WorldWideScience

Sample records for terawatt power range

  1. Generation of high-power terahertz radiation by femtosecond-terawatt lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashima, Shigeki; Hosoda, Makoto; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    We observed electromagnetic waves in the terahertz (THz) frequency range from a Ti foil excited by tabletop terawatt (T-cube) laser pulses. The radiation power was increased drastically with increasing its laser power. We also investigated the polarization characteristics of the sub-terahertz wave. It is found that the polarization of the radiated sub-terahertz waves was parallel to the incident beam plane, which is independent on the pump laser polarization. These results indicate transient electric field to the incident plane is generated by laser-plasma interaction, i.e., laser wake field and coherent plasma wave. (author)

  2. PIC simulation of the vacuum power flow for a 5 terawatt, 5 MV, 1 MA pulsed power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laqun; Zou, Wenkang; Liu, Dagang; Guo, Fan; Wang, Huihui; Chen, Lin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a 5 Terawatt, 5 MV, 1 MA pulsed power system based on vacuum magnetic insulation is simulated by the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method. The system consists of 50 100-kV linear transformer drive (LTD) cavities in series, using magnetically insulated induction voltage adder (MIVA) technology for pulsed power addition and transmission. The pulsed power formation and the vacuum power flow are simulated when the system works in self-limited flow and load-limited flow. When the pulsed power system isn't connected to the load, the downstream magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) works in the self-limited flow, the maximum of output current is 1.14 MA and the amplitude of voltage is 4.63 MV. The ratio of the electron current to the total current is 67.5%, when the output current reached the peak value. When the impedance of the load is 3.0 Ω, the downstream MITL works in the self-limited flow, the maximums of output current and the amplitude of voltage are 1.28 MA and 3.96 MV, and the ratio of the electron current to the total current is 11.7% when the output current reached the peak value. In addition, when the switches are triggered in synchronism with the passage of the pulse power flow, it effectively reduces the rise time of the pulse current.

  3. Terawatt power division and combination using self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, J.T.; Peterson, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines are necessary for the efficient transport of the terawatt pulses used in electron and ion accelerators. For some applications it is desirable to divide one transmission line into two, or to combine outputs of two or more lines into one, by means of self-magnetically insulated convolutes. Tests have been made on a coaxial-to-triaxial convolute in which connections between negative inner and outer lines are made by pins passing through holes in the intermediate positive conductor. Measurements in the 2 MV, 400 kA, 40 ns pulse Mite facility indicate virtually 100% current transport through the convolute and the ability to vary the division of current between the inner and outer lines of the triax by choice of inner line impedance. These measurements, and results obtained with this convolute connected to the ion diode for which it was designed, will be presented

  4. The Terawatt Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegel, Nancy

    In response to concerns about accelerating climate change, the world is uniting to both envision and enable a global energy system that supports a sustainable environment and broad economic prosperity. Growth in the technology and the deployment of renewable energy has been dramatic. Evidence can be seen in the growth of photovoltaics (PV) and wind as contributors to worldwide electricity production over the last decade. PV and wind provided 1.2% and 3.7% of global electricity production in 2015, compared to 0.1% and 1.3% respectively in 2005. These numbers indicate both the rapid increase in the rate of deployment, as well as the remaining work to be done to extend this trend to transform a massive energy system and provide a significant fraction of the world's future energy demand with renewable energy. Based on recent trends, it is highly likely that global cumulative PV installation will reach terawatt scale in the next few decades. The challenges, as well as the resulting impact, vary greatly depending on whether we envision 1 TW ( 15% of 2015 global electricity capacity), 3 TW ( 50% of 2015 global electricity capacity) or 10 TW, a level that could drive electrification of transportation and industrial sectors and production of solar fuels. This presentation will draw upon the work of the 2016 GA-SERI (Global Alliance of Solar Energy Research Institutes) Terawatt Workshop to assess the feasibility and summarize the challenges for PV as a primary energy source. These challenges include the continuing demand for improved efficiency and reliability, the required magnitude of capital expenditure, the need for a sustainable industry (both financially and environmentally), as well as needs for grid modernization and consistent policies that support global climate goals. Physicists can play important roles in addressing this full range of challenges, from materials science to public policy, as well as in education of the public and its future leaders.

  5. Safe 15 Terawatt of Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work author presents a project Safe 15 Terawatt realised on the Temelin NPP. This project is one of the eight key projects of the CEZ group, associated in the 'Programme of efficiency'. The project started in June 2007 with long-term goals for horizon of year 2012. The safety indicators will be reached of the first quarter level of world's nuclear power plant - by the end of the first decade. By the end of year 2012 we will have achieved annual production of 15 billion kWh - in the Czech Republic: 15 Terawatt.

  6. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-09-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  7. Addressing the terawatt challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level...

  8. INTERRAD - inductive terawatt X-ray generator (project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Pikar` , A S; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Lyubomirskij, A G [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results are given of the development and experimental research of explosive electron beam accelerator circuits powered by magneto-cumulative generators forming the current pulse, using explosive plasma opening switches. The conceptual lay-out of inductive terawatt X-ray generators powered by EMGs is proposed. The calculation results of the terawatt x-ray generator including the load placed in a special bunker are presented. Analyzed are the losses at the stage of the HE energy conversion into that of the magnetic fields, those occur ing in transmission along the high-voltage cable line, as well as the processes developing in the plasma opening switches. (author). 2 figs., 6 refs.

  9. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I V [Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO{sub 2} laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO{sub 2} lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. We discuss applications of TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) colliders, for a possible `table-top` source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams. (author)

  10. World: 2508 nuclear tera-watts hour in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the nuclear power plants have produced 2508 tera-watts hour, that is to say 16% of the normal electricity production or 35% of the European electric production. At the end of 1999, 443 reactors were in operation, 53 were in building and 13 put in an order in the world. 5 reactors have been coupled to the network in South Korea, in France, in India, in Slovakia and 2 have been definitively stopped (Kazakhstan and Sweden). 1999 has seen the beginning of construction for 8 reactors (China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan). The nuclear power has covered 40 % of needs for 8 countries: France (75%), Lithuania (73%) Belgium (58%), Sweden (46%), Slovakia (45%), Ukraine (43.5%), South Korea ( 43%), Bulgaria ( 41.5%). 18 countries have used nuclear energy to cover at least 25% of their needs. (N.C.)

  11. Approach to compact terawatt CO2 laser system for particle acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Kimura, W.D.; Fisher, C.H.; Kannari, F.

    1994-01-01

    A compact table-top 20-GW 50-ps CO 2 laser system is in operation for strong-field physics studies at the ATF. We propose scaling up of the picosecond CO 2 laser to a terawatt peak power level to meet the requirements of advanced laser accelerators. Computer modeling shows that a relatively compact single-beam picosecond CO 2 laser system with a high-pressure x-ray picosecond amplifier of a 10-cm aperture is potentially scalable to the ∼1-TW peak power level

  12. Experimental plasma astrophysics using a T3 (Table-top Terawatt) laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1996-11-01

    Lasers that can deliver immense power of Terawatt (10 12 W) and can still compactly sit on a Table-Top (T 3 lasers) emerged in the 1990s. The advent of these lasers allows us to access to regimes of astronomical physical conditions that once thought impossible to realize in a terrestrial laboratory. We touch on examples that include superhigh pressure materials that may resemble the interior of giant planets and white dwarfs and of relativistic temperature plasmas that may exist in the early cosmological epoch and in the neighborhood of the blackhole event horizon

  13. Long range inductive power transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver

  14. Mobile terawatt laser propagation facility (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Lawrence; Roumayah, Patrick; Bodnar, Nathan; Bradford, Joshua D.; Maukonen, Douglas; Richardson, Martin C.

    2017-03-01

    This presentation will describe the design and construction status of a new mobile high-energy femtosecond laser systems producing 500 mJ, 100 fs pulses at 10 Hz. This facility is built into a shipping container and includes a cleanroom housing the laser system, a separate section for the beam director optics with a retractable roof, and the environmental control equipment necessary to maintain stable operation. The laser system includes several innovations to improve the utility of the system for "in field" experiments. For example, this system utilizes a fiber laser oscillator and a monolithic chirped Bragg grating stretcher to improve system robustness/size and employs software to enable remote monitoring and system control. Uniquely, this facility incorporates a precision motion-controlled gimbal altitude-azimuth mount with a coudé path to enable aiming of the beam over a wide field of view. In addition to providing the ability to precisely aim at multiple targets, it is also possible to coordinate the beam with separate tracking/diagnostic sensing equipment as well as other laser systems. This mobile platform will be deployed at the Townes Institute Science and Technology Experimental Facility (TISTEF) located at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to utilize the 1-km secured laser propagation range and the wide array of meteorological instrumentation for atmospheric and turbulence characterization. This will provide significant new data on the propagation of high peak power ultrashort laser pulses and detailed information on the atmospheric conditions in a coastal semi-tropical environment.

  15. Multi-terawatt fusion laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of laser fusion systems started with a description of the basic principles of the laser in 1959, then a physical demonstration showing 1000 Watts of peak optical power in 1961 to the present systems that deliver 10 14 watts of peak optical power, are presented. Physical limits to large systems are reviewed: thermal limits, material stress limits, structural limits and stability, parasitic coupling, measurement precision and diagnostics. The various steps of the fusion laser-system development process are then discussed through an historical presentation. 3 figs., 8 refs

  16. Photovoltaic Cells and Modules towards Terawatt Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vitezslav Benda

    2017-01-01

    Progresses in photovoltaic technologies over the past years are evident from the lower costs,the rising efficiency,to the great improvements in system reliability and yield.Cumulative installed power yearly growths were on an average more than 40% in the period from 2007 to 2016 and in 2016,the global cumulative photovoltaic power installed has reached 320 GWp.The level 0.5 TWp could be reached before 2020.The production processes in the solar industry still have great potential for optimization both wafer based and thin film technologies.Trends following from the present technology levels are discussed,also taking into account other parts of photovoltaic systems that influence the cost of electrical energy produced.Present developments in the three generations of photovoltaic modules are discussed along with the criteria for the selection of appropriate photovoltaic module manufacturing technologies.The wafer based crystalline silicon (c-silicon) technologies have the role of workhorse of present photovoltaic power generation,representing more than 90% of total module production.Further technology improvements have to be implemented without significantly increasing costs per unit,despite the necessarily more complex manufacturing processes involved.The tandem of c-silicon and thin film cells is very promising.Durability may be a limiting factor of this technology due to the dependence of the produced electricity cost on the module service time.

  17. Range and stopping power for slow particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiano, M.; Fernandez, J. E.; Molinari, V. G.

    1997-01-01

    Generally, the effects of thermal agitation and chemical bonding of the target atoms need to be taken into account to compute properly the range and stopping power of particles. These two effects, however, complicate very much the calculation of the above parameters, and for this reason are usually neglected. In fact, when the energy of the test particles (t.p.) is sufficiently high compared to the thermal or bonding energies, these two effects can be safely disregarded. When the energy of the t.p. is of the same order of the thermal agitation or the chemical bonding, on the other hand, such approximation is not realistic, and to obtain meaningful results one must take into account the velocity distribution of the field particles (f.p.). The aim of this paper is to present a simple model describing the transport of particles (e.g., electrons) in the thermal zone, considering the thermal agitation of f.p. with an arbitrary distribution. It will be shown that in the first part of the slowing down the kinetic energy of t.p. is partially transformed into temperature. In the second part, the temperature tends to reach the equilibrium temperature, while average velocity of t.p. becomes zero. (author)

  18. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  19. Ultrafast terawatt laser sources for high-field particle acceleration and short wavelength generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Laser Sources working group concerned itself with recent advances in and future requirements for the development of laser sources relevant to high-energy physics (HEP) colliders, small scale accelerators, and the generation of short wave-length radiation. We heavily emphasized pulsed terawatt peak power laser sources for several reasons. First, their development over the past five years has been rapid and multi-faceted, and has made relativistic light intensity available to the advanced accelerator community, as well as the wider physics community, for the first time. Secondly, they have strongly impacted plasma-based accelerator research over the past two years, producing the first experimental demonstrations of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in both its resonantly-driven and self-modulated forms. Thirdly, their average power and wall-plug efficiency currently fall well short of projected requirements for future accelerators and other high average power applications, but show considerable promise for improving substantially over the next few years. A review of this rapidly emerging laser technology in the context of advanced accelerator research is therefore timely

  20. Position-insensitive long range inductive power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Christopher H; Lawson, James; Yates, David C; Mitcheson, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an improved inductive wireless power transfer system for reliable long range powering of sensors with milliwatt-level consumption. An ultra-low power flyback impedance emulator operating in open loop is used to present the optimal load to the receiver's resonant tank. Transmitter power modulation is implemented in order to maintain constant receiver power and to prevent damage to the receiver electronics caused by excessive received voltage. Received power is steady up to 3 m at around 30 mW. The receiver electronics and feedback system consumes 3.1 mW and so with a transmitter input power of 163.3 W the receiver becomes power neutral at 4.75 m. Such an IPT system can provide a reliable alternative to energy harvesters for supplying power concurrently to multiple remote sensors

  1. Ultra-low-power short-range radios

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrakasan, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the design of ultra-low-power radio-frequency integrated circuits (RFICs), with communication distances ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters. Such radios have unique challenges compared to longer-range, higher-powered systems. As a result, many different applications are covered, ranging from body-area networks to transcutaneous implant communications and Internet-of-Things devices. A mix of introductory and cutting-edge design techniques and architectures which facilitate each of these applications are discussed in detail. Specifically, this book covers:.

  2. Simulation study of the sub-terawatt laser wakefield acceleration operated in self-modulated regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C.-Y.; Lin, M.-W.; Chen, S.-H.

    2018-02-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) can be accomplished by introducing a sub-terawatt (TW) laser pulse into a thin, high-density gas target. In this way, the self-focusing effect and the self-modulation that happened on the laser pulse produce a greatly enhanced laser peak intensity that can drive a nonlinear plasma wave to accelerate electrons. A particle-in-cell model is developed to study sub-TW LWFA when a 0.6-TW laser pulse interacts with a dense hydrogen plasma. Gas targets having a Gaussian density profile or a flat-top distribution are defined for investigating the properties of sub-TW LWFA when conducting with a gas jet or a gas cell. In addition to using 800-nm laser pulses, simulations are performed with 1030-nm laser pulses, as they represent a viable approach to realize the sub-TW LWFA driven by high-frequency, diode-pumped laser systems. The peak density which allows the laser peak power PL˜2 Pc r of self-focusing critical power is favourable for conducting sub-TW LWFA. Otherwise, an excessively high peak density can induce an undesired filament effect which rapidly disintegrates the laser field envelope and violates the process of plasma wave excitation. The plateau region of a flat-top density distribution allows the self-focusing and the self-modulation of the laser pulse to develop, from which well-established plasma bubbles can be produced to accelerate electrons. The process of electron injection is complicated in such high-density plasma conditions; however, increasing the length of the plateau region represents a straightforward method to realize the injection and acceleration of electrons within the first bubble, such that an improved LWFA performance can be accomplished.

  3. Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Huang, Da; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-10

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system.

  4. STARCODES, Stopping Power and Ranges for Electrons, Protons, He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The 'STAR CODES', ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR, calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, and helium ions (alphas), according to methods described in ICRU Reports 37 and 39. 2 - Method of solution: Collision stopping powers are calculated from the theory of Bethe (1930, 1932), with a density-effect correction evaluated according to Sternheimer (1952, 1982). The stopping-power formula contains an important parameter, the mean excitation energy (I-value), which characterizes the stopping properties of a material. The codes provide output for electrons in any stopping material (279 provided) and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials. The calculations include the 1) Collision stopping power, 2) Radiative stopping power (electrons only), 3) Nuclear stopping power (protons and helium ions), 4) Total stopping power, 5) CSDA range, 6) Projected range (protons and helium ions), 7) Density effect parameter (electrons), 8) Radiation yield (electrons), and 9) Detour factor (protons and helium ions). Standard energy grids and files of elements w/ionization-excitation information are included with lookup table capabilities. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The minimum energies used in the calculations are at 1 KeV (protons and helium ions) and 10 KeV (electrons), and the maximum are 1 GeV. The standard energy grids are set at 81 for electrons, equally spaced (logarithmically), 133 for protons, and 122 for helium ions. The lower energy electron calculations (< 10 KeV) have up to 5-10% errors and are considered too fallable

  5. Simultaneous wide-range stopping power determination for several ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanko, T. E-mail: tommi.alanko@phys.jyu.fi; Trzaska, W.H.; Lyapin, V.; Raeisaenen, J.; Tiourine, G.; Virtanen, A

    2002-05-01

    A new procedure to extract simultaneously continuous stopping power curves for several ions and several absorbers over a wide energy range and with statistical errors reduced to negligible level is presented. The method combines our novel time-of-flight based method with the capability of our K130 cyclotron and ECR ion-source to produce the so-called ion cocktails. The potential of the method is demonstrated with a 6.0 MeV/u cocktail consisting of {sup 16}O{sup 4+}, {sup 28}Si{sup 7+} and {sup 40}Ar{sup 10+} ions. The stopping power in polycarbonate in the energy range of 0.35-5 MeV/u has been determined with absolute uncertainty of less than 2.3% and with relative below 0.2%. The results are compared with literature data and with SRIM2000 parameterisation including cores and bonds corrections.

  6. The first terawatt picosecond CO2 laser for advanced accelerator studies at the Brookhaven ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Skaritka, J.

    1996-10-01

    The first terawatt picosecond C0 2 laser system is under development at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility. Presently operational 1 Joule 100-ps ATF laser will be upgraded with a 10 atm amplifier capable of delivery ∼ 15 Joules of laser energy in a 3 ps pulse. We describe the design of the x-ray preionized 10 atm amplifier of a 10 liter active volume energized by a 1 MV, 200 kA transverse electric discharge. The amplifier, equipped with internal optics, permits the accommodation of a regenerative stage and a multi-pass booster in a relatively compact single discharge volume. The ATF terawatt C0 2 laser shall become operational in 1997 to serve for laser acceleration, x-ray generation and other strong-field physics experiments

  7. The first picosecond terawatt CO2 laser at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.

    1998-02-01

    The first terawatt picosecond CO 2 laser will be brought to operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility in 1998. System consists of a single-mode TEA oscillator, picosecond semiconductor optical switch, multi-atmosphere. The authors report on design, simulation, and performance tests of the 10 atm final amplifier that allows for direct multi-joule energy extraction in a picosecond laser pulse

  8. Cutting device for spent local power range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Tsuji, Teruaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination of the reactor water and simplify the operation of transferring the spent local power range monitor to a pool and preparation of the space for storing the monitor in the pool by arranging it such that the monitor is cut in the reactor water and that its cut end is closed in the reactor water. Constitution: A device for clamping a spent local power range monitor disposed within the reactor core and for cutting the monitor such that the content will not be exposed are supported by support means such that they are spaced apart in the vertical direction, and the support means is suspended in the reactor water such that it is movable relative to the monitor. Thus, there is no need to mount the cutter in any separately provided support means, and there is no possibility of exposure of the content since the cut end of the monitor is closed by the outer frame. It is therefore possible to prevent contamination of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Multi-dimensional optimization of a terawatt seeded tapered Free Electron Laser with a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao, E-mail: jhwu@SLAC.Stanford.EDU [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hu, Newman [Valley Christian High School, 100 Skyway Drive, San Jose, CA 95111 (United States); Setiawan, Hananiel [The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao; Raubenheimer, Tor O. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Jiao, Yi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, George [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mandlekar, Ajay [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spampinati, Simone [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, Strada Statale 14-km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Fang, Kun [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Chu, Chungming [The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Qiang, Ji [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-02-21

    There is a great interest in generating high-power hard X-ray Free Electron Laser (FEL) in the terawatt (TW) level that can enable coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules like proteins and probe fundamental high-field physics. A feasibility study of producing such X-ray pulses was carried out employing a configuration beginning with a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission FEL, followed by a “self-seeding” crystal monochromator generating a fully coherent seed, and finishing with a long tapered undulator where the coherent seed recombines with the electron bunch and is amplified to high power. The undulator tapering profile, the phase advance in the undulator break sections, the quadrupole focusing strength, etc. are parameters to be optimized. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is adopted for this multi-dimensional optimization. Concrete examples are given for LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and LCLS-II-type systems. Analytical estimate is also developed to cross check the simulation and optimization results as a quick and complimentary tool.

  10. Cutting device for a local power range monitor tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Tsuji, Teruaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a combination of a lifting device for a local power range monitor (LPRM) tube, a cutter and a transfer machine to safely and securely cut the LPRM tube under water. Structure: An LPRM tube is gripped by an LPRM tube gripper, which is moved up and down by a chain drive, through a flexture corrector, and the tip of the LPRM tube is held and released from the LPRM tube gripper so as to be threaded into an LPRM tube cutter to grip it by a transfer gripper of an LPRM tube transfer machine, after which the LPRM tube cutter is operated under pressure water to cut the LPRM tube with a cutter edge so that a cut portion is closed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  11. Abnormal condition detector for a local power range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao.

    1976-01-01

    Object: to permit determination of abnormal condition by a number of local power range monitors (LPRM) to be quickly made through precise estimation of the ratio between the true rate of change in neutron flux and true change in the neutron flux by making use of the fact that the status of the neutron distribution does not widely change with a change in the core flow rate for a short period of time. Structure: While carrying out power control according to the core flow rate, detection values from LPRM which are disposed in a three-dimensional fashion within the reactor core are indicated on an indicator. The average value of rates of change in the indicated values for a group of LPRM under substantially the same fluid dynamic condition as that for each LPRM is determined while measuring time-wise change rate in the indicated value of each of the LPRM. The average value is successively divided by the rate of change in the indicated value for each LPRM and the amplifier gain thereof to obtain the reference value. When the difference between the average value and reference value obtained in this way exceeds a prescribed value, the corresponding LPRM is determined to be defective. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  13. Investigations into the design of multi-terawatt magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjes, H.C.; Penn, K.J.; Mann, G.A.; Neau, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic switches were successfully used for pulse compression in the CometII pulsed power module to deliver 2.7 MV and 3.7 TW to a 2 Ω matched load. However, the Comet switches suffered interwinding dielectric breakdowns and failed in <100 shots. Initial results from experiments on magnetic switch core insulations indicate that the insulation scheme used in the Comet switches was not optimal and better configurations exist. The Comet magnetic switch failures have been duplicated and studied on the Magnetic Switch Test Module (MSTM), a coaxial, 2 Ω PFL driven by a 600 kV Marx generator. The results of these experiments are discussed in detail

  14. Stopping powers and ranges for the heaviest atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagaidak, Roman N.; Utyonkov, Vladimir K.; Dmitriev, Sergey N.

    2015-01-01

    Slowing down and stopping of the heaviest atoms, products of the fusion–evaporation nuclear reactions, during their passage through the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator has been studied using TRIM simulations. The study is important for experiments on the synthesis of super-heavy elements (SHEs) with atomic numbers around Z_P = 114 produced with accelerated heavy ion (HI) beams and extracted with a separator for their detection. The average Mylar stopping power (SP) values obtained with the simulations for HIs with 82 ⩽ Z_P ⩽ 92 reveal almost the same magnitudes, allowing extrapolation to the region of Z_P > 92. Similar extrapolation of the ranges in an He + Ar gas mixture leads to rather small values for the heaviest atoms (Z_P ⩾ 102) as compared to the range for U. The extrapolated values have large uncertainties and should be verified with different approaches. Available SP data obtained for HIs with 18 ⩽ Z_P ⩽ 92 at energies E < 20 MeV/u have been analysed within various semi-empirical approaches. The analysis has shown that existing parameterizations give Mylar SP values for Z_P ⩾ 82 that are very different from each other at energies of interest (around 0.1 MeV/u). We propose to use a general approach based on the HI effective charge parameterization obtained with available SP data for HIs and the hydrogen SP and effective charge corresponding to the same velocity and stopping medium as those for HIs. In this manner, the SPs of the gases H_2, He, C_4H_1_0, and Ar as well as those of the solids Mylar, C, Al, and Ti have been obtained for any atoms with Z_P ⩾ 18 (including the heaviest ones) at their reduced velocities 0.03 ⩽ V_r_e_d ⩽ 5.0. The SP values derived in such a way seem to be more reliable compared to the existing semi-empirical calculations and can be used in the conditioning of experiments on the synthesis of SHEs.

  15. Relativistically Self-Channeled Femtosecond Terawatt Lasers for High-Field Physics and X-Ray Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.B.; Boyer, K.; Cameron, S.M.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Nelson, T.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Optical channeling or refractive guiding processes involving the nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond optical pulses with matter in the self-focussing regime has created exciting opportunities for next-generation laser plasma-based x-ray sources and directed energy applications. This fundamentally new form of extended paraxial electromagnetic propagation in nonlinear dispersive media such as underdense plasma is attributed to the interplay between normal optical diffraction and intensity-dependent nonlinear focussing and refraction contributions in the dielectric response. Superposition of these mechanisms on the intrinsic index profile acts to confine the propagating energy in a dynamic self-guiding longitudinal waveguide structure which is stable for power transmission and robust compression. The laser-driven channels are hypothesized to support a degree of solitonic transport behavior, simultaneously stable in the space and time domains (group velocity dispersion balances self-phase modulation), and are believed to be self-compensating for diffraction and dispersion over many Rayleigh lengths in contrast with the defining characteristics of conventional diffractive imaging and beamforming. By combining concentrated power deposition with well-ordered spatial localization, this phenomena will also create new possibilities for production and regulation of physical interactions, including electron beams, enhanced material coupling, and self-modulated plasma wakefields, over extended gain distances with unprecedented energy densities. Harmonious combination of short-pulse x-ray production with plasma channeling resulting from a relativistic charge displacement nonlinearity mechanism in the terawatt regime (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) has been shown to generate high-field conditions conducive to efficient multi-kilovolt x-ray amplification and peak spectral brightness. Channeled optical propagation with intense short-pulse lasers is expected to impact several

  16. Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Ned; Flippo, Kirk; Nemoto, Koshichi; Umstadter, Donald; Crowell, Robert A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Trifunac, Alexander D.

    2000-01-01

    A laser based electron generator is shown, for the first time, to produce sufficient charge to conduct time resolved investigations of radiation induced chemical events. Electron pulses generated by focussing terawatt laser pulses into a supersonic helium gas jet are used to ionize liquid water. The decay of the hydrated electrons produced by the ionizing electron pulses is monitored with 0.3 μs time resolution. Hydrated electron concentrations as high as 22 μM were generated. The results show that terawatt lasers offer both an alternative to linear accelerators and a means to achieve subpicosecond time resolution for pulse radiolysis studies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Ion Stopping Powers and Ranges Whenever You Need Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Christensen, Casper; Tørresø, Jesper Rosholm

    A new app "Electronic Stopping Power" for Android mobile phones and tablets, looks up stopping powers using the ICRU 49 (protons and alphas) and the revised ICRU 73 (lithium and heavier ions) tables. In addition, also MSTAR and an implementation of the Bethe equation expanded to low energies...

  18. A Doherty Power Amplifier with Large Back-Off Power Range Using Integrated Enhancing Reactance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A symmetric Doherty power amplifier (DPA based on integrated enhancing reactance (IER was proposed for large back-off applications. The IER was generated using the peaking amplifier with the help of a desired impedance transformation in the low-power region to enhance the back-off efficiency of the carrier amplifier. To convert the impedances properly, both in the low-power region and at saturation, a two-impedance matching method was employed to design the output matching networks. For verification, a symmetric DPA with large back-off power range over 2.2–2.5 GHz was designed and fabricated. Measurement results show that the designed DPA has the 9 dB back-off efficiency of higher than 45%, while the saturated output power is higher than 44 dBm over the whole operation bandwidth. When driven by a 20 MHz LTE signal, the DPA can achieve good average efficiency of around 50% with adjacent channel leakage ratio of about –50 dBc after linearization over the frequency band of interest. The linearity improvement of the DPA for multistandard wireless communication system was also verified with a dual-band modulated signal.

  19. Pulsed power inductive energy storage in the microsecond range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Miller, A.R.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilkinson, M.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the past five years Maxwell has developed a series of inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generators; ACE 1, ACE 2, ACE 3, and ACE 4, to drive electron-beam loads. They are all based on a plasma opening switch (POS) contained in a single vacuum envelope operating at conduction times of around one microsecond. They all employ fast capacitor bank technology to match this conduction time without intermediate power conditioning. Oil or air filled transmission lines transfer capacitor bank energy to a vacuum section where the final pulse compression is accomplished. Development of the ACE series is described, emphasizing capacitor bank and the opening switch technology for delivering high voltage, multimegampere pulses to electron beam loads

  20. Low Power High Dynamic Range A/D Conversion Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Rombach, Pirmin

    in the conversion channel in order to avoid distortion for large input signals. In combination with a low resolution A/D converter (ADC) and a digital gain block, the adaptive A/D conversion channel achieves an extended dynamic range beyond that of the ADC. This in turn reduces the current consumption......This work concerns the analysis of an adaptive analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion channel for use with a micro electromechanical system (MEMS) microphone for audio applications. The adaptive A/D conversion channel uses an automatic gain control (AGC) for adjusting the analog preamplifier gain...... of the conversion channel in comparison to a static A/D conversion channel; this at the cost of a reduced peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The adaptive A/D conversion channel compensates for the change in analog gain by a digital gain, thus achieving a constant channel gain in the full dynamic range. However...

