Sample records for teratogen screening

  1. Teratogen Screening: State of the Art


    Schumann, Julia


    Due to the number of new substances coming into use every year and the increasing amounts of chemicals, which are introduced into the environment, there is a high demand for a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for detection of developmental toxicity. To meet this challenge various in vitro techniques have been established additional to in vivo animal testing. This review introduces the techniques in existence at the moment. Requirements on an ideal in vitro teratogenicity test system ...

  2. The role of teratology information services in screening for teratogenic exposures: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Chambers, Christina


    Teratology Information Services (TIS) located throughout the world have long played a key role in screening for potential new human teratogens. Using a basic prospective cohort study design, TIS recruit pregnant women from among callers to the Services who have had an exposure of interest and at the same time identify an unexposed comparison group from the same pool of callers. Women in both groups are followed to pregnancy outcome and a range of adverse outcomes including major congenital anomalies, birth size, pregnancy loss, and preterm delivery are evaluated, while controlling for potential confounding. Particularly for rare exposures or newly marketed medications, TIS may be uniquely suited to gathering this information in a timely and efficient fashion. The primary limitation of these studies is the unknown representativeness of the volunteer sample, and the typical small to moderate sample sizes. Methods to increase the proportion of exposed pregnancies that are recruited should be developed. However, small sample size TIS studies, especially when considering new or rare exposures, often fulfill the important function of providing some reassurance to women who have already had the exposure of interest by ruling out major risks for teratogenicity, that is, on the order of thalidomide. Collaborations across TIS nationally and internationally help to address the sample size challenges. A formal collaboration between the TIS cohort study model with a case-control study design is also underway and will provide complementary strengths. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Discriminative power of an assay for automated in vitro screening of teratogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, Peter S; Gravemann, Ute; Nau, Heinz


    -trans-retinoic acid, pentyl-4-yn-valproic acid, saccharin, salicylic acid and valproic acid. All compounds, with the exception of dimethadione inhibited proliferation in a linear dose-dependent manner, and there were statistically significant compound class-dependent differences between the IC(50)-values...... to teratogenicity were: 5-bromo-2(')-deoxyuridine, 6-aminonicotinamide, acrylamide, boric acid, D-(+)-camphor, dimethadione, dimethyl phthalate, diphenhydramine, hydroxyurea, isobutyl-ethyl-valproic acid, lithium chloride, methyl mercury chloride, methotrexate, methoxyacetic acid, penicillin G, all...

  4. Teratogenic evaluation of oxacillin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, Andrew E.; Rockenbauer, Magda; Sørensen, Henrik Toft


    Teratogenic studies of oxacillin in humans have not been published. The population-based data-set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996 contains 22,865 foetuses or newborns with congenital abnormalities and 38,151 matched control newborns without congen...

  5. Teratogenicity of sodium valproate. (United States)

    Alsdorf, Rachel; Wyszynski, Diego F


    The teratogenicity of the widely popular antiepileptic drug (AED) and mood stabiliser sodium valproate (also known as valproate, VPA) has been evidenced by previous research; however, these findings have often been limited by a small population sample of exposed women and a retrospective study design. Many factors contribute to the teratogenicity of VPA. These include the number of drugs that are co-administered, drug dosage, differences in maternal and/or infant metabolism, the gestational age of the fetus at exposure, and hereditary susceptibility. VPA has been associated with a variety of major and minor malformations, including a 20-fold increase in neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, cardiovascular abnormalities, genitourinary defects, developmental delay, endocrinological disorders, limb defects, and autism. It has been suggested that polytherapy treatment in epileptic pregnant women increases the risk of teratogenicity in offspring. Furthermore, there is an established relationship between VPA dose and adverse outcome. Large single doses of VPA potentially cause high peak levels in the fetal serum resulting in deleterious effects. Currently there is an increase in the number of national and international pregnancy registries being formed in an effort to better identify the teratogenic effects of AEDs. These efforts hope to enhance our understanding of AEDs and their associated risks by addressing past study limitations.

