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Sample records for terbium bromides

  1. Raman spectroscopy study of the doping effect of the encapsulated terbium halogenides on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharlamova, M.V.; Kramberger, C.; Mittelberger, A. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    In the present work, the doping effect of terbium chloride, terbium bromide, and terbium iodide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was compared by Raman spectroscopy. A precise investigation of the doping-induced alterations of the Raman modes of the filled SWCNTs was conducted. The shifts of the components of the Raman modes and modification of their profiles allowed concluding that the inserted terbium halogenides have acceptor doping effect on the SWCNTs, and the doping efficiency increases in the line with terbium iodide, terbium bromide, and terbium chloride. (orig.)

  2. Elastic properties of terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spichkin, Y.I.; Bohr, Jakob; Tishin, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Young modulus along the crystallographic axes b and c (E(b) and E(c)), and the internal friction of a terbium single crystal have been measured. At 4.2 K, E(b) and E(c) are equal to 38 and 84.5 GPa, respectively. The lattice part of the Young modulus and the Debye...... temperature has been calculated. The origin of the Young modulus anomalies arising at the transition to the magnetically ordered state is discussed....

  3. Aclidinium Bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of inhaled aclidinium bromide, a novel long......-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, for the treatment of COPD....

  4. Critical scattering of neutrons from terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.; Marshall, W.

    1968-01-01

    The inelasticity of the critical scattering of neutrons in terbium has been measured above the Neél temperature at the (0, 0, 2−Q) satellite position. The results show that dynamic slowing down of the fluctuations does occur in a second‐order phase transition in agreement with the general theory...

  5. Semiconductor composition containing iron, dysprosium, and terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Malasi, Abhinav; Taz, Humaira; Farah, Annettee E.; Kalyanaraman, Ramakrishnan; Duscher, Gerd Josef Mansfred; Patel, Maulik K.

    2017-09-26

    An amorphous semiconductor composition includes 1 to 70 atomic percent iron, 15 to 65 atomic percent dysprosium, 15 to 35 atomic percent terbium, balance X, wherein X is at least one of an oxidizing element and a reducing element. The composition has an essentially amorphous microstructure, an optical transmittance of at least 50% in at least the visible spectrum and semiconductor electrical properties.

  6. N-(2-Bromobenzylcinchoninium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skórska-Stania

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-(2-bromobenzyl-5-ethenyl-2-[hydroxy(quinolin-4-ylmethyl]-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium bromide}, C26H28BrN2O+·Br−, is a chiral quaternary ammonium salt of one of the Cinchona alkaloids. The planes of the quinoline and of the bromobenzyl substituent are inclined to one another by 9.11 (9°. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond occurs. The crystal structure features strong O—H...Br hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...Br interactions.

  7. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  8. Magnetocaloric effect of thin Terbium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, V. D.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Almeida, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report a theoretical study of the magnetocaloric effect of Terbium (Tb) thin films due to finite size and surface effects in the helimagnetic phase, corresponding to a temperature range from TC=219 K to TN=231 K, for external fields of the order of kOe. For a Tb thin film of 6 monolayers submitted to an applied field (ΔH =30 kOe, ΔH =50 kOe and ΔH = 70 kOe) we report a significative change in adiabatic temperature, ΔT / ΔH , near the Néel temperature, of the order ten times higher than that observed for Tb bulk. On the other hand, for small values of the magnetic field, large thickness effects are found. For external field strength around few kOe, we have found that the thermal caloric efficiency increases remarkably for ultrathin films. For an ultrathin film with 6 monolayers, we have found ΔT / ΔH = 43 K/T while for thicker films, with 20 monolayers, ΔT / ΔH = 22 K/T. Our results suggest that thin films of Tb are a promising material for magnetocaloric effect devices for applications at intermediate temperatures.

  9. Femtosecond XUV spectroscopy of gadolinium and terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, Robert; Frietsch, Bjoern; Doebrich, Kristian; Teichmann, Martin; Gahl, Cornelius; Noack, Frank [Max-Born-Institute, Berlin (Germany); Schwarzkopf, Olaf; Wernet, Philippe [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie (BESSY II), Berlin (Germany); Weinelt, Martin [Max-Born-Institute, Berlin (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We present recent results of time-resolved IR-pump-XUV-probe experiments on the ultrafast demagnetization of thin films of Gadolinium(0001) and Terbium(0001) on Tungsten(110). The experiments are the first to be done using a newly developed high-order harmonics (HHG) XUV beamline at the MBI. The beamline delivers monochromated XUV pulses of approximately 150 fs duration with a photon energy resolution of up to 150 meV. Following excitation by intense femtosecond infrared (IR) pulses, photoemission with 35 eV photons allows us to directly probe the 4f electrons and their interaction with the valence band, both in the bulk and at the surface, to follow the ultrafast magnetization dynamics in the Lanthanide metals. As signatures of ultrafast demagnetization of the metal by the IR pulse, we see for the first time, rapid strong reduction of the exchange splitting in the valence band. This is followed by a slower demagnetization due to the spin-lattice interaction.

  10. Green fluorescence of terbium ions in lithium fluoroborate glasses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glasses; terbium ion; oscillator strengths; fluorescence; lifetimes; fibre lasers. 1. Introduction. Today glasses are most favourable engineering materials for abundant applications due to the wide ability of property altering by compositional modifications. The considerable examination of glass science to achieve required ...

  11. Green fluorescence of terbium ions in lithium fluoroborate glasses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 3. Green fluorescence of terbium ions in lithium fluoroborate glasses for fibre lasers and display devices. G R DILLIP C MADHUKAR REDDY M RAJESH SHIVANAND CHAURASIA B DEVA PRASAD RAJU S W JOO. Volume 39 Issue 3 June 2016 pp 711-717 ...

  12. Managing nematodes without methyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Halbrendt, John M; Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; LaMondia, James; McKenry, Michael V; Noling, Joe W

    2010-01-01

    Methyl bromide is an effective pre-plant soil fumigant used to control nematodes in many high-input, high-value crops in the United States, including vegetables, nursery plants, ornamentals, tree fruits, strawberries, and grapes. Because methyl bromide has provided a reliable return on investment for nematode control, many of these commodities have standardized their production practices based on the use of this chemical and will be negatively impacted if effective and economical alternatives are not identified. Alternative control measures based on other chemicals, genetic resistance, and cultural practices require a greater knowledge of nematode biology to achieve satisfactory results. Here, we provide an overview of nematode management practices that we believe will be relied upon heavily in U.S. high-value crop production systems in a world without methyl bromide. Included are case studies of U.S. high-value crop production systems to demonstrate how nematode management practices other than methyl bromide may be incorporated.

  13. Terahertz Cherenkov radiation from ultrafast magnetization in terbium gallium garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, S. D.; Mashkovich, E. A.; Tsarev, M. V.; Bakunov, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    We report an experimental observation of terahertz Cherenkov radiation from a moving magnetic moment produced in terbium gallium garnet by a circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse via the inverse Faraday effect. Contrary to some existing theoretical predictions, the polarity of the observed radiation unambiguously demonstrates the paramagnetic, rather than diamagnetic, nature of the ultrafast inverse Faraday effect. From measurements of the radiation field, the Verdet constant in the subpicosecond regime is ˜3-10 times smaller than its table quasistatic value.

  14. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  15. Terbium luminescence in alumina xerogel fabricated in porous anodic alumina matrix under various excitation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponenko, N. V., E-mail: nik@nano.bsuir.edu.by [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Kortov, V. S. [Yeltsin Ural Federal University (Russian Federation); Orekhovskaya, T. I.; Nikolaenko, I. A. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics (Belarus); Pustovarov, V. A.; Zvonarev, S. V.; Slesarev, A. I. [Yeltsin Ural Federal University (Russian Federation); Prislopski, S. Ya. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)

    2011-07-15

    Terbium-doped alumina xerogel layers are synthesized by the sol-gel method in pores of a porous anodic alumina film 1 {mu}m thick with a pore diameter of 150-180 nm; the film is grown on a silicon substrate. The fabricated structures exhibit terbium photoluminescence with bands typical of trivalent terbium terms. Terbium X-ray luminescence with the most intense band at 542 nm is observed for the first time for such a structure. Morphological analysis of the structure by scanning electron microscopy shows the presence of xerogel clusters in pore channels, while the main pore volume remains unfilled and pore mouths remain open. The data obtained confirm the promising applications of fabricated structures for developing matrix converters of X-rays and other ionizing radiations into visible light. The possibilities of increasing luminescence intensity in the matrix converter are discussed.

  16. Optical Properties of Lithium Terbium Fluoride and Implications for Performance in High Power Lasers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0323 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF LITHIUM TERBIUM FLUORIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE IN HIGH POWER LASERS... AMERICA (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR...OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF LITHIUM TERBIUM FLUORIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE IN HIGH POWER LASERS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b

  17. Inhibition of HERG potassium channels by domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Chen, Wanjuan; Lin, Zuoxian; Sun, Hongmao; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2014-08-15

    Domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide were widely used environmental chemicals with potent activity on blockade of human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) channels. But the mechanism of their action is not clear. The kinetics of block of HERG channels by domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide was studied in order to characterize the inhibition of HERG currents by these quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide inhibited HERG channel currents in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 9nM and 5nM, respectively. Block of HERG channel by domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide was voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide caused substantial negative shift of the activation curves, accelerated activated process, but had no effects on the deactivation and reactivation processes. The docking models implied that these two compounds bound to PAS domain of HERG channels and inhibited its function. Our data demonstrated that domiphen bromide and didecyl dimethylammonium bromide blocked the HERG channel with a preference for the activated channel state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of biothiols in cells by a terbium chelate-Hg (II) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongliang; Chen, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Great efforts have been devoted to the development of sensitive and specific analysis methods for biothiols because of their important roles in biological systems. We present a new detection system for biothiols that is based on the reversible quenching and restoration of fluorescence of terbium chelate caused by Hg2+ and thiol species. In the presence of biothiols, a restoration of fluorescence of terbium chelate after quenching by Hg2+ was observed due to the interaction of Hg2+ with thiol groups, and the restored fluorescence increased with the concentration of biothiols. This method was sensitive and selective for biothiols. The detection limit was 80 nM for glutathione, 100 nM for Hcy, and 400 nM for Cysteine, respectively. The terbium chelate-Hg (II) system was successfully applied to determine the levels of biothiols in cancer cells and urine samples. Further, it was also shown to be comparable to Ellman's assay. Compared to other fluorescence methods, the terbium chelate probe is advantageous because interference from short-lived nonspecific fluorescence can be efficiently eliminated due to the long fluorescence lifetime of terbium chelate, which allows for detection by time-resolved fluorescence. The terbium chelate probe can serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of abnormal levels of biothiols in disease.

  19. Tiotropium bromide inhibits human monocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurai M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva® is used as a bronchodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, clinical evidence suggests that tiotropium bromide may improve COPD by mechanisms beyond bronchodilation. We hypothesized that tiotropium bromide may act as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting monocyte chemotaxis, a process that plays an important role in the lung inflammation of COPD. To test this hypothesis monocytes were pretreated with tiotropium bromide prior to exposure to chemotactic agents and monocyte chemotactic activity (MCA was evaluated with a blind chamber technique. Tiotropium bromide inhibited MCA in a dose- and time- dependent manner (respectively, p< 0.01 by directly acting on the monocyte. Acetylcholine (ACh challenge increased MCA (p< 0.01, and tiotropium bromide effectively reduced (p< 0.01 the increase in MCA by ACh. The inhibition of MCA by tiotropium bromide was reversed by a muscarinic type 3 (M3-muscarinic receptor antagonist (p< 0.01, and was not effected by an M2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, a selective M3 receptor agonist, cevimeline, and Gq protein stimulator, Pasteurella multocida toxin, significantly increased MCA (P < 0.01, and tiotropium bromide pretreatment reduced (p< 0.01 the increase in MCA induced by these agents. These results suggest that tiotropium might regulate monocyte chemotaxis, in part, by interfering with M3-muscarinic receptor coupled Gq protein signal transduction. These results provide new insight that an anti-cholinergic therapeutic may provide anti-inflammatory action in the pulmonary system.

  20. Cryogenic temperature characteristics of Verdet constant of terbium sesquioxide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snetkov, I. L.; Palashov, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    The dependence of the Verdet constant on temperature in the (80-300 K) range for a promising magneto-active material terbium sesquioxide Tb2O3 at the wavelengths of 405-1064 nm is considered. For each of the studied wavelengths, the Verdet constant of the material cooled down to the liquid nitrogen temperature increased by more than a factor of 3.2 as compared to the room temperature value. Similarly to the other paramagnetics, the increase follows the law ∼1/T. Approximations for the temperature dependence of the Verdet constant have been obtained and the value of 1/V·(dV/dT) has been estimated. This information is needed to determine the angle of rotation as well as the variation of the extinction ratio of a Faraday isolator with temperature and extremely important at creation a cryogenic Faraday devices.

  1. Biogenic terbium oxide nanoparticles as the vanguard against osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Sana; Khan, Salman; Ansary, Abu Ayoobul; Arshad, Mohd; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Ahmad, Ejaz; Khan, Rizwan H.; Khan, Mohd Sajid

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis of inner transition metal nanoparticles via an ecofriendly route is quite difficult. This study, for the first time, reports synthesis of terbium oxide nanoparticles using fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. The biocompatible terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb2O3 NPs) were synthesized by incubating Tb4O7 with the biomass of fungus F. oxysporum. Multiple physical characterization techniques, such as UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, and zeta-potential were used to confirm the synthesis, purity, optical and surface characteristics, crystallinity, size, shape, distribution, and stability of the nanoemulsion of Tb2O3 NPs. The Tb2O3 NPs were found to inhibit the propagation of MG-63 and Saos-2 cell-lines (IC50 value of 0.102 μg/mL) and remained non-toxic up to a concentration of 0.373 μg/mL toward primary osteoblasts. Cell viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner upon exposure to 10 nm Tb2O3 NPs in the concentration range 0.023-0.373 μg/mL. Cell toxicity was evaluated by observing changes in cell morphology, cell viability, oxidative stress parameters, and FACS analysis. Morphological examinations of cells revealed cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. The level of ROS within the cells-an indicator of oxidative stress was significantly increased. The induction of apoptosis at concentrations ≤ IC50 was corroborated by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining (DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation). Flow-cytometric studies indicated that the response was dose dependent with a threshold effect.

  2. Autofluorescence-free Live-cell Imaging Using Terbium Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Marcelina; Goetz, Joan; Bartenlian, Hortense; Wong, Ka-Leung; Charbonniere, Loïc Joanny; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2018-02-20

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have become irreplaceable tools for advanced cellular and sub-cellular imaging. While very bright NPs require excitation with UV or visible light, which can create strong autofluorescence of biological components, NIR-excitable NPs without autofluorescence issues exhibit much lower brightness. Here, we show the application of a new type of surface-photosensitized terbium NPs (Tb-NPs) for autofluorescence-free intracellular imaging in live HeLa cells. Combination of exceptionally high brightness, high photostability, and long photoluminecence (PL) lifetimes for highly efficient suppression of the short-lived autofluorescence, allowed for time-gated PL imaging of intracellular vesicles over 72 h without toxicity and at extremely low Tb-NP concentrations down to 12 pM. Detection of highly resolved long-lifetime (ms) PL decay curves from small (~10 µm2) areas within single cells within a few seconds emphasized the unprecedented photophysical properties of Tb-NPs for live-cell imaging that extend well beyond currently available nanometric imaging agents.

  3. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production via Terbium Oxide Based Redox Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhosale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The computational thermodynamic modeling of the terbium oxide based two-step solar thermochemical water splitting (Tb-WS cycle is reported. The 1st step of the Tb-WS cycle involves thermal reduction of TbO2 into Tb and O2, whereas the 2nd step corresponds to the production of H2 through Tb oxidation by water splitting reaction. Equilibrium compositions associated with the thermal reduction and water splitting steps were determined via HSC simulations. Influence of oxygen partial pressure in the inert gas on thermal reduction of TbO2 and effect of water splitting temperature (TL on Gibbs free energy related to the H2 production step were examined in detail. The cycle (ηcycle and solar-to-fuel energy conversion (ηsolar-to-fuel efficiency of the Tb-WS cycle were determined by performing the second-law thermodynamic analysis. Results obtained indicate that ηcycle and ηsolar-to-fuel increase with the decrease in oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas and thermal reduction temperature (TH. It was also realized that the recuperation of the heat released by the water splitting reactor and quench unit further enhances the solar reactor efficiency. At TH=2280 K, by applying 60% heat recuperation, maximum ηcycle of 39.0% and ηsolar-to-fuel of 47.1% for the Tb-WS cycle can be attained.

  4. Folate Receptor Targeted Alpha-Therapy Using Terbium-149

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Cristina; Haller, Stephanie; Dorrer, Holger; Köster, Ulli; Johnston, Karl; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Terbium-149 is among the most interesting therapeutic nuclides for medical applications. It decays by emission of short-range α-particles (Eα = 3.967 MeV) with a half-life of 4.12 h. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticancer efficacy of a 149Tb-labeled DOTA-folate conjugate (cm09) using folate receptor (FR)-positive cancer cells in vitro and in tumor-bearing mice. 149Tb was produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Radiolabeling of cm09 with purified 149Tb resulted in a specific activity of ~1.2 MBq/nmol. In vitro assays performed with 149Tb-cm09 revealed a reduced KB cell viability in a FR-specific and activity concentration-dependent manner. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with saline only (group A) or with 149Tb-cm09 (group B: 2.2 MBq; group C: 3.0 MBq). A significant tumor growth delay was found in treated animals resulting in an increased average survival time of mice which received 149Tb-cm09 (B: 30.5 d; C: 43 d) compared to untreated controls (A: 21 d). Analysis of blood parameters rev...

  5. Hardness and dielectric characteristics of flux grown terbium aluminate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K.K.; Kotru, P.N. [Jammu Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Tandon, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Wanklyn, B.M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-29

    Results of indentation induced Vickers hardness testing and dielectric studies conducted on flux-grown terbium aluminate crystals are presented. It is shown that the Vickers hardness value (H{sub v}) is independent of indentation time, but depends on the applied load. Applying the concept of Hays and Kendall, the load independent values are estimated for (110) and (001) planes. Differential behaviour in the crack formation of two different planes (110) and (001) is observed, while (001) plane develops Palmqvist cracks in the whole load range of 10-100 g, (110) plane shows a transition from Palmqvist to median cracks at 70 g. The fracture toughness, brittleness index and yield strength are determined for both the planes. The hardness anisotropy is reported. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and conductivity are shown to be dependent on temperature and frequency of the applied a.c. field. The dielectric constant versus temperature shows a transition peak at 230 C, which remains independent of the frequency of the applied a.c. field in the range 1 kHz-13 MHz. (orig.) 36 refs.

  6. Thermoluminescence of cerium and terbium -doped calcium pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lozano R, I. B.; Diaz G, J. A. I., E-mail: jesus.roman@nucleares.unam.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this work is to report the thermoluminescence (Tl) response of Calcium Pyrophosphate phosphor doped with Cerium and Terbium impurities (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+}). The phosphors were synthesized using the co-precipitation method and annealed at 900 degrees C by two hours for obtain the β phase. The intentional doping with Ce and Tb ions was 1 at.% and 0.1 at.%, whereas in the EDS results the concentration of impurities was 0.39 at.% and 0.05 at.%, respectively. The superficial morphology of phosphor is mainly composed by thin wafers of different size. All samples were exposed to gamma rays from {sup 60}Co in the Gammacell-200 irradiator. The Tl response of the phosphor was measured from Rt up to 350 degrees C and under nitrogen atmosphere in a Harshaw TLD 3500 reader. The glow curves of the Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+},Tb{sup 3+} powders showed a broad intense Tl peak centered at 165 degrees C and a shoulder at approximate 260 degrees C was observed. A linear Tl response in the range of absorbed dose of 0.2 to 10 Gy was obtained. Tl glow curves were analyzed using the initial rise (IR)and computerized glow curve deconvolution methods to evaluate the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and kinetic order (b). (Author)

  7. Solvent polarity and oxygen sensitivity, rather than viscosity, determine lifetimes of biaryl-sensitised terbium luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Edward R H; Williams, J A Gareth; Parker, David

    2017-12-14

    In a macrocyclic terbium complex incorporating a biaryl sensitiser, the observed variation of emission lifetime is shown to be determined by the solubility of oxygen in the solvent system and the relative energy of the chromophore excited state, rather than any dependence on solvent viscosity.

  8. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... ] not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal... the proposed rule. EPA's response to these comments is discussed in Unit III. III. Response to... considerably more opportunity for digestion and detoxification of a simple molecule such as methyl bromide in...

  9. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.

    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead

  10. Elevated serum bromide in patients taking lithium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handorf, C R; Coleman, J H; Rawls, W N

    1985-01-01

    Serum bromide levels were determined for 20 patients receiving lithium carbonate for manic depressive illness. Bromides averaged 17.06 +/- 8.15 mg/dl, which exceeded the control average of 3.22 +/- 3.2 mg/dl. Elevated serum bromide in patients taking lithium may reflect altered renal function.

  11. Thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic anisotropy examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsevich, S N

    2017-03-01

    Thallium bromide iodide crystal also known as KRS-5 is the well known material used in far infrared radiation applications for optical windows and lenses fabrication. The main advantage of this material is the transparency in wide band of wavelengths from 0.53 to 50μm. Despite such advantages as transparency and large acousto-optic figure of merit values, KRS-5 is rarely used in acousto-optics. Nevertheless this material seems to be promising for far infrared acousto-optic applications. The acoustic and acousto-optic properties of KRS-5 needed for the full use in optoelectronics are not well understood to date. In this paper the detailed examination of thallium bromide iodide crystal acoustic properties is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health profiles of methyl bromide applicators in greenhouses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Ergonen Toprak; Serpil, Salacin; Sezer, Uysal; Ozlem, Eminoglu; Ayşe, Gelal; Canan, Coker; Hakan, Baydur; Ozgur, Karcioglu; Banu, Onvural; Hulya, Guven

    2009-08-01

    Methyl bromide is a toxic substance that has hazardous effects on human health with acute and chronic exposure. Our previous study showed that methyl bromide applicators frequently use large amounts of methyl bromide haphazardly in greenhouses in the prefectures of Narlidere and Balcova in the Aegean city of Izmir. This study aims to evaluate the health conditions of these workers. Our previous study showed that there are 38 methyl bromide applicators in our study area. After the informed consent of methyl bromide applicators was obtained, a questionnaire was used for a survey of demography and symptoms. Each subject was examined before and after application of the compound. Blood and urine samples were collected and stored. Blood samples were analysed for methyl bromide and bromide ion, kidney and liver function tests and lipid profile. The age range of subjects was 19 to 53 years (mean age: 41 +/- 8.57). This study showed that methyl bromide applicators use large amounts of methyl bromide disregarding legal regulations and that some of them had nonspecific complaints. Subjects had been working as methyl bromide applicators for approximately 9.7 +/- 4.15 years. A total of 69.7% of methyl bromide applicators reported that they did not use protective equipment while 33.3% of them had a history of acute methyl bromide intoxication. A statistically significant relationship was found between the usage of protective equipment and the level of blood bromide ion in the blood (P <0.05). Usage of methyl bromide, training, screening and follow-up of applicators must be rigorously controlled in accordance with national legal arrangements and international protocols. Greater efforts are required in the implementation of controls to achieve the targets set by the legal regulations and to ensure continual improvement in the limitation of the risks of this environmental hazard.

  13. Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lasheng [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Ke; Ding, Xiaoping [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Zhan; Xiao, Rui [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Crown ether carboxylic acids constitute main building blocks for the synthesis of terbium containing covalent cross-linked luminescent materials. Both the complexes and the hybrid nanomaterials could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water. More importantly, they were found to have a profound effect on the luminescence responses to arginine compared with glutamic acid, histidine, tryptophan, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine in aqueous environment. The present study provided the possibility of using a host–guest mechanism as a way of signal transduction based on lanthanide supramolecular hybrid materials. - Highlights: • Crown ether carboxylic acids were found to sensitize terbium ions among a group of ethers. • The complexes and silica hybrid materials were both prepared and characterized. • They could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water.

  14. Comparative analysis of conjugated alkynyl chromophore-triazacyclononane ligands for sensitized emission of europium and terbium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié, Marine; Latzko, Frédéric; Bourrier, Emmanuel; Placide, Virginie; Butler, Stephen J; Pal, Robert; Walton, James W; Baldeck, Patrice L; Le Guennic, Boris; Andraud, Chantal; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Lamarque, Laurent; Parker, David; Maury, Olivier

    2014-07-07

    A series of europium and terbium complexes based on a functionalized triazacyclononane carboxylate or phosphinate macrocyclic ligand is described. The influence of the anionic group, that is, carboxylate, methylphosphinate, or phenylphosphinate, on the photophysical properties was studied and rationalized on the basis of DFT calculated structures. The nature, number, and position of electron-donating or electron-withdrawing aryl substituents were varied systematically within the same phenylethynyl scaffold in order to optimize the brightness of the corresponding europium complexes and investigate their two-photon absorption properties. Finally, the europium complexes were examined in cell-imaging applications, and selected terbium complexes were studied as potential oxygen sensors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sensitization of Eriochromeazurol-B in Presence of Cetyldimethylethylammonium Bromide for the Microdetermination of Some Lanthanides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil B. Zade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, a cationic surfactant has been used to decolorize eriochromeazurol B, an anionic triphenylmethane type of dye. Addition of specific lanthanide metal ion to this decolorized solution resulted into intense colored stable ternary complex with large bathochromic shift from 540 nm (binary complex to 650 nm (ternary complex with increase in absorbance values at shifted wavelength. CDMEAB thus decreases the color intensity of ECAB and increases the absorbance value of ternary complexes. This two fold advantage resulted into enhancement in molar absorptivities and sensitivities at shifted wavelength of ternary complexes with stoichiometric composition 1:(1:32, [Ln : (R:S] for all lanthanides understudy namely yttrium, neodymium, europium, terbium and ytterbium. The ternary complexes at pH 6.0 exhibited absorption maxima at 650 nm with molar absorptivities 69000 L.mol-1.cm-2 for Y(III, 66000 L.mol-1.cm-2 for Nd(III, 69000 L.mol-1.cm-2 for Eu(III, 64000 L.mol-1.cm-2 for Tb(III, 70000 L.mol-1.cm-2 for Yb(III. Beer's law were obeyed in concentration range 0.11-0.94, 0.19-1.53, 0.2-1.41, 0.21-1.69 and 0.23-1.11 ppm for Y(III, Nd(III, Eu(III, Tb(III and Yb(III respectively. Conditional formation constants and various analytical parameters have been evaluated and compared the results of newly formed ternary complexes with binary complexes. Finally newly suggested modified method have been recommended for the microdetermination of lanthanides understudy.

  16. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Human Serum Albumin Using Terbium-Danofloxacin Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Amir M.; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Amjadi, Mohammad; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano) as a fluorescent probe. These proteins remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Tb3+-Dano complex at 545 nm, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb3+-Dano is proportional to the concentration of proteins (HSA and BSA). Optimum conditions for the determination of HSA were investigated and found that the maximum resp...

  17. Aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lowell E; Skelley, Jessica W; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Elmore, Lindsey K

    2014-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of the second U.S.-approved long-acting inhaled anticholinergic for controlling bronchospasm in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are reviewed. Aclidinium bromide (Tudorza, Forest Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for long-term maintenance therapy for COPD-associated bronchospasm. It is marketed as a 60-dose metered-dose inhaler to be used twice daily. In Phase II and III clinical trials involving a total of more than 3000 patients, daily use of aclidinium bromide was found to significantly improve selected key indicators of lung function (trough values for forced expiratory volume at one second [FEV1] and other FEV1 outcome measures) compared with placebo use. Other benefits of aclidinium bromide therapy, including a significant reduction in nighttime COPD symptoms, were demonstrated for up to one year. However, aclidinium bromide has not been consistently demonstrated to be more effective than the other currently available long-acting inhaled anticholinergic, tiotropium bromide. Furthermore, the clinical trials indicated no significant difference between aclidinium bromide and tiotropium bromide with regard to rates of systemic adverse effects. For some patients, aclidinium bromide may offer advantages over tiotropium bromide (e.g., a faster time to peak FEV1, lower cost of therapy). Aclidinium bromide is an inhaled anticholinergic that improves lung function measures in patients with COPD. The most common adverse effects during clinical trials of the drug were headache, nasopharyngitis, and cough, none of which occurred at significantly higher rates than were seen with placebo use.

  18. Genetically Encoded FRET-Sensor Based on Terbium Chelate and Red Fluorescent Protein for Detection of Caspase-3 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Goryashchenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the genetically encoded caspase-3 FRET-sensor based on the terbium-binding peptide, cleavable linker with caspase-3 recognition site, and red fluorescent protein TagRFP. The engineered construction performs two induction-resonance energy transfer processes: from tryptophan of the terbium-binding peptide to Tb3+ and from sensitized Tb3+ to acceptor—the chromophore of TagRFP. Long-lived terbium-sensitized emission (microseconds, pulse excitation source, and time-resolved detection were utilized to eliminate directly excited TagRFP fluorescence and background cellular autofluorescence, which lasts a fraction of nanosecond, and thus to improve sensitivity of analyses. Furthermore the technique facilitates selective detection of fluorescence, induced by uncleaved acceptor emission. For the first time it was shown that fluorescence resonance energy transfer between sensitized terbium and TagRFP in the engineered construction can be studied via detection of microsecond TagRFP fluorescence intensities. The lifetime and distance distribution between donor and acceptor were calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. Using this data, quantum yield of terbium ions with binding peptide was estimated.

  19. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of ...

  20. response of farmers to technological transfer in the methyl bromide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... BROMIDE PHASE-OUT PROGRAMME IN ZIMBABWE: THE FLOATING TRAY SYSTEM ... phase out the last 182 tonnes of methyl bromide then used in tobacco seedling production. ... le système du plateau flottant bien que 61 % étaientinformés de la technologie et ne pouvaient pas l'utiliser, en avançant ...

  1. Hole conduction in pure and doped lead bromide crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.

    The conductivity of pure and doped lead bromide was measured in a bromine atmosphere in the temperature region 25–200°C. The defect chemistry of nonstoichiometric lead bromide is presented. The hole mobility was derived from the time dependent change in the conductivity after admission/removal of

  2. Potassium bromide, KBr/ ε: New Force Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a new force field for the Potassium Bromide, the KBr/ ε. The crystal density and structure, as well as, the density, the viscosity and the dielectric constant of the solution in water were computed and compared with the experiments and other atomistic models. Next, the transferability of the KBr/ ε and of the NaCl/ ε models is verified by creating the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models. The strategy was to employ the same parameters obtained for the NaCl/ ε and for the KBr/ ε force fields for the building up of the KCl/ ε and the NaBr/ ε models . The thermodynamic and dynamic properties of these two new models were compared with the experimental

  3. Hydrogen-bond interactions in morpholinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro S. de Sousa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C4H10NO+·Br−, which was synthesized by dehydration of diethanolamine with HBr, morpholinium and bromide ions are linked into chains by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds describing a C21(4 graph-set motif. Weaker bifurcated N—H...Br interactions join centrosymmetrically related chains through alternating binary graph-set R42(8 and R22(4 motifs, to form ladders along [100]. In addition, C—H...O interactions between centrosymmetric morpholinium cations link ladders, via R^2_2(8 motifs, to yield sheets parallel to (101, which in turn are crosslinked by weak C—H...O interactions, related across a glide plane, to form a three-dimensional network.

  4. Green light emission in aluminum oxide powders doped with different terbium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscal B, L; Falcony, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, 07360 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Carmona T, S.; Murrieta, H.; Sanchez A, M. A. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez A, R. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Computo, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, C. M., E-mail: mariscal2005@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    Different emission intensities presented in aluminum oxide phosphors corresponding to different concentrations of doping performed with terbium are analyzed. The phosphors were synthesized by the evaporation technique and were characterized by photo and cathodoluminescence, X-ray diffraction and EDS techniques for different incorporation percentages of terbium as dopant; they show characteristic transitions in 494, 543, 587 and 622 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6}, {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5}, {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 3}, respectively when they are excited with λ{sub exc} = 380 nm wavelength at room temperature. The results of X-ray diffraction show the presence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases with peaks located at 2θ = 25.78, 35.34, 37.96, 43.56, 45.8, 52.74, 57.7, 61.5, 66.74, 68.44, 77.12 and 80.94, and the δ-Al{sub 2}O-3 phase 2θ = 32.82, 45.8, 61.36 and 66.74. These compounds were heat treated for two hours at 1100 degrees Celsius. EDS analyzes indicate that these compounds have close to 60% oxygen around of 40% aluminum in the presence of terbium as dopant which indicates a stoichiometry close to the expected one for alumina. (Author)

  5. Graphene quantum dots-terbium ions as novel sensitive and selective time-resolved luminescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio J; Durán, Gema M; Ríos, Ángel; Ruiz-Medina, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We propose an alternative approach for the development of analytical methods based on terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL). TSL is based on the complexation between Tb(III) ions and fluorescent organic compounds that have appropriate functional groups to complex with Tb(III). We report the use of graphene quantum dot (GQDs) nanoparticles to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of TSL detection. GQDs can react with terbium ions through the carboxylic groups present in their structure. These Tb(III)-GQD complexes, formed in situ in aqueous solution, can be used as time-resolved luminescent probes. Ascorbic acid was selected as a target analyte to demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method. The selectivity of the TSL method was highly improved for most of the interferences tested. Under the optimum conditions [Tb(III) concentration 5 × 10-4 mol L-1, GQD concentration 4 mg L-1], a minimum 100% increase in selectivity was observed for several vitamins and common cations that may be present in the samples to be analyzed. In addition, the analytical signal showed a 30% enhancement with the use of GQDs compared with the use of merely Tb(III) ions, with a detection limit of 0.12 μg mL-1. The repeatability and intermediate precision were lower than 3% and 5%, respectively. From the results obtained, the implementation of GQDs in TSL can lead to the development of novel time-resolved luminescent probes with high analytical potential. Graphical abstract Quenching of Tb(III)-graphene quantum dot (GQD) luminescence by ascorbic acid (AA). TBL terbium-sensitized luminescence.

  6. Fluorescence study of some terbium-oligopeptide complexes in methanolic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabouan, S; Delage, J; Durand, W; Prognon, P; Barthes, D

    2000-04-03

    This study concerned the use of lanthanide chelates to detect glycyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (GLF) and its homologues. Spectroscopic analysis of peptides without or with terbium complexation revealed the formation of (LF)(3)(Tb)(2), (GF)(3)(Tb)(2), (GLF)(3)(Tb)(2) and (FL)(4)Tb, (FG)(4)Tb complexes with high stability constants in methanolic solutions (pK(d)>13). Lanthanide chelate emission displayed a large Stokes shift (>270 nm), which allowed Tb chelates of GLF and its derivatives to be used for detection purposes. However, this preliminary study indicated some important limitations associated with lanthanide chelation, such as high methanolic content.

  7. Electromagnetic properties of terbium gallium garnet at millikelvin temperatures and low photon energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-07-01

    Electromagnetic properties of single crystal terbium gallium garnet are characterised from room down to millikelvin temperatures using the whispering gallery mode method. Microwave spectroscopy is performed at low powers equivalent to a few photons in energy and conducted as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. A phase transition is detected close to the temperature of 3.5 K. This is observed for multiple whispering gallery modes causing an abrupt negative frequency shift and a change in transmission due to extra losses in the new phase caused by a change in complex magnetic susceptibility.

  8. Nuclear excitation functions from 40 to 200 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W., E-mail: jwengle@lanl.gov; Mashnik, Stepan G.; Parker, Lauren A.; Jackman, Kevin R.; Bitteker, Leo J.; Ullmann, John L.; Gulley, Mark S.; Pillai, Chandra; John, Kevin D.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Nortier, Francois M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear formation cross sections are reported for 26 radionuclides, measured with 40–200 MeV proton irradiations of terbium foils. These data provide the basis for the production of medically relevant radionuclides (e.g., {sup 152}Tb, {sup 155}Tb, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 156}Eu) and {sup 153}Gd, a potential source used in ongoing efforts to characterize stellar nucleosynthesis routes. Computational predictions from the ALICE2011, CEM03.03, Bertini, and INCL + ABLA codes are compared with newly measured data to contribute to the ongoing process of code development, and yields are calculated for selected radionuclides using measured data.

  9. Micelle-enhanced and terbium-sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of gatifloxacin and its interaction mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changchuan; Wang, Lei; Hou, Zhun; Jiang, Wei; Sang, Lihong

    2009-05-01

    A terbium-sensitized spectrofluorimetric method using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), was developed for the determination of gatifloxacin (GFLX). A coordination complex system of GFLX-Tb 3+-SDBS was studied. It was found that SDBS significantly enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the complex (about 11-fold). Optimal experimental conditions were determined as follows: excitation and emission wavelengths of 331 and 547 nm, pH 7.0, 2.0 × 10 -4 mol l -1 terbium (III), and 2.0 × 10 -4 mol l -1 SDBS. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of the system (Δ If) showed a good linear relationship with the concentration of GFLX over the range of 5.0 × 10 -10 to 5.0 × 10 -8 mol l -1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The detection limit (3 σ) was determined as 6.0 × 10 -11 mol l -1. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of GFLX in pharmaceuticals and human urine/serum samples. Compared with most of other methods reported, the rapid and simple procedure proposed in the text offers higher sensitivity, wider linear range, and better stability. The interaction mechanism of the system is also studied by the research of ultraviolet absorption spectra, surface tension, solution polarity and fluorescence polarization.

  10. Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Enantiopure Europium and Terbium Complexes with Modular, All-Oxygen Donor Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Michael; Do, King; Ingram, Andrew J.; Moore, Evan G.; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Circulaly polarized luminescence from terbium(III) complexed and excited by chiral antenna ligands gives strong emission The modular synthesis of three new octadentate, enantiopure ligands are reported - one with the bidentate chelating unit 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) and two with 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) units. A new design principle is introduced for the chiral, non-racemic hexamines which constitute the central backbones for the presented class of ligands. The terbium(III) complex of the IAM ligand, as well as the europium(III) complexes of the 1,2-HOPO ligands are synthesized and characterized by various techniques (NMR, UV, CD, luminescence spectroscopy). All species exhibit excellent stability and moderate to high luminescence efficiency (quantum yields ΦEu = 0.05–0.08 and ΦTb = 0.30–0.57) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Special focus is put onto the properties of the complexes in regard to circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The maximum luminescence dissymmetry factors (glum) in aqueous solution are high with |glum|max = 0.08 – 0.40. Together with the very favorable general properties (good stability, high quantum yields, long lifetimes), the presented lanthanide complexes can be considered as good candidates for analytical probes based on CPL in biologically relevant environments. PMID:19639983

  11. Growth and Characterization of Tetraphenylphosphonium Bromide Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqiang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds are a group of chemical materials that have been used as reactants, pharmaceutical intermediates, extractants, and catalysts in organic synthetic reactions. However, the crystal growth of bulk crystals of multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds, which may expand their applications in photonics technology, have been largely overlooked. In this article, the crystal growth of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPPB has been studied in organic solvents and water. The crystal structures and crystallization features are analyzed by X-ray diffraction data. By a slow temperature-lowering method, a single-crystal of TPPB (2H2O with the size of 27 × 20 × 20 mm3 has been obtained in water. The basic thermal and optical properties were characterized. We find that the TPPB (2H2O crystal shows excellent transparent property in the near-IR region. Large Raman shifts and strong Raman scattering intensity indicate that TPPB is a potential candidate in Raman-scattering-based nonlinearity applications.

  12. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  13. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  14. Luminescent method of determination of composition of europium and terbium complexes in solution by change of intensity ratio of luminescence bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' tyukova, S.V.; Nazarenko, N.A.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1982-03-01

    The complexes of europium and terbium with phenanthroline, ethylenediaminetetraacetate, nitrilotriacetate, some acids-phenol derivatives and ..beta..-diketones series have been used as an example to demonstrate that the value of the ratio of intensities on the two bands of europium(terbium) luminescence spectra - the one corresponding to the hypersensitive'' transition and the other, to the magnetic dipole one - can be used for determination of the complexes composition in solutions.

  15. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercuric Bromide-Phenothiazine Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Vidisha A. Alwani; Kishore Cholkar; Ananth A Nayak; Netkal M. Made Gowda

    2014-01-01

    N-alkylphenothiazines (NAPTZs) are biologically active heterocyclic compounds that find extensive applications in the field of medicine. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used as psychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistaminic drugs. In this study, complexation reactions of mercuric bromide with NAPTZs as principal ligands have been investigated in MeOH medium. Five mercuric bromide complexes of the NAPTZ ligands namely, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP.HCl), promethazine hydrochl...

  17. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-18

    FINAL REPORT Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power ESTCP Project EW-201242 SEPTEMBER 2016 Ryan...Bromide (Zn/Br) Flow Battery -based Energy Storage System (ESS) at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar. The effort integrates an innovative Zn...Zn/Br) Flow Battery -based Energy Storage System (ESS) at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar. The effort integrates an innovative Zn/Br

  18. Thermo-transferred thermoluminescence (TTTl) in potassium-yttrium double fluoride doped with terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.; Rivera, T.; Diaz G, J. A. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. C. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias-Campus Leon, Lomas del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Licona, R.; Rivas, F.; Hernandez C, G. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla (Mexico); Khaidukov, N. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Lenin SK 11 Prospect 31, Moscow 117907 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents results of studying the thermo-transferred thermoluminescence (TTTl) phenomenon in potassium-yttrium double fluoride doped with terbium (K{sub 2}YF{sub 5:}Tb) at different impurity concentrations (0.8%, 0.95% and 0.99%). Previously to study the TTTl phenomenon, structural characterization and chemical composition of the materials were determined. The structural studies were conducted using a scanning electron microscope; meanwhile, chemical composition was analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thermoluminescence kinetics was studied irradiating the samples with {sup 137}Cs gamma rays as well as with {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta rays, analyzing the glow curves by the deconvolution method for obtaining the kinetic parameters. (Author)

  19. The influence of pressure on the photoluminescence properties of a terbium-adipate framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elinor C.; Zhao, Jing; Ross, Nancy L.; Andrews, Michael B.; Surbella, Robert G.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of pressure (over the 0-4.7 GPa range) on the photoluminescence emissions and crystal structure of the known 3D terbium-adipate metal-organic framework material Tb-GWMOF6 has been evaluated by high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. The results from this study show that this complex lanthanide framework structure undergoes three phase transitions within the 0-4 GPa pressure range that involve alterations in the number of symmetry independent Tb3+ ion sites within the crystal lattice. These pressure induced modifications to the structure of Tb-GWMOF6 lead to pronounced changes in the profiles of the 5D4→7F5 emission spectra of this complex.

  20. Terbium Radionuclides for Theranostics Applications: A Focus On MEDICIS-PROMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaier, R. Formento; Haddad, F.; Sounalet, T.; Stora, T.; Zahi, I.

    A new facility, named CERN-MEDICIS, is under construction at CERN to produce radionuclides for medical applications. In parallel, the MEDICIS-PROMED, a Marie Sklodowska-Curie innovative training network of the Horizon 2020 European Commission's program, is being coordinated by CERN to train young scientists on the production and use of innovative radionuclides and develop a network of experts within Europe. One program within MEDICIS-PROMED is to determine the feasibility of producing innovative radioisotopes for theranostics using a commercial middle-sized high-current cyclotron and the mass separation technology developed at CERN-MEDICIS. This will allow the production of high specific activity radioisotopes not achievable with the common post-processing by chemical separation. Radioisotopes of scandium, copper, arsenic and terbium have been identified. Preliminary studies of activation yield and irradiation parameters optimization for the production of Tb-149 will be described.

  1. Dielectric and conducting behavior of gadolinium-terbium fumarate heptahydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M. D.; Want, B.

    2015-07-01

    Gadolinium-terbium fumarate heptahydrate crystals were grown in silica gel by using single gel diffusion technique. The crystals were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques of characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction results showed that the grown material is purely crystalline in nature. Elemental analyses suggested the chemical formula of the compound to be Gd Tb (C4H2O4)3ṡ7H2O. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of Gd and Tb in the title compound. The dielectric and conductivity studies of the grown compound were carried as function of frequency of applied field and the temperature. The grown material showed a dielectric anomaly which was correlated with its thermal behavior. The ac conductivity of the material showed Jonscher's power law behavior: σ(ω)=σo+Aωs, with a temperature-dependent power exponent s(<1). The conductivity was found to be a function of temperature and frequency.

  2. Highly sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid with a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev; Mehta, Jyotsana; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2016-12-15

    The sensitive detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA) is strongly associated with the sensing of bacterial organisms in food and many types of environmental samples. To date, the demand for a sensitive detection method for bacterial toxicity has increased remarkably. Herein, we investigated the DPA detection potential of a water-dispersible terbium-metal organic framework (Tb-MOF) based on the fluorescence quenching mechanism. The Tb-MOF showed a highly sensitive ability to detect DPA at a limit of detection of 0.04nM (linear range of detection: 1nM to 5µM) and also offered enhanced selectivity from other commonly associated organic molecules. The present study provides a basis for the application of Tb-MOF for direct, convenient, highly sensitive, and specific detection of DPA in the actual samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Bis(phthalocyaninato) Terbium Single-Ion Magnet with an Overall Excellent Magnetic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Ma, Fang; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Dong, Bowei; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Shangda; Wang, Chiming; Chen, Xin; Qi, Dongdong; Sun, Haoling; Wang, Bingwu; Gao, Song; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2017-11-20

    Bulky and strong electron-donating dibutylamino groups were incorporated onto the peripheral positions of one of the two phthalocyanine ligands in the bis(phthalocyaninato) terbium complex, resulting in the isolation of heteroleptic double-decker (Pc)Tb{Pc[N(C4H9)2]8} {Pc = phthalocyaninate; Pc[N(C4H9)2]8 = 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(dibutylamino)phthalocyaninate} with the nature of an unsymmetrical molecular structure, a square-antiprismatic coordination geometry, an intensified coordination field strength, and the presence of organic radical-f interaction. As a total result of all these factors, this sandwich-type tetrapyrrole lanthanide single-ion magnet (SIM) exhibits an overall enhanced magnetic performance including a high blocking temperature (TB) of 30 K and large effective spin-reversal energy barrier of Ueff = 939 K, rendering it the best sandwich-type tetrapyrrole lanthanide SIM reported thus far.