  1. Design of an optimal automatic regulator for regulating the power levels of a nuclear reactor in a wind power range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori Khajavi, M.; Menhaj, M.B.; Ghofrani, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are, in nature nonlinear and time varying. These characteristics must be considered, if large power variations occur in their working regime. In this paper a robust optimal self-tuning regulator for regulating the power of a nuclear reactor has been designed and simulated. The proposed controller is capable of regulating power levels in a wide power range (10% to 100% power levels). The controller achieves a fast and good transient response. The simulation results show that the proposed controller outperforms the fixed optimal control recently cited in the literature for nuclear power plants

  2. GaN-based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SET Group will design, build and demonstrate a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter capable of handling high power...

  3. Stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration with few-terawatt driver using a supersonic air jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boháček, K.; Kozlová, M.; Nejdl, J.; Chaulagain, U.; Horný, V.; Krůs, M.; Ta Phuoc, K.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of stable electron beams produced by the laser wakefield acceleration mechanism with a few-terawatt laser system (600 mJ, 50 fs) in a supersonic synthetic air jet is reported and the requirements necessary to build such a stable electron source are experimentally investigated in conditions near the bubble regime threshold. The resulting electron beams have stable energies of (17.4 ± 1.1) MeV and an energy spread of (13.5 ± 1.5) MeV (FWHM), which has been achieved by optimizing the properties of the supersonic gas jet target for the given laser system. Due to the availability of few-terawatt laser systems in many laboratories around the world these stable electron beams open possibilities for applications of this type of particle source.

  4. Working Group VI Summary Report: New Ideas Employing High-Power Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this working group were to provide the ''Future Light Source Community'' information on: Electron-Laser interaction based sources; Plasma based radiation sources and accelerators; and Present and future high-power laser technology. A summary of presentations, discussions and opinions is presented next. At the end of this report, a few references are given. The list is very far from being complete but is meant as a start for further exploring the various topics discussed in this working group. Based on presentations and discussions during the workshop, a summarizing table of the performance of three different types of laser systems has been made. The emphasis is on listing performance parameters of solid state, FEL and gas based lasers, relevant to the development of a future fourth generation light source. Two types of solid state lasers capable of producing peak power in the multi-terawatt range are described: Nd:glass and Ti:sapphire lasers [1]. The main development for these lasers is towards higher average power levels: from the 10 W to the > 100 W level. An infrared FEL has recently produced 1 kW average power but with peak power on the order of 0.1 GW [2]. A terawatt class, short pulse CO 2 based gas laser is under development at the Advanced Test Facility at BNL [3

  5. Self-Biased Differential Rectifier with Enhanced Dynamic Range for Wireless Powering

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.; Khalil, Waleed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    A self-biased, cross-coupled, differential rectifier is proposed with enhanced power-conversion efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for UHF 433MHz RF power-harvesting applications and is implemented using 0.18μm

  6. Study of the proper contribution of independent power producing business in the long-range power supply and demand plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S.B. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The independent power producing business has expanded its size and process through the Long-range Power Supply and Demand Plan of 1993, 1995, and it is high time that full-scale competition in the power generation market began to emerge. This report assesses the marginal costs of independent and general power producing businesses on a theoretical basis on the proper size of independent power producing business, and presents the methods to compare these. But, since there follows several problems in applying this theoretical model, a practical standard to decide the proper level of independent power production amount is presented. That is, while not much burdening the existing industrial structure, I search for ways to present the amount of independent power production and the methods of power generation to make sure that the competition effect is maximized when full-scale competition started. However, in the long-term, the allotment of independent power production itself could be a violation to the basic spirit of competition. A more desirable way is to allow independent power producers and the Korea Power Corp. to freely compete on all types of power generation and facilities. The supply plan should be also operated smoothly and flexibly since the types of power generation and the amounts reflect the result of competition not the predetermined ones. Therefore, a long-range power supply and demand plan should be converted from a planning-oriented concept to a market-oriented base with the structural overhaul of the power generation industry for the effective resources distribution of power supply facilities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Self-Biased Differential Rectifier with Enhanced Dynamic Range for Wireless Powering

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2016-08-29

    A self-biased, cross-coupled, differential rectifier is proposed with enhanced power-conversion efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for UHF 433MHz RF power-harvesting applications and is implemented using 0.18μm CMOS technology. The proposed rectifier architecture is compared to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. It demonstrates an improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and an input power range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional crosscoupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm (30μW) input power for 1V output voltage and a peak power-conversion efficiency of 65% are achieved for a 50kω load. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

  8. Modular Power Electronic Converters in the Power Range 1 to 10 kW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel

    Thanks to CO2 emission reduction policies and increasing prices of fossil fuels a significant growth in field of sustainable energy sources (SES) is being observed during last decade. A government support and take-off projects in Europe and US shall ensure an increasing trend in future too. Some...... of SES based plants , like hydro-, geothermal-, biofuel-plants, use synchronous generators directly connected to the grid. But some other SES technologies, like fuel cell or photovoltaic, require a power electronic converter between the energy source and the load or the grid. Work presented...... in this thesis concentrates on dc-dc non-isolated converters suitable for high voltage gain applications, like uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and some of sustainable energy sources. A special attention is on reduction of power losses and efficiency improvements in non-isolated dc-dc step-up converters...

  9. Range based power control for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). In this paper, researchers present a range based dynamic power control for MRMC WMNs. First, WMN is represented as a set of disjoint Unified...

  10. Design of a Command-Triggered Plasma Opening Switch for Terawatt Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, C.W.; Seidel, David B.

    1999-01-01

    Inductive energy storage systems can have high energy density, lending to smaller, less expensive systems. The crucial element of an inductive energy storage system is the opening switch. This switch must conduct current while energy is stored in an inductor, then open quickly to transfer this energy to a load. Plasma can perform this function. The Plasma Opening Switch (POS) has been studied for more than two decades. Success with the conventional plasma opening switch has been limited. A system designed to significantly improve the performance of vacuum opening switches is described in this paper. The gap cleared of plasma is a rough figure-of-merit for vacuum opening switches. Typical opened gaps of 3 mm are reported for conventional switches. The goal for the system described in this paper is more than 3 cm. To achieve this, the command-triggered POS adds an active opening mechanism, which allows complete separation of conduction and opening. This separation is advantageous because of the widely different time scales of conduction and opening. The detrimental process of magnetic field penetration into the plasma during conduction is less important in this switch. The opening mechanism duration is much shorter than the conduction time, so penetration during opening is insignificant. Opening is accomplished with a fast magnetic field that pushes plasma out of the switch region. Plasma must be removed from the switch region to allow high voltage. This paper describes some processes important during conduction and opening, and show calculations on the trigger requirements. The design of the switch is shown. This system is designed to demonstrate both improved performance and nanosecond output jitter at levels greater than one terawatt. An amplification mechanism is described which reduces the trigger energy. Particle-in-cell simulations of the system are also shown

  11. Wide-Range Adaptive RF-to-DC Power Converter for UHF RFIDs

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2016-07-27

    A wide-range, differential, cross-coupled rectifier is proposed with an extended dynamic range of input RF power that enables wireless powering from varying distances. The proposed architecture mitigates the reverse-leakage problem in conven- tional, cross-coupled rectifiers without degrading sensitivity. A prototype is designed for UHF RFID applications, and is imple- mented using 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. On-chip measurements demonstrate a sensitivity of − 18 dBm for 1 V output over a 100 k Ω load and a peak RF-to-DC power conversion efficiency of 65%. A conventional, fully cross-coupled rectifier is fabricated along- side for comparison and the proposed rectifier shows more than 2 × increase in dynamic range and a 25% boosting in output voltage than the conventional rectifier

  12. An Energy-Efficient Link with Adaptive Transmit Power Control for Long Range Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, P.; Blaszczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research is carried out to develop a reliable smart sensor system with high energy efficiency for battery operated wireless IoT devices in the agriculture sector. However, only a limited amount of research has covered automatic transmission power adjustment schemes...... and algorithms which are essential for deployment of wireless IoT nodes. This paper presents an adaptive link algorithm for farm applications with emphasis on power adjustment for long range communication networks....

  13. A review on the long-range strategy of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Shigehiro; Kondo, Shunsuke; Ishida, Hiroshi.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power generation in Japan is proceeding steadily, such as the world's second in power generating capacity and the nation's own development of power reactors. Meanwhile, however, there are number of problems for future solution, like the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, before nuclear energy is fully harnessed. Looking as far ahead as the 21st century, the long-range strategy of nuclear power development is reviewed: politics on uranium supply outlook, a compromise between uranium enrichment and nuclear nonproliferation, LWR technology with safety, FBR development scheme, uranium resources saving and heavy water reactor, HTGR development, a 2nd fuel reprocessing plant, high level wastes management, reactors decommissioning, research in nuclear energy development, and fostering of a nuclear power industry. (J.P.N.)

  14. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the key enabler for a myriad of applications, from low-power RFIDs, and wireless sensors, to wirelessly charged electric vehicles, and even massive power transmission from space solar cells. One of the major challenges in designing implantable biomedical devices is the size and lifetime of the battery. Thus, replacing the battery with a miniaturized wireless power receiver (WPRx) facilitates designing sustainable biomedical implants in smaller volumes for sentient medical applications. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a miniaturized, fully integrated, wirelessly powered implantable sensor with on-chip antenna, designed and implemented in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process. As a batteryless device, it can be implanted once inside the body with no need for further invasive surgeries to replace batteries. The proposed single-chip solution is designed for intraocular pressure monitoring (IOPM), and can serve as a sustainable platform for implantable devices or IoT nodes. A custom setup is developed to test the chip in a saline solution with electrical properties similar to those of the aqueous humor of the eye. The proposed chip, in this eye-like setup, is wirelessly charged to 1V from a 5W transmitter 3cm away from the chip. In the second part, we propose a self-biased, differential rectifier with enhanced efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for the medical implant communication service (MICS) band at 433MHz. It demonstrates an efficiency improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and a dynamic range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm input power for 1V output voltage and a peak PCE of 65% are achieved for a 50k load. In the third part, we propose a wide-range, differential RF-to-DC power converter using an adaptive, self-biasing technique. The proposed architecture doubles

  15. A low-power CMOS integrated sensor for CO2 detection in the percentage range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humbert, A.; Tuerlings, B.J.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Tan, Z.; Gravesteijn, D.J.; Pertijs, M.A.P.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Soccol, D.

    2013-01-01

    Within the Catrene project PASTEUR, a low-cost, low-power capacitive carbon dioxide sensor has been developed for tracking CO2 concentration in the percentage range. This paper describes this sensor, which operates at room temperature where it exhibits short response times as well as reversible

  16. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed; Ouda, Mahmoud H.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross

  17. A highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range

    KAUST Repository

    Almansouri, Abdullah Saud Mohammed

    2017-10-24

    This paper proposes a highly sensitive RF-to-DC power converter with an extended dynamic range that is designed to operate at the medical band 433 MHz and simulated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Compared to the conventional fully cross-coupled rectifier, the proposed design offers 3.2× the dynamic range. It is also highly sensitive and requires −18 dBm of input power to produce a 1 V-output voltage when operating with a 100 kΩ load. Furthermore, the proposed design offers an open circuit sensitivity of −23.4 dBm and a peak power conversion efficiency of 67%.

  18. A low-power wide range transimpedance amplifier for biochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low voltage and low power transimpedance amplifier for amperometric potentiostats. The power is optimized by having three different gain settings for different current ranges, which can be programmed with a biasing current. The voltage ranges have been optimized by using FGMOS transistors in a second voltage amplification stage that simultaneously allow for offset calibration as well as independent biasing of the gates. The circuit operates with input currents from 1 pA to 1 microA, with a maximum power supply voltage of 1.5 V and consumes 82.5 nW, 9.825 microW, 47.325 microW for currents varying from (1 pA, 0.25 nA), (0.25 nA, 62.5 nA) and (62.5 nA, 1 microA) respectively.

  19. Stopping power and range relations for low and high Z ions in solids: a critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.; Randhawa, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    A critical analysis of various stopping power and range formulations has been made by comparing the calculated stopping power and range values with corresponding experimental values for different low Z (1≤Z≤8) and high Z projectiles (54≤Z≤92) in different targets, e.g. Be, C, Al, Au, Pb, CR-39, Lexan, Mylar, LR-115, CH, (CH)n, TRIFOL-TN, etc. atvarious low and high energies. A comparative study has been made by taking into consideration different target and projectile combinations, e.g., heavy ion-light target, light ion-heavy target and light ion -light target etc., Overall the Ziegler formulation (TRIM-95) provides the best agreement with the experimental results for all projectile and target combinations except for heavy ion-light target combination where it underestimates the stopping power data and overestimates the range data in the range, 2-50 MeV/u. Mukherjee and Nayak formulation totally fails at relativistic and low energies of the projectile, irrespective of the projectile-target combination. Northcliffe and Schilling formulation does not show any particular trend. Benton and Henke formulation gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical data within the range of experimental errors. (orig.)

  20. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  1. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm 2 . The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  2. Range-energy relations and stopping powers of organic liquids and vapours for alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan-Rezayat, A.; Palmer, R.B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in methyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in both the liquid and vapour phases. Stopping power values for these materials and for oxygen gas over the energy range 1.0-8.0 MeV are also given. From these results stopping powers have been derived for the -CH 2 -group and for -Cl occurring in chemical combination in the liquid and vapour phases. The molecular stopping power in the vapour phase is shown to exceed that in the liquid phase by 2-6% below 2 MeV, reducing to negligible differences at about 5 MeV for the materials directly investigated and for the -Cl atom. No significant phase effect is observed for the -CH 2 -group, but it is noted that the uncertainties in the values of the derived stopping powers are much greater in this case. Comparison of the experimental molecular stopping powers with values calculated from elemental values using the Bragg additivity rule shows agreement for vapours but not for liquids. (author)

  3. Highly excited bound-state resonances of short-range inverse power-law potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-11-15

    We study analytically the radial Schroedinger equation with long-range attractive potentials whose asymptotic behaviors are dominated by inverse power-law tails of the form V(r) = -β{sub n}r{sup -n} with n > 2. In particular, assuming that the effective radial potential is characterized by a short-range infinitely repulsive core of radius R, we derive a compact analytical formula for the threshold energy E{sub l}{sup max} = E{sub l}{sup max}(n, β{sub n}, R), which characterizes the most weakly bound-state resonance (the most excited energy level) of the quantum system. (orig.)

  4. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  5. High-power laser delocalization in plasmas leading to long-range beam merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsutsumi, M; Marques, J R; Antici, P; Bourgeois, N; Romagnani, L; Audebert, P; Fuchs, J [UPMC, CEA, CNRS, LULI, Ecole Polytech, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M; Kodama, R [Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Engn, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Antici, P [Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento SBAI, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Feugeas, J L; Nicolai, P [Univ Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Ctr Lasers Intenses and Applicat, F-33405 Talence (France); Lin, T [Fox Chase Canc Ctr, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Attraction and fusion between co-propagating light beams, mutually coherent or not, can take place in nonlinear media as a result of the beam power modifying the refractive index of the medium. In the context of high-power light beams, induced modifications of the beam patterns could potentially impact many topics, including long-range laser propagation, the study of astrophysical colliding blast waves and inertial confinement fusion. Here, through experiments and simulations, we show that in a fully ionized plasma, which is a nonlinear medium, beam merging can take place for high-power and mutually incoherent beams that are initially separated by several beam diameters. This is in contrast to the usual assumption that this type of interaction is limited to beams separated by only one beam diameter. This effect, which is orders of magnitude more significant than Kerr-like nonlinearity in gases, demonstrates the importance of potential cross-talk amongst multiple beams in plasma. (authors)

  6. Eye safe high power laser diode in the 1410-1550nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucart, Julien; de Largy, Brian; Kearley, Mark; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2010-02-01

    The demand for high power lasers emitting in the 14xx-15xxnm range is growing for applications in fields such as medical or homeland security. We demonstrate high power laser diodes with emission at 1430, 1470 and 1560 nm. Single multimode emitters at 1470nm emit about 3.5W in CW operation. Power conversion efficiency can reach values as high as 38.5%. With this base material, single and multi-emitter fiber coupled modules are built. Additionally, bars on passive and microchannel coolers are fabricated that deliver 25W and 38W respectively in CW mode, while obtaining more than 80 W in pulsed mode. All reliability tests show an outstanding stability of the material with no signs of wearout after 3750 hrs under strong acceleration conditions.

  7. Operational Range of Several Interface Algorithms for Different Power Hardware-In-The-Loop Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Brandl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL experiments is rising more and more over the last decade in the field of power system and components testing. Due to the bidirectional exchange between virtual and physical systems, a true-to-reality interface is essential; however, linking several dynamic systems, stability issues can challenge the experiments, the components under test, and the individuals performing the experiments. Over the time, several interface algorithms (IA have been developed and analyzed, each having different advantages and disadvantages in view of combining virtual simulations with physical power systems. Finally, IA are very specific to the kind of PHIL experiment. This paper investigates the operational range of several IA for specific PHIL setups by calculations, simulations, and measurements. Therefore, a selection of the mainly used respectively optimized IA is mathematically described. The operational range is verified in a PHIL system testing environment. Furthermore, in order to study the influence of different PHIL setups, according to software and hardware impedance, different tests using linear and switching amplifiers are performed.

  8. Design of Range Adaptive Wireless Power Transfer System Using Non-coaxial Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongsheng; Won, Sokhui; Hong, Huan

    2017-05-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is a remarkable technology because of its convenience and applicability in harsh environment. Particularly, Magnetic Coupling WPT (MC-WPT) is a proper method to midrange power transfer, but the frequency splitting at over-coupling range, which is related with transfer distance, is challenge of transmission efficiency. In order to overcome this phenomenon, recently the range adaptive WPT is proposed. In this paper, we aim to the type with a set of non-coaxial driving coils, so that this may remove the connection wires from PA (Power Amplifier) to driving coil. And, when the radius of driving coil is changed, on the different gaps between driving and TX coils, coupling coefficient between these is computed in both cases of coaxial and non-coaxial configurations. In addition, the designing steps for 4-coil WPT system using non-coaxial coils are described with the example. Finally, the reliability of this topology has been proved and simulated with PSPICE.

  9. Neural network for adapting nuclear power plant control for wide-range operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, C.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Edwards, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept of using neural networks has been evaluated for optimal control of a nuclear reactor. The neural network uses the architecture of a standard backpropagation network; however, a new dynamic learning algorithm has been developed to capture the underlying system dynamics. The learning algorithm is based on parameter estimation for dynamic systems. The approach is demonstrated on an optimal reactor temperature controller by adjusting the feedback gains for wide-range operation. Application of optimal control to a reactor has been considered for improving temperature response using a robust fifth-order reactor power controller. Conventional gain scheduling can be employed to extend the range of good performance to accommodate large changes in power where nonlinear characteristics significantly modify the dynamics of the power plant. Gain scheduling is developed based on expected parameter variations, and it may be advantageous to further adapt feedback gains on-line to better match actual plant performance. A neural network approach is used here to adapt the gains to better accommodate plant uncertainties and thereby achieve improved robustness characteristics

  10. A comparative investigation of three PM-less MW power range wind generator topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratiloveanu, Catalin-Rauti; Traian Cosmin Anghelus, Dumitru; Boldea, I.

    2012-01-01

    As the wind energy penetration range increases steadily and the high energy PM costs are rising dramatically, PM-less large power wind generators with high performance are needed. Apart from extending the range of cage rotor induction generators, doubly-fed induction generators and dc excited...... investigates by quasi 2D-FEM two dc stator polarized (to increase machine side PWM converter voltage utilization, that is to reduce peak kVA ratings and costs of the machine side PWM converter) directly-driven switched reluctance generators (one with circumferential field and one with transverse flux (with...... heteropolar-rotor (standard) synchronous generators, especially for direct drives (very low speed) and multibrid (with single stage transmission (5/1-8/1 ratio)), new topologies have to be investigated to reduce initial costs and weights for high enough efficiency and energy annual yield. The present paper...

  11. Analog Circuit Design Low Voltage Low Power; Short Range Wireless Front-Ends; Power Management and DC-DC

    CERN Document Server

    Roermund, Arthur; Baschirotto, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design.  Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 20 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of Low-Voltage Low-Power Data Converters - Chaired by Prof. Anderea Baschirotto, University of Milan-Bicocca Short Range Wireless Front-Ends - Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology Power management and DC-DC - Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Katholieke University Leuven Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.

  12. A low-power high dynamic range front-end ASIC for imaging calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bagliesi, M G; Marrocchesi, P S; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Paoletti, R; Pilo, F; Scribano, A; Turini, N; Valle, G D

    2002-01-01

    High granularity calorimeters with shower imaging capabilities require dedicated front-end electronics. The ICON 4CH and VA4 PMT chip-set is suitable for very high dynamic range systems with strict noise requirements. The ICON 4CH is a 4 channel input, 12 channel output ASIC designed for use in a multi-anode photomultiplier system with very large dynamic range and low-noise requirements. Each of the four input signals to the ASIC is split equally into three branches by a current conveyor. Each of the three branches is scaled differently: 1:1, 1:8 and 1:80. The signal is read out by a 12 channel low noise/low power high dynamic range charge sensitive preamplifier-shaper circuit (VA4-PMT chip), with simultaneous sample- and-hold, multiplexed analog read-out, calibration facilities. Tests performed in our lab with a PMT are reported in terms of linearity, dynamic range and cross-talk of the system. (5 refs).

  13. Insulation resistance abnormal condition detector for a local power range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kai, Takaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit determination of abnormal condition by a number of local power range monitors (LPRM ) to be quickly made through estimation of the leakage current value by precisely estimating the ratio between the true rate of change in neutron flux and true change in the neutron flux by making use of the fact that the status of the neutron distribution does not widely change with a change of the core flow rate for a short period of time. Structure: While carrying out power control according to the core flow rate, detection values from LPRM which are disposed in a three-dimensional fashion within the reactor core are indicated on an indicator. The average value of rates of change in the indicated values for a group of LPRM under substantially the same fluid dynamic condition as that for each LPRM is determined by measuring the ratio before and after the alteration of the power of the indicated value. Further, the estimation of leakage current is determined by using the ratio of the indicated value, average value thereof and amplifier gain of each LPRM. When the estimation leakage current exceeds a prescribed value, the corresponding LPRM is determined to be defective. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the

  15. Gamma compensated pulsed ionization chamber wide range neutron/reactor power measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method and system of pulsed mode operation of ionization chambers is described in which a single sensor system with gamma compensation is provided by sampling, squaring, automatic gate selector, and differential amplifier circuit means, employed in relation to chambers sensitized to neutron plus gamma and gamma only to subtract out the gamma component, wherein squaring functions circuits, a supplemental high performance pulse rate system, and operational and display mode selection and sampling gate circuits are utilized to provide automatic wide range linear measurement capability for neutron flux and reactor power. Neon is employed as an additive in the ionization chambers to provide independence of ionized gas kinetics temperature effects, and the pulsed mode of operation provide independence of high temperature insulator leakage effects. (auth)

  16. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Aloÿs; Yi, Jiazi; Clausen, Thomas; Townsley, William Mark

    2016-09-09

    LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.

  17. A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloÿs Augustin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s, connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF COLD WHIRLPOOL ON POWER, SPEED, AGILITY, AND RANGE OF MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Patterson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine if cold whirlpool treatment decreases functional performance equally regardless of gender. A secondary aim was to determine if there is a gradual increase in functional performance across time. Twenty-one college-aged subjects volunteered to participate in this study and were required to perform four measures of functional performance including: counter movement vertical jump, T-test, 36.58-meter dash (40-yard, and active range of motion of the ankle. Participants were treated with a 20 minute, 10 degree Celsius cold whirlpool following the pre-test of a given functional performance measure. Participants demonstrated significant decreases in counter movement vertical jump, T-test, and 40-yard dash performance immediately following treatment. Vertical jump performance remained impaired for at least 32 minutes. While both the T-test and 40-yard dash were affected for 7 and 22 minutes post- treatment, respectively. Participants also demonstrated significant decreases in peak power and average power immediately after and for 32 minutes post-treatment. Dorsiflexion was significantly decreased 7 and 12 minutes following treatment. There were no differences for plantar flexion, inversion, or eversion. These data suggest functional performance was affected immediately following and for up to 32 minutes after cold whirlpool treatment. It was also evident that there is a gradual performance increase for each measure of functional performance across time. Therefore, the consequences should be carefully considered before returning athletes to activity following cold whirlpool treatment

  19. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  20. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  1. SU-G-TeP1-02: Analytical Stopping Power and Range Parameterization for Therapeutic Energy Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, W [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Newhauser, W [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ziegler, J F [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a simple, analytic parameterization of stopping power and range, which covers a wide energy interval and is applicable to many species of projectile ions and target materials, with less than 15% disagreement in linear stopping power and 1 mm in range. Methods: The new parameterization was required to be analytically integrable from stopping power to range, and continuous across the range interval of 1 µm to 50 cm. The model parameters were determined from stopping power and range data for hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium ions incident on water, carbon, aluminum, lead and copper. Stopping power and range data was taken from SRIM. A stochastic minimization algorithm was used to find model parameters, with 10 data points per energy decade. Additionally, fitting was performed with 2 and 26 data points per energy decade to test the model’s robustness to sparse Results: 6 free parameters were sufficient to cover the therapeutic energy range for each projectile ion species (e.g. 1 keV – 300 MeV for protons). The model agrees with stopping power and range data well, with less than 9% relative stopping power difference and 0.5 mm difference in range. As few as, 4 bins per decade were required to achieve comparable fitting results to the full data set. Conclusion: This study successfully demonstrated that a simple analytic function can be used to fit the entire energy interval of therapeutic ion beams of hydrogen and heavier elements. Advantages of this model were the small number (6) of free parameters, and that the model calculates both stopping power and range. Applications of this model include GPU-based dose calculation algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations, where available memory is limited. This work was supported in part by a research agreement between United States Naval Academy and Louisiana State University: Contract No N00189-13-P-0786. In addition, this work was accepted for presentation at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting

  2. SU-G-TeP1-02: Analytical Stopping Power and Range Parameterization for Therapeutic Energy Intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, W; Newhauser, W; Ziegler, J F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a simple, analytic parameterization of stopping power and range, which covers a wide energy interval and is applicable to many species of projectile ions and target materials, with less than 15% disagreement in linear stopping power and 1 mm in range. Methods: The new parameterization was required to be analytically integrable from stopping power to range, and continuous across the range interval of 1 µm to 50 cm. The model parameters were determined from stopping power and range data for hydrogen, carbon, iron, and uranium ions incident on water, carbon, aluminum, lead and copper. Stopping power and range data was taken from SRIM. A stochastic minimization algorithm was used to find model parameters, with 10 data points per energy decade. Additionally, fitting was performed with 2 and 26 data points per energy decade to test the model’s robustness to sparse Results: 6 free parameters were sufficient to cover the therapeutic energy range for each projectile ion species (e.g. 1 keV – 300 MeV for protons). The model agrees with stopping power and range data well, with less than 9% relative stopping power difference and 0.5 mm difference in range. As few as, 4 bins per decade were required to achieve comparable fitting results to the full data set. Conclusion: This study successfully demonstrated that a simple analytic function can be used to fit the entire energy interval of therapeutic ion beams of hydrogen and heavier elements. Advantages of this model were the small number (6) of free parameters, and that the model calculates both stopping power and range. Applications of this model include GPU-based dose calculation algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations, where available memory is limited. This work was supported in part by a research agreement between United States Naval Academy and Louisiana State University: Contract No N00189-13-P-0786. In addition, this work was accepted for presentation at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting

  3. Effects of Femtosecond Terawatt Laser Pulses on Materials Similar to Porcine Skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumru, Semih S; Noojin, Gary D; Rockwell, Benjamin A

    2004-01-01

    As the laser technology advances and the availability of high power femtosecond pulsed laser systems increase, the urgency to have damage thresholds and ED50 data on these new laser systems becomes...

  4. Range and stopping power tables for 2.5-12MeV/nucleon heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.; Fleury, A.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.

    1978-12-01

    A semi-empirical procedure to compute heavy ion stopping powers is presented. The calculations use recent stopping power values for alpha particles and a new parameterization for the effective charge taking into account the effect to the stopping medium. Stopping powers and ranges are tabulated for moving ions of atomic number 2<=Z<=45 in the energy region 2.5<=E/A<=12 MeV/nucleon for 18 solid materials

  5. Image simulation and a model of noise power spectra across a range of mammographic beam qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Alistair, E-mail: alistairmackenzie@nhs.net; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Diaz, Oliver [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom and Computer Vision and Robotics Research Institute, University of Girona, Girona 17071 (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to create a model to predict the noise power spectra (NPS) for a range of mammographic radiographic factors. The noise model was necessary to degrade images acquired on one system to match the image quality of different systems for a range of beam qualities. Methods: Five detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASEh), Carestream computed radiography CR900 (CRc), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream NIP (NIPc), and Siemens Inspiration (ASEs)] were characterized for this study. The signal transfer property was measured as the pixel value against absorbed energy per unit area (E) at a reference beam quality of 28 kV, Mo/Mo or 29 kV, W/Rh with 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at the tube head. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic at each spatial frequency of the NPS against E. A quantum noise correction factor which was dependent on beam quality was quantified using a set of images acquired over a range of radiographic factors with different thicknesses of PMMA. The noise model was tested for images acquired at 26 kV, Mo/Mo with 20 mm PMMA and 34 kV, Mo/Rh with 70 mm PMMA for three detectors (ASEh, CRc, and CSI) over a range of exposures. The NPS were modeled with and without the noise correction factor and compared with the measured NPS. A previous method for adapting an image to appear as if acquired on a different system was modified to allow the reference beam quality to be different from the beam quality of the image. The method was validated by adapting the ASEh flat field images with two thicknesses of PMMA (20 and 70 mm) to appear with the imaging characteristics of the CSI and CRc systems. Results: The quantum noise correction factor rises with higher beam qualities, except for CR systems at high spatial frequencies, where a flat response was found against mean photon energy. This is due to the dominance of secondary quantum noise

  6. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangWook Park

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP and the IEEE standard guidelines.