  6. Teratogene effekter av antiepileptika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt A. Engelsen


    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGCa. 1 av 200 gravide har epilepsi. Gravide med epilepsi har økt risiko for visse obstetriske komplikasjonerog for å føde barn med medfødte misdannelser. Risikoen for misdannelser synes koblet til bruk avantiepileptika under svangerskapet, og ikke til selve epilepsien. Alle typer misdannelser er økt, men leppeganespalteog nevralrørsdefekter utgjør særlig viktige misdannelser. Årsakene til misdannelsene er multifaktorielle.Bruk av antiepileptika i monoterapi kan sies å gi en individuell risiko for større misdannelser påca. 4-6%. Karbamazepin og natriumvalproat gir hhv. 0,5-1% og 2-3% risiko for nevralrørsdefekt. Samletrisiko for større og mindre anomalier inkludert dysmorfe ansiktstrekk synes ikke å overstige 10%. ENGLISH SUMMARYEngelsen BA. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 23-28.Approximately 1 in 200 pregnant women have epilepsy, and 1 in 250 births are to children of mothers whouse antiepleptic drugs (AED. Pregnant women with epilepsy have increased risk for certain obstetricalcomplications, and for giving birth to children with congenital malformations. The increased risk forcongenital malformations seems connected to the use of AED, not to the epileptic syndromes. The etiologyof congenital malformations are multifactorial. Use of AED in monotherapy is associated with anindividual risk of giving birth to a child with a major malformation of 4-6%. The specific risk of spinabifida is 0,5 to 1% for carbamazepine and 2-3% for sodium valproate.

  7. [Thalidomide teratogenicity and its direct target identification]. (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi


    Half a century ago, thalidomide was developed as a sedative drug and was wildly used over 40 countries. However the drug has serious birth defects such as amelia and phocomelia. Now thalidomide is regarded as a clinically effective drug and used for the treatment of multiple myeloma under strict controls. The direct target of thalidomide had been a long-standing question. We identified cereblon as a primary direct target protein for thalidomide teratogenicity using new affinity bead technology in 2010. In this review, we introduce an overview of thalidomide teratogenicity, a story about how we identified cereblon, and recent advances in cereblon studies.

  8. Teratogenic mechanisms associated with prenatal medication exposure. (United States)

    van Gelder, Marleen M H J; van Rooij, Iris A L M; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Roeleveld, Nel


    Birth defects may originate through multiple mechanisms and may be caused by a variety of possible exposures, including medications in early pregnancy. In this review, we describe six principal teratogenic mechanisms suspected to be associated with medication use: folate antagonism, neural crest cell disruption, endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, vascular disruption, and specific receptor- or enzyme-mediated teratogenesis. Knowledge about these mechanisms, for some of which evidence is mainly derived from animal models, may not only be relevant for etiologic and post-marketing research, but may also have implications for prescribing behavior for women of reproductive age. Since combinations of seemingly unrelated medications may have effects through similar teratogenic mechanisms, the risk of birth defects may be strongly increased in multi-therapy. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  9. Rubella Virus Replication and Links to Teratogenicity


    Lee, Jia-Yee; Bowden, D. Scott


    Rubella virus (RV) is the causative agent of the disease known more popularly as German measles. Rubella is predominantly a childhood disease and is endemic throughout the world. Natural infections of rubella occur only in humans and are generally mild. Complications of rubella infection, most commonly polyarthralgia in adult women, do exist; occasionally more serious sequelae occur. However, the primary public health concern of RV infection is its teratogenicity. RV infection of women during...