  4. Ultralarge magneto-optic rotations and rotary dispersion in terbium gallium garnet single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Amrozia; Majeed, Hassaan; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2015-06-10

    We report systematically acquired data on the Verdet constant of terbium gallium garnet for wavelengths ranging from visible to near-infrared (405-830 nm) regime. Our experimental method of Stokes polarimetry is based on the Fourier decomposition of the received light intensity and allows unambiguous determination of both the Faraday rotation and the ellipticity of the emergent light. Temperature-dependent investigations in the range of 8-300 K extend earlier reports and verify the Verdet's constant direct dependence on the magnetization, whose first-order approximation is simply a manifestation of the Curie's law. Further, a least-squares fitting of the experimental data correlates well with theoretical predictions. At a wavelength of 405 nm and temperature of 8 K, the rotation is approximately 500°.

  5. Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBalawi, Zaina H; Othman, Sahar S; Alfaleh, Khalid

    2013-06-19

    The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in humans and constitutes an economic burden both in terms of productivity and expenditure for treatment. There is no proven cure for the common cold and symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. The use of intranasal ipratropium bromide (IB) has been addressed in several studies and might prove an effective treatment for the common cold. To determine the effect of IB versus placebo or no treatment on severity of rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion in children and adults with the common cold. Subjective overall improvement was another primary outcome and side effects (for example, dry mucous membranes, epistaxis and systemic anticholinergic effects) were reported as a secondary outcome. In this updated review we searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1950 to March week 4, 2013), MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations (8 April 2013), EMBASE (1974 to April 2013), AMED (1985 to April 2013), Biosis (1974 to February 2011) and LILACS (1985 to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IB to placebo or no treatment in children and adults with the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We used a standardised form to extract relevant data and we contacted trial authors for additional information. Seven trials with a total of 2144 participants were included. Four studies (1959 participants) addressed subjective change in severity of rhinorrhoea. All studies were consistent in reporting statistically significant changes in favour of IB. Nasal congestion was reported in four studies and was found to have no significant change between the two groups. Two studies found a positive response in the IB group for the global assessment of overall improvement. Side effects were more frequent in the IB group, odds ratio (OR) 2.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 3.11). Commonly encountered side effects included nasal dryness, blood tinged mucus

  6. Terbium fluorescence as a sensitive, inexpensive probe for UV-induced damage in nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Yazbi, Amira F.; Loppnow, Glen R., E-mail: glen.loppnow@ualberta.ca

    2013-07-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay for positive detection of DNA damage. •Recognition of undamaged DNA via hybridization to a hairpin probe. •Terbium(III) fluorescence reports the amount of damage by binding to ssDNA. •Tb/hairpin is a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for DNA damage. -- Abstract: Much effort has been focused on developing methods for detecting damaged nucleic acids. However, almost all of the proposed methods consist of multi-step procedures, are limited, require expensive instruments, or suffer from a high level of interferences. In this paper, we present a novel simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay that is generally applicable to nucleic acid damage and uses the enhanced luminescence due to energy transfer from nucleic acids to terbium(III) (Tb{sup 3+}). Single-stranded oligonucleotides greatly enhance the Tb{sup 3+} emission, but duplex DNA does not. With the use of a DNA hairpin probe complementary to the oligonucleotide of interest, the Tb{sup 3+}/hairpin probe is applied to detect ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage. The hairpin probe hybridizes only with the undamaged DNA. However, the damaged DNA remains single-stranded and enhances the intrinsic fluorescence of Tb{sup 3+}, producing a detectable signal directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. This allows the Tb{sup 3+}/hairpin probe to be used for sensitive quantification of UV-induced DNA damage. The Tb{sup 3+}/hairpin probe showed superior selectivity to DNA damage compared to conventional molecular beacons probes (MBs) and its sensitivity is more than 2.5 times higher than MBs with a limit of detection of 4.36 ± 1.2 nM. In addition, this probe is easier to synthesize and more than eight times cheaper than MBs, which makes its use recommended for high-throughput, quantitative analysis of DNA damage.

  7. Fine- and hyperfine structure investigations of even configuration system of atomic terbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Elantkowska, M.; Ruczkowski, J.; Furmann, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this work a parametric study of the fine structure (fs) and the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even-parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented, based in considerable part on the new experimental results. Measurements on 134 spectral lines were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a hollow cathode discharge lamp; on this basis, the hyperfine structure constants A and B were determined for 52 even-parity levels belonging to the configurations 4f85d6s2, 4f85d26s or 4f96s6p; in all the cases those levels were involved in the transitions investigated as the lower levels. For 40 levels the hfs was examined for the first time, and for the remaining 12 levels the new measurements supplement our earlier results. As a by-product, also preliminary values of the hfs constants for 84 odd-parity levels were determined (the investigations of the odd-parity levels system in the terbium atom are still in progress). This huge amount of new experimental data, supplemented by our earlier published results, were considered for the fine and hyperfine structure analysis. A multi-configuration fit of 7 configurations was performed, taking into account second-order of perturbation theory, including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Predicted values of the level energies, as well as of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants A and B, are quoted in cases when no experimental values are available. By combining our experimental data with our own semi-empirical procedure it was possible to identify correctly the lower and upper level of the line 544.1440 nm measured by Childs with the use of the atomic-beam laser-rf double-resonance technique (Childs, J Opt Soc Am B 9;1992:191-6).

  8. Structural and optical characterization of terbium doped ZnGa2O4 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K.; Girija, K. G.; Sudarsan, V.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Vatsa, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor (21 nm) has been synthesized via low temperature polyol route and subsequently thin films of the same were deposited on glass and ITO substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern showed that Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor has a cubic spinel phase. Luminescence behavior of the nanophosphor and as deposited sputtered film was investigated. The PL emission spectra of nanophosphor gave a broad ZnGa2O4 host emission band along with a strong terbium emission and the thin films showed only broad host emission band and there was no terbium ion emission.

  9. Determination of fluoxetine in pharmaceutical and biological samples based on the silver nanoparticle enhanced fluorescence of fluoxetine-terbium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Ali; Manzoori, Jamshid L

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of fluoxetine based on the enhancing effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the terbium-fluoxetine fluorescence emission. The AgNPs were prepared by a simple reduction method and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was indicated that these AgNPs have a remarkable amplifying effect on the terbium-sensitized fluorescence of fluoxetine. The effects of various parameters such as AgNP and Tb(3+) concentration and the pH of the media were investigated. Under obtained optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the terbium-fluoxetine-AgNP system was enhanced linearly by increasing the concentration of fluoxetine in the range of 0.008 to 19 mg/L. The limit of detection (b + 3s) was 8.3 × 10(-4) mg/L. The interference effects of common species found in real samples were also studied. The method had good linearity, recovery, reproducibility and sensitivity, and was satisfactorily applied for the determination of fluoxetine in tablet formulations, human urine and plasma samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Neutron Diffraction and Electrical Transport Studies on Magnetic Transition in Terbium at High Pressures and Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah; Montgomery, Jeffrey; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Weir, Samuel; Tulk, Christopher; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate its transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic ordered phase as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements using designer diamonds show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of the ferromagnetic transition decreases at a rate of -16.7 K/GPa till 3.6 GPa, where terbium undergoes a structural transition from hexagonal close packed (hcp) to an α-Sm phase. Above this pressure, the electrical resistance measurements no longer exhibit a change in slope. In order to confirm the change in magnetic phase suggested by the electrical resistance measurements, neutron diffraction measurements were conducted at the SNAP beamline at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements were made at pressures to 5.3 GPa and temperatures as low as 90 K. An abrupt increase in peak intensity in the neutron diffraction spectra signaled the onset of magnetic order below the Curie temperature. A magnetic phase diagram of rare earth metal terbium will be presented to 5.3 GPa and 90 K based on these studies.

  11. Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Zhong, Michael Roth Pneumology and Pulmonary Cell Research, Department of Biomedicine and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is increasing worldwide and is predicted to become the third most frequent cause of death by 2030. Muscarinic receptor antagonists, alone or in combination with long-acting ß2-agonists, are frequently used for COPD therapy. Aclidinium bromide is a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist, and clinical studies indicate that its metabolism is more rapid than that of other muscarinic receptor inhibitors, so systemic side effects are expected to occur less frequently. Aclidinium bromide is well tolerated, and when compared with other muscarinic receptor antagonists, the drug achieves better control of lung function, especially night-time symptoms in COPD patients. This review summarizes the safety profile and side effects reported by recent clinical studies using aclidinium bromide alone. Keywords: aclidinium, tiotropium, side effects, clinical safety

  12. Water- Lithium Bromide-γ- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-γ-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole γ-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  13. Study of Silver Nanoparticles Sensitized Fluorescence and Second-Order Scattering of Terbium(III-Pefloxacin Mesylate Complex and Determination of Pefloxacin Mesylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Keto acid of pefloxacin mesylate (PFLX can form the complex with Terbium(III. The intramolecular energy from PFLX to Terbium(III ion takes place when excited, and thus Terbium(III excited state is formed and then emits the characteristic fluorescence of Terbium(III, locating at 490, 545, 580, and 620 nm. The second-order scattering (SOS peak at 545 nm also appears for the complex with the exciting wavelength of 273 nm. When the silver nanoparticles are added to the system, the luminescence intensity at 545 nm greatly increased. So, with the adding of nanoparticles to the Terbium(III-PFLX complex, not only is the intramolecular energy promoted but also the SOS intensity is enhanced. The experimental results show that it is the silver nanoparticles with certain size and certain concentration which can greatly enhance the fluorescence-SOS intensity, and the relative intensity at 545 nm is proportional to the amount of PFLX. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method for the determination of PFLX has been developed and applied to the determination of PFLX in capsule and serum samples.

  14. Influence of crystalline structure on the luminescence properties of terbium orthotantalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Kisla P.F. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, ICEB II, Ouro Preto 35400-000, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Carmo, Alexandre P. [Instituto Federal Fluminense, Campus Cabo Frio, RJ 28909-971 (Brazil); Bell, Maria J.V. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora 36036-330, MG (Brazil); Dias, Anderson, E-mail: anderson_dias@iceb.ufop.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, ICEB II, Ouro Preto 35400-000, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Terbium orthotantalate powders were produced with M-fergusonite type (I2/a) and M′-fergusonite type (P2/a) structures. The samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence measurements (emission and decay curves). The results showed that crystalline materials were obtained with all the 18 Raman-active modes predicted by group theory calculations. Also, it was observed through photoluminescence decay curves that the Tb{sup 3+} ions occupies only one-symmetry site in both crystallographic arrangements. Photoluminescence emission curves exhibited some variation in spectral shape, peak position, and relative intensity as a consequence of their different crystalline arrangements. The dominated emission of Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5}) is centered with a maximum intensity at 549.2 nm (M-type) and 543.0 nm (M′-type). Fluorescence lifetimes for M-TbTaO{sub 4} and M′-TbTaO{sub 4} were determined as 33.4 μs and 1.25 ms, respectively. M′-type materials seems to be the most suitable for luminescent devices and could be a potential green luminescent material due to the strongest emission if compared with the M-fergusonite type. -- Highlights: ► Terbium orthotantalates were prepared in two different crystalline structures: I2/a and P2/a. ► XRD and Raman scattering showed that the different space groups obtained were exhibited all the 18 Raman-active modes. ► PL decay curves that the Tb{sup 3+} ions occupies only one-symmetry site in both crystallographic arrangements. ► Dominated emission of Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5}) is centered with a maximum intensity at 549 nm (M-type) and 543 nm (M′-type). ► Fluorescence lifetimes for M-TbTaO{sub 4} and M′-TbTaO{sub 4} were determined as 33.4 μs and 1.25 ms, respectively.

  15. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings ...

  16. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  17. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area... gas introduction, and allowed to run for at least 15 minutes. Fruit pulp temperature must be between 21.1 °C and 29.4 °C (70 °F and 85 °F). This temperature requirement refers to fruit pulp only and not...

  18. Effectiveness of hyoscine butyl bromide in shortening the first stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prolonged labour from cervical dystocia or stasis is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB), an anticholinergic and antispasmodic drug, has been found effective in shortening the first stage of labour with no adverse effects on feto-maternal outcomes.

  19. Methyl bromide soil fumigation: effect on grass yields | MGW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual herbage yields of grasses grown on sandy soils on Henderson Research Station seldom exceed 10 000 kg/ha dry matter, while on heavy clay soils yields of 18 000 kg/ha are consistently obtained with similar amounts of applied fertilizers. Keywords: methyl bromide|soils|fumigation|grasses|grass ...

  20. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  1. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-21

    Aug 21, 1990 ... metered aerosol method compared with nebulisation of ipra- tropium bromide when given to wheezing infants and toddlers. The former method is convenient for primary health care facilities or home use, since it does not depend upon the availability of the nebuliser apparatus or a gas or electricity source.

  2. Revisiting the Kinetics and Mechanism of Bromate-Bromide Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Carlos Eduardo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bromate-bromide reaction was investigated in an acidity range not studied yet. The reaction was followed at the Br2/Br3- isosbestic point (lambda = 446 nm. It was observed a first-order behavior for bromate and bromide ions and a second-order behavior for H+ ion that results in the rate law nu = k[BrO3-][Br- ][H+]². This rate law suggests a mechanism involving two successive protonation of bromate followed by the interaction of the intermediate species H2BrO3+ with bromide. These results disagree with the obtained by other authors who observed a second-order behavior for the bromide and first-order for H+, and have proposed intermediate species like H2Br2O3 and HBr2O3-. The second-order for [H+] observed in the range 0.005 <= [H+] <= 2.77 mol L-1 sets down that the pKa of bromic acid, HBrO3, must be lower than -0.5 (T = 25 °C, different from all other values for this pKa proposed in the literature.

  3. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (E), hydrogen bond donor ability ...

  4. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and ...

  5. Laser control and temperature switching of luminescence intensity in photostable transparent film based on terbium(III) β-diketonate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, Dmitry V.; Nikiforov, Victor G.; Safiullin, Georgy M.; Lobkov, Vladimir S.; Salikhov, Kev M.; Knyazev, Andrey A.; Galyametdinov, Yury G.

    2014-11-01

    The study of the terbium(III) and gadolinium(III) β-diketonate complexes by photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals considerable changes of the photophysical properties of the complexes under the UV laser irradiation. The measurements show the enhancement of the luminescence intensities in the vitrified transparent film of the terbium(III) complex as well as the gadolinium(III) complex under the 337 nm laser irradiation at room temperature. The irradiated film of the terbium(III) complex restores the initial photophysical properties after heating close to the melting temperature (∼353 K) and cooling. We observe no change of the luminescent properties of the irradiated film for months. These features can be used for the design of new lanthanide-based photostable systems with laser control of the luminescence intensity.

  6. Development of functionalized terbium fluorescent nanoparticles for antibody labeling and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Tan, Mingqian; Wang, Guilan; Yuan, Jingli

    2005-01-15

    Silica-based functionalized terbium fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and developed as a fluorescence probe for antibody labeling and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The nanoparticles were prepared in a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion containing a strongly fluorescent Tb(3+) chelate, N,N,N(1),N(1)-[2,6-bis(3'-aminomethyl-1'-pyrazolyl)phenylpyridine] tetrakis(acetate)-Tb(3+) (BPTA-Tb(3+)), Triton X-100, octanol, and cyclohexane by controlling copolymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (AEPS) with ammonia water. The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and fluorometric methods show that the nanoparticles are spherical and uniform in size, 45 +/- 3nm in diameter, strongly fluorescent with fluorescence quantum yield of 10% and a long fluorescence lifetime of 2.0ms. The amino groups directly introduced to the nanoparticle's surface by using AEPS in the preparation made the surface modification and bioconjugation of the nanoparticles easier. The nanoparticle-labeled anti-human alpha-fetoprotein antibody was prepared and used for time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum samples. The assay response is linear from 0.10ngml(-1) to about 100ngml(-1) with the detection limit of 0.10ngml(-1). The coefficient variations (CVs) of the method are less than 9.0%, and the recoveries are in the range of 84-98% for human serum sample measurements.

  7. Highly efficient precipitation of phosphoproteins using trivalent europium, terbium, and erbium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, Yueksel; Rainer, Matthias; Mirza, Munazza Raza; Bonn, Guenther K. [Leopold-Franzens University, Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    This study describes a highly efficient method for the selective precipitation of phosphoproteins by trivalent europium, terbium, and erbium metal ions. These metal cations belong to the group of lanthanides and are known to be hard acceptors with an overwhelming preference for oxygen-containing anions such as phosphates to which they form very tight ionic bonds. The method could be successfully applied to specifically precipitate phosphoproteins from complex samples including milk and egg white by forming solid metal-protein complexes. Owing to the low solubility product of the investigated lanthanide salts, the produced metal-protein complexes showed high stability. The protein pellets were extensively washed to remove nonphosphorylated proteins and contaminants. For the analysis of proteins the pellets were first dissolved in 30 % formic acid and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. For peptide mass-fingerprint analysis the precipitated phosphoproteins were enzymatically digested using microwave-assisted digestion. The method was found to be highly specific for the isolation and purification of phosphoproteins. Protein quantification was performed by colorimetric detection of total precipitated phosphoproteins and revealed more than 95 % protein recovery for each lanthanide salt. (orig.)

  8. A Terbium Sensitized Luminescence Method for the Assay of Flubiprofen in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M.Z. Al-Kindy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive time-resolved luminescence method for the determination of flubiprofen (FLP in methanol and in aqueous solution is described. The method is based on the luminescence sensitization of terbium (Tb3+ by the formation of a ternary complex with FLP in the presence of 4,7 diphenyl 1,10 phenanthroline (DPP as co-ligand, and Tween-20 as surfactant. The signal for Tb-FLP-DPP was monitored at λex  = 285 nm and λem  = 552 nm. Optimum conditions for the formation of the complex in an aqueous system were TRIS buffer, pH 8.0, DPP (2.5Å~10−7  M, Tween-20 (0.30% and 4Å~10-5  mol L-1  of Tb3+  which allowed the determination of 20–1000 ng mL-1  of FLP with a limit of detection (LOD of 10 ng mL-1 . The relative standard deviations of the method ranged between 0.6 and 1.4% indicating excellent reproducibility of the method. The proposed method was successfully applied for the assays of FLP in pharmaceutical formulations and spiked tap water samples with average recoveries of 87% – 95%.

  9. Sensitization effects of supramolecular assemblies on the luminescence of terbium-ion prulifloxacin complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Yi Chongyue; Li Xue; Fang Fang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang Yajiang, E-mail: yjyang@mail.hust.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Luminescence enhancement of terbium-ion prulifloxacin complexes (Tb(III)-PUFX) in supramolecular hydrogels formed by assembly of 1,3:2,4-di-O-benzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) was investigated by steady-state fluorescence, varying temperature fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence. The luminescence images show that Tb(III)-PUFX were dispersed in the DBS gels. The luminescence intensity of Tb(III)-PUFX in the DBS gels was significantly increased in comparison with that in corresponding aqueous solutions. The varying temperature fluorescent spectra show that the luminescence intensity of Tb(III)-PUFX decreased with an increase in the temperature. This implies that the luminescence enhancement of Tb(III)-PUFX is related to the dissociation and the formation of the DBS assemblies. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements show slower rotational motion in DBS gels in comparison with that in the corresponding aqueous solutions. This may be ascribed to a unique microstructure of three-dimensional network formed by DBC aggregates, resulting in deactivation of the nonradiative relaxation. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy and polarized optical microscopy indicate that the morphology of the DBS assemblies was not influenced upon addition of Tb(III)-PUFX to the DBS gels.

  10. A Nanoscale Multiresponsive Luminescent Sensor Based on a Terbium(III) Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Song; Wang, Ting; Yi, Feiyan; Liu, Qinghui; Yang, Weiting; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2015-08-01

    A nanoscale terbium-containing metal-organic framework (nTbL), with a layer-like structure and [H2 NMe2 ](+) cations located in the framework channels, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The structure of the as-prepared sample was systematically confirmed by powder XRD and elemental analysis; the morphology was characterized by field-emission SEM and TEM. The photoluminescence studies revealed that rod-like nTbL exhibited bright-green emission, corresponding to (5)D4 →(7)FJ (J=6-3) transitions of the Tb(3+) ion under excitation. Further sensing measurements revealed that as-prepared nTbL could be utilized as a multiresponsive luminescent sensor, which showed significant and exclusive detection ability for Fe(3+) ions and phenylmethanol. These results highlight the practical applications of lanthanide-containing metal-organic frameworks as fluorescent probes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Terbium-Doped VO2 Thin Films: Reduced Phase Transition Temperature and Largely Enhanced Luminous Transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Liu, Shiyu; Zeng, XianTing; Cao, Xun; Long, Yi

    2016-01-26

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a well-known thermochromic material with large IR modulating ability, promising for energy-saving smart windows. The main drawbacks of VO2 are its high phase transition temperature (τ(c) = 68°C), low luminous transmission (T(lum)), and weak solar modulating ability (ΔT(sol)). In this paper, the terbium cation (Tb(3+)) doping was first reported to reduce τ(c) and increase T(lum) of VO2 thin films. Compared with pristine VO2, 2 at. % doping level gives both enhanced T(lum) and ΔT(sol) from 45.8% to 54.0% and 7.7% to 8.3%, respectively. The T(lum) increases with continuous Tb(3+) doping and reaches 79.4% at 6 at. % doping level, representing ∼73.4% relative increment compared with pure VO2. This has surpassed the best reported doped VO2 thin films. The enhanced thermochromic properties is meaningful for smart window applications of VO2 materials.

  12. Luminescent investigations of terbium(III) biosorption as a surrogate for heavy metals and radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Arango, Dulce C; Carles, Elizabeth L; Cutler, Christopher E; Meyer, Lauren A; Brozik, Susan M

    2009-07-01

    We describe a metal transport system for investigating the interfacial interactions between the anionic surface charge of a gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a trivalent cationic metal, Tb3+. We believe this is the first description of the uptake kinetics, sub- and intracellular distribution, and temporal fate of Tb3+ ion in E. coli. We used the luminescence of the terbium-dipicolinic acid chelate to study metal ion transport. The bacteria had a high tolerance for the metal (IC(50) = 4 mM Tb3+). Metal ion transport was passive and metabolism independent. The uptake kinetics rapidly reached a maximum within 15 min, followed by a stasis for 60 min, and declining thereafter between 120 and 240 min, resulting in a biphasic curve. During this period, greater than one-third of the metal ion was sequestered within the cell. Our choice of a safe Biosafety Level I E. coli bacteria and the relatively non-toxic Tb3+ metal represents a model system for luminescent investigations of biosorption, for studying bacterial-water interfacial chemistry and for the bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides.

  13. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The

  14. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part VIII: Hyperfine structure HPC calculations for terbium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Sikorski, Andrzej; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2017-11-01

    A parametric analysis of the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented in this work. We introduce the complete set of 4fN-core states in our high-performance computing (HPC) calculations. For calculations of the huge hyperfine structure matrix, requiring approximately 5000 hours when run on a single CPU, we propose the methods utilizing a personal computer cluster or, alternatively a cluster of Microsoft Azure virtual machines (VM). These methods give a factor 12 performance boost, enabling the calculations to complete in an acceptable time.

  15. Thermal stability of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide modified montmorillonite organoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yunfei; Zhou, Qin; Frost, Ray L; He, Hongping

    2007-07-15

    Organoclays are significant for providing a mechanism for the adsorption of organic molecules from potable water. As such their thermal stability is important. A combination of thermogravimetric analysis and infrared emission spectroscopy was used to determine this stability. Infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) was used to investigate the changes in the structure and surface characteristics of water and surfactant molecules in montmorillonite, octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and organoclays prepared with the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide with different surfactant loadings. These spectra collected at different temperatures give support to the results obtained from the thermal analysis and also provide additional evidence for the dehydration which is difficult to obtain by normal thermoanalytical techniques. The spectra provide information on the conformation of the surfactant molecules in the clay layers and the thermal decomposition of the organoclays. Infrared emission spectroscopy proved to be a useful tool for the study of the thermal stability of the organoclays.

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination of bromide in human milk and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goewie, C E; Hogendoorn, E A

    1985-11-08

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of bromide present in human body fluids at the level of 0.5-5.0 ppm is presented. The method involves liquid--liquid extraction of lipids and other lipophilic compounds, destruction of the aqueous phase and analysis of the residue on an aminopropyl bonded silica column with UV detection at 214 nm. The method was applied to the analysis of 278 samples of Dutch human milk. Comparison of the results obtained with those from a routinely used colorimetric procedure for plasma indicated excellent agreement. The ease of automation of the described procedure and its excellent reproducibility make it a good alternative to existing methods for bromide analysis in body fluids.

  17. [2,6-Bis(dimethylaminomethylphenyl]selenium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Varga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C12H19N2Se+·Br−·H2O, the two independent bromide anions lie on a twofold rotation axis. Strong intramolecular N→Se interactions [2.185 (3 and 2.181 (3 Å] are established by both N atoms of the organic group in the cation, in trans positions to each other, with an N—Se—N angle of 161.6 (1°, resulting in a T-shaped (C,N,N′Se core. In the crystal, dimeric associations are formed by Br...Se [3.662 (2 Å] and Br...H interactions [2.56 (6 and 2.63 (7 Å] involving two bromide anions, two cations and two water molecules.

  18. Food Safe Alternatives to Methyl Bromide in Country Ham Production

    OpenAIRE

    Preisser III, Richard Herman

    2016-01-01

    Dry cured meat production is a costly and long term investment for producers. Ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) are a common pest of dry cured products and cause devastating effects, potentially nullifying producers' investments due to loss of salable product, as well as regulatory concerns. Methyl bromide, a chemical fumigant used to control mite populations, is damaging to stratospheric ozone and will no longer be available. Presently, no alternative control measure has been approved to ...

  19. Conservative tracer bromide inhibits pesticide mineralisation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Rosenbom, Annette E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2017-03-01

    Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L-1, levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils. KBr was added to soil microcosms at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 g Br- L-1 in the soil solution. The study concluded that KBr had a negative effect on pesticide mineralisation. The inhibitory effect varied depending on the KBr concentration, the type of pesticide and the type of soil. Furthermore, 16 S amplicon sequencing revealed that the KBr treatment generally reduced the abundance of bacteroidetes and proteobacteria on both an RNA and DNA level. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of KBr on the soil bacterial community and consequently also on xenobiotic degradation, it is recommended that KBr be applied in a concentration that does not exceed 0.5 g Br- L-1 in the soil water. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Two new bismuth thiourea bromides: crystal structure, growth, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, R K

    2014-02-14

    Crystals of two new bismuth thiourea bromides, bismuth trithiourea bromide (Bi[CS(NH2)2]3Br3, BTB) and bismuth protonated-hexathiourea bromide (Bi[CS(NH2)2H]6Br9, BHB), have been successfully grown from hydrobromic acid solution with different pH values by slow evaporation. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that BTB is isostructural to its Cl-analog crystallizing in a monoclinic space group Cc with unit cell dimensions of a = 8.6238(7) Å, b = 12.2506(11) Å, c = 15.5040(13) Å, β = 90.7810(10)° and Z = 4. In contrast, BHB crystallizes in a trigonal space group R3[combining macron]c with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 12.748(17) Å, c = 40.45(11) Å, and Z = 6. The protonation of the thiourea in BHB is confirmed by the structure solution, IR and Raman spectroscopy. The UV diffuse reflection spectra clearly indicate that both of the two crystals have good optical transparency in the range below 2000 nm. Both compounds decompose above 190 °C, and BHB melts at around 140 °C while BTB possesses a phase transition at 145 °C as indicated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA).

  1. Spectrofluorimetric determination of human serum albumin using terbium-danofloxacin probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Amir M; Manzoori, Jamshid L; Amjadi, Mohammad; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using terbium-danofloxacin (Tb(3+)-Dano) as a fluorescent probe. These proteins remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Tb(3+)-Dano complex at 545 nm, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb(3+)-Dano is proportional to the concentration of proteins (HSA and BSA). Optimum conditions for the determination of HSA were investigated and found that the maximum response was observed at: pH = 7.8, [Tb(3+)] = 8.5 × 10(-5) mol L(-1), [Dano] = 1.5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1). The calibration graphs for standard solutions of BSA, HSA, and plasma samples of HSA were linear in the range of 0.2 × 10(-6) - 1.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), 0.2 × 10(-6) - 1.4 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), and 0.2 × 10(-6) - 1 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for BSA, HSA, and plasma sample of HSA were 8.7 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), 6.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), and 8.1 × 10(-8) mol L(-1), respectively. The applicability of the method was checked using a number of real biological plasma samples and was compared with the UV spectrometric reference method. The results was showed that the method could be regarded as a simple, practical, and sensitive alternative method for determination of albumin in biological samples.

  2. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Human Serum Albumin Using Terbium-Danofloxacin Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Ramezani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA and bovine serum albumin (BSA using terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano as a fluorescent probe. These proteins remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Tb3+-Dano complex at 545 nm, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb3+-Dano is proportional to the concentration of proteins (HSA and BSA. Optimum conditions for the determination of HSA were investigated and found that the maximum response was observed at: pH=7.8, [Tb3+] =8.5×10−5 mol L−1, [Dano] =1.5×10−4 mol L−1. The calibration graphs for standard solutions of BSA, HSA, and plasma samples of HSA were linear in the range of 0.2×10−6−1.3×10−6 mol L−1, 0.2×10−6−1.4×10−6 mol L−1, and 0.2×10−6−1×10−6 mol L−1, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3 for BSA, HSA, and plasma sample of HSA were 8.7×10−8 mol L−1, 6.2×10−8 mol L−1, and 8.1×10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The applicability of the method was checked using a number of real biological plasma samples and was compared with the UV spectrometric reference method. The results was showed that the method could be regarded as a simple, practical, and sensitive alternative method for determination of albumin in biological samples.

  3. Determination of flavonoids in pharmaceutical preparations using Terbium sensitized fluorescence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shaghaghi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was development and validation of a simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of total flavonoids in two topical formulations of Calendula officinalis, Ziziphus Spina-christi and an oral drop of Hypiran perforatum L. The proposed method is based on the formation of terbium (Tb3+ "n-flavonoids (quercetin as a reference standard complex at pH 7.0, which has fluorescence intensely with maximum emission at 545 nm when excited at 310 nm. "nMethod "n: For ointments masses of topical formulations were weighed and added to ethanol-aqueous buffer (pH 10.0 and the resulting mixtures were shaken and then two phases were separated by centrifugation. Aqueous phases were filtered and then diluted with water. For Hypiran drops an appropriate portion was diluted with ethanol and then aliquots of sample or standard solutions were determined according to the experimental procedure. "nResults "n: Under the optimum conditions, total concentrations of flavonoids (as quercetin equivalent in three tested formulations were found to be 0.204 mg/g (for Dermatin cream, 0.476 mg/g (for Calendula ointment and 13.50 μg/ml (for Hypiran drops. Analytical recoveries from samples spiked with different amounts of quercetin were 96.1-104.0 % with RSD % of less than 3.5. Conclusion : The proposed method which requires a simple dissolution step without any matrix interferences provided high sensitivity and selectivity and was easily applied to determine total flavonoids in real samples of three investigated formulations with excellent reproducibility.

  4. TOF SIMS analysis and generation of white photoluminescence from strontium silicate codoped with europium and terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshabalala, Modiehi A.; Swart, Hendrik C.; Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M., E-mail: ntwaeab@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 South Africa (South Africa)

    2014-03-15

    White light emitting terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) and europium (Eu{sup 3+}) codoped strontium silicate (Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) phosphors were prepared by a solid state reaction process. The structure, particle morphology, chemical composition, ion distribution, photoluminescence (PL), and decay characteristics of the phosphors were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and PL spectroscopy, respectively. The XRD data showed that our Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} composed of two phases, namely, β-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and α′-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, and the α′-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase was more prominent than the β-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase. The SEM micrographs showed that the particles were agglomerated together and they did not have definite shapes. All ions (i.e., negative and positive) present in our materials were identified by TOF-SIMS. In addition, the chemical imaging performed with the TOF-SIMS demonstrated how the individual ions including the dopants (Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) were distributed in the host lattice. White photoluminescence was observed when the Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} phosphor was excited at 239 nm using a monochromatized xenon lamp as the excitation source. The phosphor exhibited fast decay lifetimes implying that it is not a good candidate for long afterglow applications.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, S.; Gallego, P.M.; Gelder, R. de; Fu, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    The reactions of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide with europium(III) and terbium(III) triflates led to the formation of mononuclear complexes of formula [Ln(pcam)(3)](CF3SO3)(3) (Ln = Eu 1, Tb 2; pcam stands for pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide). From single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, the complexes

  6. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride +

  7. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodium chloride and solid lithium iodide + sodium iodide.

  8. On the distribution of bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian sea off central Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Water samples from surface to 2000 m depth at two stations in the Arabian Sea collected during the 82nd cruise of R V Gaveshani in November, 1980 were analysed for bromide. The average bromide concentration was 0.068 g/kg plus or minus 0...

  9. Zinc sulfide and terbium-doped zinc sulfide films grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, S J; Nam, K S

    1998-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and terbium-doped ZnS (ZnS:Tb) thin films were grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). In the present work, ZnCl sub 2 , H sub 2 S, and tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandionato) terbium (Tb(tmhd) sub 3) were used as the precursors. The dependence of crystallinity and Cl content of ZnS films was investigated on the growth temperature. ZnS and ZnS:Tb films grown at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 .deg. C showed a hexagonal-2H crystalline structure. The crystallinity of ZnS film was greatly enhanced as the temperature increased. At growth temperatures higher than 450.deg.C, the films showed preferred orientation with mainly (002) diffraction peak. The Cl content decreased from approximately 9 to 1 at.% with the increase in growth temperature from 400 to 500 .deg. C. The segregation of Cl near the surface region and the incorporation of O from Tb(tmhd) sub 3 during ALE process were also observed using Auger electron spectroscopy. The ALE-grown ZnS and ZnS:Tb films re...

  10. Commercializing potassium terbium fluoride, KTF (KTb3F10) faraday crystals for high laser power optical isolator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Wolfgang; Stevens, Kevin; Foundos, Greg; Payne, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    Many scientific lasers and increasingly industrial laser systems operate in power regime, require high-performance optical isolators to prevent disruptive light feedback into the laser cavity. The optically active Faraday material is the key optical element inside the isolator. SYNOPTICS has been supplying the laser market with Terbium Gallium Garnet (TGG - Tb3Ga5O12) for many years. It is the most commonly used material for the 650-1100nm range and the key advantages for TGG include its cubic crystal structure for alignment free processing, little to no intrinsic birefringence, and ease of manufacture. However, for high-power laser applications TGG is limited by its absorption at 1064nm and its thermo-optic coefficient, dn/dT. Specifically, thermal lensing and depolarization effects become a limiting factor at high laser powers. While TGG absorption has improved significantly over the past few years, there is an intrinsic limit. Now, SYNOPTICS is commercializing the enhanced new crystal Potassium Terbium Fluoride KTF (KTb3F10) that exhibits much smaller nonlinear refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients, and still exhibits a Verdet constant near that of TGG. This cubic crystal has relatively low absorption and thermo-optic coefficients. It is now fully characterized and available for select production orders. At OPTIFAB in October 2017 we present recent results comparing the performance of KTF to TGG in optical isolators and show SYNOPTICS advances in large volume crystal growth and the production ramp up.

  11. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  12. Transient anisocoria in a patient treated with nebulized ipratropium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pejic

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Presence of anisocoria may be a concerning neurological sign. If there are no other neurological or ophthalmological signs and symptoms and a recent ipratropium bromide inhalation treatment exists in the patient's history, we should consider iatrogenic side-effect of drugs as a possible reason of anisocoria and possibly spare the patient extensive and invasive diagnostic procedures that can also raise costs of treatment significantly. Observing neurological status and testing with 1% pilocarpine solution may be necessary to determine the etiology of this condition.

  13. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  14. Obtaining tabular silver bromide crystals using double-jet method in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyonizy, A.; Nowak, P. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze St., Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-11-15

    Water-gelatine suspensions containing tabular crystals of silver bromide were obtained using the modified double-jet method, in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and an excess of bromide ions, used to increase silver bromide solubility. The size and morphology of crystals obtained depend mostly on the constant concentration of complexing agents in the dispersive solution, during nucleation and crystal growth. The influence of excessive bromide ions concentration and volumetric concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide in the crystallising mixture on the formation of tabular - triangular or hexagonal thin plates - of high aspect ratio has been analysed. During experiment, optimal ranges of dimethyl sulfoxide and excessive bromide ions concentrations for obtaining interesting forms of flat silver bromide crystals were determined. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Morphology of silver bromide crystals produced at presence of N,N -dimethylformamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyonizy, A.; Nowak, P. [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    The study deals with examination of conditions that are necessary to obtain flat crystals of silver bromide that grow in a water and gelatine crystallization environment where N,N -dimethylformamide is used as the agent that is conducive to complexing of sparingly soluble silver bromide. The examination focused on the issue how changes in volumetric concentration of N,N -dimethylformamide as well as concentration of excessive ions of silver bromide in the dispersive solution affect morphology and size of newly created of silver bromide. The completed experiments enabled to determine boundary limits of both N,N -dimethylformamide and bromide ions concentration where suspensions of silver bromide crystals exhibit predominant content of triangular, transient and hexagonal flat forms with very high aspect ratio. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Synthesis and luminescent study of Ce{sup 3+}-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, V.P., E-mail: ssclab@ukr.net [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lustdorfskaya doroga 86, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Berezovskaya, I.V.; Zubar, E.V.; Efryushina, N.P. [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lustdorfskaya doroga 86, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Poletaev, N.I.; Doroshenko, Yu.A. [Institute of Combustion and Advanced Technologies, Mechnikov Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya 2, 65082 Odessa (Ukraine); Stryganyuk, G.B. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kirilo i Mefodii 8, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); HASYLAB at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Voloshinovskii, A.S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kirilo i Mefodii 8, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce{sup 3+}-doped garnets (TYAG) were prepared using nanostructured reagents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ce{sup 3+} ions cause a very efficient yellow emission of the samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reasons for the long wavelength position of this emission are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contribution from Al atoms to the conduction band of TYAG is quite essential. - Abstract: Terbium-yttrium aluminum garnets (TYAG) doped with Ce{sup 3+} ions have been prepared by solid state reactions between nanostructured oxides of aluminum and rare earths. The luminescent properties of Ce{sup 3+} ions in (Tb{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}){sub 3(1-x)}Ce{sub 3x}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x = 0.03) have been studied upon excitation in the 2-20 eV region. The substitution of Tb{sup 3+} for Y{sup 3+} in the garnet structure results in broadening the emission band and shifting its maximum towards the longer wavelengths. It was found that in addition to the 4f{sup n} {yields} 4f{sup n-1}5d excitation bands of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions, the excitation spectra for the Ce{sup 3+} emission contain broad bands at 6.73 and {approx}9.5 eV. These bands are attributed to the Ce{sup 3+}-bound exciton formation and O 2p {yields} Al 3s, 3p transitions, respectively. In contrast to the predictions based on the results of electronic structure calculations on Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Tb{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}, the threshold of interband transitions in TYAG is at high energies ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 7.3 eV), and contributions from Al{sub tetr} and Al{sub oct} atoms to the conduction-band density of states are evaluated as quite essential.

  17. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz Sonja; Tipold Andrea; Bilzer Thomas; Schenk Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report des...

  18. Structural variations in terbium(III) complexes with 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate and diverse co-ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuéry, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.thuery@cea.fr

    2015-07-15

    Terbium nitrate was reacted with 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (LH{sub 2}) under solvo-hydrothermal conditions with either N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) as organic solvents. Hydrolysation of the latter co-solvents resulted in the formation of formate or acetate ions, which are present as co-ligands in the 1D coordination polymer [Tb(L)(HCOO)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and the 2D assembly [Tb(L)(CH{sub 3}COO)(H{sub 2}O)] (2). The increase in dimensionality in the latter arises from the higher connectivity provided by acetate versus formate, the L{sup 2−} ligand being bis-chelating in both cases. The complex [Tb{sub 2}(L){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}][Tb{sub 2}(L){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·3H{sub 2}O (3), another 1D species, crystallizes alongside crystals of 2. Further addition of cucurbit[6]uril (CB6), with DMF as co-solvent, gave the two complexes [Tb{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(CB6)(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O (4) and [H{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}]{sub 2}[Tb(L)(HCOO){sub 2}]{sub 2}·CB6·3H{sub 2}O (5). Complex 4 crystallizes as a 3D framework in which Tb(L){sup +} chains are connected by tetradentate CB6 molecules, while 5 unites a carboxylate-bridged anionic 2D planar assembly and layers of CB6 molecules with counter-cations held at both portals. - Graphical abstract: One- to three-dimensional assemblies are formed in terbium(III) complexes with 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate obtained under solvo-hydrothermal conditions, these species including formate or acetate co-ligands formed in situ, or additional cucurbit[6]uril molecules. - Highlights: • We report structures of terbium(III) complexes with 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate. • Solvents able to generate co-ligands or counter-ions in situ have been used. • A 3D species including additional cucurbituril molecules is decribed. • One species displays an alternation of metal–organic and organic sheets.

  19. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  20. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  1. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 94. Rare Earth Metal Iodides and Bromides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary; Zeng, Dewen; Voigt, Heidelore

    2013-03-01

    This work presents solubility data for rare earth metal bromides in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal bromide with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were almost never studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple bromides (no complexes) are treated as the input substances in this work. The literature has been covered through the end of 2011.

  2. Complete Stokes polarimetry of magneto-optical Faraday effect in a terbium gallium garnet crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Shaheen, Amrozia; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2013-10-21

    We report the complete determination of the polarization changes caused in linearly polarized incident light due to propagation in a magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal, at temperatures ranging from 6.3 to 300 K. A 28-fold increase in the Verdet constant of the TGG crystal is seen as its temperature decreases to 6.3 K. In contrast with polarimetry of light emerging from a Faraday material at room temperature, polarimetry at cryogenic temperatures cannot be carried out using the conventional fixed polarizer-analyzer technique because the assumption that ellipticity is negligible becomes increasingly invalid as temperature is lowered. It is shown that complete determination of light polarization in such a case requires the determination of its Stokes parameters, otherwise inaccurate measurements will result with negative implications for practical devices.

  3. Development of Optical Isolators for Visible Light Using Terbium Aluminum Garnet (Tb3Al5O12) Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geho, Mikio; Takagi, Takashi; Chiku, Shinichiro; Fujii, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    We have recently reported the successful growth of incongruently melting terbium aluminum garnet (Tb3Al5O12; TAG) single crystals by the hybrid laser FZ (floating zone) method. Optical property evaluations confirmed a high transmittance and a larger Verdet constant than conventional Tb3Ga5O12 (TGG) crystals and/or Faraday glasses. In this study, we attempted to design, fabricate, and evaluate optical isolators in visible light through near-infrared (NIR) regions using TAG crystals. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of possible models led us to the preferable one based on a radially magnetized magnet. To realize this, we employed a pseudo-radially magnetized magnet. The target wavelengths of the prototype device were 408, 808, and 1064 nm. The typical extinction ratio was more than 30 dB and the insertion loss was less than 0.3 dB for AR-coated devices.

  4. Phytoremediation potentials of selected tropical plants for ethidium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uera, Raynato B; Paz-Alberto, Annie Melinda; Sigua, Gilbert C

    2007-11-01

    Research and development has its own benefits and inconveniences. One of the inconveniences is the generation of enormous quantity of diverse toxic and hazardous wastes and its eventual contamination to soil and groundwater resources. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is one of the commonly used substances in molecular biology experiments. It is highly mutagenic and moderately toxic substance used in DNA-staining during electrophoresis. Interest in phytoremediation as a method to solve chemical contamination has been growing rapidly in recent years. The technology has been utilized to clean up soil and groundwater from heavy metals and other toxic organic compounds in many countries like the United States, Russia, and most of European countries. Phytoremediation requires somewhat limited resources and very useful in treating wide variety of environmental contaminants. This study aimed to assess the potential of selected tropical plants as phytoremediators of EtBr. This study used tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), mustard (Brassica alba), vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioedes), cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum), and talahib (Saccharum spontaneum) to remove EtBr from laboratory wastes. The six tropical plants were planted in individual plastic bags containing soil and 10% EtBr-stained agarose gel. The plants were allowed to establish and grow in soil for 30 days. Ethidium bromide content of the test plants and the soil were analyzed before and after soil treatment. Ethidium bromide contents of the plants and soils were analyzed using an UV VIS spectrophotometer. Results showed a highly significant (ptechnologies. Mustard had the highest potential as phytoremediator of EtBr in soil. However, the absorption capabilities of the other test plants may also be considered in terms of period of maturity and productivity. It is recommended that a more detailed and complete investigation of the phytoremediation properties of the different plants tested

  5. A trial of emepronium bromide for the treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A J; Prematalake, J K; Palmer, R L

    1981-01-01

    A double-blind controlled trial was conducted of emepronium bromide against placebo in elderly mentally ill patients in hospital with urinary incontinence. No significant difference was found between 200 mg emepronium bromide 3-times daily and placebo in treating day-time or nocturnal urinary incontinence for patients suffering from chronic organic brain syndrome or from chronic functional psychiatric illness.

  6. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  7. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    concentrations were computed. The variation of bromide with chlorinity was linear indicating the purely conservative character of bromide and its seawater origin. Seawater ranged between 1 and 3% in monsoon, 76 and 91% in post-monsoon and 92 and 97% in pre...

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of organoclays synthesized with the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yunfei; Ding, Zhe; He, Hongping; Frost, Ray L.