  7. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhyuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the IEEE standard guidelines. PMID:27898688

  8. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangWook; Kim, Minhyuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the IEEE standard guidelines.

  9. Rapid response and wide range neutronic power measuring systems for fast pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Iida, Toshiyuki; Wakayama, Naoaki.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes our investigation on design principles of the rapid, stable and wide range neutronic power measuring system for fast pulsed reactors. The picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier, the reactivity meter and the neutron current chamber are the items of investigation. In order to get a rapid response, the method of compensation for the stray capacitance of the feedback circuits and the capacitance of signal cables is applied to the picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier and the reactivity meter with consideration for the stability margin of a whole detecting system. The response of an ionization current chamber and the method for compensating the ion component of the chamber output to get optimum responses high pass filters are investigated. Statistical fluctuations of the current chamber output are also considered in those works. The optimum thickness of the surrounding moderator of the neutron detector is also discussed from the viewpoint of the pulse shape deformation and the neutron sensitivity increase. The experimental results are reported, which were observed in the pulse operations of the one shot fast pulsed reactor ''YAYOI'' and the one shot TRIGA ''NSRR'' with the measuring systems using those principles. (auth.)

  10. Design of planar electron gun for UHF range, CW power inductive output tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Meenu; Joshi, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inductive Output Tube (lOT) is an amplifier which is now-a-days in demand for scientific applications. For every vacuum tube, electron gun is an important part and in fact considered as the heart of the tube. Hence, designing of this component is very crucial for efficient operation of the device throughout its lifetime. This paper is all about the electromagnetic (EM) design of planar electron gun of 40 kV, 3.5 A beam voltage and beam current respectively, for a 100 kW CW power lOT operating in UHF range. The design considerations and basic equations involved in its design are included in the paper. The gun structure has been optimized for getting the desired beam characteristics. The simulation results including the beam profile along with the beam current are shown using two commercial codes namely TRAK and MAGIC code. Planar shape of electron beam reduces space charge forces in the beam itself and consequently beam energy spread for a given current. The magnetic focusing of planar beam is easier comparative to spherical beam hence, this structure has been adopted for this particular device design. (author)

  11. Investigation of electron and ion flows in the microsecond plasma opening switch on the terawatt power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrikov, A.N.; Bugaev, S.P.; Volkov, A.M.; Kim, A.A.; Kovalchuk, B.M.; Kokshener, V.M.; Yakovlev, V.A.; Bystritskii, V.M.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Krasik, Ya.E.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an investigation of ion and electron flows in the coaxial microsecond plasma opening switch (POS) at generator GIT-4 are given. The 1 mks front duration POS with outer and inner electrodes of 210 mm and 75 mm diameters respectively switched 1 MA pulse during 0.1 mks to the short circuited coaxial line with the same diameters and 120 cm of length. The polarity of the inner electrode was negative. The plasma of the POS was injected from outer electrode by 32 plasma guns of capillary type. The typical POS voltage was 0.9-1.2 MV. The calculated energy losses in the POS during the switching phase reached (0.1-0.15) MJ. The calorimetric measurements of the energy dissipated on both electrodes gave the same value. The location and distribution of the head absorbed along the POS electrodes were determined

  12. Tuning range and output power optimization of an external-cavity GaN diode laser at 455 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how different feedback gratings affect the tuning range and the output power of external feedback diode laser systems. A tunable high-power narrow-spectrum external-cavity diode laser system around 455 nm is investigated. The laser system is based on a high-power GaN diode...... laser in a Littrow external-cavity. Both a holographic diffraction grating and a ruled diffraction grating are used as feedback elements in the external cavity. The output power, spectral bandwidth, and tunable range of the external cavity diode laser system are measured and compared with the two...... gratings at different injected currents. When the holographic grating is used, the laser system can be tuned over a range of 1.4 nm with an output power around 530 mW. When the ruled grating is used, the laser system can be tuned over a range of 6.0 nm with an output power around 80 mW. The results can...

  13. Terminological dictionary of electrical power industry in range of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernacki, T.; Cegla, S.; Ciszewski, W.

    1990-08-01

    The dictionary contains about 5000 terms about conventional and nuclear power plants, energy sources, transmission lines, automation, power systems, environment protection, statistics etc. Each term is given with definition and its equivalents in English, French, German and Russian. Indexes of Polish, English, French, German and Russian terms are provided at the back of dictionary. (A.S.)

  14. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  15. Meso-meteorological effect of thermal releases from nuclear power plants in the GW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahloul, C.; Le Berre, P.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison is made between the energy released by nuclear power plants into the environment and the energy brought into action by meso-meteorological phenomena. Observations on the occasion of important heat release (forest fires) are made and compared with the thermal effluents generated by nuclear power plants [fr

  16. An Efficient Topology for Wireless Power Transfer over a Wide Range of Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although an inductive power transfer (IPT system can transfer power efficiently in full-load conditions, its efficiency obviously decreases in light-load conditions. To solve this problem, based on a two-coil IPT system with a series-series compensation topology, a single-ended primary-inductor converter is introduced at the secondary side. By adjusting the set effective value of the current in the primary coil, the converter input voltage changes to maintain the equivalent input resistance of the converter in an optimal condition. The system can then transfer the power efficiently with the wide load conditions. Moreover, the system operates at a constant resonance frequency with a high power factor. Both the simulation and experimentation of a prototype with a 10 W IPT system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology for wireless power transfer.

  17. A Low-Power High-Dynamic-Range Receiver System for In-Probe 3-D Ultrasonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Hourieh; Xu, Ye; Ytterdal, Trond

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a dual-mode low-power, high dynamic-range receiver circuit is designed for the interface with a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. The proposed ultrasound receiver chip enables the development of an in-probe digital beamforming imaging system. The flexibility of having two operation modes offers a high dynamic range with minimum power sacrifice. A prototype of the chip containing one receive channel, with one variable transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and one analog to digital converter (ADC) circuit is implemented. Combining variable gain TIA functionality with ADC gain settings achieves an enhanced overall high dynamic range, while low power dissipation is maintained. The chip is designed and fabricated in a 65 nm standard CMOS process technology. The test chip occupies an area of 76[Formula: see text] 170 [Formula: see text]. A total average power range of 60-240 [Formula: see text] for a sampling frequency of 30 MHz, and a center frequency of 5 MHz is measured. An instantaneous dynamic range of 50.5 dB with an overall dynamic range of 72 dB is obtained from the receiver circuit.

  18. ESTAR, PSTAR, ASTAR. A PC package for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions. Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A PC package is documented for calculating stopping powers and ranges of electrons, protons and helium ions in matter for energies from 1 keV up to 10 GeV. Stopping powers and ranges for electrons can be calculated for any element, compound or mixture. Stopping powers and ranges of protons and helium ions can be calculated for 74 materials (26 elements and 48 compounds and mixtures). The files are stored on two HD diskettes in compressed form. Both executable files for IBM PC and Fortran-77 source files are provided. All three programs require 5.2 Mb of disk space. This set of two diskettes with detailed documentation is available upon request, cost free, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 25 refs, 4 tabs

  19. On generation of high power x-rays in the range 7-20 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratakhin, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    An attempt is made on the base of general relations to evaluate possibility of two approaches to the problem of receiving powerful x-radiation id spectral range of (7-20) keV. Extremely cut possibilities of electron beams of vacuum diodes and Z-pinch plasma thermal radiation are shown. Some perspectives of increasing such radiation power in connection with possibility of generation of high-energy electrons in Z-pinch plasma are noted

  20. Safety and reliability in nuclear power plants operation using total range simulators for operators training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, E.; Espinosa, G.; Rodriguez, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology developed for the management of the configuration simulator, unit 1 of Laguna Verde's nucleoelectric power station. This methodology has the purchase to conclude the simulator modernization and to have interaction with the power station's administration. The validation and the application of this methodology is also presented as well as the up-to-date results. (B.C.A.). 12 refs, 01 fig

  1. Use of a range scaling method to determine alanine/water stopping power ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Sephton, J.P.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Shipley, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    A phantom composed of alanine dosimeter material has been constructed and depth-dose measurements made in a 10 MeV electron beam. The results have demonstrated the feasibility of using relative depth-dose measurements to determine stopping power ratios in materials of dosimetric interest. Experimental stopping power ratios for alanine dosimeter material and water agreed with the data of ICRU Report 37 within the uncertainty of the experiment (±1.2% at a 95% confidence level)

  2. Diode lasers with asymmetric barriers for 850 nm spectral range: experimental studies of power characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubov, F. I.; Zhukov, A. E.; Shernyakov, Yu M.

    2015-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the use of asymmetric barrier layers in a waveguide of a diode laser suppress non-linearity of light-current characteristic and thus improve its power characteristics under high current injection. The results are presented for 850-nm AlGaAs/GaAs broad-area lasers with Ga...

  3. Low-Voltage, Low-Power, and Wide-Tuning-Range Ring-VCO for Frequency ΔΣ Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A low-voltage, low-power, and wide-tuning-range VCO which converts an analog input voltage to phase information for a frequency ΔΣ modulator is proposed in this paper. The VCO is based on a differential ring oscillator, which is improved with modified symmetric load and a positive feedback...

  4. A Reactance Compensated Three-Device Doherty Power Amplifier for Bandwidth and Back-Off Range Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new broadband Doherty power amplifier topology with extended back-off range. A shunted λ/4 short line or λ/2 open line working as compensating reactance is introduced to the conventional load modulation network, which greatly improves its bandwidth. Underlying bandwidth extension mechanism of the proposed configuration is comprehensively analyzed. A three-device Doherty power amplifier is implemented for demonstration based on Cree’s 10 W HEMTs. Measurements show that at least 41% drain efficiency is maintained from 2.0 GHz to 2.6 GHz at 8 dB back-off range. In the same operating band, saturation power is larger than 43.6 dBm and drain efficiency is higher than 53%.

  5. High power heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, A.P.; Sprott, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fast wave heating at the second, third and fourth harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance, and slow wave heating at the fundamental in a single ion species hydrogen plasma, are found to be in good agreement with warm plasma theory at rf power levels <= 130 kW. Ion heating is negligible off an eigenmode. Ion body temperatures are more than doubled to 75 eV from the 35 eV ohmically heated case with tails comprising 8% of the plasma at 320 eV. No deleterious effects except a non-disruptive 10% shortening of the discharge length caused by impurity influx are noted. A passive mode tracking technique allows approximately equal to 40% increase in power deposition in a passing eigenmode over that of a fixed frequency rf source. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange due to the < 50 eV central temperature and the small 13 cm radius current channel. (author)

  6. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  7. An Efficiency-Optimized Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Extended Power Range for Energy Storage Systems in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel extended-single-phase shift (ESPS control strategy of isolated bidirectional full-bridge DC-DC converters (IBDCs which are a promising alternative as a power electronic interface in microgrids with an additional function of galvanic isolation. Based on the mathematical models of ESPS control under steady-state conditions, detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of IBDC under ESPS control are presented. Compared with conventional single-phase-shift (CSPS control, ESPS control can greatly improve the efficiency of IBDCs in microgrids through decreasing current stress and backflow power considerably over a wide input and output voltage range under light and medium loads. In addition, ESPS control only needs to adjust one single phase-shift angel to control transmission power, thus it retains implementation simplicity in comparison with dual-phase-shift (DPS control for microgrid applications. Furthermore, an efficiency-optimized modulation scheme based on ESPS and CSPS control is developed in the whole power range of IBDC for power distribution in microgrids. A 10 kW IBDC prototype is constructed and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, showing that the proposed strategy can enhance the overall efficiency up to 30%.

  8. Anisotropic metamaterial for efficiency enhancement of mid-range wireless power transfer under coil misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, A L A K; Moscoso, Carlos Arriola; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils is one of the key factors affecting efficiency. Recently, metamaterials have shown great potential to enhance electromagnetic propagation in various environments. In this work, we apply a metamaterial to enhance the WPT in a more general environment where misalignment is considered. Using an anisotropic metamaterial, we obtain a significant efficiency enhancement. Therefore, we propose that the metamaterial is an effective means to mitigate the decreased efficiency caused by misalignment. In addition, we investigate the effect of coil misalignment on the threshold distance beyond which the metamaterial enhances the performance of WPT. (paper)

  9. FLIP: Federation support for Long range low power Internet of things Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Delbruel, Stéphane; Small, Nicolas; Hughes, Danny

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in the Internet of Things (IoT) and especially Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN), which are rapidly being rolled-out globally. Within the LPWAN market, LoRaWAN is considered a leading solution which has achieved significant success. Despite the rapid uptake of LoRaWAN, scalability concerns arising from interference and contention are also growing. While the current LoRaWAN protocol includes basic techniques to deal with these problems, recent research has shown th...

  10. BEGA Starter/Alternator - Vector Control Implementation and Performance for Wide Speed Range at Unity Power Factor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion; Coroban-Schramel, Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobile (BEGA) is proposed as a solution for integrated starter/alternator systems used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper demonstrates through experiments and simulations that BEGA has a very large constant power speed range (CPSR), theoretically...... to infinite. A vector control structure is proposed for BEGA operation during motoring and generating, at unity power factor with zero d-axis current (id) and zero q-axis flux (Ψq) control. In such conditions BEGA behaves like a truly dc. brush machine (with zero reactance in steady state !). A high iq...

  11. BEGA Starter/Alternator—Vector Control Implementation and Performance for Wide Speed Range at Unity Power Factor Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobiles (BEGA) is proposed as a solution for integrated starter/alternator systems used in hybrid electric vehicles. This paper demonstrates through experiments and simulations that BEGA has a very large constant power speed range. A vector control structure...... is proposed for BEGA operation during motoring and generating, at unity power factor with zero d-axis current (id) and zero q-axis flux (Ψq) control. In such conditions, BEGA behaves like a separately excited dc brush(commutator) machine, in the sense that no stator inductance voltage drop occurs...

  12. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  13. High-power cw laser bars of the 750 – 790-nm wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyareva, N S; Kondakov, S A; Mikayelyan, G T; Gorlachuk, P V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Yarotskaya, I V

    2013-01-01

    We have developed the effective design of semiconductor heterostructures, which allow one to fabricate cw laser diodes emitting in the 750 – 790-nm spectral range. The optimal conditions for fabrication of GaAsP/AlGaInP/GaAs heterostructures by MOCVD have been determined. It is shown that the use of quantum wells with a precisely defined quantity mismatch reduces the threshold current density and increases the external differential efficiency. The results of studies of characteristics of diode laser bars fabricated from these heterostructures are presented. (lasers)

  14. Wide Input Range Power Converters Using a Variable Turns Ratio Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    A new integrated transformer with variable turns ratio is proposed to enable dc-dc converters operating over a wide input voltage range. The integrated transformer employs a new geometry of magnetic core with “four legs”, two primary windings with orthogonal arrangement, and “8” shape connection...... of diagonal secondary windings, in order to make the transformer turns ratio adjustable by controlling the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the two primary windings. Full-bridge boost dc-dc converter is employed with the proposed transformer to demonstrate the feasibility of the variable...

  15. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Cannon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this paper, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state.The bounds of skilful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6–8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4–2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5–5.5 days. The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days.

  16. Technical and economic feasibility of development innovative technological solutions for expansion the adjustment range of high-power CCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andryushin, A. V.; Burtsev, S. Y.; Andryushin, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of technical and parametric constraints on the adjustment range of highpower CCP and recommended technological solutions in the technical literature for their elimination. Established that in the conditions of toughening the requirements for economy, reliability and maneuverability on the part of the system operator with the participation of CCP in control the frequency and power in the power system, existing methods do not ensure the fulfillment of these requirements. The current situation in the energy sector — the lack of highly manoeuvrable power equipment leads to the need participate in control of power consumption diagrams for all types of power plants, including CCP, although initially they were intended primarily for basic loads. Large-scale research conducted at the department of Automated control systems of technological processes, showed the possibility of a significant expansion of the adjustment range of CCP when it operating in the condensing mode and in the heating mode. The report presents the main results of these research for example the CCP-450 and CCP-450T. Various technological solutions are considered: when CCP in the condensation mode — the use of bypass steam distribution schemes, the transfer of a part of the steam turbine into a low-steam mode; when CCP operation in the heating mode — bypass steam distribution and the transfer CCP to gas turbine unit — power heating plants mode with the transfer the steam turbine to the motor mode. Data on the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed innovative technological solutions are presented in comparison with the methods used to solve this problem, which are used in practice, such as passing through the failures of the electric load graphs by transferring the CCP to the mode of operation with incomplete equipment. When comparing, both the economics, and the maneuverability and reliability of the equipment are considered.

  17. Performance of a single nutating disk engine in the 2 to 500 kW power range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korakianitis, T.; Boruta, M.; Jerovsek, J.; Meitner, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    A new type of internal combustion engine with distinct advantages over conventional piston-engines and gas turbines in small power ranges is presented. The engine has analogies with piston engine operation, but like gas turbines it has dedicated spaces and devices for compression, burning and expansion. The engine operates on a modified limited-pressure thermodynamic cycle. The core of the engine is a nutating non-rotating disk, with the center of its hub mounted in the middle of a Z-shaped shaft. The two ends of the shaft rotate, while the disk nutates. The motion of the disk circumference prescribes a portion of a sphere. In the single-disk configuration a portion of the surface area of the disk is used for intake and compression, a portion is used to seal against a center casing, and the remaining portion is used for expansion and exhaust. The compressed air is admitted to an external accumulator, and then into an external combustion chamber before it is admitted to the power side of the disk. The external combustion chamber enables the engine to operate on a variable compression ratio cycle. Variations in cycle temperature ratio and compression ratio during normal operation enable the engine to effectively become a variable-cycle engine, allowing significant flexibility for optimizing efficiency or power output. The thermal efficiency is similar to that of medium sized diesel engines. For the same engine volume and weight this engine produces approximately twice the power of a two-stroke engine and four times the power of a four-stroke engine. The computed sea-level engine performance at design and off-design conditions in the 2 to 500 kW power range is presented.

  18. High-power Bessel beams with orbital angular momentum in the terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choporova, Yu. Yu.; Knyazev, B. A.; Kulipanov, G. N.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Scheglov, M. A.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Volodkin, B. O.; Zhabin, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have performed experimental, analytical, and numerical studies of beams with topological charges of ±1 and ±2 formed by silicon binary phase axicons (BPAs) with spiral zone structures. The axicons were illuminated with the Novosibirsk free electron laser radiation (a continuous stream of 100-ps pulses at f =5.6 MHz). The cw power of the beams produced reached 30 W and can by doubled via antireflection coating of the axicons. The intensity distribution in the beam cross sections was in good agreement with the Bessel functions and was kept constant within a distance of about L /r ≈190 and 100, where the first ring radii of the beams r were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for the Bessel beams of the first and second orders, respectively. Although the characteristics of the beams (Bessel cross section, "diffraction-free" propagation, self-recovery after passing obstacles, and randomly inhomogeneous media) corresponded to the properties of ideal Bessel beams, their spatial Fourier spectrum (the image in the focal plane of the lens) was, instead of an ideal ring, intertwined segments of arcs with phases shifted by π , the number of which was equal to the double value of the topological charge. This feature can be used, for example, in a demultiplexing unit of a free vortex-wave communication system or for identification of beam topological charge. We also revisited Young's double-slit diffraction and rotation of beams obstructed by a half-plane, previously applied to Laguerre-Gaussian beam characterization, in the case of the Bessel beams. The Young diffraction pattern demonstrated in this case a complicated intensity-phase distribution. It was shown that the Bessel beams formed by BPAs have two important advantages, which can be used in applications, in comparison with other methods of generation, e.g., a combination of an axicon lens with a spiral phase plate. Although the phase jumps of the axicons are designed for a determined wavelength (141 μ m in our case

  19. Long range transport of fine particle windblown soils and coal fired power station emissions into Hanoi between 2001 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Crawford, J.; Stelcer, E.; Vuong, T.B. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, NSW (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), source fingerprints and their contributions have been measured and reported previously at Hanoi, Vietnam, from 25 April 2001 to 31 December 2008. In this study back trajectories are used to identify long range transport into Hanoi for two of these sources, namely, windblown dust (Soil) from 12 major deserts in China and emissions from 33 coal fired power plants (Coal) in Vietnam and China. There were 28 days of extreme Soil events with concentrations greater than 6 {mu} g m{sup -3} and 25 days of extreme Coal with concentrations greater than 30 {mu} g m{sup -3} from a total of 748 sampling days during the study period. Through the use of back trajectories it was found that long range transport of soil from the Taklamakan and Gobi desert regions (more than 3000 km to the north west) accounted for 76% of the extreme events for Soil. The three local Vietnamese power stations contributed to 15% of the extreme Coal events, while four Chinese power stations between 300 km and 1700 km to the north-east of Hanoi contributed 50% of the total extreme Coal events measured at the Hanoi sampling site.

  20. IAEA releases nuclear power statistics for 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to data reported to the IAEA Power Reactor Information System, a total of 438 NPPs were operating around the world at the end of 2000. The total installed power from NPPs was 351 GWe. During 2000, six plants were connected to the grid, construction of three new nuclear reactors started, bringing the total number of reactors under construction to 31. Worldwide in 2000, total nuclear generated electricity increased to 2447.53 terawatt-hours. Cumulative worldwide operating experience from civil nuclear power reactors at the end of 2000 exceeded 9800 reactor years

  1. Ultra-low power anti-crosstalk collision avoidance light detection and ranging using chaotic pulse position modulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jie; Gong Ma-li; Du Peng-fei; Lu Bao-jie; Zhang Fan; Zhang Hai-tao; Fu Xing

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of collision avoidance single-photon light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for vehicles has been demonstrated, in which chaotic pulse position modulation is applied on the transmitted laser pulses for robust anti-crosstalk purposes. Besides, single-photon detectors (SPD) and time correlated single photon counting techniques are adapted, to sense the ultra-low power used for the consideration of compact structure and eye safety. Parameters including pulse rate, discrimination threshold, and number of accumulated pulses have been thoroughly analyzed based on the detection requirements, resulting in specified receiver operating characteristics curves. Both simulation and indoor experiments were performed to verify the excellent anti-crosstalk capability of the presented collision avoidance LIDAR despite ultra-low transmitting power. (paper)

  2. Resolution of issues with renewable energy penetration in a long-range power system demand-supply planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Yuichi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ikegami, Takashi; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Azuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Under the anticipated high penetration of variable renewable energy generation such as photovoltaic, the issue of supply demand balance should be evaluated and fixed. Technologies such as demand activation, and energy storage are expected to solve the issue. Under the situation, a long-range power system supply demand analysis should have the capability for the evaluation in its analysis steps of demand preparation, maintenance scheduling, and economic dispatch analysis. This paper presents results of a parametric analysis of the reduction of PV and Wind generation curtailment reduction by deployment of batteries. Based on a set of scenarios of the prospects of Japan's 10 power system demand-supply condition in 2030, the demand-supply balance capability are analyzed assuming PV and wind generation variation, demand activation and dispatchable batteries. (author)

  3. Brain oscillatory subsequent memory effects differ in power and long-range synchronization between semantic and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Marie-Christin; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Memory crucially depends on the way information is processed during encoding. Differences in processes during encoding not only lead to differences in memory performance but also rely on different brain networks. Although these assumptions are corroborated by several previous fMRI and ERP studies, little is known about how brain oscillations dissociate between different memory encoding tasks. The present study therefore compared encoding related brain oscillatory activity elicited by two very efficient encoding tasks: a typical deep semantic item feature judgment task and a more elaborative survival encoding task. Subjects were asked to judge words either for survival relevance or for animacy, as indicated by a cue presented prior to the item. This allowed dissociating pre-item activity from item-related activity for both tasks. Replicating prior studies, survival processing led to higher recognition performance than semantic processing. Successful encoding in the semantic condition was reflected by a strong decrease in alpha and beta power, whereas successful encoding in the survival condition was related to increased alpha and beta long-range phase synchrony. Moreover, a pre-item subsequent memory effect in theta power was found which did not vary with encoding condition. These results show that measures of local synchrony (power) and global long range-synchrony (phase synchronization) dissociate between memory encoding processes. Whereas semantic encoding was reflected in decreases in local synchrony, increases in global long range synchrony were related to elaborative survival encoding, presumably reflecting the involvement of a more widespread cortical network in this task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Realization of Low-Power and Low-Distortion Multiplier Circuit with Improved Dynamic Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naderi Saatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel topology of four-quadrant analog multiplier circuit is presented in this paper. The voltage mode technique is employed to design the circuit in CMOS technology. The dynamic input and output ranges of the circuit are improved owing to the fact that the circuit works in the saturation region not in weak inversion. Also the proposed multiplier is suitable for low voltage operation and its power consumption is relatively low. In order to verify the performance of the proposed circuit, performance of the circuit affected by second order effects including transistor mismatch and mobility reduction is analyzed in detail. It will be shown that any conceivable mismatch in the transistor parameters leads to second harmonic distortion. Additionally, the effect of mobility reduction in the third harmonic distortion will be computed. In order to simulate the circuit, Cadence and HSPICE software are used with TSMC level 49 (BSIM3v3 parameters for 0.18 μm CMOS technology, where under supply voltage of 1.5 V, total power consumption is 44 µW, the corresponding average nonlinearity remains as low as 1 %, and the input range of the circuit is ± 400 mV.

  5. A fully integrated, wide-load-range, high-power-conversion-efficiency switched capacitor DC-DC converter with adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Hirose, Tetsuya; Kojima, Yuta; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-load-range switched-capacitor DC-DC buck converter with an adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit. The proposed converter is based on a conventional one and modified to operate in a wide load range by developing a load current monitor used in an adaptive bias comparator. Measurement results demonstrated that our proposed converter generates a 1.0 V output voltage from a 3.0 V input voltage at a load of up to 100 µA, which is 20 times higher than that of the conventional one. The power conversion efficiency was higher than 60% in the load range from 0.8 to 100 µA.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, X. Ronald; Park, Peter C.; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E.; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.

  7. Low-power low-noise mixed-mode VLSI ASIC for infinite dynamic range imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetta, Renato; Hu, Y.; Zinzius, Y.; Colledani, C.; Loge, A.