  10. The teratogenicity of anticonvulsant drugs. (United States)

    Holmes, L B; Harvey, E A; Coull, B A; Huntington, K B; Khoshbin, S; Hayes, A M; Ryan, L M


    The frequency of major malformations, growth retardation, and hypoplasia of the midface and fingers, known as the anticonvulsant embryopathy, is increased in infants exposed to anticonvulsant drugs in utero. However, whether the abnormalities are caused by the maternal epilepsy itself or by exposure to anticonvulsant drugs is not known. We screened 128,049 pregnant women at delivery to identify three groups of infants: those exposed to anticonvulsant drugs, those unexposed to anticonvulsant drugs but with a maternal history of seizures, and those unexposed to anticonvulsant drugs with no maternal history of seizures (control group). The infants were examined systematically for the presence of major malformations, signs of hypoplasia of the midface and fingers, microcephaly, and small body size. The combined frequency of anticonvulsant embryopathy was higher in 223 infants exposed to one anticonvulsant drug than in 508 control infants (20.6 percent vs. 8.5 percent; odds ratio, 2.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 9.7). The frequency was also higher in 93 infants exposed to two or more anticonvulsant drugs than in the controls (28.0 percent vs. 8.5 percent; odds ratio, 4.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.1). The 98 infants whose mothers had a history of epilepsy but took no anticonvulsant drugs during the pregnancy did not have a higher frequency of those abnormalities than the control infants. A distinctive pattern of physical abnormalities in infants of mothers with epilepsy is associated with the use of anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy, rather than with epilepsy itself.

  11. Teratogenicity and fetotoxicity of the antiepileptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Predrag


    Full Text Available Pregnant women with epilepsy have more problems in maintenance of pregnancy and are under higher risk of spontaneous abort ion or occurrence of congenital fetal malformations. Use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy is also related to higher risk of congenital fetal malformations. The aim of our study was to determine teratogenicity and fetotoxicity of antiepileptics by performing systematic review of relevant papers. Systematic review was performed using PUBMED and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Original and review papers that relate to teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs were included in the analysis. Fourteen studies were found, out of which there were 7 original papers and 7 review papers. The lowest number of participants in a study was 54 and the highest 3607. Studies followed participants from 5 to 9 years. Antiepileptic drugs were used as monotherapy in 2 studies, while other studies examined both mono- and polytherapy. Doses administered varied from 600 mg (carbamazepine, 100-200 mg (lamotrigine and 600-1000 mg (valproate, depending on kind of administration (mono or polytherapy. Among all examined antiepileptic drugs, valproate has shown the highest relation to occurrence of any degree of mental retardation or congenital malformation. Risk of congenital malformations was correlated with administration of higher drug doses and the use of polytherapy. Carbamazepine was shown to be the safest drug to use during pregnancy. Literature data do not confirm teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs with certainty. There are not enough studies that compare drug effects in different stages of pregnancy. Limit of presented studies is also lack of information about the degree of epilepsy and eventual comorbidity.

  12. Valproic Acid Teratogenicity: A Toxicogenomics Approach (United States)

    Kultima, Kim; Nyström, Anna-Maja; Scholz, Birger; Gustafson, Anne-Lee; Dencker, Lennart; Stigson, Michael


    Embryonic development is a highly coordinated set of processes that depend on hierarchies of signaling and gene regulatory networks, and the disruption of such networks may underlie many cases of chemically induced birth defects. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is a potent inducer of neural tube defects (NTDs) in human and mouse embryos. As with many other developmental toxicants however, the mechanism of VPA teratogenicity is unknown. Using microarray analysis, we compared the global gene expression responses to VPA in mouse embryos during the critical stages of teratogen action in vivo with those in cultured P19 embryocarcinoma cells in vitro. Among the identified VPA-responsive genes, some have been associated previously with NTDs or VPA effects [vinculin, metallothioneins 1 and 2 (Mt1, Mt2), keratin 1-18 (Krt1-18)], whereas others provide novel putative VPA targets, some of which are associated with processes relevant to neural tube formation and closure [transgelin 2 (Tagln2), thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 6, galectin-1 (Lgals1), inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Idb1), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), annexins A5 and A11 (Anxa5, Anxa11)], or with VPA effects or known molecular actions of VPA (Lgals1, Mt1, Mt2, Id1, Fasn, Anxa5, Anxa11, Krt1-18). A subset of genes with a transcriptional response to VPA that is similar in embryos and the cell model can be evaluated as potential biomarkers for VPA-induced teratogenicity that could be exploited directly in P19 cell–based in vitro assays. As several of the identified genes may be activated or repressed through a pathway of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition and specificity protein 1 activation, our data support a role of HDAC as an important molecular target of VPA action in vivo. PMID:15345369

