to endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Priscila Pollo; Lemme, Eponina Maria de Oliveira; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes

    2005-01-01

    The hepatic cirrhosis has as one of the main morbid-mortality causes, the portal hypertension with the development of esophageal varices, the possibility of a digestive hemorrhage and worsening of hepatic insufficiency. It is important to identify causal predictive or aggravating factors and if possible to prevent them. In the last years, it has been observed the association of esophageal motor disorders and gastro-esophageal reflux in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. To study the prevalence of the esophageal motility disorders and among them, the ineffective esophageal motility, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and esophageal varices, without previous endoscopic therapeutic and the predictive factors. Prospectively, it has been evaluate 74 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis and esophagic varices, without previous endoscopic treatment. All of them were submitted to a clinical protocol, esophageal manometry and 55 patients also held the ambulatory esophageal pHmetry. Esophageal motility disorders have been found in 44 patients (60%). The most prevalent was the ineffective esophageal motility, observed in 28%. The abnormal reflux disease was diagnosed through the pHmetry in 35% of the patients. There were no correlation between the manometrical abnormality in general and the ineffective esophageal motility in particular and the esophageal or gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, the abnormal reflux, the disease seriousness, the ascites presence and the gauge of the varices. The majority of cirrhotic patients with non-treated esophageal varices present esophageal motor disorders. No predictive factor was found. The clinical relevance of these findings need more researches in the scope to define the real meaning of theses abnormalities.