    1998-11-01

    Solid state solutions for imaging are mainly represented by CCDs and, more recently, by CMOS imagers. Both devices are based on the integration of the total charge generated by the impinging radiation, with no processing of the single photon information. The dynamic range of these devices is intrinsically limited by the finite value of noise. Here we present the design of an architecture which allows efficient, in-pixel, noise reduction to a practically zero level, thus allowing infinite dynamic range imaging. A detailed calculation of the dynamic range is worked out, showing that noise is efficiently suppressed. This architecture is based on the concept of single-photon counting. In each pixel, we integrate both the front-end, low-noise, low-power analog part and the digital part. The former consists of a charge preamplifier, an active filter for optimal noise bandwidth reduction, a buffer and a threshold comparator, and the latter is simply a counter, which can be programmed to act as a normal shift register for the readout of the counters' contents. Two different ASIC's based on this concept have been designed for different applications. The first one has been optimized for silicon edge-on microstrips detectors, used in a digital mammography R and D project. It is a 32-channel circuit, with a 16-bit binary static counter.It has been optimized for a relatively large detector capacitance of 5 pF. Noise has been measured to be equal to 100 + 7*Cd (pF) electron rms with the digital part, showing no degradation of the noise performances with respect to the design values. The power consumption is 3.8mW/channel for a peaking time of about 1 microsecond(s) . The second circuit is a prototype for pixel imaging. The total active area is about (250 micrometers )**2. The main differences of the electronic architecture with respect to the first prototype are: i) different optimization of the analog front-end part for low-capacitance detectors, ii) in- pixel 4-bit comparator

  8. Range-energy relations and stopping power of water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid for α particles over the energy range 0.5 to 8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.J.; Akhavan-Rezayat, Ahmad

    1978-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid at energies up to 8 MeV. From these relations differential stopping powers are derived at 0.25 MeV energy intervals. Consideration is given to sources of error in the range-energy measurements and to the uncertainties that these will introduce into the stopping power values. The ratio of the differential stopping power of muscle equivalent liquid to that of water over the energy range 0.5 to 7.5 MeV is discussed in relation to the specific gravity and chemical composition of the muscle equivalent liquid. Theoretical molecular stopping power calculations based upon the Bethe formula are also presented for water. The effect of phase upon the stopping power of water is discussed. The molecular stopping power of water vapour is shown to be significantly higher than that of water for energies below 1.25 MeV and above 2.5 MeV, the ratio of the two stopping powers rising to 1.39 at 0.5 MeV and to 1.13 at 7.0 MeV. Stopping power measurements for other liquids and vapours are compared with the results for water and water vapour and some are observed to have stopping power ratios in the vapour and liquid phases which vary with energy in a similar way to water. It is suggested that there may be several factors contributing to the increased stopping power of liquids. The need for further experimental results on a wider range of liquids is stressed

  9. A study of the long-range inspection method for on-line monitoring of pipes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Lim, Sa Hoe; Kim, Jae Hee; Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung Jin

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of an advanced on-line monitoring of the component integrity offers the prospect of an improved performance, enhanced safety, and reduced overall cost for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Also ultrasonic guided ultrasonic wave has been known as one of the promising techniques that could be utilized for on-line monitoring, because it enables us to undertake a long-range inspection of structures such as plates and pipes. The present work is aimed at developing a new method using ultrasonic guided waves for the on-line monitoring of pipes. For this purpose we fabricated the necessary hardware and carried out transmitter tuning, group velocity measurement, receiver tuning, and mode identification. Finally we carried out an experiment on a long-range inspection with the developed hardware and the techniques. In the experiment, we could detect the flaws at a distance of about 20M from the transmitter, and we could verify the possibility of using the developed hardware and techniques for on-line monitoring of pipes in NPPs

  10. Ultra-low-power and ultra-low-cost short-range wireless receivers in nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhicheng; Martins, Rui Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a description of state-of-the-art techniques to be used for ultra-low-power (ULP) and ultra-low-cost (ULC), short-range wireless receivers. Readers will learn what is required to deploy these receivers in short-range wireless sensor networks, which are proliferating widely to serve the internet of things (IoT) for “smart cities.” The authors address key challenges involved with the technology and the typical tradeoffs between ULP and ULC. Three design examples with advanced circuit techniques are described in order to address these trade-offs, which specially focus on cost minimization. These three techniques enable respectively, cascading of radio frequency (RF) and baseband (BB) circuits under an ultra-low-voltage (ULV) supply, cascoding of RF and BB circuits in current domain for current reuse, and a novel function-reuse receiver architecture, suitable for ULV and multi-band ULP applications such as the sub-GHz ZigBee. ·         Summarizes the state-of-the-art i...

  11. Foundations of pulsed power technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lehr, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed power technologies could be an answer to many cutting-edge applications. The challenge is in how to develop this high-power/high-energy technology to fit current market demands of low-energy consuming applications. This book provides a comprehensive look at pulsed power technology and shows how it can be improved upon for the world of today and tomorrow. Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology focuses on the design and construction of the building blocks as well as their optimum assembly for synergetic high performance of the overall pulsed power system. Filled with numerous design examples throughout, the book offers chapter coverage on various subjects such as: Marx generators and Marx-like circuits; pulse transformers; pulse-forming lines; closing switches; opening switches; multi-gigawatt to multi-terawatt systems; energy storage in capacitor banks; electrical breakdown in gases; electrical breakdown in solids, liquids and vacuum; pulsed voltage and current measurements; electromagnetic interferen...

  12. Efficacy of the Yumeiho therapy massage on Repositioning error, Range of motion trunk Flexation and functional power in women volleyball players with Hyper lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef yarahmadi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: results showed that the effect of Yumeiho therapy massage on repositioning error, Flexation range of motion trunk and functional power had a significant. It therapists recommended to include Yumeiho therapy massage in order to enhance these variables.

  13. Contribution of power lasers to fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainfray, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of power lasers for studying the response of atoms that are perturbed by an intense laser electromagnetic field was considered at the CEA as soon as 1966, leading to a new research domain, atom multi-photonic ionization, and the analysis of the photon-matter interaction. The development of a new generation of compact laser delivering several terawatt in a few tenth of picoseconds resulting in illuminations superior to 10 18 W/cm 2 , enabled the shift to researches concerning photon-plasma interactions and the relativistic regime of the laser-plasma interaction

  14. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  15. STOPOW/82 program for calculations of stopping powers and ranges for heavy ions in the energy range from 1 keV to 10 GeV/a.m.u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henniger, J.; Horlbeck, B.

    1983-01-01

    The program ST0POW/82 is created to calculate the stopping power and range of ions up to uranium in the energy range 1 keV/a. m. u. - 10 GeV/a. m. u. in any amorphous matter. The program is based on Ziegler's catalogue data and Ahlen's theoretical treatments. The Zsub(eff)sup(3) relativistic Bloch and Mott corrections and corrections on density effect are taken into account in the calculations. An opportunity of 9 different functions removal, derivative on the stopping power and range, for example, primary ionization and LET, and also of ion parameters, such as β, Zsub(eff)sup(2)/βsup(2) is foreseen. The program is written in FORTRAN language in version for the CDC-6500 computer. The program needs a minimized input also for compound targets. So it is useful for many problems in applied sciences and experimental physics

  16. Design of a fiber optic multi-tapped computer bus for a pulsed power control system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritton, D.G.; Berkbigler, L.W.; Oicles, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Control system techniques developed and proven on the Shiva laser have been extended to incorporate new electronic and electo-optic devices as well as conform to unique operational requirements of the 300 terawatt Nova laser system. This paper describes one segment of the control system being designed for the Nova laser currently under design/construction at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The specific segment covered is the control system bus structure responsible for power conditioning and real-time control functions

  17. Stopping power of liquid water for carbon ions in the energy range between 1 MeV and 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, J M; Baek, W Y; Rabus, H; Hofsäss, H

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of liquid water was measured for the first time for carbon ions in the energy range between 1 and 6 MeV using the inverted Doppler shift attenuation method. The feasibility study carried out within the scope of the present work shows that this method is well suited for the quantification of the controversial condensed phased effect in the stopping power for heavy ions in the intermediate energy range. The preliminary results of this work indicate that the stopping power of water for carbon ions with energies prevailing in the Bragg-peak region is significantly lower than that of water vapor. In view of the relatively high uncertainty of the present results, a new experiment with uncertainties less than the predicted difference between the stopping powers of both water phases is planned. (paper)

  18. Application of Boost Converter to Increase the Speed Range of Dual-stator Winding Induction Generator in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavousi, Ayoub; Fathi, S. Hamid; Milimonfared, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a topology using a Dual-stator Winding Induction Generator (DWIG) and a boost converter is proposed for the variable speed wind power application. At low rotor speeds, the generator saturation limits the voltage of the DWIG. Using a boost converter, higher DC voltage can be produced...... while the DWIG operates at Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) even at low speed and low voltage conditions. Semiconductor Excitation Controller (SEC) of the DWIG utilizes Control-Winding Voltage Oriented Control (CWVOC) method to adjust the voltage, considering V/f characteristics. For the proposed...... topology, the SEC capacity and the excitation capacitor is optimized by analyzing the SEC reactive current considering wind turbine power-speed curve, V/f strategy, and the generator parameters. The method shows that the per-unit capacity of the SEC can be limited to the inverse of DWIG magnetizing...

  19. Milliwatt-level output power in the sub-terahertz range generated by photomixing in a GaAs photoconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Lepilliet, S.; Hindle, F.; Coinon, C.; Akalin, T.; Ducournau, G.; Mouret, G.; Lampin, J.-F.

    2011-11-01

    It is shown from accurate on-wafer measurement that continuous wave output powers of 1.2 mW at 50 GHz and 0.35 mW at 305 GHz can be generated by photomixing in a low temperature grown GaAs photoconductor using a metallic mirror Fabry-Pérot cavity. The output power is improved by a factor of about 100 as compared to the previous works on GaAs photomixers. A satisfactory agreement between the theory and the experiment is obtained in considering both the contribution of the holes and the electrons to the total photocurrent.

  20. Strong doping of the n-optical confinement layer for increasing output power of high- power pulsed laser diodes in the eye safe wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Boris S.; Avrutin, Eugene A.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model for internal optical losses at high power in a 1.5 μm laser diode with strong n-doping in the n-side of the optical confinement layer is created. The model includes intervalence band absorption by holes supplied by both current flow and two-photon absorption (TPA), as well as the direct TPA effect. The resulting losses are compared with those in an identical structure with a weakly doped waveguide, and shown to be substantially lower, resulting in a significant improvement in the output power and efficiency in the structure with a strongly doped waveguide.

  1. Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control -- Part I: Theory and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    An inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance, surface-mounted permanent magnet motors over the wide constant power speed range required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC)[1]. The DMIC can drive either the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) with sinusoidal back emf, or the brushless dc machine (BDCM) with trapezoidal emf in the motoring and regenerative braking modes. In this paper we concentrate on the BDCM under high-speed motoring conditions. Simulation results show that if all motor and inverter loss mechanisms are neglected, the constant power speed range of the DMIC is infinite. The simulation results are supported by closed form expressions for peak and rms motor current and average power derived from analytical solution to the differential equations governing the DMIC/BDCM drive for the lossless case. The analytical solution shows that the range of motor inductance that can be accommodated by the DMIC is more than an order of magnitude such that the DMIC is compatible with both low- and high-inductance BDCMs. Finally, method is given for integrating the classical hysteresis band current control, used for motor control below base speed, with the phase advance of DMIC that is applied above base speed. The power versus speed performance of the DMIC is then simulated across the entire speed range

  2. Improvement of input power dynamic range for 20 Gbit/s optical WDM switch nodes using an integrated Michelson wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    be improved compared to switch blocks without IWCs. This is especially important at high bit rates where the cascadability of the SOA gates decreases. Here, more than 15 dB improvement of the input power dynamic range is achieved at 20 Gbit/s using a high-speed Michelson interferometer wavelength converter...

  3. A wide range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop with automatic frequency setting in 130 nm CMOS technology for data serialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moroń, J.; Świentek, K.

    2015-01-01

    The design and measurements results of a wide frequency range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) for applications in readout systems of particle physics detectors are presented. The PLL was fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. To allow the implementation of different data serialisation schemes multiple division factors (6, 8, 10, 16) were implemented in the PLL feedback loop. The main PLL block—VCO works in 16 frequency ranges/modes, switched either manually or automatically. A dedicated automatic frequency mode switching circuit was developed to allow simple frequency tuning. Although the PLL was designed and simulated for a frequency range of 30 MHz–3 GHz, due to the SLVS interface limits, the measurements were done only up to 1.3 GHz. The full PLL functionality was experimentally verified, confirming a very low and frequency scalable power consumption (0.7 mW at 1 GHz)

  4. A wide range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop with automatic frequency setting in 130 nm CMOS technology for data serialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moroń, J.; Świentek, K.

    2015-12-01

    The design and measurements results of a wide frequency range ultra-low power Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) for applications in readout systems of particle physics detectors are presented. The PLL was fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. To allow the implementation of different data serialisation schemes multiple division factors (6, 8, 10, 16) were implemented in the PLL feedback loop. The main PLL block—VCO works in 16 frequency ranges/modes, switched either manually or automatically. A dedicated automatic frequency mode switching circuit was developed to allow simple frequency tuning. Although the PLL was designed and simulated for a frequency range of 30 MHz-3 GHz, due to the SLVS interface limits, the measurements were done only up to 1.3 GHz. The full PLL functionality was experimentally verified, confirming a very low and frequency scalable power consumption (0.7 mW at 1 GHz).

  5. Power and efficiency scaling of diode pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers: 770-1110 nm tuning range and frequency doubling to 387-463 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, Umit; Baali, Ilyes

    2015-10-15

    We report significant average power and efficiency scaling of diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers in continuous-wave (cw), cw frequency-doubled, and mode-locked regimes. Four single-emitter broad-area laser diodes around 660 nm were used as the pump source, which provided a total pump power of 7.2 W. To minimize thermal effects, a 20 mm long Cr:LiSAF sample with a relatively low Cr-concentration (0.8%) was used as the gain medium. In cw laser experiments, 2.4 W of output power, a slope efficiency of 50%, and a tuning range covering the 770-1110 nm region were achieved. Intracavity frequency doubling with beta-barium borate (BBO) crystals generated up to 1160 mW of blue power and a record tuning range in the 387-463 nm region. When mode locked with a saturable absorber mirror, the laser produced 195 fs pulses with 580 mW of average power around 820 nm at a 100.3 MHz repetition rate. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the system was 33% in cw, 16% in cw frequency-doubled, and 8% in cw mode-locked regimes.

  6. The precision of proton range calculations in proton radiotherapy treatment planning: experimental verification of the relation between CT-HU and proton stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner, B.; Pedroni, E.

    1998-01-01

    The precision in proton radiotherapy treatment planning depends on the accuracy of the information used to calculate the stopping power properties of the tissues in the patient's body. This information is obtained from computed tomography (CT) images using a calibration curve to convert CT Hounsfield units into relative proton stopping power values. The validity of a stoichiometric method to create the calibration curve has been verified by measuring pairs of Hounsfield units and stopping power values for animal tissue samples. It was found that the agreement between measurement and calibration curve is better than 1% if beam hardening effects in the acquisition of the CT images can be neglected. The influence of beam hardening effects on the quantitative reading of the CT measurements is discussed and an estimation for the overall range precision of proton beams is given. It is expected that the range of protons in the human body can be controlled to better than ±1.1% of the water equivalent range in soft tissue and ±1.8% in bone, which translates into a range precision of about 1-3 mm in typical treatment situations. (author)

  7. Testing of ground fault relay response during the energisation of megawatt range electric boilers in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    , with the advantage that the warmed water can be reused in a thermal power plant or at regional heating, thus, minimising the overall losses. However, one problem was raised by those purchasing the boilers, mainly the possibility of an unwanted triggering of the protections relays, especially ground fault protection...... for the testing of two ground fault protection relays, in order to assure that they are not triggered by the energisation of the boiler. The test is performed via an OMICRON CMC 256 with Advanced TransPlay SW, which generates the signals that would be present at the secondary of the instrumentation transformers......, during the energisation of a boiler. A special case for concern was the presence of an electric arc between the electrodes of the boiler and the water in the boiler during approximately 2s at the energisation, which can in theory be seen as a ground fault by the relay. The voltage and current transient...

  8. A Low-Power Single-Bit Continuous-Time ΔΣ Converter with 92.5 dB Dynamic Range for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Saxena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A third-order single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator for generic biomedical applications is implemented in a 0.15 µm FDSOI CMOS process. The overall power efficiency is attained by employing a single-bit ΔΣ and a subthreshold FDSOI process. The loop-filter coefficients are determined using a systematic design centering approach by accounting for the integrator non-idealities. The single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator consumes 110 µW power from a 1.5 V power supply when clocked at 6.144 MHz. The simulation results for the modulator exhibit a dynamic range of 94.4 dB and peak SNDR of 92.4 dB for 6 kHz signal bandwidth. The figure of merit (FoM for the third-order, single-bit CT-ΔΣ modulator is 0.271 pJ/level.

  9. Innovative Free-range Resonant Electrical Energy Delivery system (FREE-D System) for a ventricular assist device using wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Benjamin H; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovation of a smaller, single moving part has an advantage over earlier large pulsatile ventricular assist devices (VADs) prone to mechanical failure. Drivelines limit the potential for extended patient survival durations with newer pumps and act as source for infection, increased morbidity, rehospitalizations, and reduced quality of life. The Free-range Resonant Electrical Energy Delivery (FREE-D) wireless power system uses magnetically coupled resonators to efficiently transfer power. We demonstrate the efficiency over distance of this system. The experimental setup consists of an radiofrequency amplifier and control board which drives the transmit resonator coil, and a receiver unit consisting of a resonant coil attached to a radiofrequency rectifier and power management module. The power management module supplies power to the axial pump, which was set at 9,600 rpm. To achieve a seamless wireless delivery in any room size, we introduced a third relay coil. This relay coil can be installed throughout a room, whereas a single relay coil could be built into a jacket worn by the patient, which would always be within range of the receive coil implanted in the patient's body. The power was delivered over a meter distance without interruptions or fluctuations with coil, rectifier, and regulator efficiency more than 80% and overall system efficiency of 61%. The axial pump worked well throughout the 8 hours of continuous operation. Having same setup on the opposite side can double the distance. A tether-free operation of a VAD can be achieved by FREE-D system in room-size distances. It has the potential to make the VAD therapy more acceptable from the patient perspective.

  10. Variable wide range of lens power and its improvement in a liquid-crystal lens using highly resistive films divided into two regions with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Marenori; Sato, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    The variable range of lens power of a liquid-crystal (LC) lens driven by two voltages is discussed on the basis of calculated and experimental results. The LC lens has two electrodes, which are a circularly hole-patterned electrode and a circular electrode, in addition to a common electrode, and highly resistive transparent films. The variable range of lens power increases with increasing driving voltage applied across the circularly hole-patterned electrode and the common electrode, and with decreasing diameter of highly resistive films. However, the optical-phase retardation profile tends to deviate from a parabolic curve in these cases. As a method to improve the trade-off properties, the highly resistive film is divided into two regions with different diameters, where the sheet resistance of an outer film is larger than that of an inner one. The improved LC lens has a lens power that varies in a wide range, and it exhibits a good parabolic phase retardation profile.

  11. Concept, design approaches suited to space nuclear power systems in the range of 20 kWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Carre, F.; Proust, E.

    1989-01-01

    Given the variety of possible missions and flight dates, it seems advisable to widen the basis for future technical choices within the French preliminary studies of 20-kWe space nuclear power systems. In addition to the fast spectrum, liquid metal-cooled reactor presently considered as a reference, shorter development term system, gas- and Na(K)-cooled thermal spectrum reactors are being investigated. The need for adequate ZrH moderator temperature conditions can be satisfied through a Brayton cycle conversion subsystem featuring two separate, high temperature-heat pipes and low temperature-pumped loop radiators. The penalty in efficiency and in radiator area, resulting from the wanted lower reactor inlet temperature, can be limited, particularly in the case of the higher temperature, gas-cooled reactor system. A multiple, pivoting tubes, low temperature radiator concept is proposed; it avoids an extension of the related structural support frame beyond the conversion subsystem region in flight configuration. Arrangements peculiar to small reactors and two-turbo-generator diagrams for reliability reasons are presented. Provisional, not yet optimized, thermal management mass estimates are evaluated

  12. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte

    2017-03-01

    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This classification scheme was applied to evaluate the events identified in the framework of this project

  13. Enhancement of the range of electric-powered vehicles by means of an optimized thermal management; Steigerung der Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeugen durch optimiertes Thermomanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurich, Joerg; Baumgart, Rico; Unwerth, Thomas von [TU Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Alternative Fahrzeugantriebe

    2012-07-01

    Currently, the development of energy efficient air conditioning systems for electric-powered vehicles is one of the most difficult challenges because the reach of these vehicles significantly is influenced by the air-conditioning systems in part. For this reason, computational models have been developed at the Technical University of Chemnitz (Federal Republic of Germany) in order to simulate and optimize the processes in car air conditioning and passenger cabin. The passenger cabin model has now been extended by a simplified model of comfort which will be presented in more detail in the contribution under consideration. Under consideration of the occupants comfort, these models help to investigate the impact of the various optimization measures on the necessary amount of cooling capacity and the range of the vehicle. The calculations were made both for summerly and for winterly environmental conditions. As shown in detail, the required cooling capacity can be reduced by reducing the degree of transmittance of the windows for example in the summer. However, in contrast the heating power increases in the winter due to the lower solar heat input which in turn reduces the achievable range of electric-powered vehicles.

  14. The ability to use FLEXPART in simulation of the long-range radioactive materials dispersed from nuclear power plants near Vietnam border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Kim Long; Pham Duy Hien; Nguyen Hao Quang; Do Xuan Anh; Duong Duc Thang; Doan Quang Tuyen

    2016-01-01

    FLEXPART is a Lagrangian transport and dispersion model suitable for the simulation of a large range of atmospheric transport processes. FLEXPART has been researched and applied in simulation of the long-range dispersion of radioactive materials. It can be applicable to the problem of radioactive materials released from the nuclear power plants impact on Vietnam. This report presents simulation of radioactive dispersion from the accident assumed Fangchenggang and Changjiang nuclear power plants in China with the FLEXPART, using meteorological data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The results of simulations and analyzing showed good applicability of FLEXPART for a long-range radioactive materials dispersion. The preliminary simulation results show that the impact of the radioactive material dispersion in Vietnam varies by the well-known characteristics of the monsoon of our country. Winter is the time when the dominant northeast winds up radioactive dispersion most towards our country, its sphere of influence extends from the Northeast (Quang Ninh) to North Central (Da Nang). (author)

  15. Design method of a power management strategy for variable battery capacities range-extended electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiuyu; Chen, Jingfu; Song, Ziyou; Gao, Mingming; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Energy management strategy and battery capacity are the primary factors for the energy efficiency of range-extended electric buses (REEBs). To improve the energy efficiency of REEBs developed by Tsinghua University, an optimal design method of global optimization-based strategy is investigated. It is real-time and adaptive to variable traction battery capacities of series REEBs. For simulation, the physical model of REEB and key components are established. The optimal strategy is first extracted by the power split ratio (PSR) from REEB simulation result with dynamic program (DP) algorithm. The power distribution map is obtained by series simulations for variable battery capacity options. The control law for developing optimal strategy are achieved by cluster regression for power distribution data. To verify the effect of the proposed energy management strategy, characteristics of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are ultimately analyzed. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the global optimization-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. Therefore, the overall energy efficiency can be significantly improved compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and operating costs can be substantially reduced. The feasibility of candidate control strategies is thereby assessed via the employment of variable parameters. - Highlights: • Analysis method of powertrain energy efficiency and power distribution is proposed. • The power distribution rules of strategy with variable battery capacities are achieved. • The parametric method of proposed PSR-RB strategy is presented. • The energy efficiency of powertrain is analysis by flow analysis method. • The energy management strategy is global optimization-based and real-time.

  16. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  17. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  18. A research on the environmental impact on nearby waters range at low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunling; Xu Zitu; Xiao Zhang.

    1987-01-01

    The possible influence of the low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station upon nearby waters range is discussed. The contents of the article contains the numerical simulation on tidal currents and pollutant diffusion, the calculation of concentration distribution of radioactive contaminants in the water area and of polluted field, and the criterion on radioactive contaminant influence on nearby residents and aquatic biologicals. The result shows that when the Dayawan nuclear power station is on normal operation and after the low-level radioactive waste water has been drained off into the sea, the radioactive concentration is even lower than the natural background radiation just out-side the area of about 4 km 2 round the water outlet. As a result, it won't cause any danger to the water environment. Due to the fact that the concentration of the low-level radioactive waste water from the nuclear power station fully accords with the national standard GB4792-84 and the sea water quality sandard GBH2, 3-82. It is no harm to either residents and aquatic biologicals or ecological balance

  19. Study of the long-range effects of radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants in the Rhine river using 58Co and 60Co as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundschenk, H.

    1992-01-01

    58 Co and 60 Co were used to trace the long-range effects of nuclear power plants in the aquatic environment of the Rhine river basin. 60 Co, preferentially originating from Swiss installations, could be detected in suspended matter along the river over several hundreds of kilometres, even to the Lower Rhine. This nuclide was transferred to the bottom layer by sedimentation along the whole stretch, especially in high-sedimentation zones, which must be considered to be the so-called 'critical impact areas' for estimation of the radiological effects of the nuclear power plants in the aquatic environment. 58 Co, mainly discharged by French and Swiss installations, could be measured in suspended matter. In sediment samples, however, this nuclide could not, or only occasionally, be detected because transfer to the sediment layer proceeded at a rather low rate relative to the decay rate of 58 Co. From these findings, it follows that impact control of these nuclear power plants should not be restricted to their immediate aquatic environments but should be extended to the whole river. Estimation of the resulting radiation exposure, based on the measured concentrations of 60 Co and 58 Co in sediment assuming standard conditions, showed that the dose rates generated by the most sensitive pathway, and indeed by other nuclides and different pathways, were far below the dose limit defined in German legal regulations and therefore were negligible. (author)

  20. New challenges for the Swiss power industry. Press conference on the occasion of the UNIPEDE congress at Montreux from 18 to 22 May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1997-01-01

    It was the third time for Switzerland to have the honour of hosting the UNIPEDE Congress. The last time that this had happened was in 1958, when the conference took place at Lausanne. The interval between these two events has seen an enormous gain in importance for electricity. During a period of almost 40 years, power demand has increased worldwide by a factor of seven from 2000 to 14000 terawatt hours (TWh) (end-use consumption of Switzerland in 1996: 48.7 TWh). Boundary conditions in the power sector have also greatly changed. At the same time, power supply has become a more many-sided and complex business. (orig.) [de

  1. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, D.; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A.; Tisa, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link

  2. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborini, D., E-mail: davide.tamborini@polimi.it; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tisa, S. [Micro Photon Devices, via Stradivari 4, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  3. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, D; Portaluppi, D; Villa, F; Tisa, S; Tosi, A

    2014-11-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  4. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  5. Investigations on the minimization of climatic impacts on the range of electric-powered vehicles; Untersuchungen zur Minimierung der Klimaeinfluesse auf die Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauh, Hubert; Hofmann, Maximilian; Maerz, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Efficient drives and power electronics are key components for the realisation of drive trains in electric vehicles. A low energy density of the battery and little thermal loss in the electric drive train - in comparison with a combustion engine - requires efforts to acclimatise the vehicle in a way which minimises its impact on the vehicle's cruising range. Using equivalent thermal networks, Fraunhofer IISB thus develops simulation tools of passenger compartment, components of the acclimatisation system and the electric drive train. With these tools the heat flow in the passenger compartment as well as in the components of the electric drive train can be calculated. Furthermore, it is possible to compare different acclimatisation strategies as well as different topologies of the acclimatisation system. To minimize the electrical energy consumption of acclimatisation, the thermal energy needed in this process is provided by a heat pump. By preconditioning cabin, cooling circuit and drive train components while charging the battery, the energy consumption at the beginning of a drive can be further reduced, whereby the maximal cruising range at different ambient temperatures increases. (orig.)

  6. Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control - Part II: Laboratory Proof-of-Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has shown that when all loss mechanisms are neglected the constant power speed range (CPSR) of a brushless dc motor (BDCM) is infinite when the motor is driven by the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC)[1,2]. In a physical drive, losses, particularly speed-sensitive losses, will limit the CPSR to a finite value. In this paper we report the results of laboratory testing of a low-inductance, 7.5-hp BDCM driven by the DMIC. The speed rating of the test motor rotor limited the upper speed of the testing, and the results show that the CPSR of the test machine is greater than 6:1 when driven by the DMIC. Current wave shape, peak, and rms values remained controlled and within rating over the entire speed range. The laboratory measurements allowed the speed-sensitive losses to be quantified and incorporated into computer simulation models, which then accurately reproduce the results of lab testing. The simulator shows that the limiting CPSR of the test motor is 8:1. These results confirm that the DMIC is capable of driving low-inductance BDCMs over the wide CPSR that would be required in electric vehicle applications

  7. Reconfigurable Resonant Regulating Rectifier With Primary Equalization for Extended Coupling- and Loading-Range in Bio-Implant Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Meng, Xiaodong; Tsui, Chi-Ying; Ki, Wing-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Wireless power transfer using reconfigurable resonant regulating (R(3)) rectification suffers from limited range in accommodating varying coupling and loading conditions. A primary-assisted regulation principle is proposed to mitigate these limitations, of which the amplitude of the rectifier input voltage on the secondary side is regulated by accordingly adjusting the voltage amplitude Veq on the primary side. A novel current-sensing method and calibration scheme track Veq on the primary side. A ramp generator simultaneously provides three clock signals for different modules. Both the primary equalizer and the R(3) rectifier are implemented as custom integrated circuits fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process, with the global control implemented in FPGA. Measurements show that with the primary equalizer, the workable coupling and loading ranges are extended by 250% at 120 mW load and 300% at 1.2 cm coil distance compared to the same system without the primary equalizer. A maximum rectifier efficiency of 92.5% and a total system efficiency of 62.4% are demonstrated.

  8. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS-derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant end toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  9. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy.

  10. Design and fabrication of micro-hotplates made on a polyimide foil: electrothermal simulation and characterization to achieve power consumption in the low mW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbat, J; Canonica, M; Briand, D; De Rooij, N F; Teyssieux, D

    2011-01-01

    The design of ultra-low power micro-hotplates on a polyimide (PI) substrate supported by thermal simulations and characterization is presented. By establishing a method for the thermal simulation of very small scale heating elements, the goal of this study was to decrease the power consumption of PI micro-hotplates to a few milliwatts to make them suitable for very low power applications. To this end, the mean heat transfer coefficients in air of the devices were extracted by finite element analysis combined with very precise thermographic measurements. A simulation model was implemented for these hotplates to investigate both the influence of their downscaling and the bulk micromachining of the polyimide substrate to lower their power consumptions. Simulations were in very good agreement with the experimental results. The main parameters influencing significantly the power consumption at such dimensions were identified and guidelines were defined allowing the design of very small (15 × 15 µm) and ultra-low power heating elements (6 mW at 300 °C). These very low power heating structures enable the realization of flexible sensors, such as gas, flow or wind sensors, for applications in autonomous wireless sensors networks or RFID applications and make them compatible with large-scale production on foil such as roll-to-roll or printing processes.