  13. Teratogenia da vitamina A Vitamin A teratogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Chagas


    Full Text Available A vitamina A é essencial à preservação e ao funcionamento normal dos tecidos, assim como, ao crescimento e desenvolvimento. No humano há evidência indireta que a vitamina A em excesso, durante as primeiras semanas de gestação é teratogênica. Do contrário, não há dúvidas sobre os efeitos deletérios, de uma alimentação carente neste micronutriente e sobre a disponibilidade do conhecimento técnico para evitá-los. A preocupação com o fato de que a vitamina A conduziria a teratogenia em humanos, tem retardado a implementação de programas de combate a carência de vitamina A, atingindo principalmente os programas de enriquecimento de alimentos. A literatura é controvertida e dispõe de poucas informações sobre as doses para suplementação de gestantes. Como o retinol circulante materno é controlado homeostaticamente após o consumo de alimentos fonte de vitamina A, espera-se a mesma resposta metabólica após o consumo de alimentos fortificados, indicando que não há risco de teratogenia. Consequentemente, parece altamente improvável que o consumo de alimentos enriquecidos ou de suplementos de vitamina A pré-formada, nas doses unitárias habituais, tenha efeito teratogênico no homem.The vitamin A is essential to the preservation and the normal functioning of tissues, as well as, to the growth and development. In the human being it has indirect evidence that the vitamin A in excess, during the first weeks of gestation is teratogenic. Of the opposite, it does not have doubts on the deleterious effect, of a devoid feeding in this micronutrient and on the availability of the knowledge technician to prevent them. The concern with the fact of that the vitamin A would lead it the teratogenicity in human beings, has delayed the implementation of combat programs the vitamin A lack, mainly reaching the programs of food enrichment. Literature is controverted and makes use of few information on the doses for supplementation of

  14. Teratogenicity and brain aromatase-induction of monosodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 14, 2012 ... Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been used as a flavor enhancer for decades. It has various teratogenicity effects on tested animals but has not been examined in zebra fish model to date. This experiment was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of MSG on wild-type zebra fish embryos and.

  15. Propylthiouracil is teratogenic in murine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria C Benavides

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is treated with the antithyroid drugs (ATD propylthiouracil (PTU and methimazole (MMI. PTU currently is recommended as the drug of choice during early pregnancy. Yet, despite widespread ATD use in pregnancy, formal studies of ATD teratogenic effects have not been performed. METHODS: We examined the teratogenic effects of PTU and MMI during embryogenesis in mice. To span different periods of embryogenesis, dams were treated with compounds or vehicle daily from embryonic day (E 7.5 to 9.5 or from E3.5 to E7.5. Embryos were examined for gross malformations at E10.5 or E18.5 followed by histological and micro-CT analysis. Influences of PTU on gene expression levels were examined by RNA microarray analysis. RESULTS: When dams were treated from E7.5 to E9.5 with PTU, neural tube and cardiac abnormalities were observed at E10.5. Cranial neural tube defects were significantly more common among the PTU-exposed embryos than those exposed to MMI or vehicle. Blood in the pericardial sac, which is a feature indicative of abnormal cardiac function and/or abnormal vasculature, was observed more frequently in PTU-treated than MMI-treated or vehicle-treated embryos. Following PTU treatment, a total of 134 differentially expressed genes were identified. Disrupted genetic pathways were those associated with cytoskeleton remodeling and keratin filaments. At E 18.5, no gross malformations were evident in either ATD group, but the number of viable PTU embryos per dam at E18.5 was significantly lower from those at E10.5, indicating loss of malformed embryos. These data show that PTU exposure during embryogenesis is associated with delayed neural tube closure and cardiac abnormalities. In contrast, we did not observe structural or cardiac defects associated with MMI exposure except at the higher dose. We find that PTU exposure during embryogenesis is associated with fetal loss. These observations suggest that PTU has

  16. Perspectives of primary care clinicians on teratogenic risk counseling. (United States)

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Santucci, Aimee; Borrero, Sonya; Akers, Aletha Y; Nikolajski, Cara; Gold, Melanie A