    2005-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy using a smart endurance single bounce diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell has been used to study the changes in the spectra of the surfactant octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) bromide upon intercalation into a sodium montmorillonite. The wavenumbers of bands attributed to CH-stretching and CH-bending vibrations, in general, decrease as the concentration of the surfactant measured in terms of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) up to 1.0 CEC. After this point, the bands increase approaching a value the same as that of the surfactant. Significant changes occur in the HCH deformation modes of the methyl groups of the surfactant. These changes are attributed to the methyl groups locking into the siloxane (SiO) surface of the montmorillonite. Such a concept is supported by changes in the SiO-stretching bands of the montmorillonite siloxane surface.

  9. Mechanism of photolysis of Fe(III) bromide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmelinskii, I.V.; Plyusnin, V.F.; Grivin, V.P.

    1988-11-01

    Laser flash photolysis has been used to investigate the primary photoprocesses for bromide complexes of Fe(III) in a mixture of methanol and diethyl ether. The formation of the ion-radical Br/sub 2//sup -/ in the coordination sphere, followed by release into the bulk of the solvent, has been observed for the complex FeBr/sub 3/. In the case of FeBr/sub 2//sup +/ the Br atom is released into the solvent which in the reaction with the free Br/sup -/ ion also forms Br/sub 2//sup -/ . In the case of both complexes these channels compete with the transfer of an electron from the solvent molecules. The later reaction is suppressed for FeBr/sub 4//sup -/, leading mainly to the formation of the ion-radical Br/sub 2//sup -/.

  10. Timing resolution measurements of a 3 in. lanthanum bromide detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, L., E-mail: luca.galli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De Gerone, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Largo Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Genova, Largo Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Dussoni, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) is a scintillator that presents very good energy and timing resolutions and it is a perfect candidate for photon detector in future experiments to search for lepton flavor violation as in μ→eγ or μ→e conversion. While energy resolution was thoroughly investigated, timing resolution at several MeV presents some experimental challenge. We measured the timing resolution of a 3 in.×3 in. cylindrical LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) crystal versus few reference detectors by means of a nuclear reaction from a Cockcroft–Walton accelerator that produces coincident γ-rays in the 4.4–11.6 MeV range. Preliminary results allow us to extrapolate the properties of a segmented γ-ray detector in the 50–100 MeV range.

  11. A hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of terbium from fluorescent lamps: Experimental design, optimization of acid leaching process and process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Valentina; Ippolito, Nicolò Maria; De Michelis, Ida; Medici, Franco; Vegliò, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    Terbium and rare earths recovery from fluorescent powders of exhausted lamps by acid leaching with hydrochloric acid was the objective of this study. In order to investigate the factors affecting leaching a series of experiments was performed in according to a full factorial plan with four variables and two levels (4 2 ). The factors studied were temperature, concentration of acid, pulp density and leaching time. Experimental conditions of terbium dissolution were optimized by statistical analysis. The results showed that temperature and pulp density were significant with a positive and negative effect, respectively. The empirical mathematical model deducted by experimental data demonstrated that terbium content was completely dissolved under the following conditions: 90 °C, 2 M hydrochloric acid and 5% of pulp density; while when the pulp density was 15% an extraction of 83% could be obtained at 90 °C and 5 M hydrochloric acid. Finally a flow sheet for the recovery of rare earth elements was proposed. The process was tested and simulated by commercial software for the chemical processes. The mass balance of the process was calculated: from 1 ton of initial powder it was possible to obtain around 160 kg of a concentrate of rare earths having a purity of 99%. The main rare earths elements in the final product was yttrium oxide (86.43%) following by cerium oxide (4.11%), lanthanum oxide (3.18%), europium oxide (3.08%) and terbium oxide (2.20%). The estimated total recovery of the rare earths elements was around 70% for yttrium and europium and 80% for the other rare earths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the luminescent properties of terbium-anthranilate complexes and application to the determination of anthranilic acid derivatives in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, N.; Georges, J

    2003-01-10

    The luminescent properties of terbium complexes with furosemide (FR), flufenamic (FF) acid, tolfenamic (TF) acid and mefenamic (MF) acid have been investigated in aqueous solutions. For all four compounds, complexation occurs when the carboxylic acid of the aminobenzoic group is dissociated and is greatly favoured in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as co-ligand and Triton X-100 as surfactant. Under optimum conditions, luminescence of the lanthanide ion is efficiently sensitised and the lifetime of the {sup 5}D{sub 4} resonance level of terbium in the complex is ranging between 1 and 1.9 ms, against 0.4 ms for the aqua ion. The sensitivity of the method for the determination of anthranilic acid derivatives is improved by one to two orders of magnitude with respect to that achieved using native fluorescence or terbium-sensitised luminescence in methanol. The limits of detection are 2x10{sup -10}, 5x10{sup -10} and 2x10{sup -9} mol l{sup -1} for flufenamic acid, furosemide and tolfenamic acid, and mefenamic acid, respectively, with within-run RSD values of less than 1%. The method has been applied to the determination of flufenamic acid in spiked calf sera with and without sample pretreatment. Depending on the method and the analyte concentration, the recovery was ranging between 83 and 113% and the lowest concentration attainable in serum samples was close to 1x10{sup -7} mol l{sup -1}.

  13. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls... to cattle of peanut hay and peanut hulls containing residues of inorganic bromides will contribute...

  14. The Multiple Role of Bromide Ion in PPCPs Degradation under UV/Chlorine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Xinran; Yang, Xin; Shang, Chii; Song, Weihua; Fang, Jingyun; Pan, Yanheng

    2018-02-05

    This study investigated the role of bromide ions in the degradation of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment of simulated drinking water containing 2.5 mgC L-1 natural organic matter (NOM). The kinetics of contributions from UV irradiation and from oxidation by free chlorine, free bromine, hydroxyl radical and reactive halogen species were evaluated. The observed loss rate constants of PPCPs in the presence of 10 μM bromide were 1.6-23 times of those observed in the absence of bromide (except for iopromide and ibuprofen). Bromide was shown to play multiple roles in PPCP degradation. It reacts rapidly with free chlorine to produce a trace amount of free bromine, which then contributes to up to 55% of the degradation of some PPCPs during 15 min of UV/chlorine treatment. Bromide was also shown to reduce the level of HO• and to change the reactive chlorine species to bromine-containing species, which resulted in decreases in ibuprofen degradation and enhancement in carbamazepine and caffeine degradation, respectively. Reactive halogen species contributed to between 37 and 96% of the degradation of the studied PPCPs except ibuprofen in the presence of 10 μM bromide ion. The effect of bromide is non-negligible during the UV/chlorine treatment.

  15. Clinical signs, risk factors, and outcomes associated with bromide toxicosis (bromism) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H; Inzana, Karen D

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate clinical signs, risk factors, and outcomes associated with bromide toxicosis (bromism) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy treated with potassium or sodium bromide. Retrospective case-control study. 83 clinically ill epileptic dogs with (cases; n = 31) and without (controls; 52) bromism. Medical records were reviewed for information regarding signalment, epilepsy history, treatment, diet, clinicopathologic test results, concurrent diseases, clinical signs, and outcome. Case and control dogs were matched by the veterinary hospitals from which they were referred and by month of admission. A presumptive diagnosis of bromism was made in case dogs when treatment for primary clinical signs was limited to induction of diuresis or reduction in the dose of bromide administered, and this diagnosis was supported by serum bromide concentrations. Potential risk factors for bromism were identified via univariate and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analyses. Common clinical signs of bromism included alterations in consciousness, ataxia, and upper and lower motor neuron tetraparesis and paraparesis. The multivariate analysis identified bromide dose at admission to the hospital as the only factor significantly associated with bromism. In all dogs with bromism, treatment via dose reduction or facilitated renal excretion of bromide resulted in rapid clinical improvement, although breakthrough seizures happened during treatment in 8 of 31 (26%) dogs. Bromism is a clinically heterogeneous, dose-dependent neurotoxicosis that is largely reversible with treatment. Regular serial monitoring of serum bromide concentrations is recommended to optimize anticonvulsant treatment in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

  16. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav

    2017-01-01

    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military...... compound sarin. Raman and infrared spectral bands of the pyridostigmine bromide were measured. Detailed correlation of obtained spectral bands with specific vibrations in pyridostigmine bromide was done. Silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands showed more essential enhancement of the Raman...

  17. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  18. Determination of the spectroscopic properties of indium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, H. C. J.; Rijke, A. J.; Haverlag, M.; Kroesen, G. M. W.

    2011-07-01

    To develop a more efficient plasma light source, molecules are considered as the prime source of radiation because they can potentially avoid the conversion losses of the low-pressure mercury lamp as well as the thermal losses of the high-pressure mercury lamps. A candidate to serve as the prime radiator in such a lamp could be indium bromide, but spectroscopic data to assess its aptitude are largely unavailable. To increase the knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of these molecules and InBr in particular, an experiment was designed to acquire this information. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to study the radiative properties of InBr for lighting purposes. Using an innovative method to interpret the measured data, detection--excitation (detex) plots, more information can be obtained from the spectra. Also the effect of a background gas and plasma was investigated for both a capacitive and an inductive plasma. Mainly the electronic A-state of InBr was investigated. Results include newly identified rotational transitions, vibrational constants, rotational constants for different vibrational levels, band head wave numbers and Franck-Condon factors for various vibrational transitions.

  19. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  20. Micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: effect of small chain Bola electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Animesh; Sil, Pallabi; Dutta, Sounak; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra; Rakshit, Animesh Kumar; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Moulik, Satya Priya

    2014-03-20

    Sodium dicarboxylates (or Bola salts) with methylene spacers 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 were studied in aqueous solution to investigate their influence on the micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Since bolas with spacer length ≤12 are known not to micellize in general, the herein used sodium dicarboxylates were treated as 2:1 amphiphilic electrolytes which reduced surface tension of water (except sodium oxalate with zero spacer) without self-association. Their concentration dependent conductance was also linear without breaks. The bolas affected the micellization of CTAB but acted like salts to decrease its CMC. Their combinations did not form bilayer aggregates as found in vesicles. Nevertheless, they synergistically interacted with CTAB at the air/water interface as revealed from Rosen's thermodynamic model. Hydrodynamic radius (Rh), Zeta-potential (ζ), and electrical double layer behavior of bola interacted CTAB micelles were assessed. From SANS measurements, micelle shape, shape parameters, aggregation number (Nagg), surface charge of the bola influenced CTAB micelles were also determined. NMR study as well supported the non-mixing of bolas with the CTAB micelles. They interacted in solution like "amphiphilic electrolytes" to influence the surface and micelle forming properties of CTAB.

  1. Methyl bromide determination in selected foods by headspace technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, J L

    1993-01-01

    A headspace method used earlier for determining methyl bromide (MB) in assorted nuts and peanut butters has been successfully applied to other foods that could potentially contain traces of this toxic fumigant. The foods tested include 63 off-the-shelf spices and seasonings, 83 table-ready items (grain-based, dried, or highly seasoned), 30 dried fruits and trail mixes, and 38 oil-based items (oil-seeds, cooking oils, or spicy oil-based dressings). Sample headspace gas is produced by blending < or = 50 g sample in 250 +/- 50 mL aqueous solution in a sealed 1000 mL blender cup. After equilibration at 25 degrees C, the headspace is sampled with a gas-tight syringe and injected into a dual column-dual detector gas chromatograph. One determination is made with a 20% OV-101 packed column and a 63Ni electron capture detector (ECD), the other with a GS-Q wide-bore capillary column and a Hall electrolytic conductivity detector (HECD). Of the approximately 200 samples tested, none contained detectable MB residue at a quantitation limit < 100 ng/g sample. All fortified samples yielded MB recovery. Samples were fortified at levels ranging from 78 to 3250 ng MB/g. Recoveries ranged from a mean high of 56% for spices and seasonings to a mean low of 30% for oil-based foods. The overall recovery and CV, including the results from assorted nuts and peanut butters, were 46 and 33%, respectively.

  2. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  3. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  4. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  6. Effect of Methyl Bromide on Mycorrhizae and Growth of Sweetgum Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. H. Filer; E. R. Toole

    1968-01-01

    Fumigation of nursery beds with methyl bromide improved sweetgum, growth by reducing the population of soil-inhabiting pathogens . Although mycorrhizal fungi were reduced, sufficient inoculum survived for rapid mycorrhizal development

  7. Structural investigation and photoluminescent properties of gadolinium(III), europium(III) and terbium(III) 3-mercaptopropionate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E R; Mazali, I O; Sigoli, F A

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, crystallographic determination and spectroscopic characterization of gadolinium(III), terbium(III) and europium(III) 3-mercaptopropionate complexes, aqua-tris(3-mercaptopropionate)lanthanide(III)--[Ln(mpa)3(H2O)]. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were experimentally determined from emission spectrum of the [Eu(mpa)3(H2O)]complex and they were also calculated from crystallographic data. The complexes are coordination polymers, where the units of each complex are linked together by carboxylate groups leading to an unidimensional and parallel chains that by chemical interactions form a tridimensional framework. The emission spectrum profile of the [Eu(mpa)3(H2O)] complex is discussed based on point symmetry of the europium(III) ion, that explains the bands splitting observed in its emission spectrum. Photoluminescent analysis of the [Gd(mpa)3(H2O)] complex show no efficient ligand excitation but an intense charge transfer band. The excitation spectra of the [Eu(mpa)3(H2O)] and [Tb(mpa)3(H2O)] complexes do not show evidence of energy transfer from the ligand to the excited levels of these trivalent ions. Therefore the emission bands are originated only by direct f-f intraconfigurational excitation of the lantanide(III) ions.

  8. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the terbium (III)-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-15

    It is found that in hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer of pH=8.00, proteins can enhance the fluorescence of terbium (III) (Tb{sup 3+})-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of proteins is proposed. The experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 4.0x10{sup -9}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.5x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0x10{sup -8}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 0.5, 0.8 and 2.0ng/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  9. Terbium to Quantum Dot FRET Bioconjugates for Clinical Diagnostics: Influence of Human Plasma on Optical and Assembly Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Hildebrandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET from luminescent terbium complexes (LTC as donors to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs as acceptors allows extraordinary large FRET efficiencies due to the long Förster distances afforded. Moreover, time-gated detection permits an efficient suppression of autofluorescent background leading to sub-picomolar detection limits even within multiplexed detection formats. These characteristics make FRET-systems with LTC and QDs excellent candidates for clinical diagnostics. So far, such proofs of principle for highly sensitive multiplexed biosensing have only been performed under optimized buffer conditions and interactions between real-life clinical media such as human serum or plasma and LTC-QD-FRET-systems have not yet been taken into account. Here we present an extensive spectroscopic analysis of absorption, excitation and emission spectra along with the luminescence decay times of both the single components as well as the assembled FRET-systems in TRIS-buffer, TRIS-buffer with 2% bovine serum albumin, and fresh human plasma. Moreover, we evaluated homogeneous LTC-QD FRET assays in QD conjugates assembled with either the well-known, specific biotin-streptavidin biological interaction or, alternatively, the metal-affinity coordination of histidine to zinc. In the case of conjugates assembled with biotin-streptavidin no significant interference with the optical and binding properties occurs whereas the histidine-zinc system appears to be affected by human plasma.

  10. Evidence of mass exchange between inside and outside of sonoluminescing bubble in aqueous solution of terbium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jinfu, E-mail: liang.shi2007@163.com [School of Physics and Electronic Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Chen, Weizhong, E-mail: wzchen@nju.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Xun; Yang, Jing; Chen, Zhan [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-12-16

    Highlights: • Time-resolved spectra of SBSL were obtained for Tb{sup 3+} ions emission lines. • Mass exchange between inside and outside of SL bubble was probed via Tb{sup 3+} ions lines. • The argon rectification hypothesis was tested by time-resolved spectra of SBSL. • The rate of mass exchange inside an SBSL bubble increases with increasing sound pressure. - Abstract: Spectra of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) were obtained for Tb{sup 3+} ions emission lines from bubbles in an aqueous solution of terbium chloride (TbCl{sub 3}). The spectra provide experimental evidence to prove that an air bubble driven by strong ultrasound will not eventually become a rectified pure argon bubble, which is not as predicted by the argon rectification hypothesis. The time-resolved spectra of SBSL show a mass exchange of material such as Tb{sup 3+} ions between the inside and outside of the bubble. With increasing sound pressure, the rate of mass exchange and the SBSL intensity increases.

  11. Optical properties and electrical transport of thin films of terbium(III bis(phthalocyanine on cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Robaschik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of terbium(III bis(phthalocyanine (TbPc2 films on cobalt substrates were studied using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE and current sensing atomic force microscopy (cs-AFM. Thin films of TbPc2 with a thickness between 18 nm and 87 nm were prepared by organic molecular beam deposition onto a cobalt layer grown by electron beam evaporation. The molecular orientation of the molecules on the metallic film was estimated from the analysis of the spectroscopic ellipsometry data. A detailed analysis of the AFM topography shows that the TbPc2 films consist of islands which increase in size with the thickness of the organic film. Furthermore, the cs-AFM technique allows local variations of the organic film topography to be correlated with electrical transport properties. Local current mapping as well as local I–V spectroscopy shows that despite the granular structure of the films, the electrical transport is uniform through the organic films on the microscale. The AFM-based electrical measurements allow the local charge carrier mobility of the TbPc2 thin films to be quantified with nanoscale resolution.

  12. Highly luminescent charge-neutral europium(iii) and terbium(iii) complexes with tridentate nitrogen ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Kuppusamy; Schäfer, Bernhard; Lebedkin, Sergei; Karmazin, Lydia; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario

    2015-09-21

    We report on the synthesis of tridentate-nitrogen pyrazole-pyridine-tetrazole (L(1)H) and pyrazole-pyridine-triazole (L(2)H) ligands and their complexation with lanthanides (Ln = Gd(iii), Eu(iii) and Tb(iii)) resulting in stable, charge-neutral complexes Ln(L(1))3 and Ln(L(2))3, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complexes with L(1) ligands revealed tricapped trigonal coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions. All complexes show bright photoluminescence (PL) in the solid state, indicating efficient sensitization of the lanthanide emission via the triplet states of the ligands. In particular, the terbium complexes show high PL quantum yields of 65 and 59% for L(1) and L(2), respectively. Lower PL efficiencies of the europium complexes (7.5 and 9%, respectively) are attributed to large energy gaps between the triplet states of the ligands and accepting levels of Eu(iii). The triplet state energy can be reduced by introducing an electron withdrawing (EW) group at the 4 position of the pyridine ring. Such substitution of L(1)H with a carboxylic ester (COOMe) EW group leads to a europium complex with increased PL quantum yield of 31%. A comparatively efficient PL of the complexes dissolved in ethanol indicates that the lanthanide ions are shielded against nonradiative deactivation via solvent molecules.

  13. Micelle enhanced and terbium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of danofloxacin in milk using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Saini, Shivender Singh; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Baldev

    2012-10-01

    An efficient molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE)-spectrofluorimetric method was developed to sensitively determine danofloxacin (DAN) in milk samples. Solid phase extraction procedure using MISPE cartridges was first performed on milk samples and then spectrofluorimetric determination was done at 546 nm using an excitation wavelength of 285 nm in presence of terbium and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). It was found that SDBS significantly enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the DAN-Tb3+ complex. Various factors affecting the fluorescence intensity of DAN-Tb3+-SDBS system were studied and conditions were optimized. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of the system (ΔF) showed a good linear relationship with the concentration of DAN over the range of 8.4 × 10-9-3.4 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The detection limit was determined as 2.0 × 10-9 mol L-1 and the limit of quantification was determined as 6.5 × 10-9 mol L-1. The MISPE-spectrofluorimetric procedure was successfully applied to the determination of DAN in milk samples. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and allows interference free determination of DAN in complex fluorescent matrices like milk. The method can be used to determine whether the DAN residues in milk exceed MRLs or not.

  14. Study of quantum dot based on tin/yttrium mixed oxide doped with terbium to be used as biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A., E-mail: paulapaganini@usp.b, E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.b, E-mail: claudiakodaira@yahoo.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Elementos do Bloco f; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O., E-mail: luizant@ifsc.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica e Informatica

    2009-07-01

    Quantum dots (semiconductors nanocrystals) have brought a promising field to develop a new generation of luminescent biomarkers. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. These luminescent dots are functionalized with biomolecules. For the luminophore particle to be connect with biologicals molecules (for example covalent antibody) is necessary a previous chemical treatment to modify luminophore particle surface and this process is called functionalization. A prior chemical treatment with changes on the surface luminophore particle is necessary to couple the luminophore to biological molecules. This process can be used as coating which can protect these particles from being dissolved by acid as well as provide functional groups for biological conjugation. This work presents a photoluminescence study of nanoparticles based on tin/yttrium mixed oxides doped with terbium (SnO{sub 2}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}), synthesized by coprecipitation method. The nanoparticles were submitted to thermal treatment and characterized by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) that showed cassiterite phase formation and the influence of thermal treatment on nanoparticles structures. These nanoparticles going to be functionalized with a natural polysaccharide (chitosan) in order to form microspheres. These microspheres going to be irradiated with gamma radiation to sterilization and it can be evaluated if the nanoparticles are resistant to irradiation and they do not lose functionality with this process. (author)

  15. [Advantages of oxythiamine bromide as a specific inhibitor of activity of thiamine-dependent enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, D A; Zimatkina, T I; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M

    1987-01-01

    Production of hydrogen bromide salt of hydroxythiamine (Ht. HBr) from thiamine bromide was developed its toxic and inhibitory properties towards transketolase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were studied as compared with commercial preparation hydroxythiamine chloride (HT. HCl). As compared with HT. HCl, synthesis of HT. HBr was more simple, the higher yield and purity of the end product were achieved. At the same time, the preparation was less toxic and exhibited the antivitaminous activity similar to the commercial chloride form.

  16. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  17. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar

    2017-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  18. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  19. Subsurface drip application of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for controlling nematodes in replanted grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J Alfonso; Wang, Dong; Schneider, Sally M; Hanson, Bradley D

    2012-05-01

    Many California grape growers use preplant fumigation to ensure uniform and healthy grapevine establishment in replant situations. A field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of subsurface drip-applied chemical alternatives to methyl bromide on plant-parasitic nematodes, plant vigor and fruit yield during the 6 year period following replanting. Subsurface drip fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin and with iodomethane plus chloropicrin had generally similar nematicide activity as methyl bromide in three grape types, while sodium azide was less effective. The combination of 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin enhanced vine vigor similarly to methyl bromide. However, all plots treated with alternative fumigants produced less fruit yield than methyl bromide over the 4 years of evaluation. Subsurface drip fumigation with alternative chemicals to methyl bromide generally provided adequate management of plant-parasitic nematodes during the vine establishment period. However, further research is required to increase the performance of alternative chemicals against other components of the replant problem, as grape yield in vines grown in the alternative treatments was lower than in methyl bromide. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acid species from the chlorination of algal organic matter and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y Y; Liu, Y; Dai, R H; Liu, X; Wu, J J; Shi, Z; Ren, J; Zhang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Bromide and algal pollution are important factors influencing disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation and speciation in reservoir water in coastal areas. In this study, the chlorination of model algal cellular compounds (bovine serum albumin, fish oil and starch), Microcystis aeruginosa and its extra-cellular organic matter (EOM) were conducted in the absence and presence of bromide. The main aim of the present study is to explore their potential as precursors for trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acid (HAAs) speciation upon chlorination in the presence of bromide. The results showed that all brominated THMs species were generated, whereas only bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) or/and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) was/were produced as for brominated HAAs (Br-HAAs) from the three model compounds in the presence of bromide. The effect of bromide on Br-HAAs speciation upon fish oil chlorination was more evident than with BSA and starch. There was a good correlation between the species predicted from the model compounds and those obtained from specific algal species. Br-HAAs and Br-THMs species from Microcystis aeruginosa cells or EOM were the same as those from bovine serum albumin in the presence of bromide.

  1. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.

    1976-12-15

    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  2. 2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel(II) Bromide and 2,6-Bis(ketimine)phenylnickel(II) Bromide: Synthesis, Structural Features, and Redox Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, M.; Snelders, D.J.M.; Godbole, M.D.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Haddleton, D.M.; Clarkson, G.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.

    2007-01-01

    2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel bromide complexes [NiBr(R,R'-Phebox)] (2) were synthesized via two synthetic routes (A and B). In route A, selective bis-ortho lithiation of [R,R'-PheboxBr], followed by a transmetalation reaction with [NiBr2(PEt3)2], yielded not only complexes 2 with an

  3. Terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillation-based polymer optical fibre sensor for real time monitoring of radiation dose in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E.; O'Keeffe, S.; Grattan, M.; Hounsell, A.; McCarthy, D.; Woulfe, P.; Cronin, J.; Mihai, L.; Sporea, D.; Santhanam, A.; Agazaryan, N.

    2014-05-01

    A PMMA based plastic optical fibre sensor for use in real time radiotherapy dosimetry is presented. The optical fibre tip is coated with a scintillation material, terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb), which fluoresces when exposed to ionising radiation (X-Ray). The emitted visible light signal penetrates the sensor optical fibre and propagates along the transmitting fibre at the end of which it is remotely monitored using a fluorescence spectrometer. The results demonstrate good repeatability, with a maximum percentage error of 0.5% and the response is independent of dose rate.

  4. Bronchodilator efficacy of extrafine glycopyrronium bromide: the Glyco 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 Mario Scuri,2 Sara Collarini,2 Stefano Vezzoli,2 Fabrizia Mariotti,2 Annamaria Muraro,2 Daniela Acerbi2 1Medicines Evaluation, University Of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Global Clinical Development, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy Abstract: An extrafine formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide (GB is in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, in combination with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate – a “fixed triple”. This two-part study was randomized, double blind, placebo controlled in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: Part 1: single-dose escalation, GB 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 µg versus placebo; Part 2: repeat-dose (7-day, four-period crossover, GB 12.5, 25 or 50 µg twice daily (BID versus placebo, with an open-label extension in which all patients received tiotropium 18 µg once daily. On the morning of Day 8 in all five periods, patients also received formoterol 12 µg. In study Part 1, 27 patients were recruited. All GB doses significantly increased from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve (AUC0–12h and peak FEV1, with a trend toward greater efficacy with higher GB dose. All adverse events were mild–moderate in severity, with a lower incidence with GB than placebo and no evidence of a dose–response relationship. In study Part 2, of 38 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Adjusted mean differences from placebo in 12 h trough FEV1 on Day 7 (primary were 115, 142 and 136 mL for GB 12.5, 25 and 50 µg BID, respectively (all P<0.001. GB 25 and 50 µg BID were superior (P<0.05 to GB 12.5 µg BID for pre-dose morning FEV1 on Day 8. For this endpoint, GB 25 and 50 µg BID were also superior to tiotropium. Compared with Day 7, addition of formoterol significantly increased Day 8 FEV1 peak and AUC0–12h with all GB doses and placebo (all P<0.001. All

  5. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIPLASMODIAL ACTIVITY TESTING OF (1-N-(4-METHOXYBENZYL-1,10-PHENANTHROLINIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslin Hadanu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide from 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde as starting material and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activities have been carried out. The 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was prepared from 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde using sodium borohydride (NaBH4 reagent and ethanol absolute solution. The mixture was refluxed for 3 h. To yield colorless dilution compound with 90.41 % in efficiency. Furthermore, bromination of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol with phosphorus bromide (PBr3 was conducted by refluxing for 3 h. The product of this reaction was yellow liquid of 4-methoxybenzyl bromide, 79.03% yield and 95.34 % purity. The final step of reaction was benzylation of 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate with 4-methoxybenzyl bromide reagent. It was conducted by refluxing in aceton for 8 h at 55 oC. The yield of the reaction was (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide (77.63%. It is pink solid form, and its melting point is 192-193 oC. Identification of the product was carried out by means of GC-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectrometers. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity on chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum FCR-3 strain and chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum D10 strain for (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide were determined by microscopic method. The result showed that after 72 h incubation, it has IC50 0.93±0.02 µM and 1.21±0.09 µM, respectively.   Keywords: 1,10-phenanthroline,  (1-N-(4-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthroline bromide, 4 methoxybenzaldehyde, antiplasmodial activities

  6. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  7. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... methyl bromide fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp... schedule to neutralize the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) on cottonseed...

  8. Compact all-fiber optical Faraday components using 65-wt%-terbium-doped fiber with a record Verdet constant of -32 rad/(Tm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Jiang, S; Marciante, J R

    2010-06-07

    A compact all-fiber Faraday isolator and a Faraday mirror are demonstrated. At the core of each of these components is an all-fiber Faraday rotator made of a 4-cm-long, 65-wt%-terbium-doped silicate fiber. The effective Verdet constant of the terbium-doped fiber is measured to be -32 rad/(Tm), which is 27 x larger than that of silica fiber. This effective Verdet constant is the largest value measured to date in any fiber and is 83% of the Verdet constant of commercially available crystal used in bulk optics-based isolators. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with fiber polarizers results in a fully fusion spliced all-fiber isolator whose isolation is measured to be 19 dB. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with a fiber Bragg grating results in an all-fiber Faraday mirror that rotates the polarization state of the reflected light by 88 +/- 4 degrees .

  9. Picomolar Traces of Americium(III) Introduce Drastic Changes in the Structural Chemistry of Terbium(III): A Break in the "Gadolinium Break".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Jan M; Müller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Giester, Gerald; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard; Weinberger, Peter; Steinhauser, Georg

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H 2 O) 7 ZT] 2 ZT⋅10 H 2 O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H 2 O) 8 ] 2 ZT 3 ⋅6 H 2 O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10 8 -fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microcopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  11. Characterization of micelle formation of dodecyldimethyl-N-2-phenoxyethylammonium bromide in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Dibyendu; Gupta, Abhisek; Dey, Joykrishna

    2006-06-01

    Aggregation behavior of dodecyldimethyl-N-2-phenoxyethylammonium bromide commonly called domiphen bromide (DB) was studied in aqueous solution. The Krafft temperature of the surfactant was measured. The surfactant has been shown to form micellar structures in a wide concentration range. The critical micelle concentration was determined by surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence methods. The conductivity data were also employed to determine the degree of surfactant counterion dissociation. The changes in Gibb's free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the micellization process were determined at different temperature. The steady-state fluorescence quenching measurements with pyrene and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as fluorescence probes were performed to obtain micellar aggregation number. The results were compared with those of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) surfactant. The micelle formation is energetically more favored in DB compared to that in DTAB. The 1H-NMR spectra were used to show that the 2-phenoxyethyl group, which folds back onto the micellar surface facilitates aggregate formation in DB.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless steel coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both steels produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline corrosion product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless steel is attributed to film stability on this steel.

  13. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G

    2002-01-01

    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  14. Kinetics adsorption study of the ethidium bromide by graphene oxide as adsorbent from aqueous matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, M.; Moradi, O.; Zare, K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study of ethidium bromide, adsorption from aqueous matrices by graphene oxide as adsorbent was investigated. Influencing parameters in the adsorption study included contact time, temperature, and pH. The optimum time was selected 17 min, and the best value of pH was determined at 8. All adsorption experiments were performed at 298 K temperature. The maximum wavelength of ethidium bromide was 475 nm. The Elovich, four types of the pseudo-second-order, the pseudo-first-order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic adsorption models were used for kinetic study, and the results show that adsorption of ethidium bromide on graphene oxide surface best complied with type (I) of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  15. Pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with suspected idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Curtis W; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Levine, Jonathan M; Badgley, Britton L; Ducoté, Julie M; Silver, Gena M; Cooper, Jocelyn J; Packer, Rebecca A; Lavely, James A

    2009-12-15

    To assess tolerability and short-term efficacy of oral administration of pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with poorly controlled suspected idiopathic epilepsy. Open-label, noncomparative clinical trial. 11 client-owned dogs suspected of having idiopathic epilepsy that was inadequately controlled with phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of these 2 drugs. Dogs were treated with pregabalin (3 to 4 mg/kg [1.4 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 3 months. Number of generalized seizures in the 3 months before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was recorded. Number of responders (>or= 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was recorded, and seizure frequency before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was compared by use of a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Seizures were significantly reduced (mean, 57%; median, 50%) after pregabalin administration in the 9 dogs that completed the study; 7 were considered responders with mean and median seizure reductions of 64% and 58%, respectively. Adverse effects for pregabalin were reported in 10 dogs. Mean and median plasma pregabalin concentrations for all dogs were 6.4 and 7.3 microg/mL, respectively. Pregabalin may hold promise as a safe and effective adjunct anticonvulsant drug for epileptic dogs poorly controlled with the standard drugs phenobarbital or potassium bromide. Adverse effects of pregabalin appeared to be mild. Additional studies with larger numbers of dogs and longer follow-up intervals are warranted.

  16. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  17. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  18. Lithium Bromide/Water as Additives in Dearomatizing Samarium-Ketyl (Hetero)Arene Cyclizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chintada Nageswara; Bentz, Christoph; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-02

    New conditions for dearomatizing samarium-ketyl (hetero)arene cyclizations are reported. In many examples of these samarium diiodide-mediated reactions, lithium bromide and water can be used as additives instead of the carcinogenic and mutagenic hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The best results were obtained for the cyclizations of N-acylated indole derivatives delivering the expected indolines in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivities. A new type of cyclization delivering indolyl-substituted allene derivatives is also described. The scope and limitations of the lithium bromide/water system are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lithium bromide-induced structural changes in a nickel bis-alkoxide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiokai, Hiromi; Vicic, David A

    2013-01-01

    The bis-alkoxide [(DEAMP)2Ni] (1, DEAMP = 1-(diethylamino)-2-methylpropan-2-olate) was found to react with trace amounts of lithium bromide to afford the bis-LiBr adduct 2, in which the oxygens of the DEAMP ligand coordinate to lithium to form a chiral-at-metal complex. This new complex is five-coordinate at nickel, and contains nickel and oxygen atoms which are all chiral. One diastereomer precipitates from pentane solution. The two lithium ions rigidify the new structure in the solid state by coordinating to the oxygen and bromide atoms.

  20. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...... photoionization processes and to describe molecular electronic structure. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data....

  1. Crystal structures of two mononuclear complexes of terbium(III) nitrate with the tripodal alcohol 1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, Thaiane; Giese, Siddhartha O K; Nunes, Giovana G; Soares, Jaísa F; Hughes, David L

    2017-02-01

    Two new mononuclear cationic complexes in which the TbIII ion is bis-chelated by the tripodal alcohol 1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane (H3LEt, C6H14O3) were prepared from Tb(NO3)3·5H2O and had their crystal and mol-ecular structures solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis after data collection at 100 K. Both products were isolated in reasonable yields from the same reaction mixture by using different crystallization conditions. The higher-symmetry complex dinitratobis[1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane]-terbium(III) nitrate di-meth-oxy-ethane hemisolvate, [Tb(NO3)2(H3LEt)2]NO3·0.5C4H10O2, 1, in which the lanthanide ion is 10-coordinate and adopts an s-bicapped square-anti-prismatic coordination geometry, contains two bidentate nitrate ions bound to the metal atom; another nitrate ion functions as a counter-ion and a half-mol-ecule of di-meth-oxy-ethane (completed by a crystallographic twofold rotation axis) is also present. In product aqua-nitratobis[1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane]-terbium(III) dinitrate, [Tb(NO3)(H3LEt)2(H2O)](NO3)2, 2, one bidentate nitrate ion and one water mol-ecule are bound to the nine-coordinate terbium(III) centre, while two free nitrate ions contribute to charge balance outside the tricapped trigonal-prismatic coordination polyhedron. No free water mol-ecule was found in either of the crystal structures and, only in the case of 1, di-meth-oxy-ethane acts as a crystallizing solvent. In both mol-ecular structures, the two tripodal ligands are bent to one side of the coordination sphere, leaving room for the anionic and water ligands. In complex 2, the methyl group of one of the H3LEt ligands is disordered over two alternative orientations. Strong hydrogen bonds, both intra- and inter-molecular, are found in the crystal structures due to the number of different donor and acceptor groups present.

  2. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  3. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bromide is commonly used to simulate the movement of nitrate fertilisers through the soil profile. However, there exists no comparative evaluation of the leaching properties of Br- and NO3-_N under local soil and rainfall conditions at Bloemfontein. The purpose of this work was to conduct a field experiment to evaluate the ...

  4. The history and future of methyl bromide alternatives in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of the efforts of the Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative (SFNMC) in testing methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives for soil fumigation. In the southeastern United States, fumigation with MBr has been the most commonly used method for producing high quality, pest-free forest seedlings in an environment that is conducive for soil...

  5. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the

  6. Microwave-Enhanced Cross-Coupling Reactions Involving Alkynyltrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Kabalka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  7. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel...

  8. Methyl Bromide Measurements in the Taylor Dome M3C1 Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set includes methyl bromide (CH3Br) measurements made on air extracted from 70 samples from the Taylor Dome M3C1 ice core. CH3Br was measured in air from...

  9. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... 9. Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of South Africa under natural rainfall. Ketema Tilahun1*, Joseph F Botha1 and Alan TP Bennie2. 1Institute for Groundwater Studies, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, ...

  10. 76 FR 34700 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... converting to alternatives such as: sulfuryl fluoride and phosphine. If relevant, the applicant should also...: sulfuryl fluoride, micro-sanitation, and heat. If relevant, the applicant should include the costs to.... Applicants must include information on the amount of methyl bromide and any other fumigants used as well as...

  11. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked

  13. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  14. A facile one-pot synthesis of deep blue luminescent lead bromide perovskite microdisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Shu, Yu; Tian, Yu; Xin, Yan; Ma, Biwu

    2015-11-25

    We report a facile one-pot synthetic method to prepare highly luminescent layered lead(II) bromide perovskite microdisks with the lateral size of a few micrometers and thickness of 100-150 nm, featuring narrow deep blue emissions with quantum yields of up to 53% in toluene solutions and thin films at room temperature.

  15. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  16. Electrical conductivity of miscibility gap salt systems based on lithium fluoride with alkali metal bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushkina, L. M.; Dokashenko, S. I.; Stepanov, V. P.; Shcherbakov, K. N.

    2011-02-01

    The electrical conductivity κ of miscibility gap ionic melts of lithium fluoride with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides is measured. The role of the size and temperature factors in migration is discussed for the systems with a predominant Coulomb interaction of particles in the saturation line.

  17. Bromination of Benzonorbornadiene Using a Mixture of Sodium Bromide and Sodium Perborate at High Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Şenocak, Erdal; Yavuz TAŞKESENLİGİL

    2014-01-01

    Bromination of benzonorbornadiene (1) with sodium bromide in the presence of sodium perborate at room temperature gave only one product, the dibromide 2 produced via Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. However, at high temperatures, bromination resulted predominantly in the formation of rearranged solvolytic products whose formation mechanisms are discussed.

  18. 78 FR 32646 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... control effectiveness between methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride or heat treatments. The cost of... three uses (strawberries, fresh dates and dry cured ham). Since information about alternatives, economic.../ temperature treatment system. Applicants should include the costs to retrofit equipment or design and...

  19. Detection of DNA cross-links in tumor cells with the ethidium bromide fluorescence assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Zijlstra, J G; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, N H; de Vries, Liesbeth

    1986-01-01

    Until now the fluorescence assay with ethidium bromide has only been used on pure DNA. This assay depends on the difference in fluorescence between single- and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. Under

  20. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  1. Effect of Ispaghula and Oxyphenonium Bromide on the Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Paik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic continuous or remittent gastrointestinal illness characterized byfrequent unexplained symptoms that include abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel disturbance, in our country, no studyhas been conducted using the Ispaghula husk and oxyphenonium bromide for the treatment of IBS patients. Objectives:To compare the efficacy of treatment with Ispaghula husk and Oxyphenonium bromide. Methods: Total sixty patientsdiagnosed clinically as irritable bowel syndrome irrespective of subtype who fulfilled the Rome II criteria were includedequally into two groups-Group-I (Ispaghula group & Group-II (Oxyphenonium group. In Group-I patients were given30gm of Ispaghula husk at night daily and in Group-II patients were given 5mg of oxyphenonium bromide. After sixweeks the clinical parameters of both the groups recorded in the case record forms were taken for analysis. Results: Themean age of the patients in the Group- I were 33.4±11.9 yrs and that of the patients in the Group-II were 31.0±17.5 yrs.Male and female ratio in group I was 14:1 and in group II was 23:7. Most of the patients were recorded in the age groupof 26-30 in both groups. Symptom free patients were graded in 16.7% patients in Group-I and in 20% patients in Group-II. No improvement was occurred in 16.7% patients in Group-I and in 10% patients in Group-II. Conclusions: Ispaghulahusk shows the better efficacy to improve the symptoms of IBS like abdominal pain or discomfort and sense of well beingthan Oxyphenonium bromide. Oxephenonium bromide shows the better efficacy to decrease the stool frequency frombase line than Ispaghula husk.DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i1.5506BSMMU J 2010; 3(1: 3-8

  2. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  3. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595–1609 revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  4. The role of bromide ions in seeding growth of Au nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Niti; Scholl, Clark; Mohanty, Ashok; Jin, Rongchao

    2010-06-15

    We report our findings on the important role of bromide ions in the seeding growth process of Au nanorods. The seed-mediated process constitutes a well-developed method for synthesizing gold nanorods in high yield, which is facilitated by a micelle-forming surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA-Br). Despite the tremendous work in recent years, the growth mechanism of Au nanorods has not been fully understood. Contrary to the widely accepted mechanism of CTA(+) micelle-templated growth of Au nanorods, we have identified the critical role of bromide ions in the seeding growth of Au nanorods. We found that even when the micelle-forming agent (CTA(+)) concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc), bromide ions added in the form of NaBr can successfully effect the growth of Au nanorods in good yield. By controlling the concentration of externally added bromide ions, the rod shape and dimensions of the resulting Au nanoparticles can be readily controlled in the presence of only a minimum amount of CTABr (as a steric stabilizer for nanorods). High-resolution TEM studies show that the as-formed nanorods are perfectly single crystalline, instead of penta-twinned ones, and are bound by {111} and {100} facets with a [110] direction as the elongation direction. A mechanism is proposed to account for the seeding growth of single crystalline Au nanorods. Overall, this work explicitly demonstrates that Br(-) indeed serves as an important shape-directing agent for gold nanorod formation in the seed-mediated process.

  5. The response behavior of PPy-DB18C6 electrode to terbium(III in acetonitrile and its thermodynamic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Arbab Zavar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole modified electrode prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of a complexing ligand, dibenzo-18-crown-6(DB18C6, was prepared and investigated as a Tb3+-selective electrode in acetonitrile. The potentiometric response of the electrode was linear within the Tb3+ concentration range 1 × 10−5–1 × 10−2 M with a Nernstian slope of 20.9 mVdecade−1 in AN. The electrode was applied to study the complexation of the terbium(III ion in acetonitrile with such other basic aprotic solvent molecules (D as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethyl formamide, propylene carbonate and pyridine. The successive complex formation constant (βi and Gibbs energies of transfer (ΔGtr of Tb3+ in AN in relation to such D were obtained.

  6. Luminescence and Magnetic Properties of Two Three-Dimensional Terbium and Dysprosium MOFs Based on Azobenzene-4,4′-Dicarboxylic Linker

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    Belén Fernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the in situ formation of two novel metal-organic frameworks based on terbium and dysprosium ions using azobenzene-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid (H2abd as ligand, synthesized by soft hydrothermal routes. Both materials show isostructural three-dimensional networks with channels along a axis and display intense photoluminescence properties in the solid state at room temperature. Textural properties of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have been fully characterized although no appreciable porosity was obtained. Magnetic properties of these materials were studied, highlighting the dysprosium material displays slightly frequency-dependent out of phase signals when measured under zero external field and under an applied field of 1000 Oe.

  7. Free energy changes in denaturation of ribonuclease A by mixed denaturants. Effects of combinations of guanidine hydrochloride and one of the denaturants lithium bromide, lithium chloride, and sodium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F

    1984-04-10

    The denaturation of ribonuclease A by guanidine hydrochloride, lithium bromide, and lithium chloride and by mixed denaturants consisting of guanidine hydrochloride and one of the denaturants lithium chloride, lithium bromide, and sodium bromide was followed by difference spectral measurements at pH 4.8 and 25 degrees C. Both components of mixed denaturant systems enhance each other's effect in unfolding the protein. The effect of lithium bromide on the midpoint of guanidine hydrochloride denaturation transition is approximately the sum of the effects of the constituent ions. For all the mixed denaturants tested, the dependence of the free energy change on denaturation is linear. The conformational free energy associated with the guanidine hydrochloride denaturation transition in water is 7.5 +/- 0.1 kcal mol-1, and it is unchanged in the presence of low concentrations of lithium bromide, lithium chloride, and sodium bromide which by themselves are not concentrated enough to unfold the protein. The conformational free energy associated with the lithium bromide denaturation transition in water is 11.7 +/- 0.3 kcal mol-1, and it is not affected by the presence of low concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride which by themselves do not disrupt the structure of native ribonuclease A.