  11. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, Hasan [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Samsun (Turkey); Bentabet, Abdelouahab [Bordj Bou Arreridj University, LCVRN, SNVSTU Faculty, El Anasser (Algeria)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (ethane), C{sub 4}H{sub 10} (butane), C{sub 6}H{sub 14} (hexane) C{sub 8}H{sub 18} (octane), C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5} (adenine) and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date. (orig.)

  12. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  13. XUV preionization effects in high power magnetically insulated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenchen, J.; Woodworth, J.R.; Foltz, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Electrode surface desorption and photoionization by an intense XUV pulse has been shown to dramatically improve a vacuum diode impedance history. The 6-Terawatt Applied-B ion diode experiment on PBFA I is limited by a delay in both diode and ion current initiation. The insulation magnetic field impedes electron crossings which are believed to aid the ion source initiation. The diode is therefore initially a severe overmatch to the accelerator 40-nsec, 2.2-MV, 0.5-ohm pulse. The diode current increases during the pulse, leading to a rapidly falling impedance history. The application of an intense (30 to 50-kW/cm 2 ) XUV flux from an array of sixteen 60-kA spark sources is found to cause immediate diode current flow, resulting in both a greatly improved impedance history and the prompt initiation of an intense higher power ion beam

  14. Power-law spectra found in plant signal of the Borssele NPP. An analysis using wavelet. Application of wavelet for wide-frequency range investigation and investigation (spectrum) for the secondary system signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzudo, T.; Verhoef, J.P.; Tuerkcan, E.

    1996-09-01

    Power-law spectra were found in the temperature signals of the secondary loop in the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant, a PWR in the Netherlands. The coolant temperature before the steam generator inlet was found to fluctuate such that its power spectrum density S, follows S∝f -α , where α is ∝4/3. Analyses using PSD suggested that the value of α is roughly constant over years. Detailed analyses were conducted using wavelet, with the discovery that the power-law appears constantly only at around 0.1 Hz, and the estimated α was found between 1.26 and 1.36. The feedwater pressure signal and feedwater flow rate signal in the same frequency range were white noise and Borwnian motion respectively, and the indication of α=4/3 was not found from them. (orig.)

  15. Competitiveness and range of applications of nuclear power, as seen in the light of recent developments in the field of energy economic and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1975-01-01

    At the reactor conferences in Karlsruhe in 1973 and in Berlin in 1974 the author gave his views on the competitive position of nuclear energy in the German Federal Republic and described how the determining factors in cost development, both for conventional energy generation and for nuclear power generation, have developed since October 1971. Basic data were provided by the paper by B. Bergmann and H. Kraemer (KFA Juelich) 'Technical and economic state in October 1971 as well as prospects for nuclear energy in power economics in the German Federal Republic' (Juel-827-HT - February 1972). The author now shows to what extent the determining factors for the competitive capacity of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany have changed until April 1975. (orig.) [de

  16. Electric field of the power terrestrial sources observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere in frequency range 1-60 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, Fedir; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-07-01

    The power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz and the Schumann resonance (SR) harmonics were detected by the use of a compact electrical field sensor of length 0.42 m during microsatellite Chibis-M mission in years 2012-2014. The initial orbit of Chibis-M has altitude 500 km and inclination 52°. We present the space distribution of PLE and its connections with the possible overhead power lines. PLE has been recorded both in the shade and sunlit parts of the orbits as opposed to SR which have been recorded only in the nightside of the Earth. The cases of an extra long distance of PLE propagation in the Earth's ionosphere and increased value of SR Q factor have been also observed. These results should stimulate the ionosphere model refinement for ultralow frequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation as well as a study on new possibility of the ionosphere diagnostics.

  17. Development of a yearlong maintenance-free terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser system with a 3D UV-pulse shaping system for THG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, H; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Matsui, F

    2007-01-01

    Laser sources that feature a controlled pulse shape and long-term stability are required in a wide range of scientific fields. We developed a maintenance-free 3D-shaped UV-laser system for the photoinjector (RF gun photocathode) of an X-ray SASE free electron laser (FEL). The laser pulse-energy stability was improved to 0.2%-0.3% (rms, 10 pps, 0.4 TW in femtosecond operation) at the fundamental wavelength and to 0.7%-1.4% at the third-harmonic wavelength. This stability was continuously maintained for five months, 24 hours a day. Such improvement reflects an ability to stabilise the laser system in a humidity-controlled clean room. The pulse-energy stability of a mode-locked femtosecond oscillator was continuously held at 0.3% (p-p) for five months, 24 hours a day. In addition, the ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single UV-laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance of the electron-beam pulse generated by the photocathode of the RF gun. We apply a deformable mirror that automatically shapes the spatial UV-laser profile with a feedback routine, based on a genetic algorithm, and a pulse stacker for temporal shaping at the same time. The 3D shape of the laser pulse is spatially top-hat (flattop) and temporally - a square stacked pulse. We apply the Q-scan method to evaluate the emittance of the electron beam generated by a 3D-shaped laser pulse. By using a 3D-shaped laser pulse of diameter 0.8 mm on the cathode and duration 10 ps (FWHM), we obtain a minimum horizontal normalised emittance of 1.4π mm mrad with beam energy of 26 MeV, holding its net charge to a 0.4 nC pulse -1 . At a higher net charge of 1.0 nC pulse -1 , the minimum beam emittance is 2.3π mm mrad with equivalent diameter and a longer pulse duration of 20 ps (FWHM). In this study, we demonstrate 3D shaping [both temporal (1D) and spatial (2D)] short pulse (5-20ps) laser beam as an ideal light source for yearlong stable generation of a low emittance electron beam with a

  18. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... a down-sized version of the battery pack used in the Mitsubishi iMiEV, which is subjected to power cycles derived from simulations of the vehicle undergoing multiple New European Drive Cycles (NEDC)....

  19. Powering CERN and the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN's electricity network is denser than that of the Canton of Geneva, is powered by two different national grids and has to provide users with an availability rate as close to 100% as possible. To ensure the smooth running of the machines throughout the period of LHC physics operation, the teams from the EN Department are implementing a continuous programme of consolidation and modernisation on all the Laboratory's sites, but the biggest projects will have to wait until the long technical shutdown scheduled for 2013.   An electrical installation at CERN. CERN's annual electricity consumption is around one terawatt hour (TWh), which roughly corresponds to a fifth of the consumption of the Canton of Geneva. However, during periods when all the machines are operating at the same time, our demand can reach the equivalent of a third of Geneva's total consumption. While the grid of the Geneva public utility company SIG (Services Industriels de Genève) covers distances of around 50 km, the ...

  20. Ionospheric modification induced by high-power HF transmitters: a potential for extended range VHF--UHF communications and plasma physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlaut, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    When the ionized upper atmosphere of the earth is illuminated by high-power HF radio waves at appropriate frequencies, the temperature of electrons in the ionosphere can be raised substantially. In addition, radio waves with sufficient energy cause parametric instabilities that generate a spectrum of intense plasma waves. Observations of these phenomena have produced new understanding of plasma processes. One consequence of heating and plasma wave generation is that irregularities are formed in the electron distribution which are aligned with the earth's magnetic field. Because of this, a scatterer of large radar cross section is produced, which scatters HF through UHF communication signals over long distance paths, that would not otherwise be normally possible by ionospheric means. Results of radio, radar, communication, and photometric experiments that explored the characteristics of the volume of ionosphere which has been intentionally modified, temporarily, above facilities near Boulder (Platteville), Colo., and at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are summarized

  1. A new calculation on the stopping power and mean free path for low energy electrons in toluene over energy range of 20-10 000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhenyu; Xia Yueyuan; Liu Xiangdong; Zhao Mingwen; Zhang Liming

    2009-01-01

    A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons

  2. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) â gas turbine (GT) â steam turbine (ST) systems ranging in size from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbi...

  3. Terawatt solar photovoltaics roadblocks and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

  4. Photovoltaics moving into the terawatt age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eicke R.

    2017-08-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology has experienced an amazing development during the last decade, driven by the rapidly decreasing cost at even more rapidly increasing production volumes. This development is discussed from both perspectives, the global PV market and the technology developments accompanying this process. An outlook is given for the possible size of the global PV installations in 2030 and 2050.

  5. Analyzing power T20 measurement of backscattering d.p. vector in the Δ resonance excitation range and theoretical analysis of this reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudard, A.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the analysing power T 20 in the backward elastic scattering d.p. for 16 energies of the deuteron from 300 MeV to 2300 MeV. This is the region of the observed bump in the backward excitation function of the cross section. This bump is usually thought to be a signature of a Δ(3/2,3/2 + ) dynamically excited in the intermediate state. We have also measured Ay and Ayy from 70 0 to 180 0 for Tsub(d)=1200 MeV. we have compared both T 20 and the backward cross section with a coherent sum between direct neutron exchange and Δ excitation by intermediate exchanges of π and rho mesons. The overall shape of the cross section is reproduced. Unlike the earlier measurements from Argonne, there is a deep minimum in T 20 at Tsub(d)=600 MeV, in agreement with the predictions of direct exchange models. However, an additional structure producing a second minimum at Tsub(d)=1400 MeV (√S=3240 MeV) is never reproduced by our calculations. This suggests either that refinements in the Δ treatment are needed or that a new reaction mechanism (resonance) takes place in that region [fr

  6. Analysis of loss distribution of Conventional Boost, Z-source and Y-source Converters for wide power and voltage range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim; Schaltz, Erik; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Boost converters are needed in many applications which require the output voltage to be higher than the input voltage. Recently, boost type converters have been applied for industrial applications, and hence it has become an interesting topic of research. Many researchers proposed different...... impedance source converters with their unique advantages as having a high voltage gain in a small range of duty cycle ratio. However, the thermal behaviour of the semiconductor devices and passive elements in the impedance source converter is an important issue from a reliability point of view and it has...... not been investigated yet. Therefore, this paper presents a comparison between the conventional boost, the Z-source, and the Y-source converters based on a thermal evaluation of the semiconductors. In addition, the three topologies are also compared with respect to their efficiency. In this study...

  7. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  8. Application range affected by software failures in safety relevant instrumentation and control systems of nuclear power plants; Auswirkungsbereiche von Softwarefehlern in sicherheitstechnisch wichtigen Einrichtungen von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jopen, Manuela; Mbonjo, Herve; Sommer, Dagmar; Ulrich, Birte

    2017-03-15

    This report presents results that have been developed within a BMUB-funded research project (Promotion Code 3614R01304). The overall objective of this project was to broaden the knowledge base of GRS regarding software failures and their impact in software-based instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. To this end, relevant definitions and terms in standards and publications (DIN, IEEE standards, IAEA standards, NUREG publications) as well as in the German safety requirements for nuclear power plants were analyzed first. In particular, it was found that the term ''software fault'' is defined differently and partly contradictory in the considered literature sources. For this reason, a definition of software fault was developed on the basis of the software life cycle of software-based I and C systems within the framework of this project, which takes into account the various aspects relevant to software faults and their related effects. It turns out that software failures result from latent faults in a software-based control system, which can lead to a non-compliant behavior of a software-based I and C system. Hereby a distinction should be made between programming faults and specification faults. In a further step, operational experience with software failures in software-based I and C systems in nuclear facilities and in nonnuclear sector was investigated. The identified events were analyzed with regard to their cause and impacts and the analysis results were summarized. Based on the developed definition of software failure and on the COMPSIS-classification scheme for events related to software based I and C systems, the COCS-classification scheme was developed to classify events from operating experience with software failures, in which the events are classified according to the criteria ''cause'', ''affected system'', ''impact'' and ''CCF potential''. This

  9. Electric power supply and demand 1978--1987 for the continuous United States as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1978 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-15

    The Regional Reliability Council projections of peak demand, generating capability, and electric energy requirements for the contiguous U.S. have declined for the fourth consecutive year. On the basis of these projections, it appears that the electric utility industry believes the U.S. will experience smaller annual increases in power use than have occurred in the past. The summer peak demand growth rates of the Councils range from 3.52 percent annually, as projected by the Northeast Power Coordinating Council, to the 6.21 percent projected by the Southwest Power Pool. Subregional growth covers a wider range, from the 2.77 percent of the New York Power Pool to the 6.51 percent of the Southern Company area. Total reserve margins at the time of summer peak demands are projected to decline from an estimated 30.16 percent in 1978 to about 23.81 percent in 1987. If projected loads are not exceeded, if projected capability levels are actually attained, if fuel requirements are satisfied, and if no contingencies worse than those normally met with are experienced, electric power supply should be adequate for the next decade. However, it is possible that the projected reserve margins will not be attained, and that adequate primary energy supply (fuel and hydro) will not be available when needed. Completion of generating units and transmission facilities on schedule is made uncertain by difficulties related to financing, environmental pressures, procedural delays and some inadequacies with respect to quality control of manufactured and field-assembled components.

  10. Suitability of a combined steam gas power plant in connection with a plant for production of gaseous fuel with a low heating value for the generation of electric power in the middle range of the load characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alich, J.A. Jr.; Dickenson, R.L.; Korens, N.

    1975-01-01

    The report deals with the summary of the basic considerations concerning the gasification of oil and coal to produce electrical power. The application requirements in the middle region of the load diagram are discussed. A survey on the suitability of corresponding gasification equipment as well as methods for such a production of energy are described. The profitableness of an electroenergy-producing medium in the combined cycle with a gas having low heating value for the operation in this load diagram region is compared with other methods. (orig./LH) [de

  11. Measurement of the stopping power of water for carbon ions in the energy range of 1 MeV-6 MeV using the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm, Johannes Martin

    2016-10-31

    Cancer therapy using carbon ions has gained increasing interest in the last decade due to its advantageous dose distributions. For the dosimetry and treatment planning, the accurate knowledge of the stopping power of water for carbon ions is of crucial importance. In the high energy region, the stopping power can be calculated rather accurately by means of the Bethe-Bloch formula. In the case of projectile velocities comparable to those of the valence electrons of the target, these calculations are subject to large uncertainties. There exist no experimental data for the stopping power of water for projectile energies prevailing in the so-called Bragg peak region. The currently available stopping power data for water are derived from measurements in water vapour or D{sub 2}O ice and, hence, neglect the dependence on the state of aggregation. The stopping power of water for charged particles is of high interest not only for practical applications but also to consider how physical and chemical state of the target influence the collisional energy transfer. For the measurement of the stopping power of water, the inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method was used in this work. This method has the advantage that the projectile itself is not needed to be detected and can be slowed down entirely in the target. In this method, the stopping power is determined from the Doppler-shift of the gamma-quanta emitted by projectiles during their slow down. This experiment can be performed at atmospheric pressure and consequently, the stopping power of water can be measured in its real physiological condition. In this work, the stopping power of water for carbon ions was measured for the first time in the energy range between 1 MeV and 6 MeV covering the kinetic energies of carbon ions in the Bragg peak region. The experimental method is presented in detail along with the design of the apparatus and of the data acquisition system. A comprehensive analysis of instrumental effects

  12. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced

  13. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources

  14. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  15. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  16. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Critical discussion of human factors areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  17. Calculation of projected ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, J.P.

    1980-09-01

    The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)

  18. Licensing process of the digital application: Nuclear measurement analysis and control power range neutron monitor (NUMAC-PRNM) system for their implementation in the Laguna Verde NPP unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma-Carrion, R.; Hernandez-Cortes, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describe the licensing process performed by the Mexican Regulatory Commission (CNSNS) for the NUclear Measurement Analysis and Control-Power Range Neutron Monitor (NUMAC-PRNM) system, which sends trip signals to the Reactor Protection System (RPS), and has been implemented in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit (LVNPP-U2) before its first fuel loading. The review and approval process was performed with the advise role of the United States of America Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC): the regulatory frame applied includes the Code of Federal Regulation, some Regulatory Guides and some Industrial Standards. The evaluation covered topics related with the software, hardware and firmware specifications, design, tests, training, maintenance and operational experience. After the revision of these topics, the NUMAC-PRNM was approved through the CNSNS Safety Evaluation Report (SER) and then installed in the LVNPP-U2. This paper include a description of the regulatory requirements to this digital application, the safety concerns involved, the compliance to these requirements by the utility and the results of the CNSNS evaluation, mentioning the experience acquired during the process and the method used to perform the evaluation. Additionally, the interface between the designer-vendor, the utility and the regulatory body during the licensing process is commented. Finally, the conclusion is presented, taking into account the operational experience of the NUMAC applications implemented in the LVNPP. It also gives the future regulatory tasks related to the assessment of digital performance equipment and upgrades. (author)

  19. The hydroelectric power market in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The second-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world is the United States, right after Canada. In the United States, 7.1 per cent of net electricity generation was attributed to hydroelectric power in 2000, which totalled 269 terawatt hours (TWh). Aging facilities, outdated technology in some facilities, a cumbersome licensing process, and increasing environmental demands from interest groups for the preservation of river systems and surrounding wildlife challenge the industry. Pacific Coast states, especially California, were faced with electric power shortages during the summer of 2001, due to low market prices, high power usage among consumers and drought. The problems with the deregulation of the electricity market were brought to light by these shortages. Legislation to restructure the electric power industry in 25 states had not been enacted as of January 2002. The purchase of more power from both Canada and the Mexico is being considered by the government of the United States, as is the creation of a national power grid to allow for power transmission throughout the country. The Canada-United States energy trade might be affected by such a move, and result in project construction opportunities for Canadian companies. Renewable energy sources must be responsible for the generation of 10 per cent of power generation levels by 2020, on a gradual basis as mandated by law. By 2005, New York City must purchase 10 per cent of its power from renewable energy sources, reaching 20 per cent by 2010. The repair and replacement of aging dam equipment, the development of advanced turbine technology to protect fish stocks and water quality, dam removal, the construction of power lines are all opportunities open to Canadian companies. 60 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Millimeterwave Space Power Grid architecture development 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerath, Narayanan; Dessanti, Brendan; Shah, Shaan

    - ramp up space solar power level to over 5.6 TeraWatts by year 50 from project start. Runway-based launch and landing are required to achieve the launch productivity as well as the cost reductions to enable such a large deployment on schedule. Advancements in the certainty of millimeter wave conversion technology and runway-based space access, are seen to be the outstanding issues in proceeding to full-scale Space Solar Power.

  1. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  2. Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    's normative power than any other academic journal, including a special issue on "What Kind of Power?" in 2006. As the leading journal in the debate, this special issue brings together seven normative power articles published in JEPP since the 2006 special issue, together with Ian Manners' ‘Normative power......The social sciences have many different understandings of ‘normative power', but in European Union (EU) studies normative power has three particular meanings. The first meaning of normative power is its emphasis on normative theory, that is, how we judge and justify truth claims in social science...... effects of EU relations with the world in areas ranging from inter-regional relations, through traditional diplomacy, to environmental politics. Research areas of particular interest include the study of the interplay between physical, material and normative forms of power, as well as the constitutive...

  3. Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

  4. Electric power supply and demand 1979 to 1988 for the contiguous United States as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1979 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, N.; Graban, W.

    1979-12-01

    Information concerning bulk electric power supply and demand is summarized and reviewed. Electric-utility power-supply systems are composed of power sources, transmission and distribution facilities, and users of electricity. In the United States there are three such systems of large geographic extent that together cover the entire country. Subjects covered are: energy forecasts, peak demand forecasts, generating-capacity forecasts, purchases and sales of capacity, and transmission. Extensive data are compiled in 17 tables. Information in two appendices includes a general description of the Regional Electric Reliability Councils and US generating capacity as of June 30, 1979. 3 figures, 17 tables.

  5. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  6. A 900 MHz RF energy harvesting system in 40 nm CMOS technology with efficiency peaking at 47% and higher than 30% over a 22dB wide input power range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Dijkhuis, J.; Dolmans, G.; Gao, H.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A 900 MHz RF energy harvesting system is proposed for a far-field wireless power transfer application. The topology of a single-stage CMOS rectifier loaded with an integrated boost DC-DC converter is implemented in a 40 nm CMOS technology. The co-design of a cross-coupled CMOS rectifier and an

  7. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  8. Compressive laser ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Wm Randall; Barber, Zeb W; Renner, Christoffer

    2011-12-15

    Compressive sampling has been previously proposed as a technique for sampling radar returns and determining sparse range profiles with a reduced number of measurements compared to conventional techniques. By employing modulation on both transmission and reception, compressive sensing in ranging is extended to the direct measurement of range profiles without intermediate measurement of the return waveform. This compressive ranging approach enables the use of pseudorandom binary transmit waveforms and return modulation, along with low-bandwidth optical detectors to yield high-resolution ranging information. A proof-of-concept experiment is presented. With currently available compact, off-the-shelf electronics and photonics, such as high data rate binary pattern generators and high-bandwidth digital optical modulators, compressive laser ranging can readily achieve subcentimeter resolution in a compact, lightweight package.

  9. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  10. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  11. Prototype of an electric 'integral-ecomotor' for the power range up to 1 kW; Funktionsmuster eines Integral-Sparmotors im Leistungsbereich kleiner 1 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2006-11-15

    Numerous electric motors of our daily use, with power ratings of about 1 kW operate at rather low efficiencies. Their share in the overall electric consumption is considerable. The aim of the research project consisted in the development of an efficient electric motor with incorporated electronic control ('integral-ecomotor'), which may serve as a substitute for usual variable speed squirrel cage three-phase motor. It was shown that the cost of these new motors of 1 kW power output, built with normalised casings, remain similar to those of squirrel cage three phase motors with inverters. Since 2004, the cost of raw materials as copper or aluminium increased considerably, whereas the cost of Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets remained rather stable. These facts advocate for energy saving motors making use of permanent magnets, requiring much less copper or aluminium than squirrel cage three phase motors. With integral ecomotors, higher efficiencies are achieved at lower masses as compared to usual squirrel cage three-phase motors. In 2004, a first prototype of this ecomotor using permanent magnets, was built. The advantages of improved performances at lower weight were confirmed. During 2005 and 2006, the technology was then improved and matured in a joint research project with 3 industrial partners. (author)

  12. Power theories for improved power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Pasko, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Power quality describes a set of parameters of electric power and the load’s ability to function properly under specific conditions. It is estimated that problems relating to power quality costs the European industry hundreds of billions of Euros annually. In contrast, financing for the prevention of these problems amount to fragments of these costs. Power Theories for Improved Power Quality addresses this imbalance by presenting and assessing a range of methods and problems related to improving the quality of electric power supply. Focusing particularly on active compensators and the DSP based control algorithms, Power Theories for Improved Power Quality introduces the fundamental problems of electrical power. This introduction is followed by chapters which discuss: •‘Power theories’ including their historical development and application to practical problems, •operational principles of active compensator’s DSP control based algorithms using examples and results from laboratory research, and •t...

  13. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  14. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  15. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  16. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2003-01-01

    of this telescope, a fast determination of the range to and the motion of the detected targets are important. This is needed in order to prepare the future observation strategy for each target, i.e. when is the closest approach where imaging will be optimal. In order to quickly obtain such a determination two...... ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory determination...... of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used...

  17. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  18. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  19. Performance of the FV3-powered Next Generation Global Prediction System for Harvey and Irma, and a vision for a "beyond weather timescale" prediction system for long-range hurricane track and intensity predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. J.; Bender, M.; Harris, L.; Hazelton, A.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a GFDL developed FV3-based Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) for Harvey and Irma will be reported. We will report on aspects of track and intensity errors (vs operational models), heavy precipitation (Harvey), rapid intensification, and simulated structure (in comparison with ground based radar), and point to a need of a future long-range (from day-5 up to 30 days) physically based ensemble hurricane prediction system for providing useful information to the forecasters, beyond the usual weather timescale.

  20. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  1. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  2. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  3. High average power, diode pumped petawatt laser systems: a new generation of lasers enabling precision science and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, C. L.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S.; Bopp, R.; Buck, S.; Cupal, J.; Drouin, M.; Erlandson, A.; Horáček, J.; Horner, J.; Jarboe, J.; Kasl, K.; Kim, D.; Koh, E.; Koubíková, L.; Maranville, W.; Marshall, C.; Mason, D.; Menapace, J.; Miller, P.; Mazurek, P.; Naylon, A.; Novák, J.; Peceli, D.; Rosso, P.; Schaffers, K.; Sistrunk, E.; Smith, D.; Spinka, T.; Stanley, J.; Steele, R.; Stolz, C.; Suratwala, T.; Telford, S.; Thoma, J.; VanBlarcom, D.; Weiss, J.; Wegner, P.

    2017-05-01

    Large laser systems that deliver optical pulses with peak powers exceeding one Petawatt (PW) have been constructed at dozens of research facilities worldwide and have fostered research in High-Energy-Density (HED) Science, High-Field and nonlinear physics [1]. Furthermore, the high intensities exceeding 1018W/cm2 allow for efficiently driving secondary sources that inherit some of the properties of the laser pulse, e.g. pulse duration, spatial and/or divergence characteristics. In the intervening decades since that first PW laser, single-shot proof-of-principle experiments have been successful in demonstrating new high-intensity laser-matter interactions and subsequent secondary particle and photon sources. These secondary sources include generation and acceleration of charged-particle (electron, proton, ion) and neutron beams, and x-ray and gamma-ray sources, generation of radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET), targeted cancer therapy, medical imaging, and the transmutation of radioactive waste [2, 3]. Each of these promising applications requires lasers with peak power of hundreds of terawatt (TW) to petawatt (PW) and with average power of tens to hundreds of kW to achieve the required secondary source flux.

  4. Z-Beamlet: a multikilojoule, terawatt-class laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Hurst, Michael J.; Speas, C. Shane; Adams, Richard G.; Garcia, Antonio J.; Dawson, Ellis; Thurston, Benjamin D.; Wakefield, Colleen; Kellogg, Jeff W.; Slattery, Michael J.; Ives III, Harry C.; Broyles, Robin S.; Caird, John A.; Erlandson, Alvin C.; Murray, James E.; Behrendt, William C.; Neilsen, Norman D.; Narduzzi, Joseph M.

    2005-01-01

    A large-aperture (30-cm) kilojoule-class Nd:glass laser system known as Z-Beamlet has been constructed to perform x-ray radiography of high-energy-density science experiments conducted on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The laser, operating with typical pulse durations from 0.3 to 1.5 ns, employs a sequence of successively larger multipass amplifiers to achieve up to 3-kJ energy at 1054 nm. Large-aperture frequency conversion and long-distance beam transport can provide on-target energies of up to 1.5 kJ at 527 nm

  5. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    and several natural special cases thereof. The rst special case is known as range median, which arises when k is xed to b(j 􀀀 i + 1)=2c. The second case, denoted prex selection, arises when i is xed to 0. Finally, we also consider the bounded rank prex selection problem and the xed rank range......Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection...... selection problem. In the former, data structures must support prex selection queries under the assumption that k for some value n given at construction time, while in the latter, data structures must support range selection queries where k is xed beforehand for all queries. We prove cell probe lower bounds...

  6. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: structure growth rate measurement from the anisotropic quasar power spectrum in the redshift range 0.8 < z < 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Marín, Héctor; Guy, Julien; Zarrouk, Pauline; Burtin, Etienne; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ruggeri, Rossana; Tojerio, Rita; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Bautista, Julian; Hou, Jiamin; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Pâris, Isabelle; Baumgarten, Falk; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; González-Pérez, Violeta; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Myers, Adam D.; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Zhao, Cheng

    2018-06-01

    We analyse the clustering of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 14 quasar sample (DR14Q). We measure the redshift space distortions using the power-spectrum monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole inferred from 148 659 quasars between redshifts 0.8 and 2.2, covering a total sky footprint of 2112.9 deg2. We constrain the logarithmic growth of structure times the amplitude of dark matter density fluctuations, fσ8, and the Alcock-Paczynski dilation scales that allow constraints to be placed on the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble H(z) parameter. At the effective redshift of zeff = 1.52, fσ8(zeff) = 0.420 ± 0.076, H(z_eff)=[162± 12] (r_s^fid/r_s) {km s}^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, and D_A(z_eff)=[1.85± 0.11]× 10^3 (r_s/r_s^fid) Mpc, where rs is the comoving sound horizon at the baryon drag epoch and the superscript `fid' stands for its fiducial value. The errors take into account the full error budget, including systematics and statistical contributions. These results are in full agreement with the current Λ-Cold Dark Matter cosmological model inferred from Planck measurements. Finally, we compare our measurements with other eBOSS companion papers and find excellent agreement, demonstrating the consistency and complementarity of the different methods used for analysing the data.

  7. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  8. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  9. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...

  10. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  11. Extended Range Intercept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1988). Desert bighorn ewes with lambs show a stronger response than do groups of only rams, only ewes, or mixed groups of adults (Miller and Smith...1985). While all startle events may affect desert bighorns, those occurring during the lambing period (February-April) would represent the highest...35807 U.S. Army Pueblo Depot Activity SDSTE-PU-EE Pueblo, CO 81001-5000 U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range STEWS -EL-N White Sands, NM 88002-5076

  12. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  13. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Marine and Hydrokinetic Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies convert the energy of waves, tides, and river and ocean currents into electricity. With more than 50% of the U.S. population living within 50 miles of the nation’s coasts, MHK technologies hold significant potential to supply renewable electricity to consumers in coastal load centers, particularly in the near term in areas with high costs of electricity and longer term in high resource areas in close proximity to major coastal load centers. MHK resource assessments identify a total U.S. technical resource potential of approximately 1250–1850 terawatt-hours (TWh) of generation per year from ocean wave, ocean current, ocean tidal, and river current energy. Of this, the U.S. continental technical resource potential is approximately 500–750 TWh/year. For context, roughly 90,000 homes can be powered by 1 TWh of electricity generation each year. A cost-effective MHK industry could provide a substantial amount of electricity for the nation owing in large part to its unique advantages as a source of energy, including its vast resource potential, its close proximity to major coastal load centers, and its long-term predictability and near-term forecastability.