    Women of childbearing age are commonly prescribed medications by primary care providers (PCPs) that may cause birth defects if used during pregnancy. To identify what PCPs perceive as barriers to and potential facilitators of providing counseling to women of childbearing age when teratogenic medications are prescribed, we conducted eight focus groups with 48 PCPs recruited from four clinical settings in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We explored PCPs' experiences counseling women about teratogenic medications. Each focus group was audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using a grounded theory approach by three independent coders. PCPs feel responsible for counseling women when they prescribe medications that may cause birth defects, but note difficulties identifying clinically relevant sources of information on teratogenicity. Other barriers to providing counseling include limited visit times and lack of reimbursement for preconception or teratogenic risk counseling. PCPs find it challenging to identify patients who may become pregnant and who therefore need contraceptive and/or teratogenic risk counseling. PCPs expressed a desire for online resources that could be used when explaining medication risks to patients. PCPs feel that the development of patient information materials, electronic decision support tools, clinical care systems that routinely assess patients' pregnancy risk, and changes in the reimbursement structure may facilitate counseling patients about teratogenic risks. PCPs perceive themselves as playing an important role in providing their patients information on risk of medication-induced birth defects. To ensure safe prescription of teratogenic medications, PCPs suggest interventions at both the clinic and healthcare system levels.

  17. A Review of the Teratogenic Factors Effect on Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzarbanoo Shojaei fard


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Teratology is a branch of embryology science that studies causes, mechanisms and abnormal pattern development. Embryo growth traumatic factors during pregnancy are called teratogens that some teratogens pass the placental barrier and cause adverse effect during development stages and malformation, however a drug may improve general health of the mother, but it might be poisonous for embryo and cause diverse malformation. Since study of embryo health and risk factor in this stage is important, the aim of this review article was the investigation of some types of teratosgens (such as radiation, infectious agents, heat disorders, maternal conditions and particularly the effect of teratogenic drugs on embryo including some legal drugs (such as acetaminophen, thalidomide, acyclovir, sedatives and anticonvulsants and illegal drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana. Conclusion: In general, teratogens depending on the type and duration of exposure in pregnancyperiod, adversely affect embryo and cause various disorders. A better understanding of these teratogens can contribute to prevent these defects, since many other drugs with similar effects and lower teratogenicity can be used to improve mothers’ health.

  18. Cancer chemotherapeutic agents as human teratogens. (United States)

    Selig, Brady P; Furr, James R; Huey, Ryan W; Moran, Colin; Alluri, Vinod N; Medders, Gregory R; Mumm, Christina D; Hallford, H Gene; Mulvihill, John J


    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. Although the coincidence of pregnancy and cancer is rare and treatment may sometimes be safely delayed, the use of chemotherapeutic agents in pregnancy is sometimes unavoidable or inadvertent. We review the literature for the use of antineoplastic agents in single-agent and combination therapy from 1951 through June 2012. We also summarize the evidence relating to teratogenicity of disorder-specific combination chemotherapy treatments for those malignancies frequently encountered in women of childbearing age. Major endpoints were called "adverse pregnancy outcomes" (APOs), to include structural anomalies (congenital malformations), functional defects, blood or electrolyte abnormalities, stillbirths, spontaneous abortions (miscarriages), and fetal, neonatal, or maternal deaths. The registry totals 863 cases. Rates of APOs (and congenital malformations) after any exposure were 33% (16%), 27% (8%), and 25% (6%), for first, second, and third trimesters. Among the groups of cancer drugs, antimetabolites and alkylating agents have the highest rates of APOs. Mitotic inhibitors and antibiotics seem more benign. Mixed results were observed from single-agent exposure, often because of small numbers of exposures. As a whole, the alkylating agents and antimetabolites are more harmful when given as a single agent rather than as part of a regimen. First-trimester exposure poses a more permanent risk to the fetus. Systematic ascertainment of women early in pregnancy, preferably in a population base, is needed for assessment of true risks. Long-term follow-up is needed to rule out neurobehavioral effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Medical databases in studies of drug teratogenicity: methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ehrenstein