  8. Bromate formation in bromide-containing water through the cobalt-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaobing; Chen, Zhi; Xiang, Yingying; Ling, Li; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-10-15

    Bromate formation in bromide-containing water through the cobalt (Co)-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was investigated. Increasing the PMS dosage and the cobalt dosage increased the formation of bromate and bromate yields of up to 100% were recorded under the test conditions. The bromate yield increased to a maximum as the pH rose from 2.7 to 6 before decreasing by over 90% as the pH rose further from 6 to above 9. The bromate formation is a two-step process involving free bromine as a key intermediate and bromate as the final product. In the first step, apart from the known oxidation of bromide to free bromine and of free bromine to bromate by sulfate radicals (SO4(-)), Co(III) produced from the oxidation of Co(II) by PMS and SO4(-) also oxidizes bromide to free bromine. The contribution of Co(III) to the bromate formation was verified with the addition of methanol and EDTA, a radical scavenger and a Co(III) ligand, respectively. In the presence of methanol, free bromine formation increased with increasing Co(II) dosage but no bromate was detected, indicating that Co(III) oxidized bromide to form free bromine but not bromate. In the presence of both EDTA and methanol, no free bromine or bromate was detected, as Co(III) was stabilized by EDTA to form the Co(III)EDTA(-) complex, which could not oxidize bromide. Mathematical simulation further suggested that Co(III) outweighed SO4(-) to oxidize bromide to free bromine. On the other hand, SO4(-) is essential for the oxidation of free bromine to bromate in the second step. In real water, the presence of NOM significantly decreased the bromate formation but caused the brominated organic DBP formation with high quantity. This is the first study to demonstrate the significant bromate formation in the Co/PMS system and the substantial contribution of Co(III) to the formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Dawn Merton; Dewey, Curtis; Carpenter, David Mark

    2012-05-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of treatment with phenobarbital or bromide as the first-choice antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs. Double-blinded, randomized, parallel, clinical trial. 46 AED-naïve dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. Study inclusion was based on age, history, findings on physical and neurologic examinations, and clinicopathologic test results. For either phenobarbital treatment (21 dogs) or bromide treatment (25), a 7-day loading dose period was initiated along with a maintenance dose, which was adjusted on the basis of monthly monitoring. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared between times (baseline and study end [generally 6 months]) and between drugs. Phenobarbital treatment resulted in eradication of seizures (17/20 [85%]) significantly more often than did bromide (12/23 [52%]); phenobarbital treatment also resulted in a greater percentage decrease in seizure duration (88 ± 34%), compared with bromide (49 ± 75%). Seizure activity worsened in 3 bromide-treated dogs only. In dogs with seizure eradication, mean ± SD serum phenobarbital concentration was 25 ± 6 μg/mL (phenobarbital dosage, 4.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg [1.9 ± 0.5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h) and mean serum bromide concentration was 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL (bromide dosage, 31 ± 11 mg/kg [14 ± 5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h). Ataxia, lethargy, and polydipsia were greater at 1 month for phenobarbital-treated dogs; vomiting was greater for bromide-treated dogs at 1 month and study end. Both phenobarbital and bromide were reasonable first-choice AEDs for dogs, but phenobarbital was more effective and better tolerated during the first 6 months of treatment.

  10. Luminescent europium and terbium complexes of dipyridoquinoxaline and dipyridophenazine ligands as photosensitizing antennae: structures and biological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Srikanth; Patra, Ashis K

    2015-12-14

    The europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes, namely [Eu(dpq)(DMF)2(NO3)3] (1), [Eu(dppz)2(NO3)3] (2), [Tb(dpq)(DMF)2Cl3] (3), and [Tb(dppz)(DMF)2Cl3] (4), where dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq in 1 and 3), dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz in 2 and 4) and N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) have been isolated, characterized from their physicochemical data, luminescence studies and their interaction with DNA, serum albumin protein and photo-induced DNA cleavage activity are studied. The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 1-4 show discrete mononuclear Ln(3+)-based structures. The Eu(3+) in [Eu(dpq)(DMF)2(NO3)3] (1) and [Eu(dppz)2(NO3)3] (2) as [Eu(dppz)2(NO3)3]·dppz (2a) adopts a ten-coordinated bicapped dodecahedron structure with a bidentate N,N-donor dpq ligand, two DMF and three NO3(-) anions in 1 and two bidentate N,N-donor dppz ligands and three NO3(-) anions in 2. Complexes 3 and 4 show a seven-coordinated mono-capped octahedron structure where Tb(3+) contains bidentate dpq/dppz ligands, two DMF and three Cl(-) anions. The complexes are highly luminescent in nature indicating efficient photo-excited energy transfer from the dpq/dppz antenna to Ln(3+) to generate long-lived emissive excited states for characteristic f → f transitions. The time-resolved luminescence spectra of complexes 1-4 show typical narrow emission bands attributed to the (5)D0 → (7)F(J) and (5)D4 → (7)F(J) f-f transitions of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions respectively. The number of inner-sphere water molecules (q) was determined from luminescence lifetime measurements in H2O and D2O confirming ligand-exchange reactions with water in solution. The complexes display significant binding propensity to the CT-DNA giving binding constant values in the range of 1.0 × 10(4)-6.1 × 10(4) M(-1) in the order 2, 4 (dppz) > 1, 3 (dpq). DNA binding data suggest DNA groove binding with the partial intercalation nature of the complexes. All the complexes also show binding propensity (K(BSA)

  11. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  12. Atmospheric volatilization of methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, and propargyl bromide through two plastic films: transfer coefficient and temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yates, S. R.; Gan, J.; Knuteson, J. A.

    Atmospheric emission of methyl bromide (MeBr) and its potential alternative chemicals such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and propargyl bromide (PrBr) can contribute to air pollution and ozone depletion (for MeBr). One of the main sources of these chemicals is from agricultural soil fumigation. To understand the volatilization dynamics, emission of MeBr, 1,3-D, and PrBr through a polyethylene-based high-barrier film (HBF) and a virtually impermeable film (VIF) was measured using an air flow and sampling system that produced >90% mass balance. The experiment was conducted outdoors and was subjected to ambient daily temperature variations. The HBF film was found to be very permeable to 1,3-D and PrBr, but somewhat less permeable to MeBr. The VIF film was very impermeable to 1,3-D, PrBr, or MeBr. Measured volatilization flux, in general, exhibited strong diurnal variations which were controlled by film temperature. Unlike the HBF film, a time lag (˜12 h) was observed between high-temperatures and high-emission flux values for the VIF film. An impermeable film may be used as an effective means of controlling the atmospheric emission of MeBr and its alternative chemicals.

  13. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  14. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G

    2016-10-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in Subcooled Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Masao; Furukawa, Masahiro; Nishizumi, Takeharu; Ozaki, Shinji; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    A theoretical prediction model of the boiling heat transfer coefficient in the subcooled region for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution flowing in a rectangular channel is proposed. In the present heat transfer model, a heat flux is assumed to consist of both the forced convective and the boiling effect components. The forced convective component is evaluated from the empirical correlation of convective heat transfer coefficient for single-phase flow considering the effect of increase of liquid velocity due to net vapor generation. Empirical correlations for determining the heat flux due to the boiling effect and the quality at the onset point of net vapor generation are obtained from the data presented in the first report1). Agreement between the present theoretical prediction and the experimental data is satisfactorily good both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution.

  16. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  17. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Shinomura, Hisashi

    2013-02-01

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr42- layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation.

  18. Effect of Concentration on Evaporation Rate for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in a Falling Film Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Ide, Tetsuo

    Experiments on evaporation for lithium bromide aqueous solution (0-55 wt% LiBr) were made in Summary a externally heated wetted-wall column under reduced pressures. The evaporation rates of 5 and 8 wt% LiBr-water solutions were similar to those of water. The evaporation rates, however, owered with further increase of the concentration of LiBr, and at low feed rates the evaporation rates lowered with decrease of the feed rate because the temperature of the falling film rose. On the other hand, at high feed rates the evaporation rates lowered with increase of feed rates because the heat transfer coefficients of the falling film decreased. Therefore, a maximum evaporation rate existed and it was supposed that there is the optimum feed rate. The experimental data agreed with the values that were calculated numerically based on the unidirectional model that lithium bromide didn't move through falling film.

  19. Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions of aryl bromides with 1,2-diarylethenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limberger, Jones; Poersch, Silvia; Monteiro, Adriano L., E-mail: adriano.monteiro@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LCM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. of Molecular Catalysis

    2011-07-01

    A catalytic system composed of Pd(OAc){sub 2} and P(o-tol){sub 3} was found to be effective for the Heck reaction of aryl bromides with diarylethylenes. Using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a base and DMF as a solvent, trisubstituted olefins were obtained in good to excellent yields. Aryl bromides containing an electron-withdrawing group in para position were less reactive for the Heck coupling reaction and gave substantial amount of homocoupling by-product suggesting that oxidative addition is not the rate-determining step. Electron withdrawing group substituent in the para position of stilbene affects the regioselectivity of the reaction. In this case, the phenyl group from the Ph-Pd complex migrates preferentially to the same carbon of the double bond to which the phenyl is bonded. Finally, a one pot sequential double Heck arylation of styrene was performed, giving trisubstituted olefin with an overall yield of 73%. (author)

  20. Evaluation of alternatives to methyl bromide in melon crops in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, M; Camacho-Ferre, F; Diánez-Martínez, F; De Cara-García, M; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2009-02-01

    The monoculture of melon in Guatemala has caused the massive appearance of plants with an analogous syndrome for the well-known disease commonly called melon collapse, or vine decline, causing significant losses in crops. Methyl bromide is commonly used to sterilize soil prior to planting in Guatemala, but it must be phased out by 2015. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technique of grafting melon onto hybrids of Cucurbita (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata), as an alternative to using soil disinfectants (such as Metam sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene, and methyl bromide) for the control of collapse. The results suggested that both soil disinfection and grafting were not necessary in these locations, since there were no statistical differences in terms of yields between the treatments and the untreated control. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that decisions to disinfect the soil must be based on the firm identification of the causal agents, in addition to preliminary assessments of yield losses.

  1. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Wei, Dongbin; Li, Liping; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Huimin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-12-01

    The brominated products, formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions, were identified, and the formation pathways were proposed. Under disinfection conditions, benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono- or di-halogenated products, which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives. The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product. The product species were pH-dependent, while benzophenone-4 elimination was chlorine dose-dependent. When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions, most of brominated byproducts could be detected, and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A novel model-based approach for dose determination of glycopyrronium bromide in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arievich Helen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for treatment of COPD. This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD and twice-daily (BID glycopyrronium bromide regimens, using a novel model-based approach, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Double-blind, randomized, dose-finding trial with an eight-treatment, two-period, balanced incomplete block design. Patients (smoking history ≥10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥30% and 1/FVC 1 at Day 28. Results 385 patients (mean age 61.2 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 53% predicted were randomized; 88.6% completed. All OD and BID dosing regimens produced dose-dependent bronchodilation; at Day 28, increases in mean trough FEV1 versus placebo were statistically significant for all regimens, ranging from 51 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 12.5 μg OD to 160 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg BID. Pharmacodynamic steady-state was reached by Day 7. There was a small separation (≤37 mL between BID and OD dose–response curves for mean trough FEV1 at steady-state in favour of BID dosing. Over 24 hours, separation between OD and BID regimens was even smaller (FEV1 AUC0-24h maximum difference for equivalent daily dose regimens: 8 mL. Dose–response results for FEV1 at 12 hours, FEV1 AUC0-12h and FEV1 AUC0-4h at steady-state showed OD regimens provided greater improvement over placebo than BID regimens for total daily doses of 25 μg, 50 μg and 100 μg, while the reverse was true for OD versus BID regimens from 12–24 hours. The 12.5 μg BID dose produced a marginally higher improvement in trough FEV1 versus placebo than 50 μg OD, however, the response at 12 hours over placebo was suboptimal (74 mL. Glycopyrronium bromide was safe and well tolerated at all doses. Conclusions Glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg OD provides significant bronchodilation over a 24 hour period

  3. Charging of silver bromide aqueous interface: evaluation of interfacial equilibrium constants from surface potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preočanin, Tajana; Supljika, Filip; Kallay, Nikola

    2010-06-01

    A single crystal silver bromide electrode (SCr-AgBr) was used to measure the inner surface potential (Ψ(0)) at the silver bromide aqueous electrolyte interface as a function of the activities of Br(-) and Ag(+). Absolute values of the surface potential were calculated from electrode potentials of SCr-AgBr using the value of point of zero charge (pBr(pzc)=6.9 [H.A. Hoyen, R.M. Cole, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 41 (1972) 93.]) as the value of point of zero potential. Measurements were performed in potassium nitrate aqueous solutions. The Ψ(0)(pBr) function was linear and slightly dependent on the ionic strength. The reduction values of the slope with respect to the Nernst equation, expressed by the α coefficient, were 0.880,0.935, and 0.950 at ionic strengths of 10(-4), 10(-3), and 10(-2) mol dm(-3), respectively. The results were successfully interpreted by employing the surface complexation model, developed originally for metal oxides and adapted for silver halides. The thermodynamic ("intrinsic") equilibrium constants for binding of bromide (K(n)(∘)) and silver (K(p)(∘)) ions on the corresponding sites at the silver bromide surface were evaluated as lgK(n)(∘)=3.98; lgK(p)(∘)=2.48. Symmetrical counterion surface association was assumed and equilibrium constants were obtained as lgK(NO(3)(-))(∘)=lgK(K(+))(∘)=4.30. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Cao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  5. Synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides from aryl methyl ketones in a DMSO-HBr system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiling; Shi, Dahua; Qu, Yingying; Tao, Chuanzhou; Liu, Weiwei; Yao, Guowei

    2013-12-16

    A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What's more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  6. 1-Bromomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Finke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H14BrN2+·Br−, was prepared by nucleophilic substitution of DABCO (systematic name: 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with dibromomethane in acetone. The structure features Br...H close contacts (2.79 and 2.90 Å as well as a weak bromine–bromide interaction [3.6625 (6 Å].

  7. Replacing conventional carbon nucleophiles with electrophiles: nickel-catalyzed reductive alkylation of aryl bromides and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Jones, Brittany A; Weix, Daniel J

    2012-04-11

    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (-OH, -NHTs, -OAc, -OTs, -OTf, -COMe, -NHBoc, -NHCbz, -CN, -SO(2)Me), and the reactions are assembled on the benchtop with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. The reaction displays different chemoselectivity than conventional cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille, and Hiyama-Denmark reactions. Substrates bearing both an electrophilic and nucleophilic carbon result in selective coupling at the electrophilic carbon (R-X) and no reaction at the nucleophilic carbon (R-[M]) for organoboron (-Bpin), organotin (-SnMe(3)), and organosilicon (-SiMe(2)OH) containing organic halides (X-R-[M]). A Hammett study showed a linear correlation of σ and σ(-) parameters with the relative rate of reaction of substituted aryl bromides with bromoalkanes. The small ρ values for these correlations (1.2-1.7) indicate that oxidative addition of the bromoarene is not the turnover-frequency determining step. The rate of reaction has a positive dependence on the concentration of alkyl bromide and catalyst, no dependence upon the amount of zinc (reducing agent), and an inverse dependence upon aryl halide concentration. These results and studies with an organic reductant (TDAE) argue against the intermediacy of organozinc reagents. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Factors Affecting the Stability and Performance of Ipratropium Bromide; Fenoterol Hydrobromide Pressurized-Metered Dose Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher t...

  9. Adsorption of Indigo Carmine Dye Using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Surfactant Modified Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziyah, Nurul; Sriatun, Sriatun; Pardoyo, Pardoyo

    2015-01-01

    Research of indigo carmine dye adsorption using natural zeolite modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant has been done. The purpose of this study was to modify the natural zeolite using CTAB surfactant and to determine its ability on the adsorption of indigo carmine dye. The stages of the study included the activation of zeolites, modifying zeolites using CTAB surfactant and adsorption test of indigo carmine dye. The results showed that the zeolites could be modified by CT...

  10. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  11. Managing Weeds and Soilborne Pests with Fumigant and Non-Fumigant Alternatives to Methyl Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Theodore Porter

    2012-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MBr) was widely used as a soil fumigant to manage soilborne pests in plasticulture vegetable production; however, it has been banned by the United Nations Environment Programme. Alternatives to MBr must be implemented to sustain fresh market tomato productivity. Possible MBr alternatives include new fumigant compounds, improved plastic mulch, and grafting. Methyl iodide (MeI) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were tested as fumigant alternatives to MBr for the control of yellow...

  12. 1-(2-Bromoethyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-mei Xiao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C8H17BrN22+·Br−·BF4−, a weak intermolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bond is observed between the cation and the bromide anion. A two-part disorder model was applied to the BF4− anion with a refined major–minor occupancy ratio of 0.837 (14:0.163 (14.

  13. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  14. Serum triglyceride concentration in dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Elissa K; Malik, Richard; Ilkin, William J; Snow, David; Sullivan, David R; Govendir, Merran

    2008-10-15

    To compare serum triglyceride concentrations obtained after food had been withheld (i.e., fasting concentrations) in dogs with epilepsy that had been treated long term (> or = 3 months) with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and potassium bromide with concentrations in healthy control dogs. Cross-sectional study. 57 epileptic dogs that had been treated with phenobarbital (n=28) or with phenobarbital and bromide (29) and 57 healthy, untreated control dogs matched on the basis of age, breed, sex, neuter status, and body condition score. Blood samples were collected after food had been withheld for at least 12 hours, and serum biochemical and lipid concentrations were determined. Oral fat tolerance tests were performed in 15 control dogs and 9 dogs with epilepsy treated with phenobarbital alone. 19 of the 57 (33%) epileptic dogs had fasting serum triglyceride concentrations greater than the upper reference limit. Nine (16%) dogs had a history of pancreatitis, and 5 of the 9 had high fasting serum triglyceride concentrations at the time of the study. A significant relationship was found between body condition score and fasting serum triglyceride concentration in all dogs, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with phenobarbital dosage or serum phenobarbital concentration. Results suggested that dogs treated long term with phenobarbital or with phenobarbital and bromide may develop hypertriglyceridemia. Fasting serum triglyceride concentration should be periodically monitored in dogs treated with phenobarbital because hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for pancreatitis.

  15. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana

    2003-09-01

    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  16. [Treating irritable bowel syndrome by wuling capsule combined pinaverium bromide: a clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-wei; Hou, Yu; Ji, Hong-zan; Liang, Ming-ming; Xu, Lian-e; Wang, Fang-yu

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of wuling Capsule combined with Pinaverium Bromide in treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sixty-four IBS patients were randomized into two groups, the treatment group and the control group, 32 in each group. Patients in the treatment group took wuling Capsule (0. 33 g/capsule, 3 times per day) and Pinaverium Bromide (50 mg/tablet, one tablet each time, 3 times per day) , while those in the control group only took Pinaverium Bromide (50 mg/tablet, one tablet each time, 3 times per day). The therapeutic course for all was 6 weeks. IBS symptom score questionnaire, IBS-Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) , Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) , and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were assessed before and after treatment. Adverse reactions were also observed. The improvement of abdominal pain, stool frequency, and stool properties, as well as changing rates of integrals were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P body image, concerns for health, and dietary restriction of IBS-QOL, as well as changing rates of integrals were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P depression and anxiety of IBS patients with higher safety.

  17. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Ryo, E-mail: rsasai@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, F3-3(250), Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Shinomura, Hisashi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, F3-3(250), Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr{sub 4}{sup 2-} layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: For the first time, we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PbBr-based layered perovskite with azobenezene derivatives could be synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Azobenzene derivatives incorporated the present hybrid that exhibited reversible photoisomerization under UV and/or visible light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL property of the present hybrid could also be varied by photoisomerization.

  18. Study on Durability and Stability of an Aqueous Electrolyte Solution for Zinc Bromide Hybrid Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Jeon, Joonhyeon

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-bromine flow battery using aqueous electrolyte has advantages of cost effective and high energy density, but there still remains a problem improving stability and durability of electrolyte materials during long-time cell operation. This paper focuses on providing a homogeneous aqueous solution for durability and stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. For performance experiments of conventional and proposed electrolyte solutions, detailed cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements (at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the range of -1.5 V~1.5 V) are carried out for 40 cycles and five kinds of electrolytes containing which has one of additives, such as (conventionally) zinc chloride, potassium chloride, (newly) lithium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and zeolite-Y are compared with the 2.0 M ZnBr2 electrolyte, respectively. Experimental results show that using the proposed three additives provides higher anodic and cathodic peak current density of electrolytes than using other two conventional additives, and can lead to improved chemical reversibility of zinc bromide electrolyte. Especially, the solution of which the zeolite-Y added, shows enhanced electrochemical stability of zinc bromide electrolyte. Consequently, proposed electrolytes have a significant advantage in comparison with conventional electrolytes on higher stability and durability.

  19. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  20. Managing opioid-induced constipation in advanced illness: focus on methylnaltrexone bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Elina Clemens

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Katri Elina Clemens1,2, Eberhard Klaschik11Department of Science and Research, Centre for Palliative Medicine, University of Bonn, Germany; 2Department of Palliative Medicine and Pain Therapy, Malteser Hospital Bonn/Rhein-Sieg, GermanyAbstract: Constipation is a common symptom in palliative care patients which can generate considerable suffering. There is uncertainty about the choice of treatment options from varying recommendations for management of constipation and a varying clinical practice in palliative care settings. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the current recommendations of therapy guidelines for the management of opioid-induced constipation in palliative care patients with a focus on methylnaltrexone bromide. Recent findings in the literature and related information on the opioid-induced gastrointestinal disorders in patients with advanced illness, as well as information on the opioid-antagonist methylnaltrexone, are discussed. Knowledge of the role of definitions, the causes of constipation and the pathophysiology of opioid-induced constipation must be given high priority in the treatment of patients receiving opioids. Diagnosis and therapy of constipation, therefore, should relate to findings in clinical investigation. Opioid-induced constipation and its adequate treatment is an important issue for patients with advanced illness and also poses therapeutic challenge for clinicians in daily routine. Methylnaltrexone bromide may represent an important therapeutic option for palliative care patients who are suffering from opioid-induced constipation with failure of conventional prophylactic oral laxative treatment.Keywords: opioid-induced constipation, palliative care, opioids, methylnaltrexone bromide

  1. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1975-01-01

    The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been expl...... by Liu. The coupled magnon—transverse-phonon system for the c direction of Tb is analyzed in detail, and the strengths of the couplings are deduced as a function of wave vector by combining the experimental studies with the theory....

  2. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...

  3. ENTHALPIES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN DIMETHYLDIOCTADECYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE VESICLES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION AND EITHER DIPICOLINATE OR SULFATE ANIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLANDAMER, MJ; BRIGGS, B; BUTT, MD; CULLIS, PM; WATERS, M; ENGBERTS, JBFN; HOEKSTRA, D

    1994-01-01

    Injection of small aliquots of dipicolinate anions (sodium salt) into an aqueous solution containing dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DOAB) vesicles is endothermic at 50-degrees-C, becoming first more and then less endothermic. The injection process is effectively athermal for solutions

  4. GREEN CHEMISTRY APPLICATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF (1-N-4’-METHOXYBENZYL-1,10-PHENANTHROLINIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidan Firdaus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%. Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline in acetone at reflux for 12 h to give the phenanthrolinium salt target in 68% yield.   Keywords: green chemistry, p-anisaldehyde, (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide

  5. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... species, Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) and Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly... bromide treatment schedule to mitigate risk from C. capitata and A. fraterculus, as described in the TED...

  6. An experimental investigation of thermo-capillary convection in solution of lithium bromide at non-isothermal absorption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bufetov N. S; Dekhtyar R. A; Ovchinikov V. V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain new experimental data on the development of thermo-capillary convection in a solution of lithium bromide with non-isothermal absorption of water vapor in a confined vessel...

  7. Ethanol behaviour at the solution-air interface in the presence of Triton X-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide mixture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magdalena Bielawska; Anna Zdziennicka

    2015-01-01

    ...)phenoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (Triton X-100 or TX-100) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) mixture with ethanol published in our previous paper, the process of ethanol adsorption was investigated...

  8. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-21

    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide.

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  13. Catalytic Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on the Oxidation of Triethylene glycol by Chloramine-T in Acidic Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vandana; Sharma, K. V.; Bhagwat, V. W.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide catalyzed oxidation of triethylene glycol [2,2'-ethylene diqxybis(ethanol)] by chloramine-T in acidic acid medium have been investigated. The reaction is first order dependence on chloramine-T and fractional order for triethylene glycol with excess concentration of other reactants. The catalytic effect due to cetyletrimethylammonium bromide has been studied. The small salt effect and increase in the reaction rate with increasing die...

  14. Synthesis and crystal structure of terbium(III) meta-oxoborate Tb(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} ({identical_to} TbB{sub 3}O{sub 6}); Synthese und Kristallstruktur von Terbium(III)-meta-Oxoborat Tb(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} ({identical_to} TbB{sub 3}O{sub 6})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikelski, Tanja; Schleid, Thomas [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie der Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The terbium meta-oxoborate Tb(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} ({identical_to} TbB{sub 3}O{sub 6}) is obtained as single crystals by the reaction of terbium, Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} and TbCl{sub 3} with an excess of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in gastight sealed platinum ampoules at 950 C after three weeks. The compound appears to be air- and water-resistant and crystallizes as long, thin, colourless needles which tend to growth-twinning due to their marked fibrous habit. The crystal structure of Tb(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (orthorhombic, Pnma; a = 1598.97(9), b = 741.39(4), c = 1229.58(7) pm; Z = 16) contains strongly corrugated oxoborate layers {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}{l_brace}(BO{sub 2}){sup -}{r_brace} built of vertex-linked [BO{sub 4}]{sup 5-} tetrahedra (d(B-O) = 143 - 154 pm, and angsph;(O-B-O) = 102-115 ) which spread out parallel (100). The four crystallographically different Tb{sup 3+} cations all exhibit coordination numbers of eight towards the oxygen atoms (d(Tb-O) = 228-287 pm). The corresponding metal cation polyhedra [TbO{sub 8}]{sup 13+} too convene to layers (composition: {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}{l_brace}(Tb{sub 2}O{sub 11}){sup 16-}{r_brace}) which are likewise oriented parallel to the (100) plane. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Das Terbium-meta-Oxoborat Tb(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} ({identical_to} TbB{sub 3}O{sub 6}) entsteht einkristallin bei der Reaktion von Terbium, Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} und TbCl{sub 3} mit einem Ueberschuss von B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in gasdicht verschlossenen Platinampullen nach drei Wochen bei 950 C. Die Verbindung ist luft- und wasserstabil und faellt in langen, duennen, farblosen Nadeln an, die aufgrund ihres ausgepraegt faserigen Habitus zur Wachstumsverzwillingung neigen. Die Kristallstruktur von Tb(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (orthorhombisch, Pnma; a = 1598, 97(9), b = 741, 39(4), c = 1229, 58(7) pm; Z = 16) enthaelt parallel (100) verlaufende, stark gewellte Oxoborat-Schichten {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}{l_brace}(BO{sub 2}){sup -}{r_brace} aus

  15. Removal of bromide from aqueous solutions using the UV/ZnO process based on the multivariate analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Mohammad Moradi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromide is found naturally in groundwater and surface water. The rapid growth of industrial activities, drainage of surface runoff, and use of methyl bromide in pesticides has increased bromide discharge to the environment. Disinfection of water-containing bromide causes the creation of additional products of organo-halogenated that are considered cancer-causing agents. In this study, the effect and optimization of factors in removal of this ion was evaluated by using the nano-photocatalytic UV/ZnO process. Methods: This analytical study was conducted in a batch system by the phenol-red method. The test design was performed through the analysis model of multi-factor variance with 99 subjects, while the main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of variables, such as reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH at different levels of each factor, were analysed by using SPSS version 16. Results: The main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of factors were significant in three different levels with P < 0.001, and the optimal level of the factors reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH were 120 minutes, 0.5, 0.1, and 7 mg/L, respectively, by using the Schaffer test. The highest removal efficiency of 95% was obtained at least 91.56 and a maximum of 94.76% was obtained under optimal conditions of all factors. Conclusion: The results show that by optimization of factors, this process can be effectively used to remove bromide from aquatic environments.

  16. The effects of pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin, alone or in combination, on response acquisition in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haaren, F; Cody, B; Hoy, J B; Karlix, J L; Schmidt, C J; Tebbett, I R; Wielbo, D

    2000-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that concurrent exposure to pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin may have contributed to the development of neurocognitive symptoms in Gulf War veterans. The present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin alone, or in combination, on the acquisition of a novel response, one measure of normal cognitive functioning. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with pyridostigmine bromide (1.5 mg/kg/day, by gavage in a volume of 5 ml/kg) or its vehicle for 7 consecutive days. They then also received an intraperitoneal injection of permethrin (0, 15, or 60 mg/kg) before they were exposed to an experimental session during which they could earn food by pressing a lever in an operant chamber. Serum permethrin levels increased as a function of its dose, and were higher in rats treated with pyridostigmine bromide. Sex differences were observed as permethrin levels were higher in female rats than in male rats following the highest dose. Pyridostigmine bromide delayed response acquisition in male and female rats, and resulted in higher response rates on the inactive lever in female rats than in male rats. Although permethrin levels were higher in subjects treated with pyridostigmine bromide than in those treated with vehicle, there were no differences in the behavioral effects of permethrin. Whether or not these behavioral effects of pyridostigmine bromide are of central or peripheral origin will need to be determined in future studies, as its effects on motor activity and/or gastro-intestinal motility may have affected response acquisition.

  17. Effect of chronic administration of phenobarbital, or bromide, on pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in dogs with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Papich, M G

    2015-01-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a common add-on antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs with refractory seizures. Concurrent phenobarbital administration alters the disposition of LEV in healthy dogs. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LEV in dogs with epilepsy when administered concurrently with conventional AEDs. Eighteen client-owned dogs on maintenance treatment with LEV and phenobarbital (PB group, n = 6), LEV and bromide (BR group, n = 6) or LEV, phenobarbital and bromide (PB-BR group, n = 6). Prospective pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after LEV administration. Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To account for dose differences among dogs, LEV concentrations were normalized to the mean study dose (26.4 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on adjusted concentrations, using a noncompartmental method, and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to the last measured time point. Compared to the PB and PB-BR groups, the BR group had significantly higher peak concentration (Cmax ) (73.4 ± 24.0 versus 37.5 ± 13.7 and 26.5 ± 8.96 μg/mL, respectively, P dogs compared to concurrent administration of bromide alone. Dosage increases might be indicated when utilizing LEV as add-on treatment with phenobarbital in dogs. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet-Correa G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.

  19. Bromide oxidation by ferrate(VI): The formation of active bromine and bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjun; Goodwill, Joseph E; Tobiason, John E; Reckhow, David A

    2016-06-01

    Ferrate (VI) (abbreviated as Fe(VI)) has long been considered as a green oxidant that does not produce any known hazardous byproducts. However, this work shows that Fe(VI) can slowly oxidize bromide forming active bromine (HOBr/OBr(-)) and bromate, and in natural waters total organic bromine (TOBr) can also be detected. Results showed that the highest levels of active bromine and bromate were formed at lower pHs and in the absence of phosphate. Hydrogen peroxide, which forms from the reaction of Fe(VI) and water, plays an essential role in suppressing bromate formation by reducing active bromine back to bromide. Fe(VI) decomposition products (assumed to be particulate phase Fe(III)) can catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by Fe(VI). Phosphate had a substantial inhibiting effect on the formation of active bromine, but less so on bromate formation. The presence of the raw water matrix in natural water suppressed bromate formation. For a natural water spiked with 0.1 mg/L of bromide, the bromate and TOBr concentrations after Fe(VI) oxidation were below 3.0 and 15 μg/L, respectively. No consistent trend regarding the effect of pH or buffer ions on TOBr formation was observed due to the competition between Fe(VI), hydrogen peroxide, and natural organic matter (NOM) for reaction with active bromine. Under environmentally relevant conditions, the formation of bromate and TOBr would not be a problem for Fe(VI) application as their concentration levels are quite low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin

    2013-11-11

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Song; Yu Deng; Hong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br) as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulos...

  2. Aclidinium bromid forbedrer lungefunktionen og reducerer dyspnø hos patienter med KOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central for treatment of COPD. This short review provides an overview of studies evaluating the efficacy of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, for the treatment of COPD. Twice-daily dosing of aclidinium leads to clinically important...... improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, health status, use of rescue medication, day-time dyspnoea and exercise tolerance. The available studies also suggest an effect on night-time dyspnoea and exacerbation rate in patients with COPD. Aclidinium seems to have potential for a significant role...... in the future management of COPD....

  3. 1-Cyanomethyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C8H14N3+·Br−·2H2O, intermolecular O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonding occurs. The water molecules are connected into chains extending in the a-axis direction. The bromide anions are connected to the water molecules, forming 10-membered rings. The cations are connected to the anions via weak C—H...Br interactions. Two carbon atoms of the cation are disordered and were refined using a split model (occupancy ratio 0.70:0.3.

  4. Environmental and health risks of sulfuryl fluoride, a fumigant replacement for methyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2010-04-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO(2)F(2)) is used primarily as a fumigant in replacement of methyl bromide, but it has the potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article introduces SO(2)F(2) in the physicochemical properties, the current uses in agriculture and industry, the toxicological data, and the environmental implications on the basis of its environmental properties. The health hazards of SO(2)F(2) and its probable decomposition products were also evaluated based on their occupational exposure limits and possible exposure sources. The resident and occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand seriousness of risk caused by SO(2)F(2) and its decomposition products.

  5. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  6. Holographic Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Lithium Bromide in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Masaru; Aoki, Kazuo; Yamada, Shuichi; Okubo, Takahiro

    About 90 points of diffusion coefficient of lithium bromide (LiBr) in aqueous solution were measured by holographic interferometry in the temperature range of 20∼50°C and the concentration range of 0.4∼55mass%. A correlation among concentration, temperature and diffusion coefficients was done, and an empirical equation to calculate the diffusion coefficient in the concentration and the temperature ranges mentioned above was proposed. Differences between experimental values and correlated expression were almost within±2%. Accuracy of the measured diffusion coefficients was discussed and the measurements are shown to be made within error of ±6.8%.

  7. Solution NMR structural study of a mixed aggregate of N-lithium triphenylphosphazene and lithium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ignacio; Davidson, Matthew G; Price, Richard D; Ortiz, Fernando López

    2009-04-07

    The toluene solution structure of an N-lithio(triphenyl)phosphazene (Ph(3)PNLi) mixed aggregate with lithium bromide (LiBr), 5, has been elucidated for the first time based on multinuclear magnetic resonance measurements ((1)H, (6)Li, (7)Li, (13)C and (31)P). The structure consist of two dimers [Li(mu-Z)](2) (Z= Br, NPR(3)) linked through LiX (X= N, Br) bridges. This arrangement is a cubane-like structure analogous to that found in the solid-state.

  8. Catalytic Reduction of Alkyl and Aryl Bromides Using Propan-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Michael C; Stoltz, Brian M; Grubbs, Robert H

    2017-11-20

    Milstein's complex, (PNN)RuHCl(CO), catalyzes the efficient reduction of aryl and alkyl halides under relatively mild conditions by using propan-2-ol and a base. Sterically hindered tertiary and neopentyl substrates are reduced efficiently, as well as more functionalized aryl and alkyl bromides. The reduction process is proposed to occur by radical abstraction/hydrodehalogenation steps at ruthenium. Our research represents a safer and more sustainable alternative to typical silane, lithium aluminium hydride, and tin-based conditions for these reductions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  10. Electron irradiation effects on optical properties of semiorganic antimony thiourea bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesha Upadhya, K., E-mail: mahesh.upadhya@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Karnataka 575025 (India); Udayashankar, N.K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar, Karnataka 575025 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Antimony thiourea bromide monohydrate (ATBM) single crystals were grown by solution growth technique at room temperature for the first time. The UV-vis, FT-IR and fluorescence spectra were recorded and electron irradiation effects on these properties were studied. The optical absorption edge of the UV-vis spectrum shifts towards lower wavelength with the increase of irradiation. The fluorescence quantum yield is increased for electron irradiated ATBM crystals. The FT-IR analysis shows that the water of crystallization is weakly bonded in as-grown and electron irradiated ATBM crystals.

  11. An integrated logic system for time-resolved fluorescent "turn-on" detection of cysteine and histidine base on terbium (III) coordination polymer-copper (II) ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Fan; Lu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Qi-Xian; Zhang, Shengqiang; Zhang, Min; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-09-01

    Cysteine (Cys) and histidine (His) both play indispensable roles in many important biological activities. An enhanced Cys level can result in Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Likewise, His plays a significant role in the growth and repair of tissues as well as in controlling the transmission of metal elements in biological bases. Therefore, it is meaningful to detect Cys and His simultaneously. In this work, a novel terbium (III) coordination polymer-Cu (II) ensemble (Tb(3+)/GMP-Cu(2+)) was proposed. Guanosine monophosphate (GMP) can self-assemble with Tb(3+) to form a supramolecular Tb(3+) coordination polymer (Tb(3+)/GMP), which can be suited as a time-resolved probe. The fluorescence of Tb(3+)/GMP would be quenched upon the addition of Cu(2+), and then the fluorescence of the as-prepared Tb(3+)/GMP-Cu(2+) ensemble would be restored again in the presence of Cys or His. By incorporating N-Ethylmaleimide and Ni(2+) as masking agents, Tb(3+)/GMP-Cu(2+) was further exploited as an integrated logic system and a specific time-resolved fluorescent "turn-on" assay for simultaneously sensing His and Cys was designed. Meanwhile it can also be used in plasma samples, showing great potential to meet the need of practical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of cerium-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet phosphor for white light-emitting diodes applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Han, Tao; Lang, Tianchun; Tu, Mingjing; Peng, Lingling

    2015-11-01

    Cerium-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet phosphors were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. The crystalline phase, morphology, and photoluminescence properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD results indicate that with an increase of the amount of x (Tb3+), all of the samples have a pure garnet crystal structure without secondary phases. The SEM images reveal that the samples are composed of sphere-like crystallites, which exhibit different degrees of agglomeration. The luminescent properties of Ce ions in )Al5O12∶Ce0.1 have been studied, and it was found that the emission band shifted toward a longer wavelength. The redshift is attributed to the lowering of the 5d energy level centroid of Ce, which can be explained by the nephelauxetic effect and compression effect. These phosphors were coated on blue light-emitting diode (LED) chips to fabricate white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs), and their color-rendering indices, color temperatures, and luminous efficiencies were measured. As a consequence of the addition of Tb, the blue LED pumped )Al5O12∶Ce0.1 phosphors WLEDs showed good optical properties.

  13. Study on the fluorescent enhancement effect in terbium-gadolinium-protein-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate system and its application on sensitive detection of protein at nanogram level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changxia; Yang, Jinghe; Wu, Xia; Liu, Shufang; Su, Benyu

    2004-08-01

    The co-luminescence effect in a terbium-gadolinium-protein-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system is reported here. Based on it, the sensitive quantitative analysis of protein at nanogram levels is established. The co-luminescence mechanism is studied using fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), absorption spectroscopy and NMR measurement. It is considered that protein could be unfolded by SDBS, then a efficacious intramolecular fluorescent energy transfer occurs from unfolded protein to rare earth ions through SDBS acting as a "transfer bridge" to enhance the emission fluorescence of Tb3+ in this ternary complex of Tb-SDBS-BSA, where energy transfer from protein to SDBS by aromatic ring stacking is the most important step. Cooperating with the intramolecular energy transfer above is the intermolecular energy transfer between the simultaneous existing complexes of both Tb3+ and Gd3+. The fluorescence quantum yield is increased by an energy-insulating sheath, which is considered to be another reason for the resulting enhancement of the fluorescence. Förster theory is used to calculate the distribution of enhancing factors and has led to a greater understanding of the mechanisms of energy transfer.

  14. [Studies on luminescence properties of seven ternary complexes of terbium with 1,10-phenanthroline and benzoic acid and its derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-hua; Wang, Shu-ping; Liu, Cui-ge; Ma, Rui-xia; Wang, Rui-fen

    2006-04-01

    Seven ternary complexes of Tb(III) were synthesized with benzoic acid (BA), o-, m-, p-methylbenzoic acid (o-MBA, m-MBA, p-MBA), and o-, m-, p-methoxybenzoic acid (o-MOBA, m-MOBA, p-MOBA) as the first ligand, and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as the second ligand. The content of C, H and N were measured by using a Flash-EA model 1112 elemental analyzer. Excitation and luminescence spectra of the title solid complexes were recorded by using a Hitachi F-4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer at room temperature. The effects of different varieties and different positions of replacing benzoic acid as the first ligand on fluorescence properties of the ternary complexes of terbium were discussed. The results indicated that the intensity of 5D4-->7F6 (489 nm) and 5D4-->7F5 (545 nm) of substituting benzoic acid complexes was stronger than benzoic acid. Three ternary complexes of Tb(III) with o-, m-, p-methylbenzoic acid showed emission intensity in the consecution: Tb(o-MBA)3 phenMOBA)3phen x H2O>Tb(m-MOBA)3phen x H2O>Tb(p-MOBA)3 phen.

  15. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for Trace Amounts Determination of Bromide in Pharmaceutical Samples Using Janus Green-Bromate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Reza Shishehbore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new simple and rapid kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed to trace amounts determination of bromide. This method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide on the reaction between Janus Green and bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at 618 nm. The fixed-time method was used for the first 210 s. The influence of reagents concentration, temperature and time on the sensitivity was studied. Under optimum experimental conditions, bromide can be determined in the range of 10.0-1800.0 μg/L. The relative standard deviations (n = 10 were 0.22 and 0.19% for 100.0 and 1000.0 g/L of bromide, respectively. The detection limit of the proposed method was 4.1 μg/L. The influence of potential interfering of some ions and biological species on the selectivity was studied. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of bromide in pharmaceutical samples. The new developed method was found to have fairly good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity.

  16. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  17. Effect of Mo on pitting corrosion of ferritic steels in bromide and chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Lab; Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A model for pitting corrosion of stainless steels, independent of changes of passive film properties, was tested using Fe-18%Cr-x%Mo alloys in bromide and chlorine solutions. In 1M LiCl the pitting potential improved from {minus}50 mV{sub sce} to about 1200 mV{sub sce} on increasing Mo from 2% to 10%. In 1M LiBr the pitting potential increased from 125 to only 560 mV{sub sce}. Active dissolution kinetics of these steels in saturated solutions in a simulated pit were measured. Tafel lines for dissolution moved to more noble potentials with increases in Mo, indicating Mo inhibited dissolution rates. The potential increases were found to be equal to the increases in pitting potential for both halides. Agreement was interpreted in terms maintaining high halide concentrations in the pit by high rates of active metal dissolution. Bromide was less effective suggesting it interacted with Mo adsorbed on the dissolving surface.

  18. Impact of Wildfire Emissions on Chloride and Bromide Depletion in Marine Aerosol Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Rachel A; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B; Aldhaif, Abdulamonam M; Maudlin, Lindsay C; Crosbie, Ewan; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Hossein Mardi, Ali; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-15

    This work examines particulate chloride (Cl-) and bromide (Br-) depletion in marine aerosol particles influenced by wildfires at a coastal California site in the summers of 2013 and 2016. Chloride exhibited a dominant coarse mode due to sea salt influence, with substantially diminished concentrations during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. Bromide exhibited a peak in the submicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods, with an additional supermicrometer peak in the latter periods. Chloride and Br- depletions were enhanced during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. The highest observed %Cl- depletion occurred in the submicrometer range, with maximum values of 98.9% (0.32-0.56 μm) and 85.6% (0.56-1 μm) during fire and nonfire periods, respectively. The highest %Br- depletion occurred in the supermicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods with peak depletion between 1.8-3.2 μm (78.8% and 58.6%, respectively). When accounting for the neutralization of sulfate by ammonium, organic acid particles showed the greatest influence on Cl- depletion in the submicrometer range. These results have implications for aerosol hygroscopicity and radiative forcing in areas with wildfire influence owing to depletion effects on composition.

  19. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: adenilson1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  20. A Vertical Falling Film Type of Absorber and Generator for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Hada, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Teruo

    Experiments on evaporation and absorption for lithium bromide aqueous solutions(0-60wt%LiBr) were made in a vertical falling film type of stainless steal columm under reduced pressure, 8.0kPa. The changes of concentration and temperature in the falling film columm and the rates of absorption and evaporation were equivalent in the absorber and generator. They agreed well with the values calculated by the one-dimentional difference method using heat transfer coefficient, mass transfer coeficient and the unidirectional diffusion model. Therefore, it is guessed that a falling film type of absorber and generator may be designed by the same method. Considering the relation between heat flux and degree of superheat at heat transfer surface, and the mixing condition of lithium bromide aqueous solution in a generator, it is found that a falling film type generator is superior to a pool boiling type for a generator in absorption-type refrigerator and heat pump driven by low temperature heat source.

  1. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Sidiropoulos, Artemios; Prophetou-Athanasiadou, Demetra

    2002-03-01

    The complete phase-out of methyl bromide from use in developed countries by 1 January 2005 will cause many problems in agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on its use. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on tomato and cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Reduction of nematode juveniles in soil and roots to nil detection levels was observed in all plots following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. A significant reduction of nematode juveniles and root-galling index was observed in plots treated with metham-sodium, dazomet and 1,3-dichloropropene compared with the control and plots treated with non-fumigant nematicides. Reduction of the nematode population led to an increase in fruit yield. However, data collected from the second cultivation season indicated that single control methods such as fumigant or contact nematicides alone cannot drastically decrease initial nematode population and those nematodes which escape control lead to population increase by the end of the cropping season.

  2. Tailoring acidity of HZSM-5 nanoparticles for methyl bromide dehydrobromination by Al and Mg incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Zhongdong; Xing, Wei; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yan, Zifeng; Gao, Xionghou; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of HZSM-5 nanoparticles with different acidity were tailored by impregnating MgO or varying Si/Al ratios. Both the textural and acidic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR or Py-FTIR). It was found that the intensity of Lewis acid sites with weak strength was enhanced by impregnating MgO or reducing Al concentration, and such an enhancement could be explained by the formation of Mg(OH)(+) or charge unbalance of the MgO framework on the surface of HZSM-5 support. The effect of HZSM-5 nanoparticles' acidity on methyl bromide dehydrobromination as catalyst was evaluated. As the results, MgHZ-360 catalyst with the highest concentration of Lewis acid sites showed excellent stability, which maintained methyl bromide conversion of up 97% in a period of 400 h on stream. Coke characterization by BET measurements and TGA/DTA and GC/MS analysis revealed that polymethylated naphthalenes species were formed outside the channels of the catalyst with higher acid intensity and higher Brønsted acid concentration during the initial period of reaction, while graphitic carbon formed in the channels of catalyst with lower acid intensity and higher Lewis acid concentration during the stable stage.