  14. Losses at magnetic nulls in pulsed-power transmission line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Pointon, T.D.; Savage, M.E.; Seidel, D.B.; Magne, I.; Vezinet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime must deal with large electron flows in vacuum transmission lines. In most parts of these transmission lines the electrons are constrained by the self-magnetic field to flow parallel to the conductors. In very low impedance systems, such as those used to drive Z-pinch radiation sources, the currents from multiple transmission lines are added together. This addition necessarily involves magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant local loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses at the anode in the vicinity of the nulls. The lost current due to the magnetic null might or might not be appreciable. In some cases the lost current due to the null is not large, but is spatially localized, and may create a gas and plasma release from the anode that can lead to an excessive loss, and possibly to catastrophic damage to the hardware. In this paper we describe an analytic model that uses one geometric parameter (aside from straightforward hardware size measurements) that determines the loss to the anode, and the extent of the loss region when the driving source and load are known. The parameter can be calculated in terms of the magnetic field in the region of the null calculated when no electron flow is present. The model is compared to some experimental data, and to simulations of several different hardware geometries, including some cases with multiple nulls, and unbalanced feeds

  15. Electrophoretically applied dielectrics for amorphous metal foils used in pulsed power saturable reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.J.; Harjes, H.C.; Mann, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Amorphous metal foil-wound inductors have been tested as ferromagnetic saturable inductive elements for pulsed-power (multi-terawatt) switching modules in the inertial confinement fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories. In simulated capacitor testing premature dielectric breakdown of thin polyethylene terephthalate film insulation in the inductor windings occurs at considerably below 2500 V. This appears to be due to inadvertant dielectric damage from micro-spikes on the amorphous foil surface. Electron micrographs and dielectric breakdown data illustrate that electrophoretically-applied dielectric coatings, deposited from organic aqueous colloid dispersions, can be used to provide insulating coatings on the foil which provide a 240% improvement (6000 V) in the breakdown strength of wound amorphous foil inductors. The theory and operation of a dedicated electrophoretic continuous coating system is described. The machine was constructed and successfully applied for dielectric coating of amorphous metal foil. Additional possible applications exist for practical dielectric coating of metallic films or foils used in various commercial wound-type capacitor structures. 7 refs., 9 figs

  16. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  17. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  18. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  19. Long-range antigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession. (orig.)

  20. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  1. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  2. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  3. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  4. Measurement of the vector analysing power of the reaction 19F(p vector,α0)16O in the energy range Esub(p) = 0.45 MeV to 0.85 MeV and studies of the level scheme of the 20Ne nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traudt, O.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental study of the reaction 19 F(p,α 0 ) 16 0 was extended by a determination of the analysing power for the reaction in the energy range 454 keV 0 until 160 0 . By averaging of the proton spin angular distributions of the unpolarized cross section were also obtained. The angular distributions of these two observables were fitted by legendre polynomials. The results is a nonneglectable contribution of direct reactions and a new determination of a part of energylevels in 20 Ne. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Range extender module. Enabler for electric mobility; Range-Extender-Modul. Wegbereiter fuer elektrische Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Robert; Fraidl, Guenter Karl; Hubmann, Christian; Kapus, Paul Ernst; Kunzemann, Ralf; Sifferlinger, Bernhard; Beste, Frank [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2009-10-15

    The Range Extender as an auxiliary power supply for extended driving ranges is of significant importance in achieving a high level of customer acceptance for electric vehicles. The AVL concept is optimized for electric power generation in single-point operation and allows a compactly integrated, cost-efficient and weight-efficient module design. The internal combustion engine requirements of the Pure Range Extender from AVL permit not only the use of simplified four-stroke concepts but also the application of emission-optimized and fuel consumption-optimized two-stroke and rotary piston engines. (orig.)

  6. Calibration device for wide range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodoku, Masaya; Sato, Toshifumi.

    1989-01-01

    The calibration device for a wide range monitor according to the present invention can continuously calibrate the entire counting regions of a wide range monitor. The wide range monitor detect the reactor power in the neutron source region by means of a pulse counting method and detects the reactor power in the intermediate region by means of a cambell method. A calibration signal outputting means is disposed for continuously outputting, as such calibration signals, pulse number varying signals in which the number of pulses per unit time varies depending on the reactor power in the neutron source region to be simulated and amplitude square means varying signal in which the mean square value of amplitude varies depending on the reactor power in the intermediate region to be simulated. By using both of the calibration signals, calibration can be conducted for the nuclear reactor power in the neutron source region and the intermediate region even if the calibration is made over two regions, further, calibration for the period present over the two region can be conducted easily as well. (I.S.)

  7. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    high capacity transmission lines, solar arrays, and geothermal 4 | 2014 Sustainable Ranges Report February 2014 Chapter 1: Military Service... geothermal power and associated transmission infrastructure both on- and off-shore will require close attention to ensure the Marine Corps’ access...Weapons Systems Training Facility (NWSTF) Boardman; offshore wind development proposed south of Pearl Harbor, HI, NAWC China Lake, CA/Nevada Test

  8. Long range trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. W.; Jessup, E. A.; White, R. E. [Air Resources Field Research Office, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A single air molecule can have a trajectory that can be described with a line, but most meteorologists use single lines to represent the trajectories of air parcels. A single line trajectory has the disadvantage that it is a categorical description of position. Like categorized forecasts it provides no qualification, and no provision for dispersion in case the parcel contains two or more molecules which may take vastly different paths. Diffusion technology has amply demonstrated that an initial aerosol cloud or volume of gas in the atmosphere not only grows larger, but sometimes divides into puffs, each having a different path or swath. Yet, the average meteorologist, faced with the problem of predicting the future motion of a cloud, usually falls back on the line trajectory approach with the explanation that he had no better tool for long range application. In his more rational moments, he may use some arbitrary device to spread his cloud with distance. One such technique has been to separate the trajectory into two or more trajectories, spaced about the endpoint of the original trajectory after a short period of travel, repeating this every so often like a chain reaction. This has the obvious disadvantage of involving a large amount of labor without much assurance of improved accuracy. Another approach is to draw a circle about the trajectory endpoint, to represent either diffusion or error. The problem then is to know what radius to give the circle and also whether to call it diffusion or error. Meteorologists at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are asked frequently to provide advice which involves trajectory technology, such as prediction of an aerosol cloud path, reconstruction of the motion of a volume of air, indication of the dilution, and the possible trajectory prediction error over great distances. Therefore, we set out, nearly three years ago, to provide some statistical knowledge about the status of our trajectory technology. This report contains some of the

  9. Playing with Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath; Strzelecki, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the wide range of pure mathematics that becomes accessible through the use of problems involving powers. In particular we stress the need to balance an applied and context based pedagogical and curricular approach to mathematics with the powerful pure mathematics beneath the simplicity of easily stated and understandable…

  10. Distance Ranging Based on Quantum Entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jun-Jun; Han Xiao-Chun; Zeng Gui-Hua; Fang Chen; Zhao Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    In the quantum metrology, applications of quantum techniques based on entanglement bring in some better performances than conventional approaches. We experimentally investigate an application of entanglement in accurate ranging based on the second-order coherence in the time domain. By a fitting algorithm in the data processing, the optimization results show a precision of ±200 μm at a distance of 1043.3m. In addition, the influence of jamming noise on the ranging scheme is studied. With some different fitting parameters, the result shows that the proposed scheme has a powerful anti-jamming capability for white noise

  11. Wireless powering for low-power distributed sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoya B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the field of wireless powering is presented with an emphasis on low-power applications. Several rectenna elements and arrays are discussed in more detail: (1 a 10-GHz array for powering sensors in aircraft wings; (2 a single antenna in the 2.4-GHz ISM band for low-power assisted-living sensors; and (3 a broadband array for power harvesting in the 2-18GHz frequency range.

  12. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper, based on two levels of technology maturity, applied the power beaming concept to four panned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space-based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations

  13. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  14. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Facilities Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities NREL's power electronics and electric machines thermal management experimentation facilities feature a wide range of four researchers in discussion around a piece of laboratory equipment. Power electronics researchers

  15. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  16. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  17. Massive Niagara Falls power generation project uses unique concrete locking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polski, A. [Con Cast Pipe, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A 512 metre long accelerating wall and a 360 metre-long approach wall in the Niagara River are being built using a novel locking system to withstand the forces of nature. The walls have been designed to direct continuous flow to a new diversion tunnel below the City of Niagara Falls, Ontario. The walls are made of a single row of pre-cast concrete boxes that lock together in a special configuration to prevent movement from extreme load combinations in the Niagara River. The system was designed as part of a larger project to increase the power generating capabilities of the Sir Adam Beck 2 power generation station. Water channelled into the new tunnel will provide an estimated additional 1.6 terawatt-hours of renewable electricity annually and expand capacity at the station by about 15 per cent. The pre-cast reinforced concrete box design was chosen for the walls as it allowed fast and simple assembly of the structures. The basic structural system for each box is 4 vertical panels that form an open rectangular wall. The boxes are filled with clean rock fragments that are uniformly graded. Once the boxes are installed, cast-in-place concrete slabs will be poured to a depth of approximately 600 mm on top of the wall to cap the entire structure. The value of the design-build contract for the Niagara project is nearly $600 million out of an estimated $985 million budget. Commonly used for the design of culverts, the concrete box technology holds promise for applications including the stabilization of shorelines and the construction of small dams. 3 figs.

  18. Nuclear Power in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  19. Pragmatic power

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2008-01-01

    Pragmatic Power is focused on just three aspects of the AC electrical power system that supplies and moves the vast majority of electrical energy nearly everywhere in the world: three-phase power systems, transformers, and induction motors. The reader needs to have had an introduction to electrical circuits and AC power, although the text begins with a review of the basics of AC power. Balanced three-phase systems are studied by developing their single-phase equivalents. The study includes a look at how the cost of ""power"" is affected by reactive power and power factor. Transformers are cons

  20. Beginning Power BI with Excel 2013 self-service business intelligence using Power Pivot, Power View, Power Query, and Power Map

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding your company's data has never been easier than with Microsoft's new Power BI package for Excel 2013. Consisting of four powerful tools-Power Pivot, Power View, Power Query and Power Maps-Power BI makes self-service business intelligence a reality for a wide range of users, bridging the traditional gap between Excel users, business analysts and IT experts and making it easier for everyone to work together to build the data models that can give you game-changing insights into your business. Beginning Power BI with Excel 2013 guides you step by step through the process of analyzin

  1. Remote Excavation of Heavily Contaminated UXO Sites. The Range Master

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    USA Environmental, Inc., and Timberline Environmental Services, Inc., developed the Range Master, a remote controlled scraper with an integrated power screen, to excavate and sift the top 12 inches of heavily contaminated UXO sites...

  2. Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrook, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aho, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Buckspan, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Pao, L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Singhvi, V. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pourbeik, P. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bhatt, N. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a comprehensive study undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, and the University of Colorado to understand how the contribution of wind power providing active power control (APC) can benefit the total power system economics, increase revenue streams, improve the reliability and security of the power system, and provide superior and efficient response while reducing any structural and loading impacts that may reduce the life of the wind turbine or its components. The study includes power system simulations, control simulations, and actual field tests using turbines at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The study focuses on synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generation control, and analyzes timeframes ranging from milliseconds to minutes to the lifetime of wind turbines, locational scope ranging from components of turbines to large wind plants to entire synchronous interconnections, and additional topics ranging from economics to power system engineering to control design.

  3. Power corrupts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, H.; Valentine, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: radiation (hazards associated with nuclear power production); wastes (radioactive wastes); accidents (actual and postulated, resulting in the release of radiation); the FBR and the plutonium cycle; costs (economics of nuclear power); spent fuel transport; civil liberties; doing without nuclear power (UK power demand; low energy strategy; energy policy; government policies; alternative energy sources). (U.K.)

  4. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  5. On power and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratto, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  8. Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

  9. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  10. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  11. Prototype firing range air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    PNL's study proceeded by examining the characteristics of the aerosol challenge to the filtration system and the operating experience at similar firing ranges. Candidate filtration systems were proposed; including baghouses, cartridge houses, electrostatic precipitators, cleanable high efficiency filters, rolling filters and cyclones--each followed by one or more of the existing filter banks. Methodology was developed to estimate the operating costs of the candidate systems. Costs addressed included the frequency (based on fractional efficiency and loading data) and cost of media replacement, capital investment, maintenance, waste disposal and electrical power consumption. The recommended system will be installed during calendar year 1984

  12. Personal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for

  13. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  14. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    entropy saturation behavior of the estimator is analytically described. Simultaneous range-compression and aperture synthesis is experimentally...4 2.1 Circular and Inverse -Circular HAL...2.3 Single Aperture, Multi-λ Imaging ...................................................................................... 14 2.4 Simultaneous Range

  15. Detection of range migrating targets in compound-Gaussian clutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, N.; le Chevalier, F.; Yarovyi, O.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of coherent radar detection of fast moving targets in a high range resolution mode. In particular, we are focusing on the spiky clutter modeled as a compound Gaussian process with rapidly varying power along range. Additionally, a fast moving target of interest has

  16. Precise Range Determination Using Laser Ranging Data of LAGEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ryul Kim

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite laser ranging observation of LAGEOS ¥± has been performed using the SLR System at Sheshan Laser Ranging Station, Shanghai Observatory. And we obtained 1,838 observational points The observed range data is corrected by means of system delay correction using ground target observation, atmospheric refraction delay correction, offset correction, general relativistic correction and tide correction including solid tide, polar tide and ocean tide. As a result, the determined range delay mean value is 19.12m and the mean internal accuracy by means of polynomial fitting and least square method is ¡¾7cm. Corrected observational points are 1,340 and noise ratio to total observational points is 27.1%

  17. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  18. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  19. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  20. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  1. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  2. A digitized wide range channel for new instrumentation and control system of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Roslan Md Dan

    2010-01-01

    Wide Range Channel is one of very important part of Reactor Instrumentation and Control system. Current system is using all analog system. The main functions of the new system are to provide Wide-log power and Multi-range linear power. The other functions are to provide Percent power and Power rate of change. The linear power level range is up to 125 % and the log power system to cover from below source level to 150 %. The main function of digital signal processor is for pulse shaping, pulse counting and root mean square signal processing. The system employs automatic on-line self diagnostics and calibration verification. (author)

  3. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  4. Power program and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1990-01-01

    Main points of the USSR power program and the role of nuclear power in fuel and power complex of the country are considered. Data on dynamics of economic indices of electric power generation at nuclear power plants during 1980-1988 and forecasts till 2000 are presented. It is shown that real cost of 1 kW/h of electric power is equal to 1.3-1.8 cop., and total reduced cost is equal to 1.8-2.4 cop

  5. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  6. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They cover a wide spectrum of areas from power supplies to power system ... Ramanarayanan describe the modelling and design of a family of soft transition ... of power when the drive is operating in the braking mode and fast dynamic response. ... time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time ...

  7. Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Emergency Alerts Preparedness Portal Preparedness Messaging Calendar Social Media Preparedness Toolkits Preparedness News Languages About Us Build a Kit Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Main Content Home Be Informed Power Outages Power Outages Extended power outages may impact ...

  8. Google Power Search

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Behind Google's deceptively simple interface is immense power for both market and competitive research-if you know how to use it well. Sure, basic searches are easy, but complex searches require specialized skills. This concise book takes you through the full range of Google's powerful search-refinement features, so you can quickly find the specific information you need. Learn techniques ranging from simple Boolean logic to URL parameters and other advanced tools, and see how they're applied to real-world market research examples. Incorporate advanced search operators such as filetype:, intit

  9. On inertial range scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    Inertial-range scaling laws for two- and three-dimensional turbulence are re-examined within a unified framework. A new correction to Kolmogorov's k -5/3 scaling is derived for the energy inertial range. A related modification is found to Kraichnan's logarithmically corrected two-dimensional enstrophy cascade law that removes its unexpected divergence at the injection wavenumber. The significance of these corrections is illustrated with steady-state energy spectra from recent high-resolution closure computations. The results also underscore the asymptotic nature of inertial-range scaling laws. Implications for conventional numerical simulations are discussed

  10. GPS test range mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Iris P.; Hancock, Thomas P.

    The principal features of the Test Range User Mission Planner (TRUMP), a PC-resident tool designed to aid in deploying and utilizing GPS-based test range assets, are reviewed. TRUMP features time history plots of time-space-position information (TSPI); performance based on a dynamic GPS/inertial system simulation; time history plots of TSPI data link connectivity; digital terrain elevation data maps with user-defined cultural features; and two-dimensional coverage plots of ground-based test range assets. Some functions to be added during the next development phase are discussed.

  11. Continuous limit of discrete systems with long-range interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2006-01-01

    Discrete systems with long-range interactions are considered. Continuous medium models as continuous limit of discrete chain system are defined. Long-range interactions of chain elements that give the fractional equations for the medium model are discussed. The chain equations of motion with long-range interaction are mapped into the continuum equation with the Riesz fractional derivative. We formulate the consistent definition of continuous limit for the systems with long-range interactions. In this paper, we consider a wide class of long-range interactions that give fractional medium equations in the continuous limit. The power-law interaction is a special case of this class

  12. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  13. Dissipation range turbulent cascades in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Sarff, J. S.; Fiksel, G.; Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Prager, S. C.; Ren, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Dissipation range cascades in plasma turbulence are described and spectra are formulated from the scaled attenuation in wavenumber space of the spectral energy transfer rate. This yields spectra characterized by the product of a power law and exponential fall-off, applicable to all scales. Spectral indices of the power law and exponential fall-off depend on the scaling of the dissipation, the strength of the nonlinearity, and nonlocal effects when dissipation rates of multiple fluctuation fields are different. The theory is used to derive spectra for MHD turbulence with magnetic Prandtl number greater than unity, extending previous work. The theory is also applied to generic plasma turbulence by considering the spectrum from damping with arbitrary wavenumber scaling. The latter is relevant to ion temperature gradient turbulence modeled by gyrokinetics. The spectrum in this case has an exponential component that becomes weaker at small scale, giving a power law asymptotically. Results from the theory are compared to three very different types of turbulence. These include the magnetic plasma turbulence of the Madison Symmetric Torus, the MHD turbulence of liquid metal in the Madison Dynamo Experiment, and gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence.

  14. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  15. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    A standard way to realize communication in microgrid control is to use an external communication network, such as modems for wireless or power-line communication, whose implementation may be inefficient in terms of deployment cost, complexity, and system stability. In this chapter we present......, while its reliability and availability draw on the reliability and availability of the microgrid power transmission system....... a communication solution, denoted as power talk, which is solely based on the use of the existing microgrid power equipment (i.e., power electronics and buses). The pivotal idea is to modulate information in the power-related parameters of the microgrid buses by use of the flexibility of power electronic...

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  17. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  18. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers' sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  19. 7 CFR 1710.303 - Power cost studies-power supply borrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power cost studies-power supply borrowers. 1710.303... AND GUARANTEES Long-Range Financial Forecasts § 1710.303 Power cost studies—power supply borrowers. (a... facilities shall be supported by a power cost study to demonstrate that the proposed generation and...

  20. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  1. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  2. A contribution to laser range imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Denney, Bradley S.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the project was to develop a methodology for fusion of a Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) and camera data. Our initial work in the project led to the conclusion that none of the LRID's that were available were sufficiently adequate for this purpose. Thus we spent the time and effort on the development of the new LRID with several novel features which elicit the desired fusion objectives. In what follows, we describe the device developed and built under contract. The Laser Range Imaging Device (LRID) is an instrument which scans a scene using a laser and returns range and reflection intensity data. Such a system would be extremely useful in scene analysis in industry and space applications. The LRID will be eventually implemented on board a mobile robot. The current system has several advantages over some commercially available systems. One improvement is the use of X-Y galvonometer scanning mirrors instead of polygonal mirrors present in some systems. The advantage of the X-Y scanning mirrors is that the mirror system can be programmed to provide adjustable scanning regions. For each mirror there are two controls accessible by the computer. The first is the mirror position and the second is a zoom factor which modifies the amplitude of the position of the parameter. Another advantage of the LRID is the use of a visible low power laser. Some of the commercial systems use a higher intensity invisible laser which causes safety concerns. By using a low power visible laser, not only can one see the beam and avoid direct eye contact, but also the lower intensity reduces the risk of damage to the eye, and no protective eyeware is required.

  3. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments

  4. Sampling Number Effects in 2D and Range Imaging of Range-gated Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Jai-Wan; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we analyzed the number effects of sampling images for making a 2D image and a range image from acquired RGI images. We analyzed the number effects of RGI images for making a 2D image and a range image using a RGI vision system. As the results, 2D image quality was not much depended on the number of sampling images but on how much well extract efficient RGI images. But, the number of RGI images was important for making a range image because range image quality was proportional to the number of RGI images. Image acquiring in a monitoring area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate control plans. To overcome the non-visualization problem caused by airborne obstacle particles, vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination lightening through disturbance airborne particles. One of these powerful active vision systems is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from raining or smoking environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through airborne disturbance particles. Thus, in contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology robust for low-visibility environments.

  5. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  6. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  7. Cyber Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    government. Another way of looking at power in the cyber domain is to consider the three faces or aspects of relational power. 1st Face: (A induces B do...power. For example, on the February 2010 anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, the government slowed the internet to prevent protesters sending films ...all but a few government controlled Web sites. The damage to business and tourism was significant, but the Chinese government was more concerned

  8. Star power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the fight over the diminishing supply of fossil fuels and how there could be an unlimited, clean and politically free source of power just over the horizon. Fusion was discovered as a much better, inexhaustable supply of power, it only takes a few atoms to fuse for fusion to take off. Fusion once started will continue until all the fuel is exhausted. It is expected, that with the current rate of progess, in fifty years time scientists will achieve practical fusion power

  9. Low power arcjet performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate arcjet operation at low power. A standard, 1 kW, constricted arcjet was run using nozzles with three different constrictor diameters. Each nozzle was run over a range of current and mass flow rates to explore stability and performance in the low power regime. A standard pulse-width modulated power processor was modified to accommodate the high operating voltages required under certain conditions. Stable, reliable operation at power levels below 0.5 kW was obtained at efficiencies between 30 and 40 percent. The operating range was found to be somewhat dependent on constrictor geometry at low mass flow rates. Quasi-periodic voltage fluctuations were observed at the low power end of the operating envelope. The nozzle insert geometry was found to have little effect on the performance of the device. The observed performance levels show that specific impulse levels above 350 seconds can be obtained at the 0.5 kW power level.

  10. Supplementary speed control for wind power smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.E.S.; Frunt, J.; Kechroud, A.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Wind fluctuations result in even larger wind power fluctuations because the power of wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. This report analyzes wind power fluctuations to investigate inertial power smoothing, in particular for the frequency range of 0.08 - 0.5 Hz. Due to the growing

  11. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  12. Heteronuclear Long-Range Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole W.

    The lecture will cover heteronuclear long-range correlation techniques like HMBC, H2BC, and HAT HMBC with the emphasis on determining the number of covalent bonds between two spins being correlated. H2BC and HMBC spectra are quite complementary as a peak can be strong in one of the two spectra...

  13. Wireless transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been proven by researchers that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extremely low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. Experiments to data have shown that electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with litter attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. It is the intent of this research to determine if the Schumann Cavity can be resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagated with very low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the cavity. Experimental data collected and calculations made in recent years support the hypothesis that wireless power transmission is a viable and practical alternative to the present systems of power transmission

  14. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  15. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel communication strategy called Power Talk is introduced to realize the power line communication among the Voltage Source Converters (VSC) of DC MicroGrids (MGs). Each VSC transmits information by changing the control parameters, and receives information by observing the local...

  16. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Angjelichinoski, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel communication strategy for DC Micro Grids (MGs), termed power talk, in which the devices communicate by modulating the power levels in the DC bus. The information is transmitted by varying the parameters that the MG units use to control the level of the common bus voltage...

  17. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  18. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such real time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time simulation of sys- tems to evolve control schemes for the converters as well as to study the effect on the power system. In view of the control possibilities offered by the use of power converters and the newly emerging applications, there has ...

  19. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  20. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  1. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  2. Power generating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Toshihiro

    1989-05-02

    The existing power generating device consisting of static components only lacks effective measures to utilize solar energy and maintain power generation, hence it is inevitable to make the device much larger and more complicated in order to utilize it as the primary power source for artificial satellites. In view of the above, in order to offer a power generating device useful for the primary power source for satellites which is simple and can keep power generation by solar energy, this invention proposes a power generating device composed of the following elements: (1) a rectangular parallelopiped No. II superconductor plate; (2) a measure to apply a magnetic field to one face of the above superconductor plate; (3) a measure to provide a temperature difference within the range between the starting temperature and the critical temperature of superconductivity to a pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure; (4) a measure to provide an electrode on each of the other pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure and form a closed circuit by connecting the each electrode above to each of a pair of electrodes of the load respectively; and (5) a switching measure which is installed in the closed circuit prepared by the above measure and shuts off the closed circuit when the direction of the electric current running the above closed circuit is reversed. 6 figs.

  3. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  4. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  5. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  6. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  7. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  8. Long-range interactions among three alkali-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, M.; Starace, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The long-range asymptotic form of the interaction potential surface for three neutral alkali-metal atoms in their ground states may be expressed as an expansion in inverse powers of inter-nuclear distances. The first leading powers are proportional to the dispersion coefficients for pairwise atomic interactions. They are followed by a term responsible for a three body dipole interaction. The authors results consist in evaluation of the three body dipole interaction coefficient between three alkali-metal atoms. The generalization to long-range n atom interaction terms will be discussed qualitatively

  9. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  10. Wireless Power Transfer Roadway Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles represent a major accomplishment in the energy and transportation industry. Unfortunately, they are restricted to a small travel range because of limited battery life. Successful integration of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems into the infrastructure would remove the range restrictions of EVs. To successfully integrate this technology, several requirements must be met. First, the embedment process cannot interfere with the electrical performance of the inductive power t...

  11. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  12. Power plants and safety 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The papers of this volume deal with the whole range of safety issues from planning and construction to the operation of power plants, and discuss also issues like availability and safety of power plants, protective clothes and their incommodating effect, alternatives for rendering hot-water generators safe and the safety philosophy in steam turbine engineering. (HAG) [de

  13. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  14. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  17. Wide range radiation monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a simple and rugged detector capable of measuring radiation fields over the range of 0.02 R/hr up to 10/8 R/hr or higher. The device consists of an emitter element of high atomic number material which is connected to the center conductor of a signal cable. This emitter element is positioned in a spaced-apart relationship between collector element of a low atomic number material with a gap region between the emitter element and the adjacent collector elements

  18. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  19. Electric refuse collection vehicle with a range extender; Elektrisches Abfallsammelfahrzeug mit Range Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    At the Frankfurt Motor Show IAA 2012, MAN will be presenting the Metropolis, a heavy-duty truck for use in urban areas that produces no emissions and is ultra-quiet. Using mains electricity generated from renewable sources, it can operate without producing any CO{sub 2}. The truck's modular lithium-ion battery is located under the ab. A quiet and efficient diesel engine from the Volkswagen Group generates power as needed and functions as a range extender for the truck. At the end of 2012, the MAN Metropolis will start a two-year field test as a refuse collection vehicle. (orig.)

  20. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  2. Range-Measuring Video Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Briscoe, Jeri M.; Corder, Eric L.; Broderick, David

    2006-01-01

    Optoelectronic sensors of a proposed type would perform the functions of both electronic cameras and triangulation- type laser range finders. That is to say, these sensors would both (1) generate ordinary video or snapshot digital images and (2) measure the distances to selected spots in the images. These sensors would be well suited to use on robots that are required to measure distances to targets in their work spaces. In addition, these sensors could be used for all the purposes for which electronic cameras have been used heretofore. The simplest sensor of this type, illustrated schematically in the upper part of the figure, would include a laser, an electronic camera (either video or snapshot), a frame-grabber/image-capturing circuit, an image-data-storage memory circuit, and an image-data processor. There would be no moving parts. The laser would be positioned at a lateral distance d to one side of the camera and would be aimed parallel to the optical axis of the camera. When the range of a target in the field of view of the camera was required, the laser would be turned on and an image of the target would be stored and preprocessed to locate the angle (a) between the optical axis and the line of sight to the centroid of the laser spot.