    Full Text Available Vera Ehrenstein1, Henrik T Sørensen1, Leiv S Bakketeig1,2, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: More than half of all pregnant women take prescription medications, raising concerns about fetal safety. Medical databases routinely collecting data from large populations are potentially valuable resources for cohort studies addressing teratogenicity of drugs. These include electronic medical records, administrative databases, population health registries, and teratogenicity information services. Medical databases allow estimation of prevalences of birth defects with enhanced precision, but systematic error remains a potentially serious problem. In this review, we first provide a brief description of types of North American and European medical databases suitable for studying teratogenicity of drugs and then discuss manifestation of systematic errors in teratogenicity studies based on such databases. Selection bias stems primarily from the inability to ascertain all reproductive outcomes. Information bias (misclassification may be caused by paucity of recorded clinical details or incomplete documentation of medication use. Confounding, particularly confounding by indication, can rarely be ruled out. Bias that either masks teratogenicity or creates false appearance thereof, may have adverse consequences for the health of the child and the mother. Biases should be quantified and their potential impact on the study results should be assessed. Both theory and software are available for such estimation. Provided that methodological problems are understood and effectively handled, computerized medical databases are a valuable source of data for studies of teratogenicity of drugs.Keywords: databases, birth defects, epidemiologic methods, pharmacoepidemiology

  20. Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos

  1. Histological Studies Of The Teratogenic Effects Of Camphor On The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Since the Kidney is involved in the excretion of many toxic metabolic waste products it would be worthwhile to examine the teratogenic effects of camphor solution on the developing kidneys on adult Wistar rats. Methods: Both adult male and female Wistar rats (n=30) weighing between 150g -180g were randomly ...

  2. Teratogenic effect of isotretinoin on the morphology and palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 3, 2007 ... Teratogenic effect of isotretinoin on the morphology and palate development in rat fetuses. Ofusori, D. A.1*, Adelakun A. E.2, Jimoh, S. A.3, Komolafe A.O4, Falana B. A.4, and Abayomi T. A.4. 1Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, P.M.B 0006, Benin City, ...

  3. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with γ-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Verhagen, F.J.J.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. γ-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, and 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. A comparison group received a diet with 20% lactose. The

  4. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with α-cyclodextrin in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. α-CD was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.5, 5, 10, or 20% to groups of 25 pregnant female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. An additional group received a diet with 20% lactose. The

  5. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with y-cyclodextrin in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Smits-van Prooije, A.E.; Bär, A.


    In a standard embryotoxicity/teratogenicity study, γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was administered to groups of 16, artificially inseminated New Zealand White rabbits at dietary concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 20%. A comparison group received a diet containing 20% lactose. Treatment started on day 0 of

  6. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Kuilman-Wahls, M.E.M.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found to

  7. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits- Prooije, A.E. van; Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Bär, A.


    The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie polyol sugar substitute, was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Erythritol was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% to groups of 32 female rats from Day 0 to 21 of gestation. The treatment was generally well tolerated

  8. Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine and Clomipramine on Rat Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMA Nabavi


    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy; therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  9. Morphometric Study Of The Teratogenic Effect Of Artesunate On The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teratogenic influence of maternal administration of artesunate on the morphometry of foetal nervous system was studied. Twenty virgin female Wistar rats weighing between 200g and 230g were used for this study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Each group was kept in a separate plastic cage.

  10. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.


    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  11. Histological Studies Of The Teratogenic Effects Of Camphor On The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological studies of the teratogenic effects of camphor on the developing liver of the wistar rats. Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002;1:88-93.This study, carried out at the Anatomy Department of University of Ilorin between January 2002 and October 2002, involved the oral administration of varying concentrations of ...