  3. Study of the Reaction 2-(p-Nitrophenylethyl Bromide + OH− in Dimeric Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Moyá

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenylethyl bromide + OH− was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide, 12-s-12,2Br− (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The kinetic data were quantitatively rationalized within the whole surfactant concentration range by using an equation based on the pseudophase ion-exchange model and taking the variations in the micellar ionization degree caused by the morphological transitions into account. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental data was good in all the dimeric micellar media studied, except for the 12-2-12,2Br− micellar solutions. In this case, the strong tendency to micellar growth shown by the 12-2-12,2Br− micelles could be responsible for the lack of accordance. Results showed that the dimeric micelles accelerate the reaction more than two orders of magnitude as compared to water.

  4. Mesoporous Silica Formation by Block Copolymers and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide as Structure Control Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Semsarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as templates in nano silica structure formation like MCM-41Mobil Composition of Matter, SBA16 Santa Barbara Amorphous and a new compound namely SPB  silicone mesoporous particles, prepared by sol-gel method using PPG-PEG-PPG block copolymer to compare the porosity and regularity of the products together. In this work tetraethylorthosilicate  TEOS, as silica source and alcohol as surface modifying agent were used because of having the main advantage, compared to an ionic template such as etyltrimethylammonium bromide, in producing larger pores  and thicker walls for holding larger catalytic molecules in their pores or increasing  their resistance towards fragmentation. In order to study the copolymer as a template,  SPB structure was prepared and compared with SBA16 which was found to have  broader  pore-size  distribution  and  smaller  specifc  surface  area.  Using  alcohol  in particle production resulted in higher formation rate of micelles with improved  morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction and electron scanning  microscopy confrmed the mesoporous structure and regularity of these synthesized  materials. Finally a mechanism is proposed for the formation of these structures.

  5. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi

    2016-08-24

    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  6. Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, G M; Mueller, C A; Fajen, J M; Chrislip, D W; Russo, J; Briggle, T; Fleming, L E; Suruda, A J; Steenland, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the health effects associated with occupational exposure to methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride among structural fumigation workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 123 structural fumigation workers and 120 referents in south Florida was conducted. Nerve conduction, vibration, neurobehavioral, visual, olfactory, and renal function testing was included. RESULTS: The median lifetime duration of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride exposure among workers was 1.20 years and 2.85 years, respectively. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure over the year preceding examination was associated with significantly reduced performance on the Pattern Memory Test and on olfactory testing. In addition, fumigation workers had significantly reduced performance on the Santa Ana Dexterity Test of the dominant hand and a nonsignificantly higher prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome than did the referents. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sulfuryl fluoride exposures may be associated with subclinical effects on the central nervous system, including effects on olfactory and some cognitive functions. However, no widespread pattern of cognitive deficits was observed. The peripheral nerve effects were likely caused by ergonomic stresses experienced by the fumigation workers. PMID:9842373

  7. Modeling Water Flow and Bromide Transport in a Two-Scale-Structured Lignitic Mine Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Gerke, H. H.; Vogel, T.; Maurer, T.; Buczko, U.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional single- and dual-permeability simulations are used to analyze water and solute fluxes in heterogeneous lignitic mine soil at a forest-reclaimed mine spoil heap. The soil heterogeneity on this experimental site "Barenbrucker Hohe" resulted from inclined dumping structures and sediment mixtures that consist of sand with lignitic dust and embedded lignitic fragments. Observations on undisturbed field suction- cell lysimeters including tracer experiments revealed funneling-type preferential flow with lateral water and bromide movement along inclined sediment structures. The spatial distribution of soil structures and fragment distributions was acquired by a digital camera and identified by a supervised classification of the digital profile image. First, a classical single-domain modeling approach was proposed with spatially variable scaling factors inferred from image analyses. In the next step, a two-continuum scenario was constructed to examine additional effects of nonequilibrium on the flow regime. The scaling factors used for the preferential flow domain are here obtained from the gradient of the grayscale images. So far, the single domain scenarios failed to predict the bromide leaching patterns although water effluent could be described. Dual-permeability model allows the incorporation of structural effects and can be used as a tool to further testing other approaches that account for structure effects. The numerical study suggests that additional experiments are required to obtain better understanding of the highly complex transport processes on this experimental site.

  8. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric determination of doxycycline hyclate using bromate-bromide, methyl orange and indigo carmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavagada Jagannathamurthy Ramesh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two indirect spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of doxycycline hyclate (DCH in bulk drug and in its formulations. The methods use bromate-bromide, methyl orange and indigo carmine as reagents. In titrimetry (method A, DCH is treated with a known excess of bromate- -bromide mixture in acid medium and the residual bromine is back titrated iodometrically after the reaction between DCH and in situ bromine is ensured to be complete. In spectrophotometric methods, the excess of bromine is estimated by treating with a fixed amount of either methyl orange (method B or indigo carmine (method C and measuring the change in absorbance either at 520 or 610 nm. Titrimetric method is applicable over 1-8 mg range and the calculations are based on a 1:2 (DCH:bromate stoichiometric ratio. In spectrophotometry, the calibration graphs were found to be linear over 0.25-1.25 and 1.0-5.0 μg mL-1 for method B and C, respectively, with corresponding molar absorptivity values of 2.62×105 and 6.97×104 L mol-1 cm-1. The accuracy and precision of the assays were determined by computing the intra-day and inter-day variations at three different levels of DCH.

  9. Sociology in Global Environmental Governance? Neoliberalism, Protectionism and the Methyl Bromide Controversy in the Montreal Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological studies of global agriculture need to pay close attention to the protectionist aspects of neoliberalism at the global scale of environmental governance. With agri-food studies in the social sciences broadening interrogations of the impact of neoliberalism on agri-food systems and their alternatives, investigating global environmental governance (GEG will help reveal its impacts on the global environment, global science/knowledge, and the potential emergence of ecologically sensible alternatives. It is argued here that as agri-food studies of neoliberalism sharpen the focus on these dimensions the widespread consequences of protectionism of US agri-industry in GEG will become better understood, and the solutions more readily identifiable. This paper illustrates how the delayed phase out of the toxic substance methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol exemplifies the degree to which the US agri-industry may be protected at the global scale of environmental governance, thus prolonging the transition to ozone-friendly alternatives. Additionally, it is clear that protectionism has had a significant impact on the dissemination and interpretation of science/knowledge of methyl bromide and its alternatives. Revealing the role that protectionism plays more broadly in the agriculture/environmental governance interface, and its oftentimes negative impacts on science and potential alternatives, can shed light on how protectionism can be made to serve ends that are at odds with environmental protection.

  10. Ab initio study of methyl-bromide photodissociation in the à band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escure, Christelle; Leininger, Thierry; Lepetit, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    We performed a theoretical study of the photodissociation dynamics of CH3Br in the à band using a wave packet propagation technique on coupled ab initio potential energy curves. The present model involves the Q31 and Q11 excited states which can be populated from the ground state by a perpendicular transition and which are correlated at large methyl-bromide distance to the ground bromide spin-orbit state, as well as the Q30 and 4E states which can be excited by a parallel and perpendicular transition (respectively) and both correlate to excited Br∗ spin-orbit state. The model provides absorption cross sections and branching ratios in excellent agreement with experimental results. Due to weak spin-orbit interaction, the Q11 state is the dominant contributor to the absorption cross section, except for the red wing of the band where Q30 and Q31 states have significant absorption. However, spin-orbit coupling is strong enough to induce nonadiabatic transitions between the Q31 and Q11 states during the dissociation process which should be experimentally detectable in the alignment properties of the fragments. Nonadiabatic transitions at the conical intersection between Q30 and Q11 are shown to play a minor role in this system.

  11. Evaluation of Five Simulation Models for Predicting Aldicarb and Bromide Behavior Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, K. D.; Hornsby, A. G.; Jessup, R. E.; Rao, P. S. C.

    1990-11-01

    Five pesticide simulation models (Chemical Movement in Layered Soils (CLMS), Method of Underground Solute Evaluation (MOUSE), Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Groundwater Leading Effects of Agriculture Management Systems (GLEAMS), and Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model-Pesticides (LEACHMP)) were evaluated using data for the transport and transformation of aldicarb and bromide in the unsaturated zone. Although these models have been tested separately, to date no effort has been made to evaluate all of them using a comprehensive data set from a single field study. Model performance was evaluated based on their ability to predict: the depth of solute center of mass, solute dissipation, and solute concentration distributions within the soil profile. GLEAMS and MOUSE underestimated bromide and aldicarb dissipation, while the other models provided satisfactory predictions of both solute center of mass and pesticide degradation. None of the models accurately described measured solute concentration distributions. Recommendations are made for the selection and use of the models based on objective and subjective criteria including graphical analysis, objective functions, intended model use, and the difficulty in obtaining model input data.

  12. Iodide, bromide, and ammonium in hydraulic fracturing and oil and gas wastewaters: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Jennifer S; Dwyer, Gary S; Warner, Nathaniel R; Parker, Kimberly M; Mitch, William A; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-02-03

    The expansion of unconventional shale gas and hydraulic fracturing has increased the volume of the oil and gas wastewater (OGW) generated in the U.S. Here we demonstrate that OGW from Marcellus and Fayetteville hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids and Appalachian conventional produced waters is characterized by high chloride, bromide, iodide (up to 56 mg/L), and ammonium (up to 420 mg/L). Br/Cl ratios were consistent for all Appalachian brines, which reflect an origin from a common parent brine, while the I/Cl and NH4/Cl ratios varied among brines from different geological formations, reflecting geogenic processes. There were no differences in halides and ammonium concentrations between OGW originating from hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas operations. Analysis of discharged effluents from three brine treatment sites in Pennsylvania and a spill site in West Virginia show elevated levels of halides (iodide up to 28 mg/L) and ammonium (12 to 106 mg/L) that mimic the composition of OGW and mix conservatively in downstream surface waters. Bromide, iodide, and ammonium in surface waters can impact stream ecosystems and promote the formation of toxic brominated-, iodinated-, and nitrogen disinfection byproducts during chlorination at downstream drinking water treatment plants. Our findings indicate that discharge and accidental spills of OGW to waterways pose risks to both human health and the environment.

  13. Efficient Sky-Blue Perovskite Light-Emitting Devices Based on Ethylammonium Bromide Induced Layered Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Ren, Jie; Peng, Xue-Feng; Ji, Xia-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2017-09-06

    Low-dimensional organometallic halide perovskites are actively studied for the light-emitting applications due to their properties such as solution processability, high luminescence quantum yield, large exciton binding energy, and tunable band gap. Introduction of large-group ammonium halides not only serves as a convenient and versatile method to obtain layered perovskites but also allows the exploitation of the energy-funneling process to achieve a high-efficiency light emission. Herein, we investigate the influence of the addition of ethylammonium bromide on the morphology, crystallite structure, and optical properties of the resultant perovskite materials and report that the phase transition from bulk to layered perovskite occurs in the presence of excess ethylammonium bromide. On the basis of this strategy, we report green perovskite light-emitting devices with the maximum external quantum efficiency of ca. 3% and power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W. Notably, blue layered perovskite light-emitting devices with the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.23) exhibit the maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.6% and power efficiency of 1 lm/W at 100 cd/m2, representing a large improvement over the previously reported analogous devices.

  14. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  15. Modeling the dissociation conditions of salt hydrates and gas semiclathrate hydrates: application to lithium bromide, hydrogen iodide, and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide + carbon dioxide systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricaud, Patrice

    2011-01-20

    A thermodynamic approach is proposed to determine the dissociation conditions of salt hydrates and semiclathrate hydrates. The thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase are described with the SAFT-VRE equation of state, and the solid-liquid equilibria are solved by applying the Gibbs energy minimization criterion under stoichiometric constraints. The methodology is applied to water + halide salt systems, and an excellent description of the solid-liquid coexistence curves is obtained. The approach is extended to the water + tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) binary mixture, and an accurate representation of the solid-liquid coexistence curves and dissociation enthalpies is obtained. The van der Waals-Platteeuw (vdW-P) theory combined with the new model for salt hydrates is used to determine the dissociation temperatures of semiclathrate hydrates of TBAB + carbon dioxide. A good description of the dissociation pressures of CO(2) semiclathrate hydrates is obtained over wide temperature, pressure, and TBAB composition ranges (AAD = 10.5%). For high TBAB weight fractions the new model predicts a change of hydrate structure from type A to type B as the partial pressure of CO(2) is increased. The model can also capture a change of behavior with respect to TBAB concentration, which has been observed experimentally: an increase of the TBAB weight fraction leads to a stabilization of the gas semiclathrate hydrate at low initial TBAB concentrations below the stoichiometric composition but leads to a destabilization of the hydrate at TBAB concentrations above the stoichiometric composition.

  16. Oxidation of micro or trace amounts of bromide to bromate by peroxodisulphate before their iodometric determination by titration or spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, U

    1982-04-01

    The optimum conditions for the oxidation of bromide to bromate by peroxodisulphate at 120 degrees as well as for the decomposition of the excess of oxidant have been determined. The predicted advantages of this oxidizing agent, viz. minimal blanks and destruction of small amounts of interfering organic matter and reducing substances, were confirmed. The bromate was determined iodometrically either by titration with thiosulphate or by spectrophotometry in absence of oxygen at 355 nm. The titrimetric finish applied to 0.8-8 micromole of bromide gave a mean yield of 100.0%, s = 6 nmole. The spectrophotometric finish applied to 0.05-0.25 micromole of bromide gave a mean yield of 98.9%, s = 1.1 nmole. Interfering amounts of iodide present in the sample and oxidized to iodate can be corrected for by making use of the pH-dependence of the reaction of iodide with bromate and iodate.

  17. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V

    2014-03-01

    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  19. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  20. tBuLi-Mediated One-Pot Direct Highly Selective Cross-Coupling of Two Distinct Aryl Bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Carlos; Cembellín, Sara; Hornillos, Valentín; Giannerini, Massimo; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-10-26

    A Pd-catalyzed direct cross-coupling of two distinct aryl bromides mediated by tBuLi is described. The use of [Pd-PEPPSI-IPr] or [Pd-PEPPSI-IPent] as catalyst allows for the efficient one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical biaryls at room temperature. The key for this selective cross-coupling is the use of an ortho-substituted bromide that undergoes lithium-halogen exchange preferentially. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, N.; Likhanova, N. V.; Olivares-Xometl, O.; Flores, E. A.; Lijanova, I. V.

    2011-11-01

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ( α-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  2. Pyridostigmine bromide versus fludrocortisone in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreglmann, S R; Büchele, F; Sommerauer, M; Epprecht, L; Kägi, G; Hägele-Link, S; Götze, O; Zimmerli, L; Waldvogel, D; Baumann, C R

    2017-04-01

    Evidence for effective treatment options for orthostatic hypotension (OH) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is scarce. Elevation of cholinergic tone with pyridostigmine bromide has been reported as a way to improve blood pressure (bp) regulation in neurogenic hypotension without causing supine hypertension. This was a double-centre, double-blind, randomized, active-control, crossover, phase II non-inferiority trial of pyridostigmine bromide for OH in PD (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01993680). Patients with confirmed OH were randomized to 14 days 3 × 60 mg/day pyridostigmine bromide or 1 × 0.2 mg/day fludrocortisone before crossover. Outcome was measured by peripheral and central bp monitoring during the Schellong manoeuvre and questionnaires. Thirteen participants were enrolled between April 2013 and April 2015 with nine participants completing each trial arm. Repeated measures comparison showed a significant 37% improvement with fludrocortisone for the primary outcome diastolic bp drop on orthostatic challenge (baseline 22.9 ± 13.6 vs. pyridostigmine bromide 22.1 ± 17.0 vs. fludrocortisone 14.0 ± 12.6 mmHg; P = 0.04), whilst pyridostigmine bromide had no effect. Fludrocortisone caused an 11% peripheral systolic supine bp rise (baseline 128.4 ± 12.8 vs. pyridostigmine bromide 130.4 ± 18.3 vs. fludrocortisone 143.2 ± 10.1 mmHg; P = 0.01) but no central mean arterial supine bp rise (baseline 107.2 ± 7.8 vs. pyridostigmine bromide 97.0 ± 12.0 vs. fludrocortisone 107.3 ± 6.3 mmHg; P = 0.047). Subjective OH severity, motor score and quality of life remained unchanged by both study interventions. Pyridostigmine bromide is inferior to fludrocortisone in the treatment of OH in PD. This trial provides first objective evidence of the efficacy of 0.2 mg/day fludrocortisone for OH in PD, causing minor peripheral but no central supine hypertension. In addition to peripheral bp, future trials should include central bp measurements, known to correlate more closely with

  3. Transfer of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles from water into an ionic liquid using alkyltrimethyl ammonium bromide: an anion-exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao; Lin, Wenshuang; Wang, Huixuan; Li, Qingbiao; Huang, Jiale; Du, Mingming; Lin, Liqin; Gao, Yixian; Lin, Ling; He, Ning

    2011-01-04

    Biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were transferred from water to a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), [Bmim]PF(6), with the assistance of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The phase transfer mechanism was illustrated through the exemplification of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Interaction between GNPs and CTAB was demonstrated through zeta potential analysis. Moreover, an anion-exchange process was discovered between CTAB and IL. During the process, the hydrophobic CTAPF(6) formed in situ on the GNPs led to the hydrophobization and thus phase transfer of the GNPs. The phase transfer efficiency was found to be size-dependent.

  4. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides and its aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, Maciej, E-mail: mzawadzki@ch.pw.edu.pl; Królikowska, Marta; Lipiński, Paweł

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • The aqueous solutions of bromide-based ionic liquids have been studied. • The synthesis and basic thermal characterization of pure IL have been done. • The density, dynamic viscosity, SLE and VLE have been determined. • The experimental data have been correlated using appropriate equations. - Abstract: This work is a continuation of our research of ionic liquids to investigate the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of (ionic liquid + water) binary mixtures as a novel alternative working pair for the absorption heat pump cycle. In this work, a series of organic salts: N-propyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 3}PYR]Br; N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [C{sub 1}C{sub 4}PYR]Br and N-pentyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 5}PYR]Br have been synthesized. The structures of new compounds have been confirmed using NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The basic thermal characterization of pure ILs, including temperature and enthalpy of phase transition (T{sub tr}, Δ{sub tr}H), temperature and enthalpy of melting (T{sub m,} Δ{sub m}H) have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition temperature of the tested ILs were detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The effect of temperature on the density (ρ) and dynamic viscosity (η) is reported over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. From experimental density data, the excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. The isothermal vapour–liquid phase equilibria (VLE) have been measured by an ebulliometric method at wide temperature range from 328.15 to 368.15 K and pressure up to 85 kPa. Experimental data have been correlated by means of NRTL equation. The solid–liquid phase equilibria (SLE) for the tested binary mixtures have been determined over whole composition range using dynamic method. The NRTL equation using parameters

  5. Self-diffusion coefficients of the trivalent f-element ion series in dilute and moderately dilute aqueous solutions: A comparative study between europium, gadolinium, terbium and berkelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafik, Besbes; Noureddine, Ouerfelli; Abderabbou, Abdelmanef; Habib, Latrous

    2010-03-01

    We have continued the studies on the trivalent ions of the 4f and 5f elements. In this paper, we compare the transport properties (self-diffusion coefficient) of the trivalent aquo ions over two ranges of concentrations (0 — 2×10-3M) and (2×10-3 — 1.5M). Self-diffusion coefficients, D, of the trivalent f-element aquo ion series have been determined in aqueous background electrolytes of Gd(NO3)3 and Nd(ClO4)3, at pH=2.5 (HNO3, HClO4) and at 25°C using the open-end capillary method (O.E.C.M.). This method measures the transportation time of ions across a fixed distance. In this paper, we complete a measurement of self-diffusion coefficient for terbium. We optimized the pH to avoid hydrolysis, ion-pairing and complexation of the trivalent 4f and 5f ions. The variation of D versus √C is not linear for dilute solutions (0 — 2×10-3M) and quasi-linear in moderate concentrations (C<=1.5 M). Similar behavior was observed for Tb, as compared with those for Bk, Eu and Gd. We complete the comparison variation of D/D° versus √C for all studied 4f and 5f elements from concentration 0 to 1.5M and we obtained the same variation with √C for all studied elements. All 4f and 5f elements studied follow the Nernst-Hartley expression.

  6. Terbium-based time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer imaging for evaluating protein-protein interactions on cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Stina; Singh, Manish Kumar; Wegner, K David; Regairaz, Marie; Dautry, François; Treussart, François; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2015-03-21

    Fluorescence imaging of cells and subcellular compartments is an essential tool to investigate biological processes and to evaluate the development and progression of diseases. In particular, protein-protein interactions can be monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two proximal fluorophores that are attached to specific recognition biomolecules such as antibodies. We investigated the membrane expression of E- and N-cadherins in three different cell lines used as model systems to study epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a possible detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs). EMT is a key process in cancer metastasis, during which epithelial markers (such as E-cadherin) are down-regulated in the primary tumour whereas mesenchymal markers (such as N-cadherin) are up-regulated, leading to enhanced cell motility, intravasation, and appearance of CTCs. Various FRET donor-acceptor pairs and protein recognition strategies were utilized, in which Lumi4-Tb terbium complexes (Tb) and different organic dyes were conjugated to several distinct E- and N-cadherin-specific antibodies. Pulsed excitation of Tb at low repetition rates (100 Hz) and time-gated (TG) imaging of both the Tb-donor and the dye-acceptor photoluminescence (PL) allowed efficient detection of the EMT markers as well as FRET in the case of sufficient donor-acceptor proximity. Efficient FRET was observed only between two E-cadherin-specific antibodies and further experiments indicated that these antibodies recognized the same E-cadherin molecule, suggesting a limited accessibility of cadherins when they are clustered at adherens junctions. The investigated Tb-to-dye FRET systems provided reduced photobleaching compared to the AlexaFluor 488-568 donor-acceptor pair. Our results demonstrate the applicability and advantages of Tb-based TG FRET for efficient and stable imaging of antibody-antibody interactions on different cell lines. They also reveal the limitations of

  7. A broad G protein-coupled receptor internalization assay that combines SNAP-tag labeling, diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer, and a highly emissive terbium cryptate acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique eLEVOYE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR internalization has long been considered a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z’-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization.

  8. Synthesis and structure of [2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl] methylphenyltin bromide : A novel triorganotin halide having a configurationally stable chiral tin center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Wehman, E.; Boersma, J.; Goubitz, K.; Heijdenrijk, D.

    1991-01-01

    Reaction of [2-(4, 4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl]copper with dimethyltin dibromide or methylphenyltin dibromide affords [2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl]dimethyltin bromide (1) and [2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline)-5-methylphenyl]methylphenyltin bromide (2), respectively. The

  9. CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE HEXADECYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE MODIFIED NATURAL ZEOLITE FOR CHROMIUM(VI DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Riza Putra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple voltammetric technique for quantification of chromium(VI is presented in this work. The technique is based on linear sweep voltammetric reduction Cr(VI on hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMABr modified Lampung zeolite carbon paste electrode. Selected HDTMABr concentration for natural zeolite modification is obtained 200 mM. Working electrode for chromium(VI detection is made by graphite, paraffin oil and HDTMABr modified Lampung zeolite. The effect of supporting electrolyte matrix, pH and also scan rate is also investigated. The calibration curve for chromium(VI detection using the proposed method shows linearity from 0.2 to 1.0 mM with sensitivity, detection and quantification limit, and precision was 0.4294 mM, 3.63 x 10-4 mM, 1.197 x 10-3 mM, 4.49%, respectively.

  10. Increase in mitotic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans in response to ethidium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia C.A. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethidium bromide (EB is an intercalating inhibitor of topoisomerase II and its activities are related to chemotherapeutic drugs used in anti-cancer treatments. EB promotes several genotoxic effects in exposed cells by stabilising the DNA-enzyme complex. The recombinagenic potential of EB was evaluated in our in vivo study by the loss of heterozygosity of nutritional markers in diploid Aspergillus nidulans cells through Homozygotization Index (HI. A DNA repair mutation, uvsZ and a chromosome duplication DP (II-I were introduced in the genome of tested cells to obtain a sensitive system for the recombinagenesis detection. EB-treated diploid cells had HI values significantly greater than the control at both concentrations (4.0 x 10-3 and 5.0 x 10-3 mM. Results indicate that the intercalating agent is potentially capable of inducing mitotic crossing-over in diploid A. nidulans cells.

  11. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  12. Cobalt-catalyzed hydroalkylation of [60]fullerene with active alkyl bromides: selective synthesis of monoalkylated fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shirong; Jin, Tienan; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2011-08-17

    The Co-catalyzed hydroalkylation of C(60) with reactive alkyl bromides 1 (RBr) in the presence of Mn reductant and H(2)O at ambient temperature gave the monoalkylated C(60) (2) in good to high yields. The use of CoLn/Mn/H(2)O under Ar atmosphere is crucial for the success of the present transformation. The reaction most probably proceeds through the Co(0 or I) complex-promoted generation of a radical (R(•)) followed by addition to C(60). This hydroalkylation method was applied to the synthesis of zinc porphyrin attached C(60) (2l), dendrimer attached C(60) (2m), and fullerene dimer (2n), which were not easily available through the previously known methods.

  13. Resonance light scattering technique for the determination of protein with rutin and cetylpyridine bromide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Jinghe; Liu, Shufang; Wu, Xia; Su, Benyu; Wu, Tao

    2005-02-01

    A new resonance light scattering (RLS) assay of protein is presented. In Tris-NaOH (pH = 10.93) buffer, the RLS of rutin-cetylpyridine bromide (CPB) system can be greatly enhanced by protein, including bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA). The enhanced RLS intensities are in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5 × 10 -9 to 2.5 × 10 -6 g ml -1 for BSA and 2.5 × 10 -8 to 3.5 × 10 -6 g ml -1 for HSA. The detection limits (S/N = 3) are 3.0 ng ml -1 for BSA and 10.0 ng ml -1 for HSA. Samples are determined satisfactorily.

  14. Copper(I) Bromide: An Alternative Emitter for Blue-Colored Flame Pyrotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknelevicius, Dominykas; Karvinen, Eero; Klapötke, Thomas M; Kubilius, Rytis; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Rusan, Magdalena

    2015-10-19

    Copper(I) bromide was evaluated as an alternative emitter for blue flame pyrotechnic compositions. CuBr and CuCl emission spectra were recorded from a butane torch flame and compared. Cu(BrO3 )2 was synthesized and used in pyrotechnic compositions as an oxidizer and the source for the generation of CuBr species. Pyrotechnic compositions, which contained copper and potassium bromates as oxidizers, were optimized for the generation of blue flames. The experimental data, including emission spectra of the flames, chromaticity coordinates, burning rates, luminous intensities, and sensitivity tests, were analyzed and compared. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of cobalt in the presence of dimethylglyoxime and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolczuk, Mieczyslaw; Moroziewicz, Aleksandra; Grabarczyk, Malgorzata; Kutyla, Romualda [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Faculty of Chemistry, Lublin (Poland)

    2004-09-01

    A sensitive procedure for determination of micro-traces of Co(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry is proposed. The procedure exploits the enhancement of the cobalt peak obtained by use of the system Co(II) - dimethylglyoxime - piperazine-1,4-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) - cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Using the optimized conditions, a detection limit (based on the 3{sigma} criterion) for Co(II) of 1.2 x 10{sup -11} mol L{sup -1} (0.7 ng L{sup -1}) was achieved. The calibration plot for an accumulation time of 30 s was linear from 5 x 10{sup -11} to 4 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1}. The procedure was validated by analysis of certified reference materials and natural water samples. (orig.)

  16. Monodisperse Formamidinium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals with Bright and Stable Green Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protesescu, Loredana; Yakunin, Sergii; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Bertolotti, Federica; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2016-11-02

    Bright green emitters with adjustable photoluminescence (PL) maxima in the range of 530-535 nm and full-width at half-maxima (fwhm) of <25 nm are particularly desirable for applications in television displays and related technologies. Toward this goal, we have developed a facile synthesis of highly monodisperse, cubic-shaped formamidinium lead bromide nanocrystals (FAPbBr 3 NCs) with perovskite crystal structure, tunable PL in the range of 470-540 nm by adjusting the nanocrystal size (5-12 nm), high quantum yield (QY) of up to 85% and PL fwhm of <22 nm. High QYs are also retained in films of FAPbBr 3 NCs. In addition, these films exhibit low thresholds of 14 ± 2 μJ cm -2 for amplified spontaneous emission.

  17. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizana Yusof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.

  18. Determination of critical micelle concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: Different procedures for analysis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goronja Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductivity of two micellar systems was measured in order to determine critical micelle concentration (CMC of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. Those systems were: CTin water and CTin binary mixture acetonitrile (ACN-water. Conductivity (κ-concentration (c data were treated by four different methods: conventional method, differential methods (first and second derivative and method of integration (methods A-D, respectively. As CTin water micellar system shows a sharp transition between premicellar and postmicellar part of the κ/c curve, any of the applied methods gives reliable CMC values and there is no statistically significant difference between them. However, for CTin ACN-water mixture micellar system the integration method for CMC determination is recommended due to a weak curvature of κ/c plot.

  19. Interaction between DNA and Trimethyl-Ammonium Bromides with Different Alkyl Chain Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between λ—DNA and cationic surfactants with varying alkyl chain lengths was investigated. By dynamic light scattering method, the trimethyl-ammonium bromides-DNA complex formation was shown to be dependent on the length of the surfactant’s alkyl chain. For surfactants with sufficient long alkyl chain (CTAB, TTAB, DTAB, the compacted particles exist with a size of ~60–110 nm at low surfactant concentrations. In contrast, high concentration of surfactants leads to aggregates with increased sizes. Atomic force microscope scanning also supports the above observation. Zeta potential measurements show that the potential of the particles decreases with the increase of surfactant concentration (CTAB, TTAB, DTAB, which contributes much to the coagulation of the particles. For OTAB, the surfactant with the shortest chain in this study, it cannot fully neutralize the charges of DNA molecules; consequently, the complex is looser than other surfactant-DNA structures.

  20. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  1. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheswari, J. Uma, E-mail: umak.anand@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The M.D.T.Hindu College, Tirunelveli 627010, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, C. [Department of Physics, Arignar Anna College, Aralvoymoli 629301, Tamilnadu (India); Kalyanaraman, S. [Physics Research Centre, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamilnadu (India); Selvarajan, P. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV–Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  2. Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Boix, Pablo P; Xing, Guichuan; Fu, Kunwu; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Batabyal, Sudip K; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-03-28

    A high open circuit voltage (V(OC)) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high V(OC) is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a V(OC) of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting.

  3. The Research of the Boiling Crisis of Hydrous Solution Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironova Nina V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical investigate the process of non-isothermal desorption of water solutions of lithium bromide in the spheroidal state on the horizontal heating surface. It was established experimentally that on reaching average weight of the salt concentration of 15 ÷ 23% and 32 ÷ 34%, respectively, at a temperature of the heating surface 400 and 600° C, the solution direct contact with the heating surface and the boiling crisis is replaced by a crisis mode of “explosive” boiling up. Some possible causes of the phenomenon were investigated: decrease in the thickness of the vapor layer with increasing concentration, the effect of temperature of the heating surface, radiation heating and capillary instability of interphase.

  4. Evaporation for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in a Falling Film Heater under Reduced Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Ide, Tetsuo; Yukino, Keiji

    Experiments on evaporation for water and lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution were made in a externally heated wetted-wall column under reduced pressures. For water, evaporation rate increased slightly as feed rate decreased. The heat transfer coefficients of falling film agreed with those for filmwise condensation. For LiBr solution, evaporation rate decreased and outlet temperature of LiBr solution increased as feed rate decreased. The equations of continuity, diffusion and energy which assume that only water moves to the surface and LiBr doesn't move through falling film of LiBr solution were solved numerically. Calculated values of evaporation rate and outlet temperature of solution agreed with experimental results. The results of this work were compared with pool boiling data reported previously, and it was shown that falling film heater is superior to pool boiling heater concerning heat transfer.

  5. Numerical simulation on vapor absorption by wavy lithium bromide aqueous solution films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Shoushi; Ma, Xuehu; Chen, Hongxia; Lan, Zhong

    2011-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been made on heat and mass transfer of vapor absorption by wavy lithium bromide aqueous solution films. The velocity fields and interface positions are obtained by VOF model. Solitary waves are generated by periodically disturbed inflow boundary. Based on these, the temperature and concentration fields are obtained with a stationary interface shape. The effect of solitary waves on the heat and mass transfer across the film is investigated. It is shown that due to the mixing of circulation and stretch of large film thickness, the gradient of concentration and absorption rate decrease for solitary wave region. The region of capillary waves shows a significant amount of absorption enhancement. The percentage of absorption for the different regions is quantified.

  6. Complexation equilibria in tetrahydrofuran solutions of palladium(II) and lithium bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putin, A. Yu.; Katsman, E. A.; Temkin, O. N.; Bruk, L. G.

    2017-04-01

    The solutions of palladium PdBr2 and lithium LiBr bromides in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at different concentrations were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The data obtained were mathematically processed using various models. The best description was obtained with the model that includes the formation of four monomeric (PdBr+, PdBr2, PdBr 3 - , PdBr 4 2- ) and three dimeric (Pd2Br 2 2+ , Pd2Br4, Pd2Br 6 2- ) palladium complexes. The equilibrium constants of the monomer and dimer complexation stages and the extinction coefficients of the palladium complexes were calculated. The spectra of the individual monomer and dimer palladium complexes were calculated using this model.

  7. Bromodimethylsulfonium bromide (BDMS) mediated dithioacetalization of carbohydrates under solvent-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abu T; Khan, Md Musawwer

    2010-10-13

    A variety of diethyl dithioacetals of sugars can be prepared in very good yields by the reaction of various monosaccharides with ethanethiol in the presence of 3 mol% bromodimethylsulfonium bromide (BDMS) at 0-5°C. Similarly, dipropyl dithioacetal derivatives can also be obtained in good yields using propanethiol under identical reaction conditions. These dithioacetal derivatives were characterized by per-O-acetylation using silica gel-supported perchloric acid. The significant features of the present protocol are good-to-excellent yields, mild, clean, and solvent-free reaction conditions. This method is extremely suitable for the large-scale preparation of dithioacetal derivatives of various sugars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction of Indigo Carmine with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Application to Determination of Cationic Surfactant in Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hong Wen; Zhao, Jian Fu [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Hong Yan [Suzhou Teachers College, Suzhou (China)

    2003-10-15

    The microsurface adsorption - spectral correction (MSASC) technique has been applied to the interaction of indigo carmine (IC) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The aggregation of IC on CTAB obeys Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The results show that both the monomer complex IC·CTAB and the micellar complex (IC·CTAB){sub 78} were formed. The binding constant of the monomer complex was calculated to be K{sub IC}·{sub CTAB} = 2.20 x 10{sup 5} L·mol{sup -1}, and the molar absorptivity of the micellar complex was calculated to be ε({sub IC}·{sub CTAB}){sub 78} {sup 560} {sup nm} = 8.58 x 10{sup 5} L·mol{sup -1}·cm{sup -1}. The aggregation was applied to the determination of cationic surfactant in wastewater.

  9. A quantitative structure–activity relationship study of tetrabutylphosphonium bromide analogs as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI NEKOEI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR of tetrabutyl­phosphonium bromide (TBPB analogs as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs agonists was studied. A suitable set of molecular descriptors was calculated and stepwise multiple linear regression (SW-MLR was employed to select those descriptors that resulted in the best fitted models. A MLR model with three selected descriptors was obtained. Furthermore, the MLR model was va­lidated using the leave-one-out (LOO and leave-group-out (LGO cross-vali­dation, and the Y-randomization test. This model, with high statistical signifi­cance (R2train = 0.982, F = 388.715, Q2LOO = 0.973, Q2LGO = 0.977 and R2test = 0.986 could predict the activity of the molecules with a percentage predic­tion error lower than 5 %.

  10. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  11. Inhibition of multi-species oral biofilm by bromide doped bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarraga-Vinueza, M E; Passoni, B; Benfatti, C A M; Mesquita-Guimarães, J; Henriques, B; Magini, R S; Fredel, M C; Meerbeek, B V; Teughels, W; Souza, J C M

    2017-07-01

    Bioactive glass is an attractive biomaterial that has shown excellent osteogenic and angiogenic effects for oral bone repairing procedures. However, anti-biofilm potential related to such biomaterial has not been completely validated, mainly against multi-species biofilms involved in early tissue infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of 58 S bioactive glass embedding calcium bromide compounds at different concentrations. Bioactive glass free or containing 5, or 10 wt % CaBr 2 was synthesized by alkali sol-gel method and then characterized by physco-chemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, samples were tested by microbiological assays using optical density, real time q-PCR, and SEM. Bioactive glass particles showed accurate chemical composition and an angular shape with a bimodal size distribution ranging from 0.6 to 110 µm. The mean particle size was around 29 µm. Anti-biofilm effect was recorded for 5 wt % CaBr 2 -doped bioactive glass against S. mitis, V. parvula, P. gingivais, S. gordoni, A. viscosus, F, nucleatum, P. gingivais. F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis. Such species are involved in the biofilm structure related to infections on hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity. The incorporation of calcium bromide into bioactive glass can be a strategy to enhance the anti-biofilm potential of bioactive glasses for bone healing and infection treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1994-2003, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Efficacy of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide in the management of acute bronchiolitis--a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Bulent; Ceran, Omer; Guven, Gulsah; Dursun, Esengul; Ipek, Ilke Ozahi; Karakoc, Fazilet; Ersu, Refika Hamutcu; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir; Inan, Savas; Dagli, Elif

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of drugs are commonly used to treat bronchiolitis, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. To investigate the efficacy of ipratropium bromide and salbutamol in the treatment of patients with moderate-severe bronchiolitis. Sixty-nine infants with moderate-severe bronchiolitis hospitalized at their first episode of wheezing or crepitations in the chest were enrolled in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive nebulized salbutamol, ipratropium bromide or placebo. Main outcome measures were changes in oxygen saturation rates and clinical scores and duration of hospitalization. In the bronchodilator groups, clinical scores were better compared to the placebo group at 30 min (8.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.8, p < 0.05). Bronchodilator groups had also significantly lower clinical scores (7.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.1, p < 0.0001, and 5.3 +/- 1.4 vs. 4.5 +/- 1.6, p = 0.006, respectively) and higher oxygen saturation rates compared to the placebo group at 8 and 24 h (89.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 94.3 +/- 4.4, and 92.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 95.9 +/-4.4, respectively, p < 0.0001). Improvement rates and duration of hospitalization were not statistically different among groups. Clinical scores and oxygen saturation levels improved more rapidly in the bronchodilator groups than in the placebo group up to 24 h, but these drugs did not have a sufficient effect to change the natural course of the disease. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination with and without an ethidium bromide intercalator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenati, Renzo A.; Connolly, Ashley R. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is an important aspect in understanding genetic variations. Here, we discriminate SNPs using toe-hold mediated displacement reactions. The biological target is an 80 nucleotide long double-stranded–DNA from the mtDNA HV1 region, associated with maternal ancestry. This target has been specially designed with a pendant toehold and a cationic fluorophore, ATTO 647N, as a reporter, produced in a polymerase chain reaction. Rates of reaction for the toehold-polymerase chain reaction products (TPPs) with their corresponding complementary displacing sequences, labelled with a Black Hole Quencher 1, followed the order TPP–Cytosine > TPP–Thymine > TPP–Adenine ≥ TPP–Guanine. Non-complementary rates were the slowest with mismatches involving cytosine. These reactions, operating in a static/or contact mode, gave averaged readouts between SNPs within 15 min (with 80–90% quenching), compared to 25–30 min in previous studies involving fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Addition of an intercalating agent, ethidium bromide, retarded the rate of reaction in which cytosine was involved, presumably through stabilization of the base pairing, which resulted in markedly improved discrimination of cytosine containing SNPs. - Highlights: • Fluorophores and DNA intercalators effect the rate of toehold-mediated strand displacement. • Ethidium bromide had a destabilizing effect on mismatches that contained cytosine. • A cationic fluorophore and Black Hole Quencher 1 strand displacement system was 2–3 times faster than a FRET system. • This enabled SNP detection using toehold-mediated strand displacement in 15 min.

  14. Use of Exergy Analysis to Quantify the Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration in an Absorption Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lake

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers present opportunities to utilize sustainable fuels in the production of chilled water. An assessment of the steam driven absorption chiller at the University of Idaho, was performed to quantify the current exergy destruction rates. Measurements of external processes and flows were used to create a mathematical model. Using engineering equation solver to analyze and identify the major sources of exergy destruction within the chiller. It was determined that the absorber, generator and condenser are the largest contribution to the exergy destruction at 30%, 31% and 28% of the respectively. The exergetic efficiency is found to be 16% with a Coefficient of performance (COP of 0.65. Impacts of weak solution concentration of lithium bromide on the exergy destruction rates were evaluated using parametric studies. The studies reveled an optimum concentration that could be obtained by increasing the weak solution concentration from 56% to 58.8% a net decrease in 0.4% of the exergy destruction caused by the absorption chiller can be obtained. The 2.8% increase in lithium-bromide concentration decreases the exergy destruction primarily within the absorber with a decrease of 5.1%. This increase in concentration is shown to also decrease the maximum cooling capacity by 3% and increase the exergy destruction of the generator by 4.9%. The study also shows that the increase in concentration will change the internal temperatures by 3 to 7 °C. Conversely, reducing the weak solution concentration results is also shown to increase the exergetic destruction rates while also potentially increasing the cooling capacity.

  15. Bromide supplementation exacerbated the renal dysfunction, injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of Alport syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Yokota

    Full Text Available A seminal study recently demonstrated that bromide (Br- has a critical function in the assembly of type IV collagen in basement membrane (BM, and suggested that Br- supplementation has therapeutic potential for BM diseases. Because salts of bromide (KBr and NaBr have been used as antiepileptic drugs for several decades, repositioning of Br- for BM diseases is probable. However, the effects of Br- on glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease such as Alport syndrome (AS and its impact on the kidney are still unknown. In this study, we administered daily for 16 weeks 75 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg (within clinical dosage NaBr or NaCl (control via drinking water to 6-week-old AS mice (mouse model of X-linked AS. Treatment with 75 mg/kg NaBr had no effect on AS progression. Surprisingly, compared with 250 mg/kg NaCl, 250 mg/kg NaBr exacerbated the progressive proteinuria and increased the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in AS mice. Histological analysis revealed that glomerular injury, renal inflammation and fibrosis were exacerbated in mice treated with 250 mg/kg NaBr compared with NaCl. The expressions of renal injury markers (Lcn2, Lysozyme, matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp-12, pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, Tnf-α, Il-1β and pro-fibrotic genes (Tgf-β, Col1a1, α-Sma were also exacerbated by 250 mg/kg NaBr treatment. Notably, the exacerbating effects of Br- were not observed in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Br- supplementation needs to be carefully evaluated for real positive health benefits and for the absence of adverse side effects especially in GBM diseases such as AS.

  16. Ethidium bromide transport across Mycobacterium smegmatis cell-wall: correlation with antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active efflux systems and reduced cell-wall permeability are considered to be the main causes of mycobacterial intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials. In this study, we have compared the Mycobacterium smegmatis wild-type strain mc2155 with knockout mutants for porins MspA (the main porin of M. smegmatis and MspC, the efflux pump LfrA (the main efflux pump system of M. smegmatis and its repressor LfrR for their ability to transport ethidium bromide (EtBr on a real-time basis. This information was then correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of several antibiotics in the presence or absence of the efflux inhibitors chlorpromazine, thioridazine and verapamil. Results In the absence of porins MspA and MspC, accumulation of ethidium bromide decreased and the cells became more resistant to several antibiotics, whereas the knockout mutant for the LfrA pump showed increased accumulation of EtBr and increased susceptibility to EtBr, rifampicin, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the efflux inhibitors caused a reduction of the MICs of streptomycin, rifampicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and erythromycin in most of the strains tested. Conclusions The methodology used in this study demonstrated that porin MspA plays an important role in the influx of quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotics and that efflux via the LfrA pump is involved in low-level resistance to several antimicrobial drugs in M. smegmatis. The results obtained with this non-pathogenic mycobacterium will be used in future studies as a model for the evaluation of the activity of the same efflux inhibitors on the susceptibility of multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampicin.

  17. Clinical potential of aclidinium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones PW

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paul W Jones Institute for Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Respiratory Medicine, St George’s, University of London, London, UK Abstract: Three long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are now available in Europe, providing clinicians and patients with a choice of interventions, which is important in COPD, which is clinically a heterogeneous disease. The first LAMA, tiotropium, has been widely used over the last decade as a once-daily maintenance therapy in stable COPD to improve patients’ health-related quality of life and to reduce the risk of exacerbations. Administered via the HandiHaler® device, it is safe and well tolerated. Another new once-daily LAMA, glycopyrronium, has also been shown to improve health status and reduce exacerbations, and is well tolerated. The subject of this review is a third LAMA, aclidinium bromide, which was approved as a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment. In the pivotal Phase III clinical trials, patients receiving aclidinium achieved significantly greater improvements in lung function, reductions in breathlessness, and improvements in health status compared with placebo, for up to 24 weeks. In continuation studies, these improvements were sustained for up to 52 weeks. Pooled data showed exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced with aclidinium versus placebo. Preclinical and pharmacological studies demonstrating low systemic bioavailability and a low propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias were translated into a favorable tolerability profile in the clinical trial program – the adverse event profile of aclidinium was similar to placebo, with a low incidence of anticholinergic and cardiac adverse events. While additional studies are needed to evaluate its full clinical potential, aclidinium is an important part of this recent expansion of LAMA therapeutic options, providing clinicians and patients with an effective and well-tolerated COPD treatment. Keywords: aclidinium bromide

  18. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators

  19. Liquid-phase oxidation of 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid (DMBA) catalyzed by cobalt and bromide salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelman, E.B.; Malykh, G.A.; Kharlampovich, G.D.; Moskovskikh, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid-phase oxidation of 2,3-dimethylbenzoic acid (DMBA) by oxygen catalyzed by cobalt and bromide salts (i.e., cobalt acetate tetrahydrate and cobalt bromide hexahydrate in acetic acid solution) was studied chromatographically, and the optimum conditions for the formation of hemimellitic (1,2,3-tricarboxylic) acid (TCA) were determined (i.e., 105/sup 0/C, 0.2 g-ion cobalt per mole, 1:1 bromide to cobalt ion ratio, 1:10 DMBA to acetic acid ratio, and 10 l./min/l. of feed oxygen consumption). Under these conditions, the oxidation occurred without induction period, and over 90% by wt DMBA conversion with 70% TCA yield was achieved. If cobalt acetate or cobalt bromide were used individually, the process had very large induction times (i.e., 3-4 hr). A two-stage reaction mechanism involves 2-methylisophthalic acid (MIPA) and 3-methylphthalic acid (in smaller amounts) as intermediates. At 0.1 g-ion cobalt per mole, MIPA is the main product with approx. 70% yield. Apparently, the initial reaction stage is oxygen activation via the formation of monobromide complexes of catalyst, DMBA, and oxygen. Chromatograph and graphs.