  3. Long-range correlated percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrib, A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a study of the percolation problem with long-range correlations in the site or bond occupations. An extension of the Harris criterion for the relevance of the correlations is derived for the case that the correlations decay as x/sup -a/ for large distances x. For a d the correlations are relevant if dν-2<0. Applying this criterion to the behavior that results when the correlations are relevant, we argue that the new behavior will have ν/sub long/ = 2/a. It is shown that the correlated bond percolation problem is equivalent to a q-state Potts model with quenched disorder in the limit q→1. With the use of this result, a renormalization-group study of the problem is presented, expanding in epsilon = 6-d and in delta = 4-a. In addition to the normal percolation fixed point, we find a new long-range fixed point. The crossover to this new fixed point follows the extended Harris criterion, and the fixed point has exponents ν/sub long/ = 2/a (as predicted) and eta/sub long/ = (1/11)(delta-epsilon). Finally, several results on the percolation properties of the Ising model at its critical point are shown to be in agreement with the predictions of this paper

  4. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  5. Finite Range Decomposition of Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Brydges, C D; Mitter, P K

    2003-01-01

    Let $D$ be the finite difference Laplacian associated to the lattice $bZ^{d}$. For dimension $dge 3$, $age 0$ and $L$ a sufficiently large positive dyadic integer, we prove that the integral kernel of the resolvent $G^{a}:=(a-D)^{-1}$ can be decomposed as an infinite sum of positive semi-definite functions $ V_{n} $ of finite range, $ V_{n} (x-y) = 0$ for $|x-y|ge O(L)^{n}$. Equivalently, the Gaussian process on the lattice with covariance $G^{a}$ admits a decomposition into independent Gaussian processes with finite range covariances. For $a=0$, $ V_{n} $ has a limiting scaling form $L^{-n(d-2)}Gamma_{ c,ast }{bigl (frac{x-y}{ L^{n}}bigr )}$ as $nrightarrow infty$. As a corollary, such decompositions also exist for fractional powers $(-D)^{-alpha/2}$, $0

  6. MOSFET Power Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Jones, K.

    1986-01-01

    High current and voltage controlled remotely. Remote Power Conroller includes two series-connected banks of parallel-connected MOSFET's to withstand high current and voltage. Voltage sharing between switch banks, low-impedance, gate-drive circuits used. Provided controlled range for turn on. Individually trimmable to insure simultaneous switching within few nanoseconds during both turn on and turn off. Control circuit for each switch bank and over-current trip circuit float independently and supplied power via transformer T1 from inverter. Control of floating stages by optocouplers.

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  8. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  9. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  10. Introduction to electrical power and power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2012-01-01

    Power Generation, Distribution, and Utilization AC Power Fundamentals Common Aspects of Power Equipments AC Generator AC and DC Motors Transformer Power Cable Power Distribution Fault Current Analysis System ProtectionEconomic Use of PowerElectrochemical BatteryPower Electronics and Motor Drives Power Electronics Devices DC-DC Converters AC-DC-AC Converters Variable-Frequency Drives Quality of Power Power Converter CoolingAppendixIndex

  11. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  12. Understanding synthesis imaging dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a general framework for quantifying the many different contributions to the noise budget of an image made with an array of dishes or aperture array stations. Each noise contribution to the visibility data is associated with a relevant correlation timescale and frequency bandwidth so that the net impact on a complete observation can be assessed when a particular effect is not captured in the instrumental calibration. All quantities are parameterised as function of observing frequency and the visibility baseline length. We apply the resulting noise budget analysis to a wide range of existing and planned telescope systems that will operate between about 100 MHz and 5 GHz to ascertain the magnitude of the calibration challenges that they must overcome to achieve thermal noise limited performance. We conclude that calibration challenges are increased in several respects by small dimensions of the dishes or aperture array stations. It will be more challenging to achieve thermal noise limited performance using 15 m class dishes rather than the 25 m dishes of current arrays. Some of the performance risks are mitigated by the deployment of phased array feeds and more with the choice of an (alt,az,pol) mount, although a larger dish diameter offers the best prospects for risk mitigation. Many improvements to imaging performance can be anticipated at the expense of greater complexity in calibration algorithms. However, a fundamental limitation is ultimately imposed by an insufficient number of data constraints relative to calibration variables. The upcoming aperture array systems will be operating in a regime that has never previously been addressed, where a wide range of effects are expected to exceed the thermal noise by two to three orders of magnitude. Achieving routine thermal noise limited imaging performance with these systems presents an extreme challenge. The magnitude of that challenge is inversely related to the aperture array station diameter.

  13. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  14. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shi-Bin; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Shen Yang-He; Gao Na

    2015-01-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. (paper)

  15. Instrumentation for on-line mountain range displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Asselt, W.K.; Ahrens, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    A method to obtain and process 'mountain range' displays of beam signals is described. A custom-made trigger generator and a digital oscilloscope are used for the data acquisition and the graphical interface package LabVIEW is used to process the data. High resolution displays of wall monitor signals updating every AGS cycle have proven very powerful as a beam diagnostic

  16. OPTIMAL AIRCRAFT TRAJECTORIES FOR SPECIFIED RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.

    1994-01-01

    For an aircraft operating over a fixed range, the operating costs are basically a sum of fuel cost and time cost. While minimum fuel and minimum time trajectories are relatively easy to calculate, the determination of a minimum cost trajectory can be a complex undertaking. This computer program was developed to optimize trajectories with respect to a cost function based on a weighted sum of fuel cost and time cost. As a research tool, the program could be used to study various characteristics of optimum trajectories and their comparison to standard trajectories. It might also be used to generate a model for the development of an airborne trajectory optimization system. The program could be incorporated into an airline flight planning system, with optimum flight plans determined at takeoff time for the prevailing flight conditions. The use of trajectory optimization could significantly reduce the cost for a given aircraft mission. The algorithm incorporated in the program assumes that a trajectory consists of climb, cruise, and descent segments. The optimization of each segment is not done independently, as in classical procedures, but is performed in a manner which accounts for interaction between the segments. This is accomplished by the application of optimal control theory. The climb and descent profiles are generated by integrating a set of kinematic and dynamic equations, where the total energy of the aircraft is the independent variable. At each energy level of the climb and descent profiles, the air speed and power setting necessary for an optimal trajectory are determined. The variational Hamiltonian of the problem consists of the rate of change of cost with respect to total energy and a term dependent on the adjoint variable, which is identical to the optimum cruise cost at a specified altitude. This variable uniquely specifies the optimal cruise energy, cruise altitude, cruise Mach number, and, indirectly, the climb and descent profiles. If the optimum

  17. Laser-powered Martian rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Meador, W. E.; Miner, G. A.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    Two rover concepts were considered: an unpressurized skeleton vehicle having available 4.5 kW of electrical power and limited to a range of about 10 km from a temporary Martian base and a much larger surface exploration vehicle (SEV) operating on a maximum 75-kW power level and essentially unrestricted in range or mission. The only baseline reference system was a battery-operated skeleton vehicle with very limited mission capability and range and which would repeatedly return to its temporary base for battery recharging. It was quickly concluded that laser powering would be an uneconomical overkill for this concept. The SEV, on the other hand, is a new rover concept that is especially suited for powering by orbiting solar or electrically pumped lasers. Such vehicles are visualized as mobile habitats with full life-support systems onboard, having unlimited range over the Martian surface, and having extensive mission capability (e.g., core drilling and sampling, construction of shelters for protection from solar flares and dust storms, etc.). Laser power beaming to SEV's was shown to have the following advantages: (1) continuous energy supply by three orbiting lasers at 2000 km (no storage requirements as during Martian night with direct solar powering); (2) long-term supply without replacement; (3) very high power available (MW level possible); and (4) greatly enhanced mission enabling capability beyond anything currently conceived.

  18. Gamble II Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Gamble II produces a high-voltage (2 MV), high-current (1 MA), short (100 ns) pulse of energy of either positive or negative polarity. This terawatt power...

  19. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  20. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  1. Malaysia power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, Z.A. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1994-09-01

    Describes the organisation of the Malaysian electric power industry and the role of natural gas and coal in power generation in the country. At present, electricity is produced by three utilities: Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) which was fully privatised in May 1992 with the Government holding about 73% of the equity, Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation (SESCO) which the Government plans to privatise soon, and Sabah Electricity Board (SEB). These have installed capacities of 7000 MW, 400 MW and 350 MW, respectively. Five independent power producers have been given licences to build, own and operate power plants with a total installed capacity of 4000 MW. Natural gas is expected to account for about 72% of Malaysia's power generating fuel by the year 2010, compared to about 50% at present. Malaysia currently has only one coal-fired plant, but its expansion is in the final stage of contract awards. A number of small capacity coal-fired plants are being planned for Sabah and Sarawak where the bulk of Malaysia's coal resources are located. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  2. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...

  3. High-power klystrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siambis, John G.; True, Richard B.; Symons, R. S.

    1994-05-01

    Novel emerging applications in advanced linear collider accelerators, ionospheric and atmospheric sensing and modification and a wide spectrum of industrial processing applications, have resulted in microwave tube requirements that call for further development of high power klystrons in the range from S-band to X-band. In the present paper we review recent progress in high power klystron development and discuss some of the issues and scaling laws for successful design. We also discuss recent progress in electron guns with potential grading electrodes for high voltage with short and long pulse operation via computer simulations obtained from the code DEMEOS, as well as preliminary experimental results. We present designs for high power beam collectors.

  4. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  5. High fluence effects on ion implantation stopping and range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Tek, Z.; Oeztarhan, A.; Akbas, N.; Brown, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a code STOPPO which can be used to modify the more-widely used ion implantation codes to more accurately predict the mean nuclear and electronic stopping power, preferential sputtering and range of heavy ions in monatomic target materials. In our simulations an effective atomic number and effective atomic mass are introduced into conveniently available analytical stopping cross-sections and a better fitting function for preferential sputtering yield is carefully evaluated for each ion implantation. The accuracy of the code confirmed experimentally by comparison with measured Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) concentration profiles for 130 keV Zr ions implanted into Be to fluences of 1 x 10 17 , 2 x 10 17 and 4 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 . We find a steady increase in the mean nuclear and electronic stopping powers of the target; the increase in nuclear stopping power is much greater than the increase in electronic stopping power

  6. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  7. Drivers of imbalance cost of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obersteiner, C.; Siewierski, T.; Andersen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In Europe an increasing share of wind power is sold on the power market. Therefore more and more wind power generators become balancing responsible and face imbalance cost that reduce revenues from selling wind power. A comparison of literature illustrates that the imbalance cost of wind power...... varies in a wide range. To explain differences we indentify parameters influencing imbalance cost and compare them for case studies in Austria, Denmark and Poland. Besides the wind power forecast error also the correlation between imbalance and imbalance price influences imbalance cost significantly...... of imperfect forecast is better suited to reflect real cost incurred due to inaccurate wind power forecasts....

  8. Marine: a new wide range neutron monitoring system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trama, J.C.; Lescop, B.; Lefevre, J.; Nguyen, T.; Sudres, C. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire; Pasdeloup, P. [Technicatome, 13 - Les Milles (France)

    2001-07-01

    In a Nuclear Power Plant, the developed power is proportional to the emitted neutron flux. The 10 to 11 decades measurement range from source to power generally needs 3 distinct neutron measurement chains to be monitored. A wide range neutron monitoring system may cover this range with only one sensor followed by adequate electronics. In the past this concept has been developed with an analogue technology which was presenting some drawbacks (slow log amplifier, components perenniality). In this paper, we introduce a completely new design, that makes use of a recent technology, including full linear input electronics, and advanced digital signal processing. As far as the sensor is concerned, both a well known commercial fission chamber, or an innovative wide range sensor presenting a high sensitivity may be used. The basic concept is that the single signal is continuously processed by three different electronic stages, each one being dedicated to approximately one third of the full range: pulse, Campbelling and current modes. After amplification, appropriate shaping, this signal is numerically filtered by a Kalman filter algorithm to compute the neutron flux as well as the reactor period. A specifically developed test module allows the surveillance of the sensor and the electronics via stimuli injections and characteristic curves plotting. A computerised simulation of the whole chain is used to validate the signal processing algorithms evolutions. In the paper we will specifically develop the metrological performances of this chain and the general agreement that exists between simulated and measured values. (authors)

  9. Compact power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Dieckamp, H.M.; Wilson, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector

  10. Developing powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Three new reports commissioned by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change examine the electric power sectors in Argentina, Brazil, and China, and the potential impact that energy use in each country has on climate change.In 1999, Argentina voluntarily agreed to lower its greenhouse gas emissions to 2 10% below projected emissions for 2012. The report looks at additional steps that could further reduce emissions, including adopting policies that favor renewable energy sources and nuclear power, and increasing energy efficiency by end-users.

  11. Tidal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This book describes how large tides develop in particular places and how the energy could be extracted by building suitable barrages. The principal features of a barrage and possible methods of operation are described in detail. Although a tidal power barrage would be non-polluting, the resulting changes in the tidal regime would have important environmental effects. These are discussed together with the economics of tidal power. Methods of assessing the likely cost of electricity from any site are set out and applied to possible sites around the world. (author)

  12. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Stromswold, D.C.; Hansen, R.R.; Reeder, P.L.; Barnett, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m 2 ) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the 3 He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10 5 n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10 5 n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph

  14. Passively-switched energy harvester for increased operational range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tian; Livermore, Carol; Pierre, Ryan St

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents modeling and experimental validation of a new type of vibrational energy harvester that passively switches between two dynamical modes of operation to expand the range of driving frequencies and accelerations over which the harvester effectively extracts power. In both modes, a driving beam with a low resonant frequency couples into ambient vibrations and transfers their energy to a generating beam that has a higher resonant frequency. The generating beam converts the mechanical power into electrical power. In coupled-motion mode, the driving beam bounces off the generating beam. In plucked mode, the driving beam deflects the generating beam until the driving beam passes from above the generating beam to below it or vice versa. Analytical system models are implemented numerically in the time domain for driving frequencies of 3 Hz to 27 Hz and accelerations from 0.1 g to 2.6 g, and both system dynamics and output power are predicted. A corresponding switched-dynamics harvester is tested experimentally, and its voltage, power, and dynamics are recorded. In both models and experiments, coupled-motion harvesting is observed at lower accelerations, whereas plucked harvesting and/or mixed mode harvesting are observed at higher accelerations. As expected, plucked harvesting outputs greater power than coupled-motion harvesting in both simulations and experiments. The predicted (1.8 mW) and measured (1.56 mW) maximum average power levels are similar under measured conditions at 0.5 g. When the system switches to dynamics that are characteristic of higher frequencies, the difference between predicted and measured power levels is more pronounced due to non-ideal mechanical interaction between the beams’ tips. Despite the beams’ non-ideal interactions, switched-dynamics operation increases the harvester’s operating range. (paper)

  15. The end of cheap electric power from nuclear power plants. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, J.; Viefhues, D.

    1984-04-01

    The economic efficiency of a nuclear power plant is compared with that of a coal-fired power plant of the same size. A technical and economic computer model was developed which took account of the power plant and all its units as well as the fuel cycle (including intermediate storage and reprocessing). It was found that future nuclear power plants will be inferior to coal-fired power plants in all economic respects. Further, there was no load range in which the cost of electric power generation was more favourable in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  17. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  18. Comic Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the growing attention to the politics of comedy in the United States and elsewhere, this article asks what it would mean to think critically about relations of power mobilized through cheerfulness, humor, and laughter. The article shows that existing answers to this question are tainted...

  19. Plug Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, A. [Plug Power Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described Plug Power's GenDrive hydrogen fuel cell unit that supplies the power needs for folk lift trucks used in high-throughput distribution and high-volume manufacturing operations. The system offers an alternative to lead acid batteries, providing maximum performance at all times during use. The system is particularly useful in the material handling industry, where the revenue generated is based on operator uptime and lift truck productivity. The use of the system allows customers to reduce operational costs and expand valuable floor space by eliminating batteries and associated recharging infrastructure. Fuel cell units also reduce the wear on truck motors. Truck operators can easily and safely refuel at hydrogen fueling stations in 1-5 minutes. GenDrive works with all major OEM lift trucks, making the transition seamless. Commercial customers are investing in this solution to improve their current operations. In 2008, Plug Power sold to Wal-Mart, Bridgestone Firestone and Nestle. Most notably, Central Grocers purchased 220 fuel cell units for a new greenfield distribution center. Plug Power currently has more than 380 systems in operation.

  20. Magnet power supply for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Frankel, R.F.; Thomas, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The power supply system which will energize the superconducting magnets in the ISABELLE machine consists of some 520 computer-programmable power supplies with outputs ranging from 50 A to 4500 A. Most of the power supplies will be used for the correction of field harmonics, orbit correction and adjustment of the machine working line. During acceleration, currents in various magnet correction coils will be controlled in real time to track the main field; all power supplies must be highly stable during the stacking and storage of the beam (in some cases current regulation must be in the order of 0.001%). PS reference programs will be stored in microprocessor based function generators embedded in each power supply. Due to the large amount of stored energy in the system, the magnets must be protected during quenches. Details of the power supply and of the magnet quench protection system are described

  1. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  2. TAPCHAN Wave Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    The Tapered Channel Wave Power Plant (TAPCHAN) is based on a new method for wave energy conversion. The principle of operation can be explained by dividing the system into the following four sub-systems: Firstly, a collector which is designed to concentrate the water energy and optimize collection efficiency for a range of frequencies and directions. Secondly, the energy converter, in which the energy of the collected waves is transformed into potential energy in an on-shore water reservoir. This is the unique part of the power plant. It consists of a gradually narrowing channel with wall heights equal to the filling level of the reservoir (typical heights 3-7 m). The waves enter the wide end of the channel and as they propagate down the narrowing channel, the wave height is amplified until the wavecrests spill over the walls. Thirdly, a reservoir which provides a stable water supply for the turbines. Finally, the hydroelectric power plant, where well established techniques are used for the generation of electric power. The water turbine driving the electric generator is of a low head type, such as a Kaplan or a tubular turbine. It must be designed for salt water operation and should have good regulation capabilities. Power plants based on the principle described, are now offered on a commercial basis.

  3. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  4. Moved range monitor of a refueling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masaaki; Sakanaka, Tadao; Kayano, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To incorporate light receiving and emitting elements in a face monitor to thereby increase accuracy and reliability to facilitate handling in the refueling of a BWR power plant. Constitution: In the present invention, a refueling machine and a face monitoring light receiving and emitting elements are analogously coupled whereby the face monitoring light receiving and emitting elements may be moved so as to be analogous to a route along which the refueling machine has moved. A shielding plate is positioned in the middle of the light receiving and emitting elements, and the shielding plate is machined so as to be outside of action. The range of action of the refueling machine may be monitored depending on the light receiving state of the light receiving element. Since the present invention utilizes the permeating light as described above, it is possible to detect positions more accurately than the mechanical switch. In addition, the detection section is of the non-contact system and the light receiving element comprises a hot cell, and therefore the service life is extended and the reliability is high. (Nakamura, S.)

  5. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q 0 | 0 --a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q 0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q 2 (δε) -1 which becomes dominant for δε 3 . Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  6. Simulation of channelled ion ranges in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabadayi, Oender; Guemues, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a channelled ion range simulation model based on separation of ion trajectories into three different categories known as random, channelled, and well-channelled. We present this for boron projectiles incident along the Si direction. Stopping powers for channelled particles, well-channelled, and random particles are determined using experimental ratios of random and channelled stopping powers for a boron/silicon system. We have found the particle range distributions and the mean range of particles in crystalline channels. A new program code has been developed for the implementation of the presented model. The results are compared with experimental data as well as Crystal-transport and range of ions in matter, stopping and ranges of ions in matter, and projected range algorithm programs. We have found good agreement between our calculations and experiment, with an average discrepancy of 7%. Our model is also able to simulate the observed shift towards larger depths for the main ion distribution under channelling conditions

  7. Ranging behavior relates to welfare indicators pre- and post-range access in commercial free-range broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of accessing an outdoor range on chicken welfare. We tracked individual ranging behavior of 538 mixed-sex Ross 308 chickens on a commercial farm across 4 flocks in winter and summer. Before range access, at 17 to 19 d of age, and post-range access, at 30 to 33 and 42 to 46 d of age in winter and summer flocks respectively, welfare indicators were measured on chickens (pre-range: winter N = 292; summer N = 280; post-range: winter N = 131; summer N = 140), including weight, gait score, dermatitis and plumage condition. Post-ranging autopsies were performed (winter: N = 170; summer: N = 60) to assess breast burn, leg health, and ascites. Fewer chickens accessed the range in winter flocks (32.5%) than summer flocks (82.1%). Few relationships between welfare and ranging were identified in winter, likely due to minimal ranging and the earlier age of post-ranging data collection compared to summer flocks. In summer flocks prior to range access, chickens that accessed the range weighed 4.9% less (P = 0.03) than chickens that did not access the range. Pre-ranging weight, gait score, and overall plumage cover predicted the amount of range use by ranging chickens in summer flocks (P ranging behavior. In summer flocks post-range access, ranging chickens weighed 12.8% less than non-ranging chickens (P range visits were associated with lower weight (P range was associated with lower weight (P range in summer is partly related to changes in broiler chicken welfare. Further investigations are required to determine causation.

  8. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  9. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Options for EBFA-I were narrowed as data became available from Proto II, MITE and power flow research. The solid dielectric capacitors proposed for intermediate stores have been eliminated for EBFA because of low reliability. Water capacitors based on data from Proto II and Hydra will be used on EBFA. Improved SF-6 switching data from Proto II shows that present parameters are adequate for EBFA. A switch jitter of 3 ns with reliability exceeding 0.986 was demonstrated. Proto II has achieved the design output and is now a user oriented accelerator. Several desirable features of the disc accelerator were proven. Initial magnetic insulation experiments on a 1.5 m-long-triplate show small energy and power losses. Theoretical understanding of magnetic insulation was greatly enhanced and agreement between projections and experiment were obtained

  10. The influence of the 220 kv and 66 kv power electric systems and the subsystem of their servitude range in the 'chaco central' ecosystem in Paraguay; Relacion de tendido electrico de 220 kV y 66kV en el ecosistema del chaco central del Paraguay y el subsistema de su franja de servidumbre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta E, Hugo Cesar [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    According to the report from DOP/EL, in a medium period of time it has been registered nine disconnections of the 66 kv power transmission line located in the Chaco zone occurred in the nocturnal period. Those disconnections affected negatively the milky processes of Colinas Menonitas, deteriorating more than 20,000 liters of milk for each cut of the electric energy service. DMA/IM has accomplished a investigation job together with DOM/FO and has found the main reasons for those disconnections, so based on them it has recommended possible solutions related to the problem.

  11. Assessment of tidal range energy resources based on flux conservation in Jiantiao Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wu, He; Yu, Huaming; Lv, Ting; Li, Jiangyu; Yu, Yujun

    2017-12-01

    La Rance Tidal Range Power Station in France and Jiangxia Tidal Range Power Station in China have been both long-term successful commercialized operations as kind of role models for public at large for more than 40 years. The Sihwa Lake Tidal Range Power Station in South Korea has also developed to be the largest marine renewable power station with its installed capacity 254 MW since 2010. These practical applications prove that the tidal range energy as one kind of marine renewable energy exploitation and utilization technology is becoming more and more mature and it is used more and more widely. However, the assessment of the tidal range energy resources is not well developed nowadays. This paper summarizes the main problems in tidal range power resource assessment, gives a brief introduction to tidal potential energy theory, and then we present an analyzed and estimated method based on the tide numerical modeling. The technical characteristics and applicability of these two approaches are compared with each other. Furthermore, based on the theory of tidal range energy generation combined with flux conservation, this paper proposes a new assessment method that include a series of evaluation parameters and it can be easily operated to calculate the tidal range energy of the sea. Finally, this method is applied on assessment of the tidal range power energy of the Jiantiao Harbor in Zhejiang Province, China for demonstration and examination.

  12. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  13. Power Macintosh 7300/166

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The Power Macintosh 7300 was released in 1997 and was the same case as the Power Macintosh 7600. Its main evolution is that it was equipped with a faster processor. It also had a bigger hard drive (2 GB) and a faster CD-ROM drive (12x to 8x). In return, Apple chose to remove the audiovisual connections that were present on all its predecessors of the range 7x00.

  14. Mobile Centers For Secondary Power Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Concept for distribution of 60-Hz ac power in large building devoted to assembly and testing of equipment improves safety, reduces number of outlets and lengthy cables, and readily accommodates frequent changes in operations and configuration. Power from floor recess fed via unobtrusive cable to portable power management center. A cart containing variety of outlets and circuit breakers, wheeled to convenient location near equipment to be assembled or tested. Power distribution system presents larger range of operational configurations than fixed location. Meets tighter standards to feed computers and delicate instruments. Industrial-grade power suitable for power tools and other hardware. Three-phase and single-phase outlets available from each.

  15. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  16. Range and energy functions of interest in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, D.P.; Nagarajan, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    This report documents the energy and range functions generated and used in fast neutron interface dosimetry studies. The basic data of stopping power employed are the most recent. The present report covers a number of media mainly air, oxygen, nitrogen, polythene, graphite, bone and tissue, and a number of charged particles, namely protons, alphas, 9 Be, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C, 14 N and 16 O. These functions would be useful for generation of energy and range values for any of the above particles in any of the above media within +- 1% in any dosimetric calculations. (author)

  17. Intermediate-range order in lead metasilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ako, Hyogo (Japan)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.; Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The complementarity of anomalous X-ray scattering (AXS) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques is used here to investigate the nature and origin of intermediate-range order in lead metasilicate glass. Both X-ray and neutron source factors reveal small peaks at low wave vector which are shown to be associated with intermediate-range order of the Pb-O network. The combination of AXS and ND is shown to be a powerful tool to correlate contributions from the different atom pairs to such a peak. The information thus derived is compared with results from alkali germanate glasses and with structural data on corresponding crystalline compounds.

  18. Special Application Thermoelectric Micro Isotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, Ben; Lieberman, Al; Khayat, Mo; Leanna, Andrew; Dobry, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Promising design concepts for milliwatt (mW) size micro isotope power sources (MIPS) are being sought for use in various space and terrestrial applications, including a multitude of future NASA scientific missions and a range of military applications. To date, the radioisotope power sources (RPS) used on various space and terrestrial programs have provided power levels ranging from one-half to several hundred watts. In recent years, the increased use of smaller spacecraft and planned new scientific space missions by NASA, special terrestrial and military applications suggest the need for lower power, including mW level, radioisotope power sources. These power sources have the potential to enable such applications as long-lived meteorological or seismological stations distributed across planetary surfaces, surface probes, deep space micro-spacecraft and sub-satellites, terrestrial sensors, transmitters, and micro-electromechanical systems. The power requirements are in the range of 1 mW to several hundred mW. The primary technical requirements for space applications are long life, high reliability, high specific power, and high power density, and those for some special military uses are very high power density, specific power, reliability, low radiological induced degradation, and very low radiation leakage. Thermoelectric conversion is of particular interest because of its technological maturity and proven reliability. This paper summarizes the thermoelectric, thermal, and radioisotope heat source designs and presents the corresponding performance for a number of mW size thermoelectric micro isotope power sources

  19. Operating modes and practical power flow analysis of bidirectional isolated power interface for distributed power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Huiqing; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four operating modes of Dual-Phase-Shift control for Dual Active Bridge converter are presented. • Effects of “minor parameters” such as the deadtime and power device voltage drops are analyzed. • Accurate power flow models with Dual-Phase-Shift control are developed and verified with experimental results. • Optimal operating mode is determined with respect to the efficiency improvement. • Measured efficiency of the Dual Active Bridge converter is improved up to 14%. - Abstract: Due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources including photovoltaic and wind energy, the energy storage systems are essential to stabilize dc bus voltage. Considering the discharge depth of super-capacitors and energy-storage batteries, the bidirectional isolated power interface will operate for a wide range of voltage and power. This study focuses on in-depth analysis of the dual-active-bridge dc–dc converter that is controlled by the dual-phase-shift scheme to improve the conversion efficiency in distributed power system. The power flow of each operating mode with dual-phase-shift control is characterized based on a detailed analysis of the effects of “minor parameters”, including the deadtime and power device voltage drops. The complete output power plane of the dual-active-bridge converter with dual-phase-shift control is obtained and compared with experimental results. The optimal operating mode is determined according to the practical output power range and the power flow characteristics. Experimental evaluation shows the effectiveness of the proposed power flow model with dual-phase-shift control and significant efficiency improvement using the optimal mode of dual-phase-shift compared with the conventional phase shift control.

  20. Power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukawa, Naohiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the load of an operator by automatically operating the main controller, the speed controller, etc. of a recirculation control system and safely operating them without erroneous operation for long period of time, thereby improving the efficiency of a plant. Constitution: An electric type hydraulic control device controls loads of a turbine and a generator and outputs a control signal also to the main controller of a recirculation flow rate control system. At this time, the main controller is set at an automatic position, and the speed controller receives a recirculation pump speed signal from the main controller at the automatic position. The speed controller outputs a pump speed control signal to the recirculation pump system, and a reactor generates a power corresponding thereto. When the power control is automatically performed by the recirculation flow rate control, an operator sets a rate of change of the recirculation pump speed and the rate of change of the mean power range monitor at a change rate setting unit. Therefore, the control of the recirculation flow rate under the power control can be substantially entirely automated. (Yoshigara, H.)