  12. Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of chemicals in the rat. (United States)

    Fritz, H; Giese, K


    On the basis of the results of a variety of teratogenicity studies in Sprague-Dawley-derived albino rats, carried out over several years in our laboratory, an appraisal of the principal experimental procedures is set forth. Various categories of chemicals were used for the evaluation of dosage-related teratogenic potency. Salicylate, prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), glycinonitrile, and dimethylformamide have proven to be teratogenic under certain of the experimental conditions used. Particular differences in the embryotropic effects of acetylsalicylic acid were caused by qualitative and quantitative changes of the vehicle. Fetal morphological abnormalities, classified either as 'malformations' or as 'anomalies', may occur independently of overt maternal toxicity and/or embryotoxicity. Further, they may be closely correlated with general inhibitory effects on growth. Drugs may affect developing tissues and organs selectively due to their pharmacological activity and/or specific organ toxicity. The limitation of maternal treatment to a very short period of gestation may disclose a specific susceptibility of developmental stages of the embryo or fetus. Finally, the importance of data collected from a historical control population to the interpretation of teratogenicity data is emphasised.

  13. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with α-cyclodextrin in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalkens-Berendsen, D.H.; Smits-Van Prooije, A.E.; Bär, A.


    In a standard embryotoxicity/teratogenicity study, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was administered to groups of sixteen, artificially inseminated New Zealand White rabbits at dietary concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 20%. An additional group received a diet containing 20% lactose. Treatment started on day 0 of

  14. A glyphosate micro-emulsion formulation displays teratogenicity in Xenopus laevis. (United States)

    Bonfanti, Patrizia; Saibene, M; Bacchetta, R; Mantecca, P; Colombo, A


    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues. Previous studies on larval anuran species highlighted increased mortality and growth effects after exposure to different GBHs in comparison to glyphosate itself, mainly because of the surfactants such as polyethoxylated tallow amine present in the formulations. Nevertheless, these conclusions are not completely fulfilled when the early development, characterized by primary organogenesis events, is considered. In this study, we compare the embryotoxicity of Roundup ® Power 2.0, a new GBH formulation currently authorized in Italy, with that of technical grade glyphosate using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Our results evidenced that glyphosate was not embryolethal and only at the highest concentration (50 mg a.e./L) caused edemas. Conversely, Roundup ® Power 2.0 exhibited a 96 h LC50 of 24.78 mg a.e./L and a 96 h EC50 of 7.8 mg a.e./L. A Teratogenic Index of 3.4 was derived, pointing out the high teratogenic potential of the Roundup ® Power 2.0. Specific concentration-dependent abnormal phenotypes, such as craniofacial alterations, microphthalmia, narrow eyes and forebrain regionalization defects were evidenced by gross malformation screening and histopathological analysis. These phenotypes are coherent with those evidenced in Xenopus laevis embryos injected with glyphosate, allowing us to hypothesize that the teratogenicity observed for Roundup ® Power 2.0 may be related to the improved efficacy in delivering

  15. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates. (United States)

    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara


    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  16. Comparative teratogenicity analysis of valnoctamide, risperidone, and olanzapine in mice. (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Ogle, Krystal; Lin, Linda Ying; Bialer, Meir; Finnell, Richard H


    Based on the recent findings from animal studies, it has been proposed that the therapeutic use of valnoctamide, an anxiolytic drug developed in the early 1960s, be extended to treat other neurological disorders such as epilepsy and bipolar disease. Given the scarcity of adequate data on its prenatal toxicity, a comparative teratogenicity study of valnoctamide and two of the most commonly used drugs to treat bipolar disorder, risperidone and olanzapine, was carried out in a mouse model system. Pregnant dams were treated with the aforementioned three drugs at the dose levels calculated as an equal proportion of the respective LD50 values of these drugs. The main reproductive indices examined included the numbers of implantations and resorptions, viable and dead fetuses, and fetal gross, visceral and skeletal abnormalities. The outcomes of the present study indicated that olanzapine was the most teratogenic of the three drugs, inducing maternal-, embryo-, and fetotoxicity. Risperidone also exerted a significant prenatal toxicity, but its adverse effect was less pronounced than that induced by olanzapine. Valnoctamide did not show any teratogenic effect, even when used in relatively higher dosages than olanzapine and risperidone. The observed increased skeletal abnormalities in one of the valnoctamide treatment groups were nonspecific and, as such, signaled a modest developmental delay rather than an indication that the compound could induce structural malformations. Under our experimental conditions, valnoctamide demonstrated the lowest prenatal toxicity of the three tested drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Teratogenic effects of selenium in natural populations of freshwater fish. (United States)