  20. Movement of water, bromide ion and the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone measured in a sandy soil in Vredepeel (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Pas, van der L.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect a data set suitable for testing pesticide leaching models in the case of a Dutch sandy soil with a shallow groundwater table. The movement of water, bromide ion and the behaviour of the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone was studied. The substances were applied

  1. Movement of water, bromide and the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone in a sandy soil: the Vredepeel data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Pas, van der L.J.T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to collect a data set suitable for testing pesticide leaching models in the case of a Dutch sandy soil with a shallow groundwater table. The movement of water, bromide ion and the behaviour of the pesticides ethoprophos and bentazone was studied. The substances were applied

  2. Protective antiviral immune responses to pseudorabies virus induced by DNA vaccination using dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide as an adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van E.M.A.; Glansbeek, H.L.; Hilgers, L.A.T.; Lintelo, te E.G.; Visser, de Y.E.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Haagmans, B.L.; Bianchi, A.T.J.

    2002-01-01

    To enhance the efficacy of a DNA vaccine against pseudorabies virus (PRV), we evaluated the adjuvant properties of plasmids coding for gamma interferon or interleukin-12, of CpG immunostimulatory motifs, and of the conventional adjuvants dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide in water (DDA) and

  3. Alternatives to Methyl bromide in Strawberry Production in the United States of America and the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Ajwa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB is a broad-spectrum soil fumigant, which has been critical in strawberry production for forty years. Strawberry and other high-value cash crops benefit from pre-plant soil fumigation with MB and chloropicrin (Pic. Mixtures of these two fumigants work synergistically in controlling a wide range of plant pathogens and pests, including fungi, nematodes, insects, mites, rodents, weeds, and some bacteria. Methyl bromide was listed in 1993 by the Parties of the Montreal Protocol as an ozone-depleting compound. According to the Montreal Protocol, the import and manufacture of MB in the United States of America (USA and other developed countries will be banned by 2005, after stepwise reductions in 1999, 2001, and 2003. Currently, there is no single registered alternative fumigant for all of the MB uses and there is a need for environmentally sound and economically feasible alternatives. The fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D and Pic in combination with methyl isothiocyanate (MITC generators have shown to be the most promising alternatives to methyl bromide for strawberry production. Studies with the experimental fumigants methyl iodide and propargyl bromide suggested that these compounds have higher reactivity than MB as stand-alone fumigants. This review evaluates the commercially available and experimental alternatives to MB soil fumigation for strawberry production based on relevant scientific publications, proceedings, and personal communications.

  4. Regio- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of ortho-substituted cinnamyl bromides with Grignard reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Nathalie C; Tiemersma-Wegman, Theodora D; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-05-15

    A highly efficient method for the copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of ortho-substituted cinnamyl bromides with Grignard reagents is reported. The use of a catalytic system comprising CuBr·SMe2 and TaniaPhos as chiral ligands gives rise to a range of branched products with excellent regio- and enantioselectivity.

  5. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [{sup 76}Br]bromide in PET study with [{sup 76}Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats E-mail: Mats.Bergstroem@pet.uu.se; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1999-10-01

    [{sup 76}Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([{sup 76}Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [{sup 76}Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [{sup 76}Br]bromide. [{sup 76}Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better {sup 76}Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [{sup 76}Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [{sup 76}Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [{sup 76}Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET.

  6. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts during medium-pressure UV and chlorine coexposure of model compounds, NOM and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru; Ding, Guoyu; Yang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    When chlorine is applied before or during UV disinfection of bromide-containing water, interactions between chlorine, bromide and UV light are inevitable. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts was studied during medium-pressure UV (MPUV) and chlorine coexposure of phenol, nitrobenzene and benzoic acid and maleic acid, chosen to represent electron-donating aromatics, electron-withdrawing aromatics, and aliphatic structures in natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. All were evaluated in the presence and absence of bromide. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of phenol produced less total organic halogen (TOX, a collective parameter for halogenated organic byproducts) than chlorination in the dark, and more haloacetic acids instead of halophenols. Increases in TOX were found in the coexposure of nitrobenzene and benzoic acid, but maleic acid was rather inert during coexposure. The presence of bromide increased the formation of brominated TOX but did not significantly affect total TOX formation, in spite of the fact that it reduced hydroxyl radical levels. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of NOM gave a higher differential UV absorbance of NOM and a larger shift to lower molecular weight compounds than chlorination in the dark. However, TOX formation with NOM remained similar to that observed from dark chlorination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. tBuLi-Mediated One-Pot Direct Highly Selective Cross-Coupling of Two Distinct Aryl Bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Cembellin, Sara; Hornillos, Valentin; Giannerini, Massimo; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    A Pd-catalyzed direct cross-coupling of two distinct aryl bromides mediated by tBuLi is described. The use of [Pd-PEPPSI-IPr] or [Pd-PEPPSI-IPent] as catalyst allows for the efficient one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical biaryls at room temperature. The key for this selective cross-coupling is the use

  8. Halide-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylation of unprotected hexopyranosides with perbenzylated glycosyl bromide donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    bromide. The couplings were completely selective for both glucose and galactose donors and acceptors as long as the stannylene acetal of the acceptor was soluble in dichloromethane. This gave rise to a number of 1,2-cis-linked disaccharides in reasonable yields. Mannose donors and acceptors, on the other...

  9. Understanding the Impact of Bromide on the Photovoltaic Performance of CH3 NH3 PbI3 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim Dar, M; Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Arora, Neha; Moehl, Thomas; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2015-11-25

    An optimum amount of lead bromide (1%) can enhance the power conversion efficiency of CH3 NH3 PbI3-x Brx (where x ≈ 0) devices from 14.7% to 16.9% without altering the bandgap of the perovskite material. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Configuration optimization of series flow double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems by cost minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2018-01-01

    An optimal process configuration for double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems with series flow – where the solution is first passed through the high-temperature generator – is obtained by minimization of the total annual cost for a required cooling capacity. To this en...

  11. The history and future of methyl bromide alternatives used in the production of forest seedlings in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Enebak

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative’s (SFNMC) efforts in testing methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives for soil fumigation. In the southeastern United States, fumigation with MBr has been the most commonly used method for producing high quality, pest-free forest-tree seedlings in an environment that is conducive for soil-...

  12. Crystal structure of an eight-coordinate terbium(III ion chelated by N,N′-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl-N,N′-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylethylenediamine (bbpen2− and nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiane Gregório

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of terbium(III nitrate pentahydrate in acetonitrile with N,N′-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl-N,N′-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylethylenediamine (H2bbpen, previously deprotonated with triethylamine, produced the mononuclear compound [N,N′-bis(2-oxidobenzyl-κO-N,N′-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl-κNethylenediamine-κ2N,N′](nitrato-κ2O,O′terbium(III, [Tb(C28H28N4O2(NO3]. The molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis and the TbIII ion is eight-coordinate with a slightly distorted dodecahedral coordination geometry. In the symmetry-unique part of the molecule, the pyridine and benzene rings are both essentially planar and form a dihedral angle of 61.42 (7°. In the molecular structure, the N4O4 coordination environment is defined by the hexadentate bbpen ligand and the bidentate nitrate anion. In the crystal, a weak C—H...O hydrogen bond links molecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to (001.

  13. Advanced oxidation of bromide-containing drinking water: a balance between bromate and trihalomethane formation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjing; Yu, Jianwei; Han, Po; Sha, Jing; An, Tao; Li, Wei; Liu, Juan; Yang, Min

    2013-11-01

    Addition of H202 has been employed to repress bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing source water. However, the addition of H2O2 will change the oxidation pathways of organic compounds due to the generation of abundant hydroxyl radicals, which could affect the removal efficacy of trihalomethane precursors via the combination of ozone and biological activated carbon (O3-BAC). In this study, we evaluated the effects of H2O2 addition on bromate formation and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) reduction during treatment of bromide-containing (97.6-129.1 microg/L) source water by the O3-BAC process. At an ozone dose of 4.2 mg/L, an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of over 1.0 was required to maintain the bromate concentration below 10.0 microg/L, while a much lower H2O2/O3 ratio was sufficient for a lower ozone dose. An H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio below 0.3 should be avoided since the bromate concentration will increase with increasing H2O2 dose below this ratio. However, the addition of H202 at an ozone dose of 3.2 mg/L and an H2O2/O3 ratio of 1.0 resulted in a 43% decrease in THMFP removal when comparedwith the O3-BAC process. The optimum H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio for balancing bromate and trihalomethane control was about 0.7-1.0. Fractionation of organic materials showed that the addition of H2O2 decreased the removal efficacy of the hydrophilic matter fraction of DOC by ozonation and increased the reactivity of the hydrophobic fractions during formation of trihalomethane, which may be the two main reasons responsible for the decrease in THMFP reduction efficacy. Overall, this study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to balance bromate reduction and THMFP control when adopting an H2O2 addition strategy.

  14. XRD, TEM, and thermal analysis of Arizona Ca-montmorillonites modified with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2013-10-15

    An Arizona SAz-2 calcium montmorillonite was modified by a typical dialkyl cationic surfactant (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, abbreviated to DDDMA) through direct ion exchange. The obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TG), and infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). The intercalation of surfactants greatly increased the basal spacing of the interlayers and the conformation arrangement of the loaded surfactant were assessed based on the XRD and TEM measurements. This work shows that the dialkyl surfactant can be directly intercalated into the montmorillonite without first undergoing Na(+) exchange. Moreover, the thermal stability of organoclays and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated in the SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite were determined by a combination of TG and IES techniques. The detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated surfactants under different conditions was also studied. The surfactant molecule DDDMA has proved to be thermally stable even at 400°C which indicates that the prepared organoclay is stable to significantly high temperatures. This study offers new insights into the structure and thermal stabilities of SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite modified with DDDMA. The experimental results also confirm the potential applications of organic SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonites as adsorbents and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of bromide from surface waters using silver impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Apul, Onur Guven; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-04-15

    The main objectives of this study were to develop an understanding of silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) preparation for enhanced bromide (Br - ) removal from water, and to investigate the impact of aqueous background composition on the Br - removal. Several SIACs were produced using various combinations of oxidation and silver impregnation procedures and powdered activated carbons (ACs). Regardless of the preparation procedure, SIACs showed significantly Br - uptakes than the virgin ACs. The Br - removal efficiency was affected by (i) the background water composition (e.g. Cl - and NOM competition reduced the Br - uptake), (ii) silver impregnation process (e.g. silver content, pre-oxidation of virgin AC; silver impregnation largely increased the Br - removal, and the pre-oxidation of AC prior to silver impregnation was found to be important), and (iii) AC characteristics (e.g. surface area, oxygen content; SIACs with higher silver contents and larger surface areas exhibited higher degrees of Br - removal). The Br - removal by SIAC reduced the formation of brominated THMs. Jar test results showed that coagulation did not have an impact on Br - removal by SIAC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion rate of copper in aqueous lithium bromide concentrated solutions at room temperature by immersion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Portero, M.J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Guinon-Segura, J.L.; Perez-Herranz, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Concentrated solutions of lithium bromide (LiBr) are widely used in absorption refrigeration and heating systems. However, LiBr solutions can cause serious corrosion problems in structural materials (copper, steels, and other metals) in an absorption plant. The aim of the present work was the study of the corrosion rate of copper in 400 and 700 g/L (4.61 and 8.06 M) LiBr solutions pre-nitrogenous or pre-oxygenated at room temperature by immersion tests. The corroded copper concentration was determined with two techniques: weight-loss method and polarographic method. The corrosion curves of copper in LiBr solutions at room temperature as a function of the exposure time showed a similar tendency, and were fitted to a power function such as: C = kt{sup b}, where C was the corroded copper quantity per unit area (mg/cm{sup 2}), t was the exposure time (h), k was the corrosion coefficient, and b was the time exponent. From the corrosion coefficient values (k) it was deduced that the corrosion rate of copper in LiBr solutions at room temperature followed the order: 400 g/L (bubble of O{sub 2}) > 400 g/L (bubble of N{sub 2}) > 700 g/L (bubble of O{sub 2}) > 700 g/L (bubble of N{sub 2}). (authors)

  17. Ozone Therapy in Ethidium Bromide-Induced Demyelination in Rats: Possible Protective Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Neveen A; Assaf, Naglaa; Ismail, Manal F; Khadrawy, Yasser A; Samy, Mohga

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by excessive demyelination. The study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of ozone (O3) therapy in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced demyelination in rats either alone or in combination with corticosteroids in order to decrease the dose of steroid therapy. Rats were divided into Group (1) normal control rats received saline, Group (2) Sham-operated rats received saline, Group (3) Sham-operated rats received vehicle (oxygen), Group (4) EB-treated rats received EB, Group (5) EB-treated rats received O3, Group (6) EB-treated rats received methylprednisolone (MP), and Group (7) EB-treated rats received half the dose of MP concomitant with O3. EB-treated rats showed a significant increase in the number of footfalls in the grid walk test, decreased brain GSH, and paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity, whereas brain MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ, Cox-2 immunoreactivity, and p53 protein levels were increased. A significant decline in brain serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and MBP immunoreactivity was also reported. Significant improvement of the above-mentioned parameters was demonstrated with the administration of either MP or O3, whereas best amelioration was achieved by combining half the dose of MP with ozone.

  18. Topochemical and morphological characterization of wood cell wall treated with the ionic liquid, 1-ethylpyridinium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Toru; Miyafuji, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION : [EtPy][Br] is more reactive toward lignin than toward the PSs in wood cell walls, and [EtPy][Br] treatment results in inhomogenous changes to the cell wall's ultrastructural and chemical components. The effects of the ionic liquid 1-ethylpyridinium bromide ([EtPy][Br]), which prefers to react with lignin rather than cellulose on the wood cell walls of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), were investigated from a morphology and topochemistry point of view. The [EtPy][Br] treatment induced cell wall swelling, the elimination of warts, and the formation of countless pores in the tracheids. However, many of the pit membranes and the cellulose crystalline structure remained unchanged. Raman microscopic analyses revealed that chemical changes in the cell walls were different for different layers and that the lignin in the compound middle lamella and the cell corner resists interaction with [EtPy][Br]. Additionally, the interaction of [EtPy][Br] with the wood cell wall is different to that of other types of ionic liquid.

  19. Phospholipid decoration of microcapsules containing perfluorooctyl bromide used as ultrasound contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-López, Raquel; Tsapis, Nicolas; Libong, Danielle; Chaminade, Pierre; Connan, Carole; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Berti, Romain; Taulier, Nicolas; Urbach, Wladimir; Nicolas, Valérie; Fattal, Elias

    2009-03-01

    We present here an easy method to modify the surface chemistry of polymeric microcapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide used as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). Capsules were obtained by a solvent emulsification-evaporation process with phospholipids incorporated in the organic phase before emulsification. Several phospholipids were reviewed: fluorescent, pegylated and biotinylated phospholipids. The influence of phospholipid concentration on microcapsule size and morphology was evaluated. Only a fraction of the phospholipids is associated to microcapsules, the rest being dissolved with the surfactant in the aqueous phase. Microscopy shows that phospholipids are present within the shell and that the core/shell structure is preserved up to 0.5 mg fluorescent phospholipids, up to about 0.25 mg pegylated phospholipids or biotinylated phospholipids (for 100 mg of polymer, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)). HPLC allows quantifying phospholipids associated to capsules: they correspond to 10% of pegylated phospholipids introduced in the organic phase. The presence of pegylated lipids at the surface of capsules was confirmed by X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS). The pegylation did not modify the echographic signal arising from capsules. Finally biotinylated microcapsules incubated with neutravidin tend to aggregate, which confirms the presence of biotin at the surface. These results are encouraging and future work will consist of nanocapsule surface modification for molecular imaging.

  20. The performance of PEGylated nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide as an ultrasound contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-López, Raquel; Tsapis, Nicolas; Santin, Mathieu; Bridal, Sharon Lori; Nicolas, Valérie; Jaillard, Danielle; Libong, Danielle; Chaminade, Pierre; Marsaud, Véronique; Vauthier, Christine; Fattal, Elias

    2010-03-01

    The surface of polymeric nanocapsules used as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) was modified with PEGylated phospholipids in order to escape recognition and clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system and achieve passive tumor targeting. Nanocapsules consisted of a shell of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) encapsulating a liquid core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB). They were decorated with poly(ethylene glycol-2000)-grafted distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE-PEG) incorporated in the organic phase before the solvent emulsification-evaporation process. The influence of DSPE-PEG concentration on nanocapsule size, surface charge, morphology, hydrophobicity and complement activation was evaluated. Zeta potential measurements, Hydrophobic interaction chromatography and complement activation provide evidence of DSPE-PEG presence at nanocapsule surface. Electronic microscopy reveals that the core/shell structure is preserved up to 2.64 mg of DSPE-PEG for 100 mg PLGA. In vivo ultrasound imaging was performed in mice bearing xenograft tumor with MIA PaCa-2 cells, either after an intra-tumoral or intravenous injection of nanocapsules. Tumor was observed only after the intra-tumoral injection. Despite the absence of echogenic signal in the tumor after intravenous injection of nanocapsules, histological analysis reveals their accumulation within the tumor tissue demonstrating that tissue distribution is not the unique property required for ultrasound contrast agents to be efficient. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-09-20

    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentration, prevents particles from entering the medium, and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, that CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the nanotubes with a salt solution with a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and of functional groups and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  2. Electrical conductivity studies on Ammonium bromide incorporated with Zwitterionic polymer blend electrolyte for battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, V.; Nallamuthu, N.; Devendran, P.; Nagarajan, E. R.; Manikandan, A.

    2017-06-01

    Solid polymer blend electrolytes are widely studied due to their extensive applications particularly in electrochemical devices. Blending polymer makes the thermal stability, higher mechanical strength and inorganic salt provide ionic charge carrier to enhance the conductivity. In these studies, 50% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 50% poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and 2.5% L-Asparagine mixed with different ratio of the Ammonium bromide (NH4Br), have been synthesized using solution casting technique. The prepared PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films have been characterized by various analytical methods such as FT-IR, XRD, impedance spectroscopy, TG-DSC and scanning electron microscopy. FT-IR, XRD and TG/DSC analysis revealed the structural and thermal behavior of the complex formation between PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br. The ionic conductivity and the dielectric properties of PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films were examined using impedance analysis. The highest ionic conductivity was found to be 2.34×10-4 S cm-1 for the m.wt. composition of 50%PVA:50%PVP:2.5%L-Asparagine:doped 0.15 g NH4Br at ambient temperature. Solid state proton battery is fabricated and the observed open circuit voltage is 1.1 V and its performance has been studied.

  3. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  4. Mathematical simulation of lithium bromide solution laminar falling film evaporation in vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengming; Wang, Yang; Hu, Huili; Yang, Ying

    2010-06-01

    For utilization of the residual heat of flue gas to drive the absorption chillers, a lithium-bromide falling film in vertical tube type generator is presented. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the heat and mass coupled problem of laminar falling film evaporation in vertical tube. In the model, the factor of mass transfer was taken into account in heat transfer performance calculation. The temperature and concentration fields were calculated. Some tests were conducted for the factors such as Re number, heating flux, the inlet concentration and operating pressure which can affect the heat and mass transfer performance in laminar falling film evaporation. The heat transfer performance is enhanced with the increasing of heat flux. An increasing inlet concentration can weaken the heat transfer performance. The operating pressure hardly affects on heat and mass transfer. The bigger inlet Re number means weaker heat transfer effects and stronger mass transfer. The mass transfer obviously restrains the heat transfer in the falling film solution. The relation between dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and the inlet Re number is obtained.

  5. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  6. Paclitaxel-loaded PEGylated nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide as theranostic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissenot, Tanguy; Fattal, Elias; Bordat, Alexandre; Houvenagel, Sophie; Valette, Julien; Chacun, Hélène; Gueutin, Claire; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We optimize the encapsulation of paclitaxel (PTX) into nanocapsules made of a shell of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-polyethylene glycol and a core of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) to serve as theranostic agents. Two main challenges were met: keeping the imaging moiety (PFOB) encapsulated while loading the polymer shell with a hydrophobic drug very prone to crystallization. Encapsulation is performed by a modified emulsion-evaporation method leading to 120nm diameter nanocapsules with a drug loading compatible with tumor treatment. The optimized formulation tested in vitro on CT-26 colon cancer cells yields a similar IC50 as the generic Taxol® formulation. In vivo, 19F-MRI shows that PTX encapsulation does not modify the ability of nanocapsules to accumulate passively in CT-26 tumors in mice by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. This accumulation leads to a promising and statistically significant twofold reduction in tumor growth as compared with negative control and generic Taxol® group. Altogether these results advocate for an interesting potential of these paclitaxel-loaded theranostic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of strontium bromide laser efficiency using cluster and decision tree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Iliycho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of investigation is a new high-powered strontium bromide (SrBr2 vapor laser emitting in multiline region of wavelengths. The laser is an alternative to the atom strontium lasers and electron free lasers, especially at the line 6.45 μm which line is used in surgery for medical processing of biological tissues and bones with minimal damage. In this paper the experimental data from measurements of operational and output characteristics of the laser are statistically processed by means of cluster analysis and tree-based regression techniques. The aim is to extract the more important relationships and dependences from the available data which influence the increase of the overall laser efficiency. There are constructed and analyzed a set of cluster models. It is shown by using different cluster methods that the seven investigated operational characteristics (laser tube diameter, length, supplied electrical power, and others and laser efficiency are combined in 2 clusters. By the built regression tree models using Classification and Regression Trees (CART technique there are obtained dependences to predict the values of efficiency, and especially the maximum efficiency with over 95% accuracy.

  8. Prediction of strontium bromide laser efficiency using cluster and decision tree analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Iliycho; Gocheva-Ilieva, Snezhana; Kulin, Chavdar

    2018-01-01

    Subject of investigation is a new high-powered strontium bromide (SrBr2) vapor laser emitting in multiline region of wavelengths. The laser is an alternative to the atom strontium lasers and electron free lasers, especially at the line 6.45 μm which line is used in surgery for medical processing of biological tissues and bones with minimal damage. In this paper the experimental data from measurements of operational and output characteristics of the laser are statistically processed by means of cluster analysis and tree-based regression techniques. The aim is to extract the more important relationships and dependences from the available data which influence the increase of the overall laser efficiency. There are constructed and analyzed a set of cluster models. It is shown by using different cluster methods that the seven investigated operational characteristics (laser tube diameter, length, supplied electrical power, and others) and laser efficiency are combined in 2 clusters. By the built regression tree models using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) technique there are obtained dependences to predict the values of efficiency, and especially the maximum efficiency with over 95% accuracy.

  9. Parametric and Nonparametric Empirical Regression Models: Case Study of Copper Bromide Laser Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gocheva-Ilieva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the output laser power of a copper bromide laser with wavelengths of 510.6 and 578.2 nm we have applied two regression techniques—multiple linear regression and multivariate adaptive regression splines. The models have been constructed on the basis of PCA factors for historical data. The influence of first- and second-order interactions between predictors has been taken into account. The models are easily interpreted and have good prediction power, which is established from the results of their validation. The comparison of the derived models shows that these based on multivariate adaptive regression splines have an advantage over the others. The obtained results allow for the clarification of relationships between laser generation and the observed laser input variables, for better determining their influence on laser generation, in order to improve the experimental setup and laser production technology. They can be useful for evaluation of known experiments as well as for prediction of future experiments. The developed modeling methodology is also applicable for a wide range of similar laser devices—metal vapor lasers and gas lasers.

  10. Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Alternatives Efficacy against Soil-Borne Pathogens, Nematodes and Soil Microbial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongwei; Yan, Dongdong; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1), methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1), metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1) treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1) and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1) showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community. PMID:25723395

  11. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant on alumina modified zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.gac@umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Zawadzki, Witold; Słowik, Grzegorz; Pawlonka, Justyna; Machocki, Andrzej [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Lipke, Agnieszka; Majdan, Marek [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 2 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of novel ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides in the presence of CTAB surfactant. • Determination of the structural, surface and optical properties. • Nanocrystalline, high-surface area ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. • ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials of different gap energy. - Abstract: Novel alumina modified zinc oxide materials were prepared by co-precipitation method in the presence of different amounts of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. X-ray diffraction, {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced formation of 10–15 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of the small amounts of surfactant. Amorphous alumina and zinc aluminate phases of different coordination environment of Al sites were identified. An increase of surfactant concentration led to the elongation of nanoparticles and changes of the nature of hydroxyl groups. Precipitation in the high CTAB concentration conditions facilitated formation of mesoporous materials of high specific surface area. The materials were composed of very small (2–3 nm) zinc aluminate spinel nanoparticles. High concentration of CTAB induced widening of band gap energy.

  12. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza N, V. M.; Bennun T, L. D., E-mail: vsanhuez@udec.cl [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Edmundo Larenas 129, Region del Biobio (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO{sub 2} and 14.11% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}. (Author)

  13. Efficient bacteria capture and inactivation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinjia; Deng, Jun; Liang, Jialiang; Shan, Chao; Tong, Meiping

    2015-12-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have shown great application potentials in water treatment processes especially for bacterial removal. Antibacterial agent, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was employed to modify Fe3O4 nanoparticles to fabricate bactericidal paramagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@CTAB). The as-prepared Fe3O4@CTAB could effectively capture both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis from water. For both cell types, more than 99% of bacteria with initial concentration of 1.5 × 10(7)CFU/mL could be inactivated by Fe3O4@CTAB (0.5 g/L) within 60 min. Fe3O4@CTAB could remove more than 99% of cells over a wide pH (from 3 to 10) and solution ionic strength range (from 0 to 1000 mM). The copresence of sulfate and nitrate did not affect the bacterial capture efficiencies, whereas, phosphate and silicate slightly decreased the bacterial removal rates. However, more than 91% and 81% of cells could be captured at 10mM of phosphate and silicate, respectively. Over 80% of cells could be removed even in the presence of 10mg/L of humic acid. Moreover, Fe3O4@CTAB exhibited good reusability, and greater than 83% of cells could be captured even in the fifth regeneration cycle. Fe3O4@CTAB prepared in this study have great application potentials for water disinfection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Cholinergic Stimulation with Pyridostigmine Bromide on Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Beatriz de Cuba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of an anticholinesterase agent, pyridostigmine bromide (Pyrido, on experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice. To this end, male C57BL/6J mice noninfected (control:Con or chronically infected (5 months with Trypanosoma cruzi (chagasic:Chg were treated or not (NT with Pyrido for one month. At the end of this period, electrocardiogram (ECG; cardiac autonomic function; heart histopathology; serum cytokines; and the presence of blood and tissue parasites by means of immunohistochemistry and PCR were assessed. In NT-Chg mice, significant changes in the electrocardiographic, autonomic, and cardiac histopathological profiles were observed confirming a chronic inflammatory response. Treatment with Pyrido in Chagasic mice caused a significant reduction of myocardial inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum levels of IFNγ with no change in IL-10 levels, suggesting a shift of immune response toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Lower nondifferent numbers of parasite DNA copies were observed in both treated and nontreated chagasic mice. In conclusion, our findings confirm the marked neuroimmunomodulatory role played by the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system in the evolution of the inflammatory-immune response to T. cruzi during experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice.

  15. Umeclidinium bromide + vilanterol for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Rogliani, Paola; Rinaldi, Barbara; Cazzola, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A solid scientific rationale and an increasing body of clinical evidence fully support the use of an antimuscarinic agent combined with a β-agonist in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this article, we focus on the development of an inhaled fixed dose combination (FDC) of two 24-h bronchodilators, umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol (UMEC/VI) (ANORO). Several pivotal clinical trials have documented the impact of this combination on lung function and other outcome measures such as quality of life, dyspnea, rescue medication use and exercise capacity, with no clinically meaningful treatment-related changes in vital signs or clinical laboratory parameters. These results allow us to predict that UMEC/VI will have a role in the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It remains to determine its impact on exacerbations. In any case, trials comparing UMEC/VI with other dual bronchodilator FDCs, and also with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist FDCs, are needed to assess the advantages, if any, of UMEC/VI FDC over other therapies.

  16. Factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide; fenoterol hydrobromide pressurized-metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninbovorl, Jenjira; Sawatdee, Somchai; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the stability and performance of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol hydrobromide in a pressurized-metered dose inhaler (pMDI). A factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of three parameters (propellant, water, and ethanol) on the performance of 27 designed formulations of a solution-based pMDI. The formulations that contained a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant lower than 72% v/v and an ethanol concentration higher than 27% v/v remained as clear solutions. Nine formulations that contained the HFA propellant higher than 74% v/v precipitated. The results indicated that it was not only the HFA propellant content of the formulations that was related to the formulation instability but also ethanol content. Only six formulations from the 18 formulations, that did not precipitate, produced drug contents that were within the acceptable range (80-120%). These six formulations generated aerosols with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of approximately 2 μm with a fine particle fraction (FPF; particle size, MMAD and FPF did not change significantly after 6 months of storage (P > 0.05).

  17. Surface Tension Characteristics of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution with Alcoholic Surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    At present, the combination of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as an absorbent and water as a refrigerant have widely been used as the working fluid for absorption refrigerating machines. In order to obtain absorption enhancement of water vapor into the LiBr solution by Marangoni convection, an alcoholic surfactant is being added in the LiBr solution. In that case, the surface tension of the LiBr solution with the surfactant plays an important role for the vapor absorption. In this study, the surface tensions of the LiBr solution with several alcoholic surfactants such as 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were measured by Wilhelmy plate method. As a result, the surface tensions of 50 wt% LiBr solution with several surfactants were obtained over the LiBr solution temperature range from 298 K to 318 K and the surfactant concentration range from 0 to 104 ppm by mass. The measured surface tension has decreased with the increasing number of carbons included in the surfactant at constant concentration, and the surface tension has increased with the increasing temperature of 50 wt% LiBr solution. The surface tension increase of 1-octanol became greater than any other surfactant used in this work. The effective carbon number of the surfactant for the absorption enhancement was in the range from 7 to 8.

  18. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  19. Heat and Mass Diffusions in the Absorption of Water Vapor by Aqueous Solution of Lithium Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Takao; Kurosaki, Yasuo; Nikai, Isao

    The recent development of absorption-type heat pump is highly essential from the viewpoint of extracting the effective energy from waste heat or solar energy. To increase the efficiency of energy conversion, it is important to improve the performance of absorbers. The objective of this paper is to obtain an increased understanding of the fine mechanisms of vapor absorption. A system combining holographic interferometry wity thermometry is adopted to observe the progress of one-dimensional water vapor absorption by aqueous solution of lithium bromide (LiBr) and also to measure the unsteady temperature and concentration distributions in the absorption process. The experiments are carried out under the condition that the solution surface is exposed to the saturated water vapor at reduced pressure, and the effects of LiBr mass concentration on absorption mechanism are examined in the concentration range 20-60 mass%. The interference fringes are analyzed to distinguish between the layers of heat conduction and mass diffusion. The temperature and concentration distributions thus determined experimentally are compared with numerical solutions obtained by the equations for unsteady heat conduction and mass diffusion taking into consideration the effect of heat by dilution, to give reasonable values of mass diffusivity hitherto remaining unknown. Especially in the range of 40-60 mass%, the mass diffusivity decreases extremely with the increase of mass concentration of LiBr and it falls down to 0.7-0.8×10-9 m2/s in case of 60 mass% solution.

  20. Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the morphology of extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeel Ahmed Al-Thabaiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oriental plane leaf extracts were used as a reducing-, stabilizing- and capping-agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs for the first time. The size, shape, size distribution and optical properties strongly depend on the experimental conditions, absence, and presence of shape-directing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected electron diffraction ring patterns were used to determine the morphology of resulting AgNPs at different time intervals. The spectra showed a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR peak at 450 nm which is the characteristic of spherical AgNPs (diameter ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The peak shifted to shorter wavelength (blue shift from 450 to 425 nm and sharpness of the peak also decreases in the presence of CTAB which might be due to the capping action of CTAB. A layer of ca. 3 nm around a group of the AgNPs in which the inner layer is bound to the AgNPs surface via the active groups of the extract has been observed.

  1. Bromide-Assisted Anisotropic Growth of Gold Nanoparticles as Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs of various shapes such as triangles, hexagons, and semispheres, using 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA as the reducing agent in the presence of potassium bromide (KBr. Anisotropic Au NPs have received ever-increasing attention in various areas of research due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Numerous synthetic methods involving either top-down or bottom-up approaches have been developed to synthesize Au NPs with deliberately varied shapes, sizes, and configurations; however, the production of templateless, seedless, and surfactant-free singular-shaped anisotropic Au NPs remains a significant challenge. The concentrations of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4, 5-HIAA, and KBr, as well as the reaction temperature, were found to influence the resulting product morphology. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au NPs was performed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared Au NPs exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS properties, which make them very attractive for the development of SERS-based chemical and biological sensors.

  2. Production of hydrogen bromide by bromine-methane reactions at elevated temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Larson, Richard S.

    2003-05-01

    Hydrogen bromide is a potentially useful intermediate for hydrogen production by electrolysis because it has a low cell potential and is extremely soluble in water. Processes have been proposed to exploit these properties, but among the important issues to be resolved is the efficiency of HBr production from hydrocarbon precursors. This investigation evaluated a fundamental facet of such a technology by studying the reaction of methane and bromine at elevated temperature to determine the yield and kinetics of HBr formation. Laboratory experimentation and computational chemistry were combined to provide a description of this reaction for possible application to reactor design at a larger scale. Experimental studies with a tubular flow reactor were used to survey a range of reactant ratios and reactor residence times at temperatures between 500 C and 800 C. At temperatures near 800 C with excess methane, conversions of bromine to HBr exceeded 90% and reaction products included solid carbon (soot) in stoichiometric amounts. At lower temperatures, HBr conversion was significantly reduced, the products included much less soot, and the formation of bromocarbon compounds was indicated qualitatively. Calculations of chemical equilibrium behavior and reaction kinetics for the experimental conditions were performed using the Sandia CHEMKIN package. An elementary multistep mechanism for the gas-phase chemistry was used together with a surface mechanism that assumed facile deposition of radical species at the reactor walls. Simulations with the laminar-flow boundary-layer code of the CHEMKIN package gave reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  3. [Effects of Anions on Bromate Formation During Ozonation of Bromide-Containing Water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Wu, Chun-de; Liu, Lü-gang; Yuan, Bo-jie

    2015-09-01

    To study the effects of common inorganic anions on bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing water, the effects of different mass concentrations of Cl-, HCO3-, and SO(4)2- on bromate formation were investigated in bench-scale test. The mechanisms of these three coexisting anions on bromate formation was analyzed based on the ozone decomposition, HOBr/OBr- formation, and transformation of total bromine species. Our results showed that adding of 3-150 mg.L-1 Cl- can reduce 8. 8%-25. 7% of bromate formation within 60 min. 63. 9% of bromate would be decreased by increasing SO(4)2- concentration from 0 mg.L-1 to 30 mg.L-1 within 20 min. However, more than 6. 4 times the mass concentrations of bromate were formed as HCO3- mass concentrations increased from 0 mg.L-1 to 30 mg.L-1 within 20 min. The production of bromate was slightly increased when HCO3- mass concentrations was above 30 mg.L-1. Under the condition of the same ozone dosage and reaction time, adding of Cl- and SO(4)2- will inhibit the formation of bromate during ozonation, while adding of HCOC3- significantly will increase the production of bromate.

  4. Carnitine alkyl ester bromides as novel biosourced ionic liquids, cationic hydrotropes and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häckl, Katharina; Mühlbauer, Andrea; Ontiveros, Jesús F; Marinkovic, Sinisa; Estrine, Boris; Kunz, Werner; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2017-09-28

    In contrast to anionic and nonionic amphiphilic substances, bio-based cationic ones are very rare. Cationic amphiphiles are mostly based on quaternary ammonium, pyridinium or imidazolium groups that are either badly biodegradable or have toxic residues even after degradation. In the search for green alternatives to cationic hydrotropes and amphiphiles, natural l-carnitine could be a promising candidate for a cationic headgroup. By esterification of carnitine in one step and with low cost, cationic molecules with alkyl chain length of n=2-14 could be obtained. Their thermal properties, aggregation behaviour and cytotoxicity were determined. Hydrophobic compounds were solubilized in their aqueous solutions and the PIT-slope method was applied to determine a relative hydrophilicity. It was found that some pure carnitine ester bromides were liquid at room temperature and thus can be classified as ionic liquids. They are highly water-soluble, and in aqueous solutions, they showed hydrotrope or surfactant behaviour depending on their alkyl chain length. Their high hydrotropic efficiency was demonstrated by solubilizing Disperse Red 13, while also biomolecules, like vanillin, could be dissolved in reasonable amounts. In all tests, they performed at least as good as the tested reference substances, while showing similar cytotoxicity towards human skin keratinocytes, thus demonstrating their potential as green functional amphiphilic molecules of positive charge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  6. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  7. Adsorption of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides at water/alkane interfaces: competitive adsorption of alkanes and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Mucic, N; Pradines, V; Aksenenko, E V; Miller, R

    2013-11-12

    The adsorption of members of the homologous series of alkyl trimethylammonium bromides (C(n)TAB) is studied at water/alkane interfaces by drop profile analysis tensiometry. The results are discussed in terms of a competitive adsorption process of alkane and surfactant molecules. A thermodynamic model, derived originally for the adsorption of surfactant mixtures, is adapted such that it describes a competitive adsorption of the surfactant molecules from the aqueous phase and alkane molecules from the oil phase. This new model involves the interspecies attraction coefficient, which mutually increases the adsorption activities of the alkane and C(n)TAB. The effects of the alkyl chain length n of C(n)TABs and the influence of the number of C atoms in the alkane chain are discussed, and the physical quantities are compared to those determined at the aqueous solution/air interface. The new theoretical model for aqueous solution/oil interfaces is also compared to a theory that does not consider the adsorption of alkane. The proposed new model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Manganese-Doped One-Dimensional Organic Lead Bromide Perovskites with Bright White Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Khabou, Oussama; Worku, Michael; Zhou, Yan; Hurley, Joseph; Lin, Haoran; Ma, Biwu

    2017-11-08

    Single-component white-emitting phosphors are highly promising to simplify the fabrication of optically pumped white light-emitting diodes. To achieve white emission, precise control of the excited state dynamics is required for a single-component system to generate emissions with different energies in the steady state. Here, we report a new class of white phosphors based on manganese (Mn)-doped one-dimensional (1D) organic lead bromide perovskites. The bright white emission is the combination of broadband blue emission from the self-trapped excited states of the 1D perovskites and red emission from the doped Mn(2+) ions. Because of the indirect nature of the self-trapped excited states in 1D perovskites, there is no energy transfer from these states to the Mn(2+) ions, resulting in an efficient dual emission. As compared to the pristine 1D perovskites with bluish-white emission, these Mn-doped 1D perovskites exhibit much higher color rendering index of up to 87 and photoluminescence quantum efficiency of up to 28%.

  9. Comparative mammalian cell cytotoxicity of wastewater with elevated bromide and iodide after chlorination, chloramination, or ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengkun; Nguyen, Thanh H; Plewa, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Recycling wastewater is becoming more common as communities around the world try to better control their water resources against an increased frequency of either prolonged droughts or intense flooding. For communities in coastal areas, wastewaters may contain elevated levels of bromide (Br-) and iodide (I-) from seawater intrusion or high mineral content of source waters. Disinfection of such wastewater is mandatory to prevent the spread of pathogens, however little is known about the toxicity of wastewater after disinfection in the presence of Br- and I-. In this study we compared the induction of chronic cytotoxicity in mammalian cells in samples of municipal secondary wastewater effluent amended with elevated levels of Br-/I- after disinfection by chlorine, chloramines or ozone to identify which disinfection process generated wastewater with the lowest level of adverse biological response. Chlorination increased mammalian cell cytotoxicity by 5 times as compared to non-disinfected controls. Chloramination produced disinfected wastewater that expressed 6.3 times more cytotoxicity than the non-disinfected controls and was 1.3 times more cytotoxic than the chlorinated samples. Ozonation produced wastewater with cytotoxicity comparable to the non-disinfected controls and was at least 4 times less cytotoxic than the chlorine disinfected wastewaters. These results indicate that compared to chlorination and chloramination, ozonation of wastewater with high Br-/I- levels yielded the lowest mammalian cell cytotoxicity, suggesting its potential as a more favorable method to disinfect wastewater with minimizing the biological toxicity in mind. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Influence of pyridostigmine bromide on human thermoregulation during cold-water immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadarette, B.S.; Prusaczyk, W.K.; Sawka, M.N. (Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of an oral 30 mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) on thermoregulatory and physiological responses during cold stress. Six men were immersed in chilled stirred water for up to 180 minutes; once 2 hours following ingestion of PYR and once 2 hours following ingestion of a placebo (CON). With PYR, mean ({plus minus} SD) red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition was 33 ({plus minus}12)% at 110 minutes post-ingestion. Cholinesterase inhibition was negatively related to lean body mass. Abdominal discomfort caused termination in 3 of 6 PYR experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 117 min) but in no CON experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 142 min, p > 0.05). During immersion, metabolic rate increased significantly over pre-immersion levels, and increased with duration of immersion, but did not differ between conditions. PYR had no significant effect on rectal temperature, mean body temperature, thermal sensation, heart rate, or plasma cortisol concentration. It was concluded that a 30 mg dose of PYR does not increase susceptibility to hypothermia in humans immersed in cold-water; however, in combination with cold-stress, PYR may result in marked abdominal cramping and limit cold tolerance.

  11. Pyridostigmine bromide does not alter thermoregulation during exercise in cold air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.E.; Sawka, M.N.; Young, A.J.; Freund, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    This study examined the effects of acute and chronic pyridostigmine bromide (PB) administration on thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to exercise in cold air (5 C). Seven healthy men completed two 7-day trials in a double-blind, crossover experimental design: during one trial they received PB (30 mg three times daily) and during the other trial they received placebo. For each trial, subjects attempted four (3 h) exercise tests: low-intensity exercise (25% Vo2max) and moderate- intensity exercise (-50% Vo2max), on days 2 and 3 and again on days 6 and 7. Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and venous blood samples were obtained before and during exercise. Red blood cell acerylcholinesterase inhibition induced by PB increased (p < 0.05) from 34% on day I to 43% on days 3-7 Metabolic rate, body temperatures, and regional heat conductance responses were not different between trials. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acid, lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations were not different between trials. In addition. differences were not found between acute and chronic experiments for any thermoregulatory or metabolic responses. These findings demonstrate that the PB dosage used by military personnel, as a pharmacological defense against nerve-agent poisoning. should not cause any adverse thermoregulatory or metabolic effects during moderate activity in cold climates.

  12. The effect of ethidium bromide on mobility of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, J; Larcom, L L

    1996-10-01

    Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) is sometimes added to running buffer during the separation of DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis. It is used because upon binding of the molecule to the DNA and illumination with a UV light source, the DNA banding pattern can be visualized. The mode of binding of EtBr is intercalation between the base pairs. This binding changes the charge, weight, conformation, and flexibility of the DNA molecule. Since DNA molecules are sized by their relative movement through a gel compared to a molecular weight standard, mobility measurements can be critical to size determinations. After running two identical gels, one without EtBr and one with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 or 1.0 microgram/mL EtBr in the running buffer, the mobilities of lambda HindIII DNA fragments were compared. The mobility of DNA was always less in the gels with EtBr. Using the reptation theory equation, which describes the mobility of DNA molecules through gel, changes in frictional coefficients were calculated. It was determined that the change in frictional coefficients brought about by the addition of EtBr is directly proportional to the fraction of base pairs of a fragment bound to EtBr. This change in friction is greatest in the largest fragments, which suggests that the stiffening of the molecule by the EtBr binding is the cause for the decreased mobility.

  13. A Facile Electrochemical Sensor for Nonylphenol Determination Based on the Enhancement Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile electrochemical sensor for the determination of nonylphenol (NP was fabricated in this work. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, which formed a bilayer on the surface of the carbon paste (CP electrode, displayed a remarkable enhancement effect for the electrochemical oxidation of NP. Moreover, the oxidation peak current of NP at the CTAB/CP electrode demonstrated a linear relationship with NP concentration, which could be applied in the direct determination of NP. Some experimental parameters were investigated, such as external solution pH, mode and time of accumulation, concentration and modification time of CTAB and so on. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to 2.5 × 10−5 mol·L−1 was obtained for the sensor, with a low limit of detection at 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1. Several distinguishing advantages of the as-prepared sensor, including facile fabrication, easy operation, low cost and so on, suggest a great potential for its practical applications.

  14. Effects of Nonhydrostatic Stress on Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Cai, Weizhao; Bi, Tiange; Zarifi, Niloofar; Terpstra, Tyson; Zhang, Chuang; Verdent, Z. Valy; Zurek, Eva; Deemyad, Shanti (Buffalo); (Utah)

    2017-07-13

    We report synchrotron X-ray diffraction, photoconductivity, and photoluminescence investigations of methylammonium-lead-bromide (MAPbBr3) under various stress conditions, supported by density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of MAPbBr3 show substantial dependence on the hydrostatic conditions. While nonhydrostatic compression of MAPbBr3 leads to amorphization above 2.4 GPa, under quasi-hydrostatic (Ar) and hydrostatic (He) pressure, the sample remains in crystalline phases. A sequence of phase transitions between two cubic phases and orthorhombic Pnma phase is observed when using Ar, or no pressure-transmitting-medium (PTM). In helium-PTM only transitions between the two cubic structures and a new isostructural phase transition with a large volume collapse to a third cubic-phase at 2.7 GPa was observed. The photoluminescence measurements indicate a pressure-induced band gap-narrowing in the cubic phase I, and a blue-shift in the orthorhombic structure. DFT calculations illustrate that the dynamics of the organic molecules and the inorganic lattice, coupled via the N–H···Br hydrogen-bonding interactions, affect the Pb–Br distance and the bandgap evolution under pressure.