  1. New power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Daido, Hiroyuki; Imasaki, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    As the new power lasers which are expected to exert large extending effect to the fields of advanced science and technology including precision engineering as well as laser nuclear fusion, LD-excited solid laser, X-ray laser and free electron laser are taken up and outlined. Recently, the solid laser using high power output, high efficiency semiconductor laser as the exciting beam source has been developed. This is called laser diode (LD)-excited solid laser, and the heightening of power output and efficiency and the extension of life are planned. Its present status and application to medical use, laser machining, laser soldering and so on are described. In 1960, the laser in visible region appeared, however in 1985, the result of observing induced emission beam by electron collision exciting method was reported in USA. In the wavelength range of 200 A, holography and contact X-ray microscope applications were verified. The various types of soft X-ray laser and the perspective hereafter are shown. The principle of free electron laser is explained. In the free electron laser, wavelength can be changed by varying electron beam energy, the period of wiggler magnetic field and the intensity of magnetic field. Further, high efficiency and large power output are possible. Its present status, application and the perspective hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

  3. Limits to power system growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.M.; Klein, A.C.; Webb, B.J.; Pauley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of space nuclear power systems a variety of conversion techniques may be used, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. A study was performed which analyzed over 120 proposed system designs. The designs were compared to identify the optimum conversion system as a function of power level and find limits to specific mass (kg/kWe) for each power cycle. Furthermore, the component masses were studied to determine which component of the overall design contributes the most to total system mass over a variety of power levels. The results can provide a focus for future research efforts by selecting the best conversion technology for the desired power range, and optimizing the system component which contributes most to the total mass

  4. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  5. Small range logarithm calculation on Intel Quartus II Verilog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Muhazam; Mokhtar, Anis Shahida; Ahmad, Azfar Asyrafie

    2018-02-01

    Logarithm function is the inverse of exponential function. This paper implement power series of natural logarithm function using Verilog HDL in Quartus II. The mode of design used is RTL in order to decrease the number of megafunctions. The simulations were done to determine the precision and number of LEs used so that the output calculated accurately. It is found that the accuracy of the system only valid for the range of 1 to e.

  6. Powering the Space Exploration Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) establishes the long-term goal of returning to the Moon and then exploring Mars. One of the prerequisites of SEI is the Exploration Technology Program which includes program elements on space nuclear power and surface solar power. These program elements in turn build upon the ongoing NASA research and technology base program in space energy conversion. There is a wide range of missions in NASA's strategic planning and most would benefit from power sources with improved efficiency, lighter weight and reduced cost

  7. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  8. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable

  9. Probing the role of long-range interactions in the dynamics of a long-range Kitaev chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    We study the role of long-range interactions (more precisely, the long-range superconducting gap term) on the nonequilibrium dynamics considering a long-range p -wave superconducting chain in which the superconducting term decays with distance between two sites in a power-law fashion characterized by an exponent α . We show that the Kibble-Zurek scaling exponent, dictating the power-law decay of the defect density in the final state reached following a slow (in comparison to the time scale associated with the minimum gap in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian) quenching of the chemical potential μ across a quantum critical point, depends nontrivially on the exponent α as long as α 2 , we find that the exponent saturates to the corresponding well-known value of 1 /2 expected for the short-range model. Furthermore, studying the dynamical quantum phase transitions manifested in the nonanalyticities in the rate function of the return possibility I (t ) in subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden change in μ , we show the existence of a new region; in this region, we find three instants of cusp singularities in I (t ) associated with a single sector of Fisher zeros. Notably, the width of this region shrinks as α increases and vanishes in the limit α →2 , indicating that this special region is an artifact of the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian.

  10. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  11. Small radioisotope powered batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.

    1975-06-01

    Various methods of converting the large amounts of energy stored in radioisotopes are described. These are based on:- (a) the Seebeck effect; (b) thermionic emission of electrons from a hot body; (c) the Stirling Cycle; and (d) radiovoltaic charge separation in 'p-n' junctions. Small generators in the range 0 to 100 W(e) developed using these effects are described and typical applications for each of these systems are given. These include data collection and transmission from remote sites, implantable medical devices, lighthouses, radio beacons, and space power supplies. (author)

  12. Wind power engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, P J

    1977-02-10

    The device is a wind-power engine with vertical axis and with one or several wings with airfoil profile fixed on a frame which is pivoted at the vertical axis. Each wing forms at least on one part of its length an angle of inclination with the vertical. The angle increases under the influence of the centrifugal force when the r.p.m. exceed a normal operation range. This method helps to reduce mechanical loads occurring with high wind speeds without requiring a complicated construction.

  13. EMC in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tihanyi, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Electronics professionals will find this book invaluable when designing power equipment, because it describes in detail how to cope with the problem of electromagnetic interference. The author shows how to meet the exacting US and European EMC standards for conducted emissions.The book includes a wide range of EMI analysis techniques. An important focus is on the energy content of interference transient signals (traditional analysis concentrates on amplitude and frequency). This provides a more accurate picture of the EMI situation. For those who do not want or need detailed analysis technique

  14. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  15. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  16. Individual differences in long-range time representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Camila S; Caetano, Marcelo S; Balci, Fuat; Claessens, Peter M E; Zana, Yossi

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures. A linear regression fit also outperformed a power model fit for the aggregated data. An individual-participant-based analysis showed better fits of a linear model to the data of 14 participants; better fits of a power function with an exponent β > 1 to the data of 12 participants; and better fits of a power function with β discount rates in intertemporal choice to the compressed nature of subjective time must entail the characterization of subjective time on an individual-participant basis.

  17. Energy-range relation and mean energy variation in therapeutic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, Johanna; Brahme, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the mean energy and range of therapeutic light ion beams and low- and high-energy electrons have been derived, based on the energy dependence of their respective stopping powers. The new mean energy and range relations are power-law expressions relevant for light ion radiation therapy, and are based on measured practical ranges or known tabulated stopping powers and ranges for the relevant incident particle energies. A practical extrapolated range, R p , for light ions was defined, similar to that of electrons, which is very closely related to the extrapolated range of the primary ions. A universal energy-range relation for light ions and electrons that is valid for all material mixtures and compounds has been developed. The new relation can be expressed in terms of the range for protons and alpha particles, and is found to agree closely with experimental data in low atomic number media and when the difference in the mean ionization energy is low. The variation of the mean energy with depth and the new energy-range relation are useful for accurate stopping power and mass scattering power calculations, as well as for general particle transport and dosimetry applications

  18. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Agreement of Power Measures between Garmin Vector and SRM Cycle Power Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Andrew R.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if the Garmin Vector (Schaffhausen, Switzerland) power meter produced acceptable measures when compared with the Schoberer Rad Messetechnik (SRM; Julich, Germany) power meter across a range of high-intensity efforts. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists completed power profiles (seven maximal mean efforts between 5 and…

  20. Isometric strength, sprint power, and aerobic power in individuals with a spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; Hollander, A P; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H

    This study investigated in rather specific wheelchair tests the relationships among estimates of isometric upper-body strength (Fiso), sprint power (P30), aerobic power (VO2peak), and maximal power output (POaer) in a group of 44 men (age 34 +/- 12 yr) with longstanding spinal cord injuries ranging

  1. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  2. High technology supporting nuclear power industry in CRIEPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    As a central research institute of electric power industry, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has carried out R and D on broad range of topics such as power generation, power transmission, power distribution, power application and energy economics and society, aiming to develop prospective and advanced technologies, fundamental reinforce technologies and next-generation core technologies. To realize low-carbon society to cope with enhancement of global environmental issues, nuclear power is highly recommended as large-scale power with low-carbon emission. At the new start of serial explanation on advanced technologies, R and D on electric power industry was outlined. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelov, A.A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  4. Microwave transmission system for space power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wave-length microwaves.

  5. Environmental Statement for Proposed Continental Operations Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-17

    sq ft building. Commercial power will be used where available; otherwise gasoline or diesel powered motor-generator sets will be provided. The...80:620-630. Malar, T. and H. Kleerekoper, 1968. Observations on some effects of sound intensity on locomotor patterns of naive goldfish. Am. Zool., 8

  6. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2014-01-01

    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  7. Logarithmic scaling in the near-dissipation range of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.

    2006-12-01

    A logarithmic scaling for structure functions, in the form S p ∼ [ln(r/η)] ζp , where η is the Kolmogorov dissipation scale and ζ p are the scaling exponents, is suggested for the statistical description of the near-dissipation range for which classical power-law scaling does not apply. From experimental data at moderate Reynolds numbers, it is shown that the logarithmic scaling, deduced from general considerations for the near-dissipation range, covers almost the entire range of scales (about two decades) of structure functions, for both velocity and passive scalar fields. This new scaling requires two empirical constants, just as the classical scaling does, and can be considered the basis for extended self-similarity. (author)

  8. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  9. Taking the reins of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenagh, Andrew.

    1997-01-01

    The growing contract energy management business in the United Kingdom is examined. At the top end, established electricity generators are supplying combined heat and power plants of over 20MW or so to meet the steam, power and heating requirements of large industrial sites on contracts of, typically, 15-20 years. These are very much the province of companies such as National Power and PowerGen familiar with linking into the high voltage transmission system and hence able to sell surplus power from these projects into the National Grid. A much wider range of services is on offer by other more specialised companies. These range from the supply and operation of combined heat and power plants to smaller companies, to fuel purchasing contracts and the monitoring of energy consumption of existing facilities in public buildings. Cost cutting is the driving attraction of contract energy management for the purchasers, but there are other advantages. The view of one company, for example, is that it enables them to focus on their core business while leaving energy production and management to a third party whose core business that is. Energy costs become totally forecastable and expertise is always at hand. (UK)

  10. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  11. Magnetic short range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate magnetic short range order in Gd for 80 0 K 0 K. Short range order exists throughout this range from well below T/sub C/ = 291 0 K to well above it and can be reasonably well described by an anisotropic Orstein-Zernike form for chi

  12. Experimental results of laser wakefield acceleration using a femtosecond terawatt laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kando, Masaki; Ahn, Hyeyoung; Dewa, Hideki

    1999-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWA) experiments have been carried out in an underdense plasma driven by a 2 TW, 90 fs laser pulse synchronized with a 17 MeV RF linac electron injector at 10 Hz. Around optimum plasma densities for LWA, we have observed electrons accelerated to 35 MeV. Wakefield excitation has been confirmed by measuring the electron density oscillation with a frequency domain interferometer. At plasma densities higher than the optimum density, we have also observed high energy electrons over 100 MeV up to 200 MeV. (author)

  13. Skin depth theory explaining anomalous picosecond-terawatt laser plasma interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, H.; Osman, F.; Höpfl, R.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Boody, F.; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. D349-D359 ISSN 0011-4626. [Plasma Physics and Technology. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser plasma * ion acceleration Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  14. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cikhardt, Jakub; Krása, Josef; De Marco, Massimo; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Krouský, Eduard; Cikhardtová, B.; Klír, Daniel; Řezáč, Karel; Ullschmied, Jiří; Skála, Jiří; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 10 (2014), s. 103507-103507 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029; GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser PALS * laser-target interaction * target current * inductive probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.614, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898016

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of ion range profiles for heavy ions in light targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 (China); Zhang, Y., E-mail: Zhangy1@ornl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Morris, J.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhu, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Gao, Y.; Wang, Y.G.; Yan, S. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, 100871 (China); Weber, W.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The determination of stopping powers for slow heavy ions in targets containing light elements is important to accurately describe ion-solid interactions, evaluate ion irradiation effects and predict ion ranges for device fabrication and nuclear applications. Recently, discrepancies of up to 40% between the experimental results and SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) predictions of ion ranges for heavy ions with medium and low energies (<{approx}25 keV/nucleon) in light elemental targets have been reported. The longer experimental ion ranges indicate that the stopping powers used in the SRIM code are overestimated. Here, a molecular dynamics simulation scheme is developed to calculate the ion ranges of heavy ions in light elemental targets. Electronic stopping powers generated from both a reciprocity approach and the SRIM code are used to investigate the influence of electronic stopping on ion range profiles. The ion range profiles for Au and Pb ions in SiC and Er ions in Si, with energies between 20 and 5250 keV, are simulated. The simulation results show that the depth profiles of implanted ions are deeper and in better agreement with the experiments when using the electronic stopping power values derived from the reciprocity approach. These results indicate that the origin of the discrepancy in ion ranges between experimental results and SRIM predictions in the low energy region may be an overestimation of the electronic stopping powers used in SRIM.

  16. Modelling control of epidemics spreading by long-range interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2009-10-06

    We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a two-dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents (vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered in this paper, an alpha-stable distribution describing self-similar vector movement, yet characterized by an infinite variance and an exponential power characterized by a large but finite variance. Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic infection, whereby an infected individual on the lattice can be infectious prior to showing any symptoms of infection or disease. To account for such cryptic spread, we considered a control strategy in which not only detected, i.e. symptomatic, individuals but also all individuals within a certain control neighbourhood are treated upon the detection of disease. We show that it is possible to eradicate the disease by using such purely local control measures, even in the presence of long-range jumps. In particular, we show that the success of local control and the choice of the optimal strategy depend in a non-trivial way on the dispersal patterns of the vectors. By characterizing these patterns using the stability index of the alpha-stable distribution to change the power-law behaviour or the exponent characterizing the decay of an exponential power distribution, we show that infection can be successfully contained using relatively small control neighbourhoods for two limiting cases for long-distance dispersal and for vectors that are much more limited in their dispersal range.

  17. Range and Endurance Tradeoffs on Personal Rotorcraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotorcraft design has always been a challenging tradeoff among overall size, capabilities, complexity, and other factors based on available technology and customer requirements. Advancements in propulsion, energy systems and other technologies have enabled new vehicles and missions; complementary advances in analysis methods and tools enable exploration of these enhanced vehicles and the evolving mission design space. A system study was performed to better understand the interdependency between vehicle design and propulsion system capabilities versus hover / loiter requirements and range capability. Three representative vertical lift vehicles were developed to explore the tradeoff in capability between hover efficiency versus range and endurance capability. The vehicles were a single-main rotor helicopter, a tilt rotor, and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. Vehicle capability was limited to two or three people (including pilot or crew) and maximum range within one hour of flight (100-200 miles, depending on vehicle). Two types of propulsion and energy storage systems were used in this study. First was traditional hydrocarbon-fueled cycles (such as Otto, diesel or gas turbine cycles). Second was an all-electric system using electric motors, power management and distribution, assuming batteries for energy storage, with the possibility of hydrocarbon-fueled range extenders. The high power requirements for hover significantly reduced mission radius capability. Loiter was less power intensive, resulting in about 1/2 the equivalent mission radius penalty. With so many design variables, the VTOL aircraft has the potential to perform well for a variety of missions. This vehicle is a good candidate for additional study; component model development is also required to adequately assess performance over the design space of interest.

  18. Performance analysis of a microcontroller based slip power recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slip power recovery wound rotor induction motor drives are used in high power, limited speed range applications where control of slip power provides the variable speed drive system. In this paper, the steady state performance analysis of conventional slip power recovery scheme using static line commutated inverter in the ...

  19. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  20. Nuclear power's burdened future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1987-01-01

    Although governments of the world's leading nations are reiterating their faith in nuclear power, Chernobyl has brought into focus the public's overwhelming feeling that the current generation of nuclear technology is simple not working. Despite the drastic slowdown, however, the global nuclear enterprise is large. As of mid-1986, the world had 366 nuclear power plants in operation, with a generating capacity of 255,670 MW. These facilities generate about 15% of the world's electricity, ranging from 65% in France to 31% in West Germany, 23% in Japan, 16% in the United States, 10% in the Soviet Union, and non in most developing nations. Nuclear development is clearly dominated by the most economically powerful and technologically advanced nations. The United States, France, the Soviet Union, Japan, and West Germany has 72% of the world's generating capacity and set the international nuclear pace. The reasons for scaling back nuclear programs are almost as diverse as the countries themselves. High costs, slowing electricity demand growth, technical problems, mismanagement, and political opposition have all had an effect. Yet these various factors actually form a complex web of inter-related problems. For example, rising costs usually represent some combination of technical problems and mismanagement, and political opposition often occurs because of safety concerns or rising costs. 13 references

  1. Power manager and method for managing power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchard, A.T.; Kersten, G.; Molnos, A.M.; Milutinovic, A.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Steffens, E.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    A power manager (106) and method for managing the power supplied to an electronic device is provided. Furthermore, a system wherein the power supplied to an electronic device is managed is provided. The power manager (106) is operative to monitor a hardware monitor (104) during a monitoring time

  2. Water Power Research | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Power Research Water Power Research NREL conducts water power research; develops design tools ; and evaluates, validates, and supports the demonstration of innovative water power technologies. Photo of a buoy designed around the oscillating water column principle wherein the turbine captures the

  3. Power processing systems for ion thrusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, B. G.; Garth, D. R.; Finke, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed use of ion thrusters to fulfill various communication satellite propulsion functions such as east-west and north-south stationkeeping, attitude control, station relocation and orbit raising, naturally leads to the requirement for lightweight, efficient and reliable thruster power processing systems. Collectively, the propulsion requirements dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by the power processing. This paper will discuss the status of such power processing systems, present system design alternatives and project expected near future power system performance.

  4. Calculation of atom ranges in solids for quasi-small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A formula for quasi-small-angle scattering of atomic particle and power law interaction potential have been used for the calculation of the differential cross-section, elastic stopping cross-section and a mean projected range in a solid. It is found that the limit energy transfer in the collisions depends on the screening of the power law interaction potentials. The calculated mean ranges in matter are compared with experimental data [ru

  5. Dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration in single pump fibre optic parametric amplifiers using DPSK modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain.......Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain....

  6. Power line communications theory and applications for narrowband and broadband communications over power lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Hendrik C; Newbury, John; Swart, Theo G

    2010-01-01

    Power Line Communications (PLC) is a promising emerging technology, which has attracted much attention due to the wide availability of power distribution lines. This book provides a thorough introduction to the use of power lines for communication purposes, ranging from channel characterization, communications on the physical layer and electromagnetic interference, through to protocols, networks, standards and up to systems and implementations. With contributions from many of the most prominent international PLC experts from academia and industry, Power Line Communications brings togeth

  7. Scale-similar clustering of heavy particles in the inertial range of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariki, Taketo; Yoshida, Kyo; Matsuda, Keigo; Yoshimatsu, Katsunori

    2018-03-01

    Heavy particle clustering in turbulence is discussed from both phenomenological and analytical points of view, where the -4 /3 power law of the pair-correlation function is obtained in the inertial range. A closure theory explains the power law in terms of the balance between turbulence mixing and preferential-concentration mechanism. The obtained -4 /3 power law is supported by a direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulence.

  8. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  9. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    . The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  10. Fusion power economy of scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing 2 to 5 GW(electric) at a single site. The cost of electricity (COE) from fusion energy is predicted to scale as COE ∼ COE 0 (P/P 0 ) -n , where P is the electrical power, the subscript zero denotes reference values, and the exponent n ∼ 0.36 to 0.7 in various designs. The validity ranges of these scalings are limited and need to be extended by future work. The fusion power economy of scale derives from four interrelated effects: improved operations and maintenance costs; scaling of equipment unit costs; a geometric effect that increases the mass power density; and reduction of the recirculating power fraction. Increased plasma size also relaxes the required confinement parameters: For the same neutron wall loading, larger tokamaks can use lower magnetic fields. Fossil-fuel power plants have a weaker economy of scale than fusion because the fuel costs constitute much of their COE. Solar and wind power plants consist of many small units, so they have little economy of scale. Fission power plants have a strong economy of scale but are unable to exploit it because the maximum unit size is limited by safety concerns. Large, steady-state fusion reactors generating 3 to 6 GW(electric) may be able to produce electricity for 4 to 5 cents/kW·h, which would be competitive with other future energy sources. 38 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-30

    A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.

  12. Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.

  13. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  14. HEVC for high dynamic range services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hwan; Zhao, Jie; Misra, Kiran; Segall, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Displays capable of showing a greater range of luminance values can render content containing high dynamic range information in a way such that the viewers have a more immersive experience. This paper introduces the design aspects of a high dynamic range (HDR) system, and examines the performance of the HDR processing chain in terms of compression efficiency. Specifically it examines the relation between recently introduced Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) ST 2084 transfer function and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. SMPTE ST 2084 is designed to cover the full range of an HDR signal from 0 to 10,000 nits, however in many situations the valid signal range of actual video might be smaller than SMPTE ST 2084 supported range. The above restricted signal range results in restricted range of code values for input video data and adversely impacts compression efficiency. In this paper, we propose a code value remapping method that extends the restricted range code values into the full range code values so that the existing standards such as HEVC may better compress the video content. The paper also identifies related non-normative encoder-only changes that are required for remapping method for a fair comparison with anchor. Results are presented comparing the efficiency of the current approach versus the proposed remapping method for HM-16.2.

  15. The A-Z of electronuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmerman, G. de; Chedorge, D.

    1992-01-01

    Both a bilingual translation aid and a reference book, 'The A-Z of Electronuclear Power' covers the full range of electronuclear activities and the English and French terminology relating to the different phases of the modern industrial process

  16. Efficient chaotic based satellite power supply subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Turci, Luiz Felipe; Macau, Elbert E.N.; Yoneyama, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of the Dynamical System Theory to increase the efficiency of the satellite power supply subsystems. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that more efficiency can be drawn from a power supply subsystem if the DC/DC converter operates in regions of high nonlinearity. In special, if it operates in a chaotic regime, is has an intrinsic sensitivity that can be exploited to efficiently drive the power subsystem over high ranges of power requests by using control of chaos techniques.

  17. Efficient chaotic based satellite power supply subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Turci, Luiz Felipe [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: felipeturci@yahoo.com.br; Macau, Elbert E.N. [National Institute of Space Research (Inpe), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: elbert@lac.inpe.br; Yoneyama, Takashi [Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: takashi@ita.br

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we investigate the use of the Dynamical System Theory to increase the efficiency of the satellite power supply subsystems. The core of a satellite power subsystem relies on its DC/DC converter. This is a very nonlinear system that presents a multitude of phenomena ranging from bifurcations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, coexistence of attractors, among others. The traditional power subsystem design techniques try to avoid these nonlinear phenomena so that it is possible to use linear system theory in small regions about the equilibrium points. Here, we show that more efficiency can be drawn from a power supply subsystem if the DC/DC converter operates in regions of high nonlinearity. In special, if it operates in a chaotic regime, is has an intrinsic sensitivity that can be exploited to efficiently drive the power subsystem over high ranges of power requests by using control of chaos techniques.

  18. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  19. Long-Range Piping Inspection by Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lim, Sa Hoe; Eom, Heung Seop; Kim, Jae Hee

    2005-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are very promising for the long-range inspection of large structures because they can propagate a long distance along the structures such as plates, shells and pipes. The guided wave inspection could be utilized for an on-line monitoring technique when the transmitting and receiving transducers are positioned at a remote point on the structure. The received signal has the information about the integrity of the monitoring area between the transmitting and receiving transducers. On-line monitoring of a pipe line using an ultrasonic guided wave can detect flaws such as corrosion, erosion and fatigue cracking at an early stage and collect useful information on the flaws. However the guided wave inspection is complicated by the dispersive characteristics for guided waves. The phase and group velocities are a function of the frequency-thickness product. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. In this study, we analyze the propagation characteristics of guided wave modes in a small diameter pipe of nuclear power plant and select the suitable mode for a long-range inspection. And experiments will be carried out for the practical application of a long-range inspection in a 26m long pipe by using a high-power ultrasonic inspection system

  20. Energy efficiency comparison between geothermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal water which can be considered for generating electricity with the temperature ranging from 80℃ to 150℃ in China because of shortage of electricity and fossil energy. There are four basic types of geothermal power systems: single flash, double flash, binary cycle, and flash-binary system, which can be adapted to geothermal energy utilization in China. The paper discussed the performance indices and applicable conditions of different power system. Based on physical and mathematical models, simulation result shows that, when geofluid temperature ranges from 100℃ to 130℃, the net power output of double flash power is bigger than flash-binary system. When the geothermal resource temperature is between 130℃ and 150℃, the net power output of flash-binary geothermal power system is higher than double flash system by the maximum value 5.5%. However, the sum water steam amount of double flash power system is 2 to 3 times larger than flash-binary power system, which will cause the bigger volume of equipment of power system. Based on the economy and power capacity, it is better to use flash-binary power system when the geofluid temperature is between 100℃ and 150℃.

  1. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 values for Cc are compared with a known exact bound, while the critical exponent ν is compared with results from mean-field theory, from an expansion around the point σ =1 and from the ɛ -expansion used with the introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  2. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Computerized reactor power regulation with logarithmic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossanyi, A.; Vegh, E.

    1982-11-01

    A computerized reactor control system has been operating at a 5 MW WWR-SM research reactor in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, for some years. This paper describes the power controller used in the SPC operating mode of the system, which operates in a 5-decade wide power range with +-0.5% accuracy. The structure of the controller easily limits the minimal reactor period and produces a reactor transient with constant period if the power demand changes. (author)

  4. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-01-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK μW -1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  5. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK {mu}W{sup -1} and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  6. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-10-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK µW-1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%.

  7. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  8. Great Blue Heron Range - CWHR [ds609

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Western Pond Turtle Range - CWHR [ds598

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  10. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  11. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  12. Bank Swallow Range - CWHR [ds606

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  13. Close range photogrammetry and machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, KB

    1996-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, algorithms, techniques and equipment necessary to achieve real time digital photogrammetric solutions, together with contemporary examples of close range photogrammetry.

  14. Common Loon Range - CWHR [ds603

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  15. Yellow Warbler Range - CWHR [ds607

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

    2001-02-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

  18. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  2. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael; Huber, Wolfgang; Pagès, Hervé; Aboyoun, Patrick; Carlson, Marc; Gentleman, Robert; Morgan, Martin T; Carey, Vincent J

    2013-01-01

    We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  3. Snowy Egret Range - CWHR [ds611

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Least Bittern Range - CWHR [ds608

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Arroyo Toad Range - CWHR [ds612

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  7. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  8. Wide-band segmented power distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel design of Power Distribution Network (PDN). By physical structuring of the power plane into repetitive symmetrical and asymmetrical segments of varying size, suppression of the propagation of unwanted noise throughout the PDN over a wide frequency range is achieved.

  9. Power and the Role of the Superintendent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Teresa Northern; Salsberry, Trudy A.; Devin, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    This study of the superintendent focus group interviews from the "Voices 3" project adds to the research base with regard to the range and nature of the types of power experienced or used by superintendents. Using the French & Raven/Andrews & Baird model of seven types of power, the authors analyzed superintendents'…

  10. Wireless power transfer: control algorithm to transfer the maximum power

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Urbano, Javier Arturo

    2016-01-01

    This job is developed as part of “Health aware enhanced range wireless power transfer systems", known as ETHER. It is a cooperation project where Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC) research groups are mainly involved. ETHER objective is to develop a wireless power transfer system for medical applications, specifically a pacemaker charger to improve patient’s lifestyle decreasing the number of required operations to replace pacemaker batter...

  11. Analog circuit design : low voltage low power; short range wireless front-ends; power management and DC-DC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyaert, M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baschirotto, A.

    2012-01-01

    The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art

  12. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    2007-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  13. 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the 2011 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. As is typical with odd year editions, this is an abbreviated Range Safety Annual Report providing updates and links to full articles from the previous year's report. It also provides more complete articles covering new subject areas, summaries of various NASA Range Safety Program activities conducted during the past year, and information on several projects that may have a profound impact on the way business will be done in the future. Specific topics discussed and updated in the 2011 NASA Range Safety Annual Report include a program overview and 2011 highlights; Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy revision; Independent Assessments; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch/flight operations; a continuing overview of emerging range safety-related technologies; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. Every effort has been made to include the most current information available. We recommend this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. Once again the web-based format was used to present the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition and hope you enjoy this year's product as well. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. In conclusion, it has been a busy and productive year. I'd like to extend a personal Thank You to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the upcoming year.

  14. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  15. Time-of-flight range imaging for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Hannes; Catregn, Gion-Pol; Leutenegger, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Precise and low-cost range imaging in underwater settings with object distances on the meter level is demonstrated. This is addressed through silicon-based time-of-flight (TOF) cameras operated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) at visible, rather than near-IR wavelengths. We find that the attainable performance depends on a variety of parameters, such as the wavelength dependent absorption of water, the emitted optical power and response times of the LEDs, or the spectral sensitivity of the TOF chip. An in-depth analysis of the interplay between the different parameters is given and the performance of underwater TOF imaging using different visible illumination wavelengths is analyzed.

  16. Cross-correlation of long-range correlated series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna

    2009-01-01

    A method for estimating the cross-correlation C xy (τ) of long-range correlated series x(t) and y(t), at varying lags τ and scales n, is proposed. For fractional Brownian motions with Hurst exponents H 1 and H 2 , the asymptotic expression for C xy (τ) depends only on the lag τ (wide-sense stationarity) and scales as a power of n with exponent H 1 +H 2 for τ→0. The method is illustrated on: (i) financial series, to show the leverage effect; (ii) genomic sequences, to estimate the correlations between structural parameters along the chromosomes

  17. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  18. Free spectral range adjustment of a silicon rib racetrack resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keča, T; Matavulj, P; Headley, W; Mashanovich, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important parameters that describe the quality of photonic components and devices is the free spectral range (FSR). In this paper, the measured outgoing power of a silicon rib racetrack resonator was compared with calculated transfer functions derived by coupled mode theory. The influence of geometric parameters on the FSR and resonant wavelength has been investigated. By altering the values of the coupling length and racetrack radius, derived transfer functions were adjusted to match experimental data. This procedure gives the possibility of estimating the FSR and resonant wavelength for different geometric parameters and predicting resonator functionality.

  19. Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Cowsik, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.

  20. 5 CFR 534.502 - Pay range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...