  15. Spectroscopic study of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide Pt-C14TAB nanoparticles: Structure and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodko, Y.; Jones, L.; Frei, H.; Somorjai, G.

    2009-01-09

    The vibrational spectra of platinum nanoparticles (12 nm) capped with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C{sub 14}TAB, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We have shown that the thermal decay of Pt-C{sub 14}TAB nanoparticles in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres leads to the release of hydrocarbon chain of surfactant and the formation of strongly bonded layer of ammonium cations on the platinum surface. The platinum atoms accessible to CO chemisorptions were not reducible by hydrogen in the temperature ranging from 30 C to 200 C. A FTIR spectrum of C{sub 14}TAB adsorbed on Pt nanoparticles dramatically perturbed as compared with pure C{sub 14}TAB. New intense and broad bands centered at 1450 cm{sup -1} and 760 cm{sup -1} are making their appearance in Pt-C{sub 14}TAB. It may be speculated, that new bands are result of coupling between conducting electrons of Pt and molecular vibrations of adsorbed C{sub 14}TAB and as a consequence specific vibrational modes of ammonium cation transformed into electron-vibrational modes.

  16. Evaporation for Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in a Vertical Falling Film Type of Generator under Reduced Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Akira; Kawamura, Teruo; Hada, Kunihiko

    Experiments on evaporation for lithium bromide aqueous solutions (0-55wt% LiBr) were made in a vertical falling film type of stainless steel generator under reduced pressure, 8kPa. A simple calculation method is proposed to analyze the heat and mass transfer in falling film of lithium bromide aqueous solutions. The method is to solve the one-dimensional differance equation driven using the previous equations for coefficients of heat transfer and mass transfer in falling film, and the unidirectional diffusion model. The results of the new calculation method agree with those of author's previous two-dimentional difference method, and the new method reduces computation time to one sixtyth. The calculated values for evaporation rate and falling film temperatures in the generator agree well with the observed values of them.

  17. Reaction of lithium diethylamide with an alkyl bromide and alkyl benzenesulfonate: origins of alkylation, elimination, and sulfonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lekha; Ramírez, Antonio; Collum, David B

    2010-12-17

    A combination of NMR, kinetic, and computational methods are used to examine reactions of lithium diethylamide in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with n-dodecyl bromide and n-octyl benzenesulfonate. The alkyl bromide undergoes competitive S(N)2 substitution and E2 elimination in proportions independent of all concentrations except for a minor medium effect. Rate studies show that both reactions occur via trisolvated-monomer-based transition structures. The alkyl benzenesulfonate undergoes competitive S(N)2 substitution (minor) and N-sulfonation (major) with N-sulfonation promoted at low THF concentrations. The S(N)2 substitution is shown to proceed via a disolvated monomer suggested computationally to involve a cyclic transition structure. The dominant N-sulfonation follows a disolvated-dimer-based transition structure suggested computationally to be a bicyclo[3.1.1] form. The differing THF and lithium diethylamide orders for the two reactions explain the observed concentration-dependent chemoselectivities.

  18. Catalytic Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on the Oxidation of Triethylene glycol by Chloramine-T in Acidic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide catalyzed oxidation of triethylene glycol [2,2'-ethylene diqxybis(ethanol] by chloramine-T in acidic acid medium have been investigated. The reaction is first order dependence on chloramine-T and fractional order for triethylene glycol with excess concentration of other reactants. The catalytic effect due to cetyletrimethylammonium bromide has been studied. The small salt effect and increase in the reaction rate with increasing dielectric constant suggest the involvement of neutral molecule in the rate-determining step. The addition of p-toluene sulfonamide retards the reaction rate. The effect of chloride ion on the reaction also studied. The effect of temperature on the reaction has been investigated in the temperature range 313-333K and thermodynamic parameters were calculated from the Arrhenious plot. A tentative mechanism consistent with the experimental results has been proposed.

  19. Micellar aggregation of CTAB in water and chloroform solutions - a study by laser Raman spectroscopy. [Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, A.M.A.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Teixeira-Dias, J.J.C.

    1982-03-01

    Changes in the C-H stretching region of the Raman spectra of CTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) in aqueous and chloroform solutions with varying concentration, temperature, and electrolyte additives are interpreted in terms of structural and environmental effects. The results are in agreement with the presence of several gauche rotational isomers of CTAB in the aqueous and chloroform solutions, and with CTAB micellar association of the ordinary type in water and inverted micellar association in chloroform. 14 references.

  20. Ethidium Bromide Modifies The Agarose Electrophoretic Mobility of CAG•CTG Alternative DNA Structures Generated by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal expansion of unstable simple sequence DNA repeats can cause human disease through a variety of mechanisms, including gene loss-of-function, toxic gain-of-function of the encoded protein and toxicity of the repeat-containing RNA transcript. Disease-associated unstable DNA repeats display unusual biophysical properties, including the ability to adopt non-B-DNA structures. CAG•CTG trinucleotide sequences, in particular, have been most extensively studied and they can fold into slipped-stranded DNA structures, which have been proposed as mutation intermediates in repeat size expansion. Here, we describe a simple assay to detect unusual DNA structures generated by PCR amplification, based on their slow electrophoretic migration in agarose and on the effects of ethidium bromide on the mobility of structural isoforms through agarose gels. Notably, the inclusion of ethidium bromide in agarose gels and running buffer eliminates the detection of additional slow-migrating DNA species, which are detected in the absence of the intercalating dye and may be incorrectly classified as mutant alleles with larger than actual expansion sizes. Denaturing and re-annealing experiments confirmed the slipped-stranded nature of the additional DNA species observed in agarose gels. Thus, we have shown that genuine non-B-DNA conformations are generated during standard PCR amplification of CAG•CTG sequences and detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. In contrast, ethidium bromide does not change the multi-band electrophoretic profiles of repeat-containing PCR products through native polyacrylamide gels. These data have implications for the analysis of trinucleotide repeat DNA and possibly other types of unstable repetitive DNA sequences by standard agarose gel electrophoresis in diagnostic and research protocols. We suggest that proper sizing of CAG•CTG PCR products in agarose gels should be performed in the presence of ethidium bromide.

  1. Ethidium Bromide Modifies The Agarose Electrophoretic Mobility of CAG•CTG Alternative DNA Structures Generated by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Monckton, Darren G

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal expansion of unstable simple sequence DNA repeats can cause human disease through a variety of mechanisms, including gene loss-of-function, toxic gain-of-function of the encoded protein and toxicity of the repeat-containing RNA transcript. Disease-associated unstable DNA repeats display unusual biophysical properties, including the ability to adopt non-B-DNA structures. CAG•CTG trinucleotide sequences, in particular, have been most extensively studied and they can fold into slipped-stranded DNA structures, which have been proposed as mutation intermediates in repeat size expansion. Here, we describe a simple assay to detect unusual DNA structures generated by PCR amplification, based on their slow electrophoretic migration in agarose and on the effects of ethidium bromide on the mobility of structural isoforms through agarose gels. Notably, the inclusion of ethidium bromide in agarose gels and running buffer eliminates the detection of additional slow-migrating DNA species, which are detected in the absence of the intercalating dye and may be incorrectly classified as mutant alleles with larger than actual expansion sizes. Denaturing and re-annealing experiments confirmed the slipped-stranded nature of the additional DNA species observed in agarose gels. Thus, we have shown that genuine non-B-DNA conformations are generated during standard PCR amplification of CAG•CTG sequences and detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. In contrast, ethidium bromide does not change the multi-band electrophoretic profiles of repeat-containing PCR products through native polyacrylamide gels. These data have implications for the analysis of trinucleotide repeat DNA and possibly other types of unstable repetitive DNA sequences by standard agarose gel electrophoresis in diagnostic and research protocols. We suggest that proper sizing of CAG•CTG PCR products in agarose gels should be performed in the presence of ethidium bromide.

  2. Dual antibacterial agents of nano-silver and 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide in dental adhesive to inhibit caries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Fang; Imazato, Satoshi; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Huaibing; Arola, Dwayne D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Dental resins containing 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) showed potent antibacterial functions. Recent studies developed antibacterial resins containing nanoparticles of silver (NAg). The objectives of this study were to develop an adhesive containing dual agents of MDPB and NAg for the first time, and to investigate the combined effects of antibacterial adhesive and primer on biofilm viability, metabolic activity, lactic acid, dentin bond strength, and fibroblast cytotoxic...

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  4. Schwann cell expression of an oligodendrocyte-like remyelinating pattern after ethidium bromide injection in the rat spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Fernandes Bondan; Maria Anete Lallo; Maria de Fátima Monteiro Martins; Dominguita Luhers Graça

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells are recognized by their capacity of producing single internodes of myelin around axons of the peripheral nervous system. In the ethidium bromide (EB) model of primary demyelination in the brainstem, it is observed the entry of Schwann cells into the central nervous system in order to contribute to the myelin repair performed by the oligodendrocytes that survived to the EB gliotoxic action, being able to even remyelinate more than one axon at the same time, in a pattern of repair...

  5. One-Pot Preparations of Diaryliodonium Bromides from Iodoarenes and Arenes, with Sodium Perborate as the Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Skulski

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a one-pot synthesis of the title bromides from both activated and deactivated iodoarenes which are first oxidized with anhydrous NaBO3·H2O/Ac2O/conc.H2SO4 liquid mixtures, then coupled in situ with benzene and activated arenes and, finally, precipitated out with a KBr solution; this method is easy, cheap, safe and fairly effective.

  6. Elastic silicone encapsulation of n-hexadecyl bromide by microfluidic approach as novel microencapsulated phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhenjin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Su, Lin; Li, Jing; Yang, Ruizhuang; Zhang, Zhanwen; Liu, Meifang; Li, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Bo, E-mail: LB6711@126.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • n-Hexadecyl bromide was encapsuled in elastic silicone shell. • The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact. • Latent heat of microcapsules was 76.35 J g{sup −1}. • The microencapsulation ratio was 49 wt.%. • The microcapsules had good thermal stability. - Abstract: The elastic silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules were prepared as novel microencapsulated phase change materials by microfluidic approach with the co-flowing channels, where the double oil1-in-oil2-in-water (O1/O2/W) droplets with a core–shell geometry were fabricated. The thermal characterizations of the microcapsules were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The DSC results showed that the microcapsules had good energy storage capacity with melting and freezing enthalpies 76.35 J g{sup −1} and 78.67 J g{sup −1}, respectively. The TGA investigation showed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability. The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact from the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscope showed that the silicone shell can provide expansion place due to its elastic property. Therefore, the silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules showed good potential as thermal regulating textile and thermal insulation materials.

  7. Charging of silver bromide aqueous interface: Evaluation of enthalpy and entropy of interfacial reactions from surface potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preočanin, Tajana; Supljika, Filip; Kallay, Nikola

    2011-02-01

    Dependence of surface potential (electrostatic potential at the inner Helmholtz plane, Ψ(0)) at the silver bromide aqueous electrolyte interface was measured as a function of the activities of Br(-) and Ag(+) by using a single crystal silver bromide electrode (SCr-AgBr). Absolute values of surface potentials were obtained from electrode potentials of SCr-AgBr and isoelectric points. Measurements were performed at different temperatures in the range from 10 to 50°C. Corresponding equilibrium constants of interfacial reactions were obtained using the surface complexation model and interpreted via the van't Hoff equation. As a result of the interpretation for the binding of bromide ions leading to a negative surface charge, the thermodynamic parameters obtained were Δ(n)H(∘)=-33kJmol(-1) and Δ(n)S(∘)=-31Jmol(-1)K(-1); and for the binding of silver ions leading to a positive surface charge, Δ(p)H(∘)=-72kJmol(-1) and Δ(p)S(∘)=-196Jmol(-1)K(-1). Association of counterions (CI) with oppositely charged surface sites partially compensates the surface charge. Assuming approximately the same affinities for anions (NO(3)(-)) and cations (K(+)) thermodynamic parameters for their binding were obtained as Δ(CI)H(∘)≈7kJmol(-1) and Δ(CI)S(∘)≈105Jmol(-1)K(-1). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An estimation of the global emission of methyl bromide from rapeseed ( Brassica napus) from 1961 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. Iqbal; White, Iain R.; Nickless, Graham; Wang, Kuo-Ying; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    Gan et al. [Gan, J., Yates, S.R., Ohr, H.D., Sims, J.J., 1998. Production of methyl bromide by terrestrial higher plants. Geophysical Research Letters 25 (19), 3595-3598] have reported that plants of the family Brassicaceae take up bromide from soils and subsequently release methyl bromide (CH 3Br) to the atmosphere deriving a significant emission from this source of about 7 Gg(10 9 g) yr -1. In this study, we determine a yearly global emission rate for CH 3Br from one such species, rapeseed, from 1961 to 2003 using data on crop harvest index and growth rate in conjunction with global production data. This study suggests that CH 3Br emissions from rapeseed have increased 10-fold from 1961 to 2003 and by a factor of 3-4 since 1980. It also suggests that the geographical distribution of emissions has also changed substantially in the last 40 yr. The annual emission of CH 3Br from mustard and cabbage is also estimated; whilst relative levels emitted from these species are less significant, as these crops are continually exploited for new applications CH 3Br emissions are set to increase.

  9. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Investigation of bromide ion effects on disinfection by-products formation and speciation in an Istanbul water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyak, Vedat; Toroz, Ismail

    2007-10-22

    Recent epidemiological studies reported that brominated DBPs may be more carcinogenic than their chlorinated analogs. Thus, this research was designed to investigate the role of bromide ion in the formation and speciation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of Buyukcekmece Lake Water (BLW) in Istanbul. Chlorination of BLW samples was carried out at pH 7.0 with 5 and 12 mg/l chlorine dosages. For each chlorine dosage, six bromide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 4.0mg/l were added to form a 2 x 6 experimental matrix. In general, increasing bromide concentration gradually shifted trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) speciation from chlorinated species to the mixed bromochloro species during chlorination. The halogen substitution ability of HOBr and HOCl during the formation of THMs and HAAs can be estimated through the use of probability theory. It was concluded that, in both halogen substitution for THM and dihalogenated HAA formation, HOBr was found to be 20 times more reactive than HOCl.

  11. Ligand-free palladium catalysed Heck reaction of methyl 2-acetamido acrylate and aryl bromides as key step in the synthesis of enantiopure substituted phenylalanines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willans, Charlotte E.; Mulders, Jan M.C.A.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Vries, André H.M. de

    2003-01-01

    A range of substituted aryl bromides were coupled with methyl 2-acetamido acrylate using ligand-free palladium catalysis. Subsequently asymmetric hydrogenation with Rh/MonoPhos yielded substituted phenylalanines in high enantioselectivities (e.e. 92-99%).

  12. Lignin Content in Xylan-Rich Lignocellulosic Species (Angiosperms) Before and After Hot-Water Extraction: Klason Lignin and Acetyl Bromide Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chengyan

    Klason lignin is the most commonly used method of lignin content determination. However, it is time-consuming and consists of acid-insoluble and acid-soluble lignin fractions, resulting in potential errors during handling and calculations. This study investigated the use of a one-step UV-spectroscopy-based acetyl bromide method as a possible alternative. Four Angiosperms; sugar maple, willow, Miscanthus and wheat straw, suggested for use in biorefineries, were analyzed before and after hot-water extraction; autohydrolytic pretreatment. Different organic solvents were evaluated for removal of extractives prior to lignin analyses. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was prepared for each species to calibrate absorptivity used in the acetyl bromide lignin calculations. These studies demonstrated that the acetyl bromide method is reliable and may serve as an alternative to Klason lignin. The acetyl bromide lignin results corroborate well the Klason lignin results and the correlation is improved if the absorptivity determined on respective MWLs is used in calculations.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  3. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  4. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  7. Selective Sensing of Fe(3+) and Al(3+) Ions and Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol by a Water-Stable Terbium-Based Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Hui; Shi, Fang; Zhang, Wen-Min; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Mak, Thomas C W

    2015-10-26

    A water-stable luminescent terbium-based metal-organic framework (MOF), {[Tb(L1 )1.5 (H2 O)]⋅3 H2 O}n (Tb-MOF), with rod-shaped secondary building units (SBUs) and honeycomb-type tubular channels has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The high green emission intensity and the microporous nature of the Tb-MOF indicate that it can potentially be used as a luminescent sensor. In this work, we show that Tb-MOF can selectively sense Fe(3+) and Al(3+) ions from mixed metal ions in water through different detection mechanisms. In addition, it also exhibits high sensitivity for 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) in the presence of other nitro aromatic compounds in aqueous solution by luminescence quenching experiments. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Characterization of methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at temperate freshwater wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Heal, Mathew R.

    2013-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) are important natural sources of halogens to the atmosphere. A total of 568 CH3Br and 418 CH3Cl net flux measurements were made for up to 2 years at the same locations within four different wetlands in Scotland. Mean (± 1 standard deviation (SD)) CH3Br and CH3Cl net fluxes across all measurements at each wetland were: Auchencorth Moss, 8 (± 7) and 3560 (± 1260) ng m-2 h-1; Old Castle Farm, 420 (± 70) and 500 (± 260) ng m-2 h-1; Red Moss of Balerno, 500 (± 90) and 140,000 (± 36,000) ng m-2 h-1; and St Margaret's Marsh, 3600 (± 600) and -270 (± 450) ng m-2 h-1. None of the wetlands was a large net sink. Where substantial emissions were observed, these followed seasonal trends, increasing early in the growing season and declining in early autumn. Some diurnal cycles were observed, with emissions greatest during the day, although lower emissions were present at night. None of the measured environmental parameters was a strong "universal" driver for fluxes, which were heterogeneous within and between the wetlands, and larger on average than reported to date; plant species appeared to be the dominant factor, the latter confirmed by vegetation removal experiments. Calluna vulgaris and Phragmites australis emitted particularly large amounts of CH3Br, the former also emitting substantial CH3Cl. While acknowledging the substantial uncertainties in extrapolating globally, observations from this work suggest that wetlands contribute more CH3Br and CH3Cl to the atmosphere than current World Meteorological Organization estimates.

  10. Hydroxyl-containing antimony oxide bromide nanorods combined with chitosan for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xianbo; Wen, Zhenhai; Li, Jinghong

    2006-11-01

    A hydroxyl-containing antimony oxide bromide (AOB) nanorods was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. TEM and SEM images showed that the as-prepared AOB nanorods were very copious with diameters of about 50 nm. The AOB nanorods could be easily combined with biopolymer chitosan (Chi) to form an organic-inorganic hybrid material, and a biocompatible, crack-free and porous Chi-AOB composite film could be readily obtained. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was chosen as a model protein to construct a reagentless mediator-free third-generation HRP biosensor. UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy revealed that HRP entrapped in the composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of stable and well-defined redox peaks of HRP with a formal potential of about -0.24 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in a pH 7.0 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) were obtained at the HRP-Chi-AOB composite film modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. With advantages of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, dramatically facilitated direct electron transfer of HRP and excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity towards H(2)O(2) were demonstrated. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(M)(app) was calculated to be 7.5mum, indicating that HRP entrapped in the composite film possessed high affinity to H(2)O(2) and exhibited high enzymatic activity. The prepared biosensor displayed good sensitivity and reproducibility, wide linear range, low detection limit, fast response and excellent long-term stability. The Chi-AOB composite film could be used efficiently for the entrapment of other redox-active proteins and may find wide potential applications in biosensors, biocatalysis, biomedical devices and bioelectronics.

  11. Degradation of methyl bromide by methanotrophic bacteria in cell suspensions and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Culbertson, C.W.; Connell, T.L.; Jahnke, L.

    1994-01-01

    Cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus mineralized methyl bromide (MeBr), as evidenced by its removal from the gas phase, the quantitative recovery of Br- in the spent medium, and the production of 14CO2 from [14C]MeBr. Methyl fluoride (MeF) inhibited oxidation of methane as well as that of [14C]MeBr. The rate of MeBr consumption by cells varied inversely with the supply of methane, which suggested a competitive relationship between these two substrates. However, MeBr did not support growth of the methanotroph. In soils exposed to high levels (10,000 ppm) of MeBr, methane oxidation was completely inhibited. At this concentration, MeBr removal rates were equivalent in killed and live controls, which indicated a chemical rather than biological removal reaction. At lower concentrations (1,000 ppm) of MeBr, methanotrophs were active and MeBr consumption rates were 10-fold higher in live controls than in killed controls. Soils exposed to trace levels (10 ppm) of MeBr demonstrated complete consumption within 5 h of incubation, while controls inhibited with MeF or incubated without O2 had 50% lower removal rates. Aerobic soils oxidized [14C]MeBr to 14CO2, and MeF inhibited oxidation by 72%. Field experiments demonstrated slightly lower MeBr removal rates in chambers containing MeF than in chambers lacking MeF. Collectively, these results show that soil methanotrophic bacteria, as well as other microbes, can degrade MeBr present in the environment.

  12. Effect of acute and long term potassium bromide administration on spatial working memory in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Faezeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Hosseini-Sharifabad, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Potassium bromide (KBr), an old antiepileptic agent, is illegally used in pharmaceutical or food industries to improve the product appearance. KBr has been proven to influence several pathways which are important in memory formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of KBr on spatial working memory using object recognition task (ORT). Rats received a single dose of KBr (50, 100 or 150 mg/kg), per oral, in acute treatment. KBr long term effects were also studied in animals receiving 50 mg/kg/day of KBr for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatments, animals underwent two trials of ORT, five min each. In the first trial (T 1 ), animals encountered with two identical objects for exploration. After 1 h, the animals were exposed to a familiar and an unfamiliar object (T 2 ). The exploration times for discrimination (D) and recognition (R) as well as the frequency of exploration for any objects were determined. Acute administration of 150 mg/kg of KBr significantly decreased the discrimination and recognition indices (RI and DI) ( P < 0.01) compared to the control. However, lower doses failed to influence the animals' performance in the test. In addition, long term administration of KBr remarkably diminished the DI and RI and the frequency of exploration ( P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that acute doses of KBr as high as 150 mg/kg are required to hamper memory function in ORT. However, cognitive impairment occured with lower doses of KBr when the duration of treatment is extended.

  13. Gelling Lamellar Phases of the Binary System Water-Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide with an Organogelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitani, Sachi; Dieterich, Sonja; Preisig, Natalie; Aramaki, Kenji; Stubenrauch, Cosima

    2017-10-31

    Does the presence of a gel network influence the properties of a lyotropic liquid crystal? Does the replacement of oil by a lyotropic liquid crystal influence the properties of an organogel? To answer these questions we study gelled lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC). In the present study we show that it is possible to gel the lamellar phase of the binary system water-didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (2C12DAB) with the organogelator 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (12-HOA). We compare various properties of the gelled LLC phases with the "parent systems", i.e., with the binary organogel consisting of n-decane-12-HOA and with the nongelled LC phases, respectively. Optical and electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rheometry, as well as small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) proved the coexistence of an Lα phase and a 12-HOA gel network in the gelled Lα phase. However, a small influence of the Lα phase on the gel properties was seen, namely slightly lower sol-gel transition temperatures and viscoelastic moduli of the gelled Lα phase compared to the binary gel. On the other hand, the presence of the gel also has an influence on the Lα phase: the interlayer spacing of the surfactant bilayers in the gelled Lα phases is slightly larger compared to the nongelled Lα phases, which is due to mixing part of the 12-HOA molecules in the Lα bilayers. Despite this mutual influence the structures of both the Lα phase and the gel network are hardly disturbed in the gelled Lα phase, i.e., that the self-assembly of the surfactant and of the gelator molecules clearly occur in an orthogonal way.

  14. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  15. Evaluating hypertrophic thyroidectomy scar outcomes after treatment with triamcinolone injections and copper bromide laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Hye Rang; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Yong Sang; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, CheongSoo; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-08-01

    Postoperative hypertrophic scar following thyroidectomy can be a major concern due to its disfiguring appearance. Recently, copper bromide laser (CBL) and intralesional triamcinolone injection (TA ILI) have been used to treat hypertrophic thyroidectomy scars. Data regarding the number of treatment sessions needed to reach a certain endpoint and the prognostic factors that affect treatment duration are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of treatment sessions required to reduce VSS score by 50%, which was regarded as the treatment endpoint, and to investigate the factors that influence treatment duration when using CBL and TA ILI. A total of 67 patients were enrolled in this study. Baseline characteristics of the patients including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), distance of the scar from the sternal notch, time of development of the hypertrophic scar, sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle prominence, and date of operation were collected on the first visit. They were treated with CBL and TA. The concentration of triamcinolone used was 2.5 mg/ml or 5 mg/ml according to the pliability score of each scar. The mean number of treatment sessions required to achieve the endpoint was 3.85 ± 1.25. Among the variables assessed, location of the scar near the sternal notch (P = 0.020) and patient BMI (P = 0.001) were associated with the increasing number of treatment sessions. In our study cohort, four treatments were required to reduce the VSS of thyroidectomy scars by 50% when using a combination treatment of CBL and low concentration TA ILI. Also, scar location and patient BMI are factors that affect treatment outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. How myristyltrimethylammonium bromide enhances biomass harvesting and pigments extraction from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Lai, YenJung Sean; Eustance, Everett; Straka, Levi; Zhou, Chen; Xia, Siqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-12-01

    Myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) is a cationic surfactant used to improve biomass harvesting and pigment extraction form microalgae, but the mechanisms underlying its effectiveness are poorly defined. We document the mechanisms for enhanced harvesting and pigment extraction for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using measurements from flow cytometer, zeta potential, release of soluble components, and microscopy. Harvesting efficiency increased as the MTAB/Biomass dose increased from 0 to 40%. A low MTAB dose (≤ 8%) mainly brought about coagulation and flocculation, which led to aggregation that improved harvesting, but 40% MTAB had the highest harvesting efficiency, 62%. Adding MTAB above a MTAB/Biomass dose of 8% also increased cell-membrane permeability, which allowed the solvent (ethyl acetate) to pass into the cells and resulted in a large increase in extraction efficiency of pigments: An MTAB/Biomass ratio of 60% for 180 min achieved the highest extraction efficiencies of chlorophyll and carotenoids, 95% and 91%, respectively. Combining harvesting and extraction performances with results from flow cytometry, zeta potential, release of soluble components, and microscopy lead to the following mechanistic understandings. MTAB dose from 8% to 40% solubilized EPS, which lowered the biomass's negative charge, but caused breakup of the large aggregates. An increase of cell permeability also in this stage allowed ethyl acetate to pass into the cells and achieve better pigment extraction. MTAB >40% led to cell lysis and a large increase in soluble organics, but complete cell lysis was not required to achieve the maximum extraction efficiency. The MTAB/Biomass % ratio for optimizing harvest efficiency and pigment extraction lay in the range of 40%-60%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnesium sulfate versus ipratropium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, Semir; Bouida, Wahid; Grissa, Mohamed H; Beltaief, Kaouther; Trimech, Mohamed N; Boubaker, Hamdi; Marghli, Soudani; Letaief, Mondher; Boukef, Riadh

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with short-acting β2-agonists for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in clinical improvement. It has not been established whether combining short-acting β2-agonists to other bronchodilators is more effective than β2-agonists alone. We conducted a study in patients presenting to the emergency department with exacerbation of COPD. They were randomized to receive nebulized ipratropium bromide (IB group; n = 62) or combined nebulized and intravenous bolus of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 group; n = 62). All nebulized drugs were administered at 30-minute intervals for 2 hours. Primary outcome included hospital admission, endotracheal intubation, and hospital death rates. Secondary outcome measures were improvement in peak expiratory flow, dyspnea score, and arterial blood gas changes within the first 3 hours. There were no significant differences in primary outcome between MgSO4 and IB groups. Patients given IB average 32 L greater improvement in peak expiratory flow rate compared with magnesium sulfate (95% confidence interval, 19-43 L) at 180 minutes. Simultaneously, there was a significant reduction in PaCO2 compared with baseline values in IB group but not in MgSO4 group. There was a statistically nonsignificant trend toward a decrease in dyspnea score in both groups although adverse events were similar. Although the improvement in peak expiratory flow rate and arterial blood gas favored nebulized IB over magnesium sulfate, there was a nonsignificant difference between both drugs with regard to hospital admission, intubation, and hospital death rates in patients with COPD treated in the emergency department for acute exacerbation.

  18. Nutrient removal by Chlorella vulgaris F1068 under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide induced hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongzhi; Li, Feng; Ge, Fei; Liu, Na; Kuang, Yangduo

    2016-10-01

    Toxicants are generally harmful to biotechnology in wastewater treatment. However, trace toxicant can induce microbial hormesis, but to date, it is still unknown how this phenomenon affects nutrient removal during municipal wastewater treatment process. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of hormesis induced by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a representative quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, on nutrient removal by Chlorella vulgaris F1068. Results showed that when the concentration of CTAB was less than 10 ng/L, the cellular components chlorophyll a, proteins, polysaccharides, and total lipids increased by 10.11, 58.17, 38.78, and 11.87 %, respectively, and some enzymes in nutrient metabolism of algal cells, such as glutamine synthetase (GS), acid phosphatase (ACP), H(+)-ATPase, and esterase, were also enhanced. As a result, the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)) and total phosphorus (TP) increased by 14.66 and 8.51 %, respectively, compared to the control during a 7-day test period. The underlying mechanism was mainly due to an enhanced photosynthetic activity of C. vulgaris F1068 indicated by the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the value of Fv/Fm, ΦII, Fv/Fo, and rETR increased by 12.99, 7.56, 25.59, and 8.11 %, respectively) and adenylate energy charge (AEC) (from 0.68 to 0.72). These results suggest that hormesis induced by trace toxicants could enhance the nutrient removal, which would be further considered in the design of municipal wastewater treatment processes. Graphical abstract The schematic mechanism of C. vulgaris F1068 under CTAB induced hormesis. Green arrows ( ) represent the increase and the red arrow ( ) represents the decrease.

  19. Experimental investigation on the absorption of alcoholic additives in an aqueous lithium bromide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonardi, Federico; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    2015-07-01

    The increasing energy consumption and the scarcity of energy sources require an optimization of all technical processes. Absorption chillers represent a promising technology in order to provide a cooling demand with low-energy consumption. Indeed, such chillers are driven by low-temperature heat which is often available as waste heat from industrial processes, or can be obtained by the mean of solar collectors. On the other side, absorption chillers are not yet competitive with traditional compression chiller because of their low efficiency and reliability. One way to increase the efficiency of these chillers is by the means of additives. When added in small quantities to the working fluid, they reduce the surface tension, promoting Marangoni convection at the interface of the tube bundle of the absorber. As a consequence, the heat and mass transfer is enhanced. Although several investigations have been carried out in literature, only two kinds of additives are mostly investigated. Nevertheless, enhancement mechanism is not yet fully understood, and different theories have been proposed. In the present work, the influence of additives on the dynamic surface tension of aqueous lithium bromide solution is investigated. Common additives (2-ethylhexanol and 1-octanol) as well as new additives (3-phenyl-1-propan, 3,5,5-trymethyl-1-hexanol) are used. Surface tension is measured by the pendant-drop method. Different parameters, such as additive concentration and surrounding atmosphere, are varied during the experiment. Among the four additives investigated, 2-ethylhexanol shows the fastest absorption rate, while 3-phenyl-1-propanol has no influence in reducing the surface tension. The current study is carried out in the framework of the ITN Marie Curie ''SHINE'' research program financed by the EU.

  20. The evaluation of otilonium bromide treatment in asian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2011-10-01

    Antispasmodics including otilonium bromide (OB) are recommended to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, reports about OB experience in Asia is sparse. The purpose of present study was to provide the efficacy of OB in treating Asian IBS patients. Overall, 117 IBS patients meeting Rome II criteria were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, active-controlled and single center trial. Randomized participants received either OB 40 mg or mebeverine 100 mg 3 doses daily. The primary endpoints were to evaluate the net changes of abdominal pain/discomfort frequency score (APDFS) and safety profile, while the secondary endpoints were to assess the changes in abdominal pain/discomfort intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating, satisfied stool frequency etc. Finally, 49 OB and 52 mebeverine subjects were eligible for efficacy analysis. Compared to baselines in per protocol populations, the reduced APDFSs in OB and mebeverine were 0.55 ± 1.20 (P = 0.011) and 0.37 ± 1.11 (P = 0.042), respectively, to show similarly reduced scores. The most reported side effects included dry mouth, nausea and dizziness. Besides, the improved APDFSs at 4th week visit, final alleviations in abdominal pain intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating and satisfied stool frequency with global assessments filled by both patients and investigators were significantly achieved by both treatments, and OB was not inferior to mebeverine in treating these parameters. In Orientals, OB is as effective as mebeverine for alleviating IBS symptoms in terms of abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal bloating etc. However, obvious side effects are also observed. A large-scaled trial and post-marketing surveillance are recommended to confirm its efficacy and safety.

  1. [Adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solution on cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) -modified zeolite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lin, Jian-Wei; Zhan, Yan-Hui; Chen, Zu-Mei; Wang, Peng-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZs) with different coverage types were prepared by loading of different amounts of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto natural zeolites and were used as adsorbents to remove phenanthrene from aqueous solution. The adsorption of phenanthrene from aqueous solution on monolayer and bilayer SMZs as a function of adsorbent dosage, initial phenanthrene concentration, contact time, and temperature was investigated using batch experiments. Results showed monolayer and bilayer SMZs were effective for the removal of phenanthrene from aqueous solution. The phenanthrene removal efficiency of SMZs increased with increasing adsorbent dosage, but the amount of phenanthrene adsorbed on SMZs decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The adsorption kinetics of phenanthrene on SMZs well followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data of phenanthrene on SMZs at a low concentration of phenanthrene in solution could be described by the Linear equation and Freundlich equation. The main mechanism for phenanthrene adsorption onto monolayer SMZ is hydrophobic interaction, and the main mechanism for phenanthrene adsorption onto bilayer SMZ is organic partitioning. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change (deltaG(theta)), enthalpy changes (deltaH(theta)), and entropy change (deltaS(theta)) showed that the adsorption process of phenanthrene on SMZs is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. When the CPB loading amount of bilayer SMZ was twice as much as that of monolayer SMZ, the phenanthrene adsorption capacity for bilayer SMZ was slightly higher than that for monolayer SMZ. In a conclusion, both monolayer and bilayer SMZs are promising adsorbents for the removal of phenanthrene from water and wastewater, and monolayer SMZ is a more cost-effective adsorbent for phenanthrene removal than bilayer SMZ.

  2. Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth

    KAUST Repository

    Araujo, Paula Alexandra Da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Enzymes are considered an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for biofilm control due to their lytic and dispersal activities. In this study, four enzymes (β-glucanase, α-amylase, lipase and protease) were tested separately and in combination with the quaternary ammonium compound cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to control flow-generated biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The four enzymes caused modest reduction of biofilm colony forming units (CFU). Protease, β-glucanase and α-amylase also caused modest biofilm removal. CTAB combined with either β-glucanase or α-amylase increased biofilm removal. Its combination with either β-glucanase or protease increased CFU reduction. However, CTAB−protease combination was antagonist in biofilm removal. Long-term effects in biofilm mass reduction were observed after protease exposure. In contrast, biofilms treated with β-glucanase were able to regrowth significantly after exposure. Moreover, short-term respirometry tests with planktonic cells were performed to understand the effects of enzymes and their combination with CTAB on P. fluorescens viability. Protease and lipase demonstrated antimicrobial action, while α-amylase increased bacterial metabolic activity. The combination of CTAB with either protease or α-amylase was antagonistic, decreasing the antimicrobial action of CTAB. The overall results demonstrate a modest effect of the selected enzymes in biofilm control, either when applied alone or each one in combination with CTAB. Total biofilm removal or CFU reduction was not achieved and, in some cases, the use of enzymes antagonized the effects of CTAB. The results also propose that complementary tests, to characterize biofilm integrity and microbial viability, are required when someone is trying to assess the role of novel biocide - enzyme mixtures for effective biofilm control.

  3. Persistent modification of Nav1.9 following chronic exposure to insecticides and pyridostigmine bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Thomas J; Cooper, Brian Y

    2014-06-15

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) returned from that conflict with a widespread chronic pain affecting deep tissues. Recently, we have shown that a 60day exposure to the insecticides permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and pyridostigmine bromide (NTPB) had little influence on nociceptor action potential forming Nav1.8, but increased Kv7 mediated inhibitory currents 8weeks after treatment. Using the same exposure regimen, we used whole cell patch methods to examine whether the influences of NTPB could be observed on Nav1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. During a 60day exposure to NTPB, rats exhibited lowered muscle pain thresholds and increased rest periods, but these measures subsequently returned to normal levels. Eight and 12weeks after treatments ceased, DRG neurons were excised from the sensory ganglia. Whole cell patch studies revealed little change in voltage dependent activation and deactivation of Nav1.9, but significant increases in the amplitude of Nav1.9 were observed 8weeks after exposure. Cellular studies, at the 8week delay, revealed that NTPB also significantly prolonged action potential duration and afterhyperpolarization (22°C). Acute application of permethrin (10μM) also increased the amplitude of Nav1.9 in skin, muscle and vascular nociceptors. In conclusion, chronic exposure to Gulf War agents produced long term changes in the amplitude of Nav1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. The reported increases in Kv7 amplitude may have been an adaptive response to increased Nav1.9, and effectively suppressed behavioral pain measures in the post treatment period. Factors that alter the balance between Nav1.9 and Kv7 could release spontaneous discharge and produce chronic deep tissue pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2010-08-01

    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  5. Tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II COPD patients: a pharmaeconomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: a secondary pre-specified analysis of the UPLIFT cohort demonstrated that the inclusion of tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II (moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is associated with stronger improvements of survival, quality of life, and exacerbation rate than those shown in the total cohort; in this subgroup, tiotropium furthermore induces a significant reduction in the rate of FEV1 decline.Objective: to adapt the Spiriva® model, originally built to evaluate cost-effectiveness of tiotropium inclusion in the general COPD population, to GOLD II patients.Methods: the Spiriva® model is a probabilistic Markov patient-level simulation developed over a lifetime horizon to compare outcomes associated with the inclusion of tiotropium in routine care (RC for COPD treatment with those obtained with RC alone. Patients are characterised by gender, age, height, smoking status and FEV1. Model structure and sources have been maintained unvaried, except for demographic characteristics, specific for GOLD II patients, as extrapolated from an Italian observational study, and tiotropium efficacy, based on the secondary analysis of GOLD II UPLIFT patients. As in the original model, only direct health care costs are considered.Results: patients treated with tiotropium on average (95% CI gain 0.70 (0.00/7.23 LYs or 0.77 (0.02/4.67 QALYs compared to RC. The incremental lifetime cost is € 3,520 (-6,391/26,686, meaning that the incremental cost required to gain a QALY (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio – ICER is equal to € 4,548. Sensitivity analysis shows that tiotropium has a 50% probability of being cost-effective for a willingness-to-pay (WTP around 4,600 €/QALY; 100% probability is achieved with a WTP of € 9,300.Conclusions: the adoption of a strategy based on the inclusion of tiotropium from the early COPD stages represents good value for money in Italy, as the ICER estimated for GOLD II

  6. CdTe quantum dots functionalized with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide as luminescent nanoprobe for the sensitive recognition of bromide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Hosten, Eric; McCleland, Cedric [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Campus), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2012-04-06

    Graphical abstract: A bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) showed a high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of bromide ion using fluorescence recovery. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe quantum dots interact with tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum dots fluorescence is quenched by the radical. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the presence of bromide ions the fluorescence is restored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor is more selective to bromine ions than other common ions. - Abstract: A novel bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) has been developed. Fluorescence quenching of the QDs by 4AT was observed. The functionalized QDs-4AT nanoprobe allowed a highly sensitive determination of bromide ion via analyte-induced change in the photoluminescence (fluorescence recovery) of the modified QDs. A detection limit of 0.6 nM of bromide ion was obtained, while the interfering effect of other inorganic cations and anions was investigated to examine the selectivity of the nanoprobe. The linear range was between 0.01 and 0.13 {mu}M. Combined fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed electron transfer processes between bromide ion and QDs-4AT.

  7. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of clinical benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik CS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD.Methods: This study was performed as a systematic literature review.Results: Inhaled glycopyrronium bromide seems to be a safe and well tolerated long-acting muscarinic antagonist with a fast onset of action. In patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium bromide has clinically important effects on level of forced expiratory volume in one second, use of relief medication, percentage of days with no use of rescue medication, daytime dyspnea scores, and probably also on health status. Furthermore, in this group of patients, glycopyrronium bromide has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, but long-term controlled trials with exacerbation rate as the primary outcome variable have not been published yet.Conclusion: Once-daily inhaled glycopyrronium bromide has characteristics important for use in COPD, including a fast onset of action, sustained 24-hour bronchodilatation, and improvement in exercise tolerance, and therefore appears to have the potential for a significant role in the future management of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting bronchodilators

  8. Novel use of aliphatic n-methyl ketones as a fumigant and alternative to methyl bromide for insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiwei; Dhammi, Anirudh; van Kretschmar, Jaap B; Vargo, Edward L; Apperson, Charles S; Michael Roe, R

    2018-03-01

    Fumigants like phosphine, methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride are highly effective for the control of structural, storage and agricultural arthropod pests. Unfortunately, many of these synthetic compounds are highly toxic to people, many pests have developed resistance to these compounds and methyl bromide, the 'gold standard' for fumigants, was de-registered because of its contribution to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Alternative fumigant chemistry is needed. Several plant species produce n-aliphatic methyl ketones to prevent plant herbivory. To examine the use of methyl ketones as a fumigant, structure-mortality studies were conducted using the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, as a model. A new easy-to-use, inexpensive and disposable bioassay system was developed for this study. The LC50 values for heptanone, octanone, nonanone and undecanone were 4.27, 5.11, 5.26 and 8.21 µg/cm3 of ambient air, respectively. Although heptanone, octanone and nonanone were more effective than undecanone, subsequent research was conducted with 2-undecanone because this compound already has US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration as a biopesticide. In dose-response field studies, 12.4 mL of undecanone injected into mounds was the lowest application rate that produced no ant activity in the mound with no re-establishment of ants. Reagent grade undecanone was more cost-effective than methyl bromide for fire ants, adult German cockroaches and tobacco budworm eggs, but slightly more expensive for adult flour beetles. The naturally occurring methyl ketone undecanone has the potential to be an alternative to current fumigants for a variety of pest applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline on cytokines in children with bronchopneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Che

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of aerosol inhalation of ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children and the effect on cytokines. Methods: A total of 70 children with bronchopneumonia who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given anti-infection, oxygen inhalation, cough and asthma relieving, acidosis correcting, mask+oxygen driven aerosol inhalation of budesonide (0.5 mg/time and terbutaline (1.0 mg/time, with an oxygen flow rate of 5-7 L/min, 5-10 min every time, twice a day. On the above basis, the patients in the study group were given additional ipratropium bromide (1.0 mg/time. After 7-day treatment, the efficacy was evaluated. The levels of IL-6, TNF-毩, CRP, and WBC before and after treatment were detected. PEF, FVC, and FEV1 before and after treatment were detected. The improvement of clinical symptoms and signs, and the occurrence of adverse reactions were observed. Results: The levels of IL-6, TNF-毩, CRP, and WBC counting after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. Conclusions: Ipratropium bromide combined with budesonide and terbutaline in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in children can rapidly relieve the symptoms, and improve the cytokine level, without obvious adverse reactions; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  10. Evaluation of the mydriatic effects of topical administration of rocuronium bromide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Wiggans, K Tomo; Kass, Philip H; Houck, Emma; Murphy, Christopher J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE :To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. Randomized crossover study. 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration. A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments. Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.

  11. Utilization of bromination reactions for the determination of carbamazepine using bromate–bromide mixture as a green brominating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric procedures have been developed for the assay of carbamazepine (CBZ in bulk drug, formulations and spiked human urine. The methods are based on the bromination of CBZ by the bromine generated in situ by the action of the acid on the bromate–bromide mixture. The twin advantages of avoiding liquid bromine and analysis in a cost-effective manner are realized. In titrimetry, the drug was treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium followed by the determination of unreacted bromine iodometrically. Spectrophotometry involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in acid medium to CBZ, and after the reaction is ensured to be complete, the residual bromine was determined by reacting with a fixed amount of either methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 510 nm (method A or indigo carmine and measuring the absorbance at 610 nm (method B. Titrimetric procedure is applicable over the range of 1.00–7.50 mg CBZ, and the calculations are based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (CBZ:KBrO3. In spectrophotometric methods, Beer’s law is valid within concentration ranges of 0.25–1.50 and 0.50–6.00 μg ml−1 CBZ for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of CBZ in tablets and syrup, in addition to spiked human urine by the spectrophotometric methods, with mean recoveries of 95.50–104.0% and the results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying Student’s t-test and F-test.

  12. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of felodipine in tablets using bromate–bromide, Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAKAPURA BASAVAIAH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new methods based on titrimetric and spectrophotometric techniques are described for the determination of felodipine (FLD in the bulk drug and in tablets using a bromate–bromide mixture and two dyes, Methyl Orange and Indigo Carmine. In the titrimetric method (method A, the drug solution was treated with a measured excess of the bromate–bromide mixture in acid medium, and after the reaction was judged to be complete, the unreacted bromine was determined iodometrically. The two spectrophotometricmethods are based on the bromination of the drug with a known excess of the bromate–bromide mixture under acidic conditions followed by the estimation of the surplus bromine by reaction with either Methyl Orange (Method B or Indigo Carmine (Method C, and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm or 610 nm, respectively. In all the methods, the amount of reacted bromine corresponds to the drug content. The titrimetric procedure is applicable for between 6–15 mg and the reaction stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 (drug: BrO3-. The systems obey Beer’s law between 0.12 – 0.87 mgml-1 and 0.5 – 6.0 mgml-1 formethods B and C, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification are reported for both the spectrophotometricmethods. The methods could usefully be applied to routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing FLD. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  13. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  14. Structure and dynamics of room temperature ionic liquids with bromide anion: results from 81Br NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takatsugu; Imanari, Mamoru; Hidaka, Yuki; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive (81)Br NMR spectroscopic study of the structure and dynamics of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)mim]Br) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)C(1)mim]Br), in both liquid and crystalline states. NMR parameters in the gas phase are also simulated for stable ion pairs using quantum chemical calculations. The combination of (81)Br spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation measurements in the motionally narrowed region of the stable liquid state provides information on the correlation time of the translational motion of the cation. (81) Br quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) of the two RTILs were estimated to be 6.22 and 6.52 MHz in the crystalline state which were reduced by nearly 50% in the liquid state, although in the gas phase, the values are higher and span the range of 7-53 MHz depending on ion pair structure. The C(Q) can be correlated with the distance between the cation-anion pairs in all the three states. The (81)Br C(Q) values of the bromide anion in the liquid state indicate the presence of some structural order in these RTILs, the degree of which decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ionicity of these RTILs is estimated from the combined knowledge of the isotropic chemical shift and the appropriate mean energy of the excited state. [C(4)C(1)mim]Br has higher ionicity than [C(4)mim]Br in the gas phase, while the situation is reverse for the liquid and the crystalline states. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAKAPURA BASAVAIAH

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  16. Sodium terbium(III polyphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Oudahmane

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, NaTb(PO34, were obtained by solid-state reaction. This compound belongs to type II of long-chain polyphosphates with the general formula AIBIII(PO34. It is isotypic with the NaNd(PO34 and NaEr(PO34 homologues. The crystal structure is built up of infinite crenelated chains of corner-sharing PO4 tetrahedra with a repeating unit of four tetrahedra. These chains, extending parallel to [100], are linked by isolated TbO8 square antiprisms, forming a three-dimensional framework. The Na+ ions are located in channels running along [010] and are surrounded by six oxygen atoms in a distorted octahedral environment within a cut-off distance <2.9 Å.

  17. Direct labelling of ipratropium bromide aerosol and its deposition pattern in normal subjects and patients with chronic bronchitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiro, S G; Singh, C A; Tolfree, S E; Partridge, M. R.; Short, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for the direct labelling of ipratropium bromide with bromine-77, with reconstitution of the drug in a metered dose inhaler so as to be identical to the commercial product, was used to study drug deposition patterns in seven normal subjects and seven patients with chronic bronchitis (mean FEV1 32% (SD 12.2%) predicted normal). The gamma camera image of the thorax was divided into a middle zone--the mediastinal zone--and the lung itself into a central zone comprising its medial thir...

  18. Efficacy and safety of eco-friendly inhalers: focus on combination ipratropium bromide and albuterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos RJ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ralph J Panos1,2 1Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and its treatment is critical to improve quality of life, reduce symptoms, and diminish the frequency of COPD exacerbations. Due to the harmful environmental effects of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, newer systems for delivering respiratory medications have been developed. Methods: A search of the literature in the PubMed database was undertaken using the keywords “COPD,” “albuterol,” “ipratropium bromide,” and “Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™”; pertinent references within the identified citations were included. The environmental effect of CFC-pMDIs, the invention of the Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™ (SMI (Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany, and its use to deliver the combination of albuterol and ipratropium bromide for the treatment of COPD were reviewed. Results: The adverse environmental effects of CFC-pMDIs stimulated the invention of novel delivery systems including the Respimat SMI. This review presents its development, internal mechanism, and use to deliver the combination of albuterol and ipratropium bromide. Conclusion: CFC-pMDIs contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer and the surge in disorders caused by harmful ultraviolet B radiation. The banning of CFCs spurred the development of novel delivery systems for respiratory medications. The Respimat SMI is an innovative device that produces a vapor of inhalable droplets with reduced velocity and prolonged aerosol duration that enhance deposition within the lower airway and is associated with improved patient satisfaction. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the Respimat SMI

  19. Copper sulfate-pentahydrate-1,10-phenanthroline catalyzed amidations of alkynyl bromides. Synthesis of heteroaromatic amine substituted ynamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanshi; Hsung, Richard P; Tracey, Michael R; Kurtz, Kimberly C M; Vera, Eymi L

    2004-04-01

    A practical cross-coupling of amides with alkynyl bromides using catalytic CuSO(4).5H(2)O and 1,10-phenanthroline is described here. This catalytic protocol is more environmentally friendly than the use of CuCN or copper halides and provides a general entry for syntheses of ynamides including various new sulfonyl and heteroaromatic amine substituted ynamides. Given the interest in ynamides, this N-alkynylation of amides should be significant for the future of ynamides in organic synthesis.

  20. An image-brightness amplifier based on copper bromide vapor for operation at increased superradiance pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigub, M. V.; Vlasov, V. V.; Torgaev, S. N.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    We present data on the development and application of an image-brightness amplifier based on copper bromide vapor intended for the visualization of objects occurring at distances above 5 m from the detecting equipment. An increase in the superradiance (gain) pulse duration was achieved by decreasing the repetition frequency of pumping pulses (to 3 kHz) and increasing the capacitance of the capacitor bank (up to 3.4 nF) so as to increase the deposited pulse energy. The basic possibility of creating active optical systems with brightness amplifiers (laser monitors) for the visualization of objects and processes occurring at large distances from a registration system is demonstrated.

  1. Theoretical studies of EPR site center for Mn{sup 2+} in potassium thiourea bromide single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, S. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India)], E-mail: sravi_phygri@yahoo.com; Subramanian, P. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India)], E-mail: psmanian_gri@yahoo.com

    2007-11-01

    The impurity location of Mn{sup 2+} ion in potassium thiourea bromide single crystal is theoretically studied using perturbation formulas of spin Hamiltonian (SH) for 3d{sup 5} ions on strong-field scheme. The spin Hamiltonian parameter values are calculated by this technique. The g and A factors are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The zero-field splitting parameter is calculated as 775x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The impurity ion Mn{sup 2+} undergoes off-center displacement of about 0.38 A. The results are discussed.

  2. Umeclidinium bromide versus placebo for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Han; Htet, Aung; Moe, Soe

    2017-06-20

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor quality of life, reduced survival, and accelerated decline in lung function, especially associated with acute exacerbations, leading to high healthcare costs. Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment for symptomatic improvement, and umeclidinium is one of the new long-acting muscarinic antagonists approved for treatment of patients with stable COPD. To assess the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium bromide versus placebo for people with stable COPD. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal, and the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Clinical Study Register, using prespecified terms, as well as the reference lists of all identified studies. Searches are current to April 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of parallel design comparing umeclidinium bromide versus placebo in people with COPD, for at least 12 weeks. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. If we noted significant heterogeneity in the meta-analyses, we subgrouped studies by umeclidinium dose. We included four studies of 12 to 52 weeks' duration, involving 3798 participants with COPD. Mean age of participants ranged from 60.1 to 64.6 years; most were males with baseline mean smoking pack-years of 39.2 to 52.3. They had moderate to severe COPD and baseline mean post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) ranging from 44.5% to 55.1% of predicted normal. As all studies were systematically conducted according to prespecified protocols, we assessed risk of selection, performance, detection, attrition, and reporting biases as low.Compared with those given placebo, participants in the umeclidinium group had a lesser likelihood of developing moderate exacerbations requiring a short course of steroids, antibiotics, or both (odds ratio (OR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.80; four

  3. Synthesis and Heme Polymerization Inhibitory Activity (HPIA Assay of Antiplasmodium of (1-N-(3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl-1,10-Phenanthrolinium Bromide from Vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Fitriastuti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxy-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide had been conducted from vanillin. Heme polymerization inhibitory activity assay of the synthesized antiplasmodium has also been carried out. The first step of reaction was methylation of vanillin using dimethylsulfate and NaOH. The mixture was refluxed for 2 h to yield veratraldehyde in the form of light yellow solid (79% yield. Methylation product was reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH4 with grinding method and yielded veratryl alcohol in the form of yellow liquid (98% yield. Veratryl alcohol was brominated using PBr3 to yield yellowish black liquid (85% yield. The final step was benzylation of 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate with the synthesized veratryl bromide under reflux condition in acetone for 14 h to afford (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxy-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (84% as yellow solid with melting point of 166-177 °C. The structures of products were characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectrometers. The results of heme polymerization inhibitory activity assay of (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide showed that it had IC50 HPIA of 3.63 mM, while chloroquine had IC50 of4.37 mM. These results indicated that (1-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide was more potential antiplasmodium than chloroquine.

  4. Synthesis of zwitterionic palladium complexes and their application as catalysts in cross-coupling reactions of aryl, heteroaryl and benzyl bromides with organoboron reagents in neat water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, V; Dastagiri Reddy, N

    2017-07-04

    N-(3-Chloro-2-quinoxalinyl)-N'-arylimidazolium salts (aryl = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl [HL1Cl]Cl, aryl = mesityl [HL2Cl]Cl) have been synthesized by treating 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline with the corresponding N'-arylimidazole in neat water. Facile reactions of these imidazolium salts with Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 and Pd 2 (dba) 3 /PPh 3 (dba = dibenzyledene acetone) at 50 °C have afforded zwitterionic palladium(ii) complexes [Pd(HL1)(PPh 3 )Cl 2 ] (I) and [Pd(HL2)(PPh 3 )Cl 2 ] (II) in excellent yields. I and II have been tested for their ability to catalyze Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling (SMC) reactions in neat water/K 2 CO 3 and are found to be highly active for carrying out these reactions between aryl bromides and organoboron reagents. Furthermore, the scope of the catalyst I was also examined by employing (hetero)aryl bromides, hydrophilic aryl bromides, benzyl bromides and various organoboron reagents. More than 80 aryl/benzyl bromide-arylboronic acid combinations were screened in neat water/K 2 CO 3 and it was found that I was a versatile catalyst, which produced biaryls/diarylmethanes in excellent yields. A TON of 82 000 was achieved by using I. Studies on the mechanism have also been carried out to investigate the involvement of carbene complexes in the catalytic path. Poison tests and a two-phase test were also conducted and the results are reported.

  5. Direct labelling of ipratropium bromide aerosol and its deposition pattern in normal subjects and patients with chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, S G; Singh, C A; Tolfree, S E; Partridge, M R; Short, M D

    1984-06-01

    A technique for the direct labelling of ipratropium bromide with bromine-77, with reconstitution of the drug in a metered dose inhaler so as to be identical to the commercial product, was used to study drug deposition patterns in seven normal subjects and seven patients with chronic bronchitis (mean FEV1 32% (SD 12.2%) predicted normal). The gamma camera image of the thorax was divided into a middle zone--the mediastinal zone--and the lung itself into a central zone comprising its medial third and a peripheal zone, the lateral two thirds. Measurements after 10 inhalations of labelled ipratropium bromide showed similar results for the two groups of subjects. The total lung dose inhaled was 11.2% of 203 micrograms and 11.7% of 186 micrograms in the normal subjects and the patients respectively. In contrast to the deposition patterns seen in aerosol studies using steady state inhalation methods, there was no difference in deposition pattern--that is, the distribution between the central and the peripheral lung zones--between the normal subjects and the patients with airways obstruction.

  6. The Aerobic Oxidation of Bromide to Dibromine Catalyzed by Homogeneous Oxidation Catalysts and Initiated by Nitrate in Acetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenheimer, Walt; Fulton, John L.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Pham, Van Thai; Chen, Yongsheng

    2014-06-01

    A small amount of nitrate, ~0.002 molal, initiates the Co/Mn catalyzed aerobic oxidation of bromide compounds (HBr,NaBr,LiBr) to dibromine in acetic acid at room temperature. At temperatures 40oC or less , the reaction is autocatalytic. Co(II) and Mn(II) themselves and mixed with ionic bromide are known homogeneous oxidation catalysts. The reaction was discovered serendipitously when a Co/Br and Co/Mn/Br catalyst solution was prepared for the aerobic oxidation of methyaromatic compounds and the Co acetate contained a small amount of impurity i.e. nitrate. The reaction was characterized by IR, UV-VIS, MALDI and EXAFS spectroscopies and the coordination chemistry is described. The reaction is inhibited by water and its rate changed by pH. The change in these variables, as well as others, are identical to those observed during homogeneous, aerobic oxidation of akylaromatics. A mechanism is proposed. Accidental addition of a small amount of nitrate compound into a Co/Mn/Br/acetic acid mixture in a large, commercial feedtank is potentially dangerous.

  7. The effect of silver on the optical, spectral-luminescent, and crystallization properties of bromide photo-thermo-refractive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkina, K. V.; Dubrovin, V. D.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of silver on the optical, spectral-luminescent, and crystallization properties of bromide photo-thermo-refractive glasses is studied. Multicomponent photosensitive glasses of the Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with photosensitizing agents (cerium, antimony, silver) and halogenides (fluorine and bromine) are synthesized. Ultraviolet irradiation and thermal treatment below the glass-transition temperature of the glasses cause the formation of silver molecular clusters, which exhibit luminescence in the visible and infrared regions. UV irradiation and thermal treatment of glasses above the glass-transition temperature lead to the growth of silver nanoparticles with plasmon resonance peak in the region of 420 nm. Further thermal treatment of glasses above the glass-transition temperature shifts the plasmon-resonance maximum by 70 nm to longer wavelengths, which is related to the growth of a crystalline shell consisting of mixed silver and sodium bromides on nanoparticles. This formation of a crystalline phase on colloidal centers results in a local increase in the refractive index of the irradiated region by +Δ n 900 ppm compared to the nonirradiated region. Photo-thermo-refractive glasses with increased silver concentration are promising photosensitive materials for creating holographic optical elements and devices for line narrowing and stabilizing filters, spectral beam combiners, and filters for increasing the spectral brightness of laser diodes. A positive change in the refractive index of Photo-thermo-refractive glasses provides the possibility of recording in them 3D waveguide and integrated-optical structures.

  8. Study of pharmacokinetic interaction of paroxetine and roxithromycin on bencycloquidium bromide in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbokponto, Janvier Engelbert; Luo, Zhu; Liu, Ruijuan; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Maozhi; Ding, Li

    2015-03-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential drug-drug interaction between Bencycloquidium bromide (BCQB) and paroxetine, and between BCQB and roxithromycin. Two studies were conducted on healthy male Chinese volunteers. Study A was an open-label, two-period, one-sequence crossover study (n=21). Each participant received a single nasal spray dose of BCQB 180μg on day 1. After a 7-day wash-out period, subjects received 20mg of paroxetine from day 8 to 17, and were co-administered 20mg of paroxetine and BCQB 180μg on day 18. In study B, participants (n=12) were randomly assigned to two groups. In period I, group A received BCQB 180μg on day 1, followed by the same dose four times daily from day 4 to 10, then, on day 11 a single dose of 150mg roxithromycin with BCQB 180μg were co-administered. In parallel, group B received a single dose of roxithromycin 150mg on day 1, followed by 300mg of roxithromycin from day 4 to 10, then, on day 11 a single dose of BCQB 180μg with roxithromycin 300mg were co-administered. After a wash-out time of 7days the respective treatments of each group (A and B) were swapped in period II. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. Statistical comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters was performed to identify a possible drug interaction between treatments. Tolerability was evaluated by recording adverse events. Study A: Geometric mean AUC0-36 for BCQB alone and co-administered with paroxetine were 474.3 and 631.3pgh/ml, respectively. The geometric mean ratio (GMR) of AUC0-36 was 1.33 (1.13-1.46), 90% C.Is, and was out the predefined bioequivalence interval (90% C.Is, 0.80-1.25). Geometric mean Cmax were 187.0 and 181.2pg/ml. Study B: The GMR of AUC0-36 was 0.98 (0.90-1.07), 90% C.Is for BCQB, and the GMR of AUC0-72 was 0.98 (0.87-1.11), 90% C.Is for roxithromycin. Both GMRs were within the predefined bioequivalence interval (90% C.Is, 0.80-1.25). Other pharmacokinetic parameters were within the predefined

  9. Observation of dihalide elimination upon electron attachment to oxalyl chloride and oxalyl bromide, 300-550 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M.; Hogan, Kathleen B.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, A. A.

    2006-05-01

    Rate coefficients have been measured for electron attachment to oxalyl chloride [ClC(O)C(O)Cl] and oxalyl bromide [BrC(O)C(O)Br] in He gas at 133Pa pressure over the temperature range of 300-550K. With oxalyl chloride, the major ion product of attachment is Cl2- at all temperatures (66% at 300K); its importance increases slightly as temperature increases. Two other product ions formed are Cl- (18% at 300K) and the phosgene anion CCl2O- (16% at 300K) and appear to arise from a common mechanism. With oxalyl bromide, the Br2- channel represents almost half of the ion product of attachment, independent of temperature. Br- accounts for the remainder. For oxalyl chloride, the attachment rate coefficient is small [(1.8±0.5)×10-8cm3s-1 at 300K], and increases with temperature. The attachment rate coefficient for oxalyl bromide [(1.3±0.4)×10-7cm3s-1 at 300K] is nearly collisional and increases only slightly with temperature. Stable parent anions C2Cl2O2- and C2Br2O2- and adduct anions Cl-(C2Cl2O2) and Br-(C2Br3O2) were observed but are not primary attachment products. G2 and G3 theories were applied to determine geometries of products and energetics of the electron attachment and ion-molecule reactions studied. Electron attachment to both oxalyl halide molecules leads to a shorter C-C bond and longer C-Cl bond in the anions formed. Trans and gauche conformers of the neutral and anionic oxalyl halide species have similar energies and are more stable than the cis conformer, which lies 100-200meV higher in energy. For C2Cl2O2, C2Cl2O2-, and C2Br2O2-, the trans conformer is the most stable conformation. The calculations are ambiguous as to the oxalyl bromide geometry (trans or gauche), the result depending on the theoretical method and basis set. The cis conformers for C2Cl2O2 and C2Br2O2 are transition states. In contrast, the cis conformers of the anionic oxalyl halide molecules are stable, lying 131meV above trans-C2Cl2O2- and 179meV above trans-C2Br2O2-. Chien et al. [J

  10. Data on the relationship between bromide content and the formation potential of THMs, HAAs, and HANs upon chlorination and monochloramination of Karoon River water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the relationship between of the bromide ion concentration and the formation potential of disinfectant byproducts (DBPs including, trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetic acids (HAAs, and haloacetonitriles (HANs upon chlorination and monochloramination of the raw water of Karoon River water in Iran. Water samples were collected at an intake of a drinking water treatment plant during July 2014. All tests were performed in triplicate (n=3 and the mean of three measurements reported herein. The data of the formation potential of DBPs was determined under different bromide ions content. The data show the relationship between bromide concentration and DBPs formation that will be useful in the future management, operation and design of water treatment plants.

  11. Hydrogen bonded anion ribbons, networks and clusters and sulfur-anion interactions in novel radical cation salts of BEDT-TTF with sulfamate, pentaborate and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Andrew C; Martin, Lee; Day, Peter; Lopes, Elsa B; Almeida, Manuel; Kikuchi, Koichi; Fujita, Wataru; Sasamori, Kota; Aktusu, Hiroki; Wallis, John D

    2013-05-14

    The novel radical cation salt (BEDT-TTF)3(sulfamate)2·2H2O (BEDT-TTF = bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene) is semiconducting with donor stacks comprised of pairs of partially oxidized molecules and a single more highly oxidized molecule which is twisted out of the stack by ca. 30°. Hydrogen bonded pairs of sulfamate ions are linked into parallel ribbons by further hydrogen bonding between sulfamates and bridging water molecules. In contrast, the BEDT-TTF salt with pentaborate contains infinite layers formed of a network of hydrogen bonded pentaborate anions. Two new bromide salts of BEDT-TTF are reported, one is a semiconducting 1 : 1 salt in which the bromide is integrated among the BEDT-TTF donors, while the other contain a square of four bromide ions linked together by hydrogen bonding to a centrally located H5O2(+) cation for every five BEDT-TTF molecules.

  12. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: enhanced bromate formation in the presence of synthetic metal oxides and deposits formed in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-15

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate > sulfate > bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: Enhanced bromate formation in the presence ofsynthetic metal oxides and deposits formed indrinking water distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate>>sulfate>bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Use of 0.06% ipratropium bromide nasal spray in children aged 2 to 5 years with rhinorrhea due to a common cold or allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kenneth T; Kerwin, Edward; Landwehr, Lawrence; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bruner, Dawn; Harris, Duane; Drda, Kristin; Wanger, Jack; Wood, Chester C

    2005-01-01

    Rhinorrhea from common colds or allergies in children is similar to that in adults, yet there are few data on the use of ipratropium bromide nasal spray in children younger than 5 years. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 0.06% ipratropium bromide nasal spray in 2- to 5-year-old children with rhinorrhea from a common cold or allergies. A total of 230 children (43 with common colds and 187 with allergies) participated in an open-label, multicenter study. Patients with a common cold received ipratropium bromide nasal spray (84 microg per nostril) 3 times daily for 4 days; those with allergies received ipratropium bromide nasal spray (42 microg per nostril) 3 times daily for 14 days. In the common cold and allergy groups, 91% and 90% of the parents, respectively, found that ipratropium bromide was either "very useful" or "somewhat useful." Furthermore, 67% and 91% of parents in the common cold and allergy groups, respectively, found that administration of a nasal spray was either "extremely easy" or "very easy." Symptom scores were improved from baseline in both groups. The nasal spray was well tolerated and was not associated with serious or systemic anticholinergic adverse effects. Most adverse events were infrequent and mild to moderate, and study discontinuation due to an adverse event occurred in less than 3% of patients. The 0.06% ipratropium bromide nasal spray, 42 or 84 microg per nostril 3 times daily, is easy to administer, safe, and effective for the control of rhinorrhea in children aged 2 to 5 years with a common cold or allergies.

  15. Development of a miniature dielectric barrier discharge–optical emission spectrometric system for bromide and bromate screening in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong-Liang [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Cai, Yi [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, Ming-Li, E-mail: chenml@mail.neu.edu.cn [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Jian-Hua, E-mail: jianhuajrz@mail.neu.edu.cn [Research Center for Analytical Sciences, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-01-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is for the first time used as a radiation source for the excitation of bromine and its emission. •A DBD–optical emission spectrometric (OES) system was developed for the detection of bromide and bromate. •The DBD–OES system has been demonstrated by screening trace bromide and bromate in a series of environmental water samples. -- Abstract: Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure provides an efficient radiation source for the excitation of bromine and it is used for the first time for optical emission spectrometric (OES) detection of bromide and bromate. A portable DBD–OES system is developed for screening potential pollution from bromide and bromate in environmental waters. Bromide is on-line oxidized to bromine for in-situ generation of volatile bromine. Meanwhile, a helium stream carries bromine into the DBD micro-plasma for its excitation at a discharging voltage of 3.7 kV and optical emission spectrometric detection with a QE65000 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer in the near-infrared spectral region. Similarly, the quantification of bromate is performed by its pre-reduction into bromide and then oxidized to bromine. The spectral characteristics and configuration of the DBD micro-plasma excitation source in addition to the oxidation vapor generation of bromine have been thoroughly investigated. With a sampling volume of 1 mL, a linear range of 0.05–10.0 mg L{sup −1} is obtained with a detection limit of 0.014 mg L{sup −1} by measuring the emission at 827 nm. A precision of 2.3% is achieved at 3 mg L{sup −1} bromide. The system is validated by bromine detection in certified reference material of laver (GBW10023) at mg L{sup −1} level, giving rise to satisfactory agreement. In addition, it is further demonstrated by screening trace bromide and bromate as well as spiking recoveries in a series of environmental water samples.

  16. Bromide and other ions in the snow, firn air, and atmospheric boundary layer at Summit during GSHOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Dibb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of gas phase soluble bromide in the boundary layer and in firn air, and Br in aerosol and snow, were made at Summit, Greenland (72.5° N, 38.4° W, 3200 m a.s.l. as part of a larger investigation into the influence of Br chemistry on HOx cycling. The soluble bromide measurements confirm that photochemical activation of Br in the snow causes release of active Br to the overlying air despite trace concentrations of Br in the snow (means 15 and 8 nmol Br kg−1 of snow in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Mixing ratios of soluble bromide above the snow were also found to be very small (mean <1 ppt both years, with maxima of 3 and 4 ppt in 2007 and 2008, respectively, but these levels clearly oxidize and deposit long-lived gaseous elemental mercury and may perturb HOx partitioning. Concentrations of Br in surface snow tended to increase/decrease in parallel with the specific activities of the aerosol-associated radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb. Earlier work has shown that ventilation of the boundary layer causes simultaneous increases in 7Be and 210Pb at Summit, suggesting there is a pool of Br in the free troposphere above Summit in summer time. Speciation and the source of this free tropospheric Br are not well constrained, but we suggest it may be linked to extensive regions of active Br chemistry in the Arctic basin which are known to cause ozone and mercury depletion events shortly after polar sunrise. If this hypothesis is correct, it implies persistence of the free troposphere Br for several months after peak Br activation in March/April. Alternatively, there may be a ubiquitous pool of Br in the free troposphere, sustained by currently unknown sources and processes.

  17. Role of Acid–Base Equilibria in the Size, Shape, and Phase Control of Cesium Lead Bromide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A binary ligand system composed of aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary amines of various chain lengths is commonly employed in diverse synthesis methods for CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, we have carried out a systematic study examining how the concentration of ligands (oleylamine and oleic acid) and the resulting acidity (or basicity) affects the hot-injection synthesis of CsPbBr3 NCs. We devise a general synthesis scheme for cesium lead bromide NCs which allows control over size, size distribution, shape, and phase (CsPbBr3 or Cs4PbBr6) by combining key insights on the acid–base interactions that rule this ligand system. Furthermore, our findings shed light upon the solubility of PbBr2 in this binary ligand system, and plausible mechanisms are suggested in order to understand the ligand-mediated phase control and structural stability of CsPbBr3 NCs. PMID:29381326

  18. Evaluation of the combination of dimethyl disulfide and dazomet as an efficient methyl bromide alternative for cucumber production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Liu, Pengfei; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-05-28

    The combination of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dazomet (DZ) is a potential alternative to methyl bromide (MB) for soil disinfestation. The efficacy of DMDS plus DZ in controlling key soilborne pests was evaluated in a laboratory study and in two commercial cucumber greenhouses. Laboratory studies found that all of the combinations had positive synergistic effects on root-knot nematodes, two key soilborne fungi, and two major weed seeds. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of DMDS and DZ (30 + 25 g m(-2)) successfully suppressed Meloidogyne spp. root galling, sharply reduced the colony-forming units of Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. on media, maintained high cucumber yields, and was not significantly different from MB or DMDS alone, but better than DZ alone. All of the chemical treatments provided significantly better results than the nontreated control. The results indicate that the combination of DMDS and DZ is an efficient MB alternative for cucumber production.

  19. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide stabilized lanthanum doped SrSnO3 nanoparticle photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Astakala Anil; Kumar, Ashok; Quamara, Jitendra Kumar

    2018-01-01

    In present investigation, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide stabilized La3+ doped SrSnO3 nanoparticles have been synthesized via wet chemical route with lanthanum content of 0-6 at.%. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic analysis has indicated that doping of lanthanum has no effect on morphology and crystal structure of SrSnO3. A slight shift of Bragg diffraction peaks towards higher angle has been noticed, indicating the lattice contraction on substitution of Sr2+ lattice sites by La3+ ions. The optimum efficiency of 4.7% was obtained for 6 at.% La doped SrSnO3 photoanode based dye sensitized solar cell, which is more than 100% increase in efficiency as compared to pristine SrSnO3 (2.3%) photoanode based cell.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica-coated magnetite containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and evaluation on the adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigon, Larissa; Ruiz de Almeida da Frota, Juan Pablo; Kreutz, Juliana Cristina; Mello Giona, Renata; Pereira Moisés, Murilo; Bail, Alesandro

    2017-10-01

    Silica-coated magnetite (Mag-Sil) was prepared by the co-precipitation method using sodium metasilicate under an inert atmosphere and a fine pH control. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was adsorbed onto Mag-Sil aiming at decreasing the natural hydrophilicity of the silica surface, allowing the study of the hydrophobic interaction with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) to be carried out. Mag-Sil presented low surface Brönsted acidity once the pH at the point of zero charge was 7.5. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, results were discussed in terms of CTAB concentration and arrangement onto the Mag-Sil surface based on two-step and four-region models for surfactant adsorption.

  1. (Carbonato-κ2O,O′bis(di-2-pyridylamine-κ2N,N′cobalt(III bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Czapik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Co(CO3(C10H9N32]Br, a distorted octahedral coordination of the CoIII atom is completed by four N atoms of the two chelating di-2-pyridylamine ligands and two O atoms of the chelating carbonate anion. The di-2-pyridylamine ligands are nonplanar and the dihedral angles between the 2-pyridyl groups are 29.11 (9 and 37.15 (12°. The coordination cation, which has approximate C2 symmetry, is connected to the bromide ion via an N—H...Br− hydrogen bond. The ionic pair thus formed is further assembled into a dimer via N—H...O interactions about an inversion centre. A set of weaker C—H...O and C—H...Br− interactions connect the dimers into a three-dimensional network.

  2. A kinetic study of the thermal degradation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide inside the mesoporous SBA-3 molecular sieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJE STOJAKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB inside the mesoporous SBA-3 was studied under non-isothermal conditions. There are two distinct and complex kinetic processes which partly overlap, each consisting of one dominant and three minor individual processes. The two dominant processes can be described by the Sestak–Berggren model. The main decomposition step (the first dominant process involves the overcoming of weak interactions between CTMAB and the silica network and proceeds with a lower Ea value (116±2 kJ mol‑1 than the second dominant process (153±5 kJ mol-1, which can be explained by the size reduction of the pore openings due to the contraction of the SBA-3 unit cell caused by the removal of CTMAB.

  3. Crystal structure of 2-bromo-3-dimethylamino-N,N,N′,N′,4-pentamethyl-4-(trimethylsilyloxypent-2-eneamidinium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the orthoamide 1,1,1-tris(dimethylamino-4-methyl-4-(trimethylsilyloxypent-2-yne with bromine in benzene, yields the title salt, C15H33BrN3OSi+·Br−. The C—N bond lengths in the amidinium unit are 1.319 (6 and 1.333 (6 Å, indicating double-bond character, pointing towards charge delocalization within the NCN plane. The C—Br bond length of 1.926 (5 Å is characteristic for a C—Br single bond. Additionally, there is a bromine–bromine interaction [3.229 (3 Å] present involving the anion and cation. In the crystal, weak C—H...Br interactions between the methyl H atoms of the cation and the bromide ions are present.

  4. Catalytic determination of molybdenum by means of the sodium perborate/bromide/ascorbic acid Landolt reaction using potentiometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shraydeh, B.F. (An-Najah National Univ., Nablus (Israel)) Svehla, G. (University College, Cork (Ireland))

    1992-06-01

    Molybdenum is considered to be an important element in agriculture for its presence in soil is essential for the fixation of nitrogen by certain plants. If the Molybdenum concentration exceeds a certain limit then it can be detrimental and harmful to grazing animals. A new catalytic method for the determination of 0.1-10 ppm molybdenum is described. Molybdenum catalyzes the perborate - bromide ascorbic acid Landolt reaction at pH 3.64. The rate is monitored by potentiometry. A calibration graph is based on the ratio of the reaction times for the blank and the sample, (t(o)/t(c)), plotted against the concentration of molybdenum. Optimal conditions for the determination are discussed. Also the effect of various ions and interferences are described.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide catalyzed oxidation of diethylene glycol by chloramine-T in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHOUBE

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of the C16TAB catalyzed oxidation of diethylene glycol (2,2’-oxydiethanol by chloramine-T in acidic medium has been studied. The reaction has a first-order dependence on chloramine-T. With excess concentrations of other reactants, the reaction rate follows fractional order kinetics with respect to [diethylene glycol]. The micellar effect due to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, a cationic surfactant, has been studied. The reaction is catalyzed by chloride ions as well. The small salt effect and increase in the reaction rate with increasing dielectric constant suggest the involvement of neutral molecules in the rate determining step. Addition of p-toluenesulfonamide retards the reaction rate. On the basis of product analysis, a pertinent mechanism is proposed.

  6. An experimental investigation of thermo-capillary convection in solution of lithium bromide at non-isothermal absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bufetov N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain new experimental data on the development of thermo-capillary convection in a solution of lithium bromide with non-isothermal absorption of water vapor in a confined vessel. In experiments the contactless method of measuring the temperature of the interface based on using thermal imaging equipment, and the visualization method of the flow arising in the absorbent layer by introducing markers into solution have been used. The immobile layer of lithium bromide solution with an initial concentration of 58 % and a layer thickness of 20 mm in a confined vessel of 70 mm in diameter has been chosen as an object of investigation. The water vapor has been used as the absorbed gas, whose pressure was kept constant during the absorption (approximately 2 000 Pa. The absorption process has started after the steam supply to the absorber where the initial pressure has corresponded to saturated water vapor pressure at the temperature of the solution (250–300 Pa. The speed and duration of convective motion in the layer absorption on the basis of imaging arising due to thermo-capillary convection have been measured. The thermograms of the interface for various operating parameters have been obtained with the development of thermo-concentration convection. The characteristic time of the thermo-capillary convection development has been determined. Based on the experimental data analysis the empirical expressions for duration of the convective motion depending on the vapor pressure in the absorber and the thickness of the absorbent layer have been proposed. It has been shown that lowering the initial temperature of the solution leads to enhancement of thermo-concentration convection. The results are useful for the design and optimization of elements of refrigeration engineering of the absorption type.

  7. Evaluation of sorbent materials for the sampling and analysis of phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R; Rittfeldt, L; Åstot, C

    2015-01-02

    Phosphine (PH3), sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) and methyl bromide (CH3Br) are highly toxic chemical substances commonly used for fumigation, i.e., pest control with gaseous pesticides. Residues of fumigation agents constitute a health risk for workers affected, and therefore accurate methods for air sampling and analysis are needed. In this study, three commercial adsorbent tubes; Carbosieve SIII™, Air Toxics™ and Tenax TA™, were evaluated for sampling these highly volatile chemicals in air and their subsequent analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The breakthrough volume (BTV) of each fumigant was experimentally determined on the different adsorbents at concentrations at or above their permissible exposure limits, using a method based on frontal chromatography of generated fumigant atmospheres. Carbosieve SIII™, a molecular sieve possessing a very high specific area, proved to be a better adsorbent than both Air Toxics™ and Tenax TA™, resulting in at least a 4-fold increase of the BTV50%. BTV50% for Carbosieve SIII™ at 20°C was measured as 4.7L/g, 5.5L/g and 126L/g for phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide, respectively, implying safe sampling volumes of 1.9L, 2.2L and 50L, respectively, for a commercial tube packed with 800mg Carbosieve SIII™. The temperature dependence of BTV was strong for Carbosieve SIII™, showing a reduction of 3-5%/°C in breakthrough volume within the range -20 to 40°C. Furthermore, although Carbosieve SIII™ reportedly has a higher affinity for water than most other adsorbents, relative humidity had only a moderate influence on the retention capacity of phosphine. Overall, the applicability of Carbosieve SIII™ adsorbent sampling in combination with TD-GC-MS analysis was demonstrated for highly volatile fumigants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Triple therapy in COPD: new evidence with the extrafine fixed combination of beclomethasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 Massimo Corradi,2 Monica Spinola,3 Alberto Papi,4 Omar S Usmani,5 Mario Scuri,3 Stefano Petruzzelli,3 Jørgen Vestbo1 1Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; 3Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy; 4Department of Medical Sciences, Research Centre on Asthma and COPD, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 5National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: The goals of COPD therapy are to prevent and control symptoms, reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations, and improve exercise tolerance. The triple combination therapy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs, long-acting beta2 agonists (LABAs, and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs has become an option for maintenance treatment of COPD and as a “step-up” therapy from single or double combination treatments. There is evidence that triple combination ICS/LABA/LAMA with different inhalers improves lung function, symptoms, and health status and reduces exacerbations. A new triple fixed-dose combination of extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate (100 µg/puff/formoterol fumarate (6 µg/puff/glycopyrronium bromide (12.5 µg/puff has been developed as a hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler. Two large pivotal studies showed that this extrafine fixed ICS/LABA/LAMA triple combination is superior to fixed ICS/LABA combined therapy and also superior to the LAMA tiotropium in terms of lung function and exacerbation prevention in COPD patients at risk of exacerbation. This review considers the new information provided by these clinical trials of extrafine triple therapy and the implications for the clinical management of COPD patients. Keywords: COPD, inhaled triple therapy, beclomethasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate and glycopyrronium bromide

  9. Measured and predicted airshed concentrations of methyl bromide in an agricultural valley and applications to exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaganahalli, Puttanna S.; Seiber, James N.

    A field study was conducted in September 1995 to measure the ambient atmospheric concentrations of methyl bromide (MeBr) in the Salinas Valley, California. Air concentrations of MeBr were measured at 11 sites located on the adjacent mountains, valley floor and at the Pacific Ocean coast over a 4-d period. The concentrations ranged up to 8.98 μg m -3. Industrial Source Complex Short Term 3 (ISCST3) and CALPUFF dispersion model simulations were performed with several fumigated fields serving as sources, using two estimates of source strengths from published flux values. CALPUFF was driven by 3D meteorology from CALMET. With the lower of the two estimates, the ISCST3 model underpredicted concentrations for 76% of data and averaged 66% of measured, and the CALPUFF model also underpredicted concentrations for 67% of observations and averaged 84% of measured. With the higher of the two estimates the ISCST3 overpredicted by a factor of two for 67% of data, and CALPUFF overpredicted concentrations by a factor of 1.6 for over 50% of data. Between the model predicted and measured concentrations, the coefficient of determination, R 2, was ≈0.7 for both source strengths with ISCST3 model. The R 2 with CALPUFF model was 0.55 and 0.82 with source strength estimated from two prior flux studies. The margin of exposure (MOE) for the population of the city of Salinas was calculated based on the measured ambient concentrations and compared with the current benchmark used by US-EPA and California Department of Pesticide Regulation for acceptable human health risk. Based on the models predicted worst-case exposure concentration, the MOE for acute effects was approximately 10,000. For chronic effects it was approximately 100, indicating a need for attention to exposure to MeBr in areas of intense methyl bromide use.

  10. Methyl bromide causes DNA methylation in rats and mice but fails to induce somatic mutations in lambda lacZ transgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pletsa, V.; Steenwinkel, M.J.; van Delft, J.H.M.; Baan, R.A.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece. Following single or multiple oral treatments of rats or lambda lacZ transgenic mice with methyl bromide, methylated DNA adducts (N7- and/or

  11. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  12. Development of an activated carbon-based electrode for the capture and rapid electrolytic reductive debromination of methyl bromide from post-harvest fumigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from post-harvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously we described a system in which CH3Br fumes vented from fumigation chambe...

  13. Large-scale, on-site confirmatory, and varietal testing of a methyl bromide quarantine treatment to control codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in nectarines exported to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T; Hartsell, P L; Leesch, J G

    2000-06-01

    In total, 30,491 codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), 1-d-old eggs on May Grand nectarines in two large-scale tests, and 17,410 eggs on Royal Giant nectarines in four on-site confirmatory tests were controlled with 100% mortality after fumigation with a methyl bromide quarantine treatment (48 g3 for 2 h at > or = 21 degrees C and 50% volume chamber load) on fruit in shipping containers for export to Japan. Ranges (mean +/- SEM) were for percentage sorption 34.7 +/- 6.2 to 46.5 +/- 2.5, and for concentration multiplied by time products 54.3 +/- 0.9 to 74.5 +/- 0.6 g.h/m3 in all tests. In large-scale tests with May Grand nectarines, inorganic bromide residues 48 h after fumigation ranged from 6.8 +/- 0.7 to 6.9 +/- 0.5 ppm, which were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tolerance of 20 ppm; and, organic bromide residues were site confirmatory test requirements, fumigation of 10 nectarine cultivars in shipping containers for export to Japan was approved in 1995. Comparison of LD50s developed for methyl bromide on 1-d-old codling moth eggs on May Grand and Summer Grand nectarines in 1997 versus those developed for nine cultivars in the previous 11 yr showed no significant differences in codling moth response among the cultivars.

  14. Re-manufacture of cobalt-manganese-bromide as a liquid catalyst from spent catalyst containing cobalt generated from petrochemical processes via hydrometallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dong Ju; Oh, Chang Hyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-11-15

    Cobalt and manganese have been the subject of individual separation studies because their fields of application are different. However, this study shows that high-value products can be manufactured in the form of a cobalt-manganese-bromide (CMB) liquid catalyst by simultaneously recovering cobalt and manganese. Na-bis-(2,4,4-tri-methyl-pentyl)phosphinic acid was employed in order to manufacture the CMB liquid catalyst from the spent catalyst generated from petroleum chemistry processes. The pH-isotherm, degree of saponification of solvent and separation factor values were investigated. ΔpH50 and separation factor values show that Co and Mn can be separated from impurities such as Mg and Ca. Further, the extraction stages and organic/aqueous ratio isotherms were investigated using counter-current simulation extraction batch tests. To prepare CMB from a loaded organic phase obtained in a stripping study using hydrogen bromide, the Co and Mn were completely stripped and concentrated by a factor of 6 using a 2M hydrogen bromide solution. When compared with manufactured and commercial CMB, the CMB liquid catalyst could be produced by supplying a shortage of Mn in the form of manganese bromide. Finally, the method of manufacture of CMB was subjected to a real pilot plant test. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A critical evaluation of bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis in estimating body composition during GH treatment: comparison with bromide dilution and dual X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Khaw, Chong-Hui; Nelson, Anne E; Meinhardt, Udo; Ho, Ken K Y

    2015-01-01

    To compare estimates by bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis (BIS) of extracellular water (ECW), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) against standard techniques of bromide dilution and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during intervention that causes significant changes in water compartments and body composition. Body composition analysis using BIS, bromide dilution, and DXA was performed in 71 healthy recreational athletes (43 men, 28 women; aged 18-40 years; BMI 24 ± 0.4 kg/m(2)) who participated in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study of GH and testosterone treatment. The comparison of BIS with bromide dilution and DXA was analyzed using linear regression and the Bland-Altman method. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between BIS and bromide dilution-derived estimates for ECW, and DXA for FM and FFM (Pbody composition estimates between the BIS and DXA were observed only in men, particularly during the treatment that caused greatest change in water compartments and body composition. In healthy adults, bioimpedance spectroscopy is an acceptable tool for measuring ECW; however, BIS overestimates FFM and substantially underestimates FM compared with DXA. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Practical synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols from aryl bromides via conventional and decarboxylative copper-free Sonogashira coupling reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caporale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two efficient protocols for the palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols from aryl bromides in the absence of copper were developed. A simple catalytic system consisting of Pd(OAc2 and P(p-tol3 using DBU as the base and THF as the solvent was found to be highly effective for the coupling reaction of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (4 with a wide range of aryl bromides in good to excellent yields. Analogously, the synthesis of aryl-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ols was performed also through the decarboxylative coupling reaction of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentynoic acid with aryl bromides, using a catalyst containing Pd(OAc2 in combination with SPhos or XPhos in the presence of tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF as the base and THF as the solvent. Therefore, new efficient approaches to the synthesis of terminal acetylenes from widely available aryl bromides rather than expensive iodides and using 4 or propiolic acid rather than TMS-acetylene as inexpensive alkyne sources are described.

  17. Bromate formation from the oxidation of bromide in the UV/chlorine process with low pressure and medium pressure UV lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingyun; Zhao, Quan; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii; Fu, Yun; Zhang, Xiangru

    2017-09-01

    When a bromide-containing water is treated by the ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process, hydroxyl radicals (HO) and halogen radicals such as Cl or Br are formed due to the UV photolysis of free halogens. These reactive species may induce the formation of bromate, which is a probable human carcinogen. Bromate formation in the UV/chlorine process using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps in the presence of bromide was investigated in the present study. The UV/chlorine process significantly enhanced bromate formation as compared to dark chlorination. The bromate formation was elevated with increasing UV fluence, bromide concentration, and pH values under both LP and MP UV irradiations. It was significantly enhanced at pH 9 compared to those at pH 6 and 7 with MP UV irradiation, while it was slightly enhanced at pH 9 with LP UV. The formation by UV/chlorine process started with the formation of free bromine (HOBr/OBr-) through the reaction of chlorine and bromide, followed by a subsequent oxidation of free bromine and formation of BrO and bromate by reacting with radicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of emepronium bromide (Cetiprin) on symptoms and urinary bladder function after transurethral resection of the prostate. A double-blind randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, T; Tikjøb, G; Kamper, A L

    1984-01-01

    75 patients were randomized to be treated with either emepronium bromide (Cetiprin) 200 mg 4 times a day or placebo after transurethral resection of the prostate. The patients were evaluated urodynamically pre- and postoperatively, and further evaluated by micturition symptom charts. No significa...

  19. Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Non-Cross-Linked and Cross-Linked Poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) Having Decyl, Octyl, and Hexyl Side Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.J; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    1995-01-01

    A family of non-cross-linked and cross-linked copolymers containing decyl, octyl, and hexyl groups as side chains ((CL)-CopolC1-10, (CL)-CopolC1-8, and (CL)-CopolC1-6, respectively) were synthesized by radical-initiated cyclocopolymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers without and

  20. Cost comparison of Methyl Bromide and Sulfuryl Fluoride (ProFume®) for fumigating food processing facilities, warehouses, and cocoa beans

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, B. D.; Bonjour, E. L.; Criswell, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Costs of fumigating a food processing/warehouse facility using methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride (ProFume®) were compared using an economic-engineering approach. The two fumigants were also compared for fumigating cocoa beans. Sulfuryl fluoride is economically feasible for cocoa beans. It is economically feasible for some, but not all, applications in food processing facilities and warehouses.