    Lemly, A D


    The prevalence of abnormalities and associated tissue selenium residues were assessed for the fish population of Belews Lake, North Carolina, and two reference lakes in 1975, 1978, 1982, and 1992. Teratogenic defects identified included lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, and head, mouth, and fin deformities. Many fish exhibited multiple malformations and some were grossly deformed and distorted in appearance. Other abnormalities observed were edema, exophthalmus, and cataracts. Whole-body tissue residues of selenium in the fishes of Belews Lake were up to 130 times those in the reference lakes and the incidence of abnormalities was some 7 to 70 times greater. Teratogenic defects increased as selenium levels rose between 1975 and 1982 and fell with declining selenium levels between 1982 and 1992 as selenium inputs into Belews Lake were curtailed. The relationship between selenium residues and prevalence of malformations approximated an exponential function (R2 = 0.881, P selenium and 0-70% deformities. This relationship could be useful in evaluating the role of teratogenic effects in warm-water fish populations suspected of having selenium-related reproductive failure. Unique conditions may have existed in Belews Lake which led to the high frequency and persistence of deformities in juvenile and adult fish. In other, less-contaminated locations competition and predation may eliminate malformed individuals in all but the larval life stage. Teratogenesis could be an important, but easily overlooked phenomenon contributing to fishery reproductive failure in selenium-contaminated aquatic habitats.

  18. Inhibition of isotretinoin teratogenicity by acetylsalicylic acid pretreatment in mice. (United States)

    Kubow, S


    Although isotretinoin (ITR) has been suggested to cause malformations via cytopathic effects on embryonic cells, the molecular mechanisms of ITR cytotoxicity in teratogenesis are not clear. Since ITR undergoes metabolism by prostaglandin synthase to a potentially cytotoxic peroxyl free radical, the possible role of prostaglandin synthase metabolism as a modulator of ITR teratogenicity was evaluated. Craniofacial and limb abnormalities were noted in fetuses on day 18.5 of gestation following administration of ITR to pregnant CD-1 mice in a three dose regimen of 100 mg/kg at 4 hr intervals on day 10.5 of gestation (plug day = day 0.5 of gestation). Mice were also treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an irreversible inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of prostaglandin synthase, at doses of 20 and 60 mg/kg body weight 2 hr prior to each ITR dose. ASA pretreatment of mice receiving ITR treatment showed a dose-dependent decrease in the overall incidence of malformations, number of defects per fetus, and the incidence of specific craniofacial and limb defects. Equivalent doses of ASA given to control mice did not cause malformations or alter the incidence of resorptions. These results demonstrate that ASA is able to ameliorate the teratogenic effects of ITR observed in fetal mice near term and indicate that prostaglandin metabolism could play a mechanistic role in ITR teratogenicity.


    Abstract The purine analog 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CdA, cladribine), an anti-leukemic and immunosuppressive agent, has been found to be teratogenic in the mouse and rabbit, causing ocular and limb defects. The current study examined the teratogenic potential of th...

  20. The teratogenic effects of alprazolam intake on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N


    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Alprazolam belongs to benzodiazepine family and is increasingly used these days by pregnant women. It should be noticed that alprazolam exposure during pregnancy may have teratogenic effects on the fetus. Till now, limited studies have been conducted on the teratogenic effect of alprazolam. In this study, teratogenicity of alprazolam intake during pregnancy and its effects on fetus development was investigated. "n"nMethods: About 20 virgin rats of known age and weight were selected. After being pregnant, they were divided into four groups which contained five animals in each group: Negative and positive control groups. The case group exposed to 1 to 6 mg/kg/day alprazolam. The fetuses were first studied macroscopically regarding anomalies, and then histologically and histochemically to inspect the defects of tissue organogenesis."n"nResults: Our results show that there was significant difference especially at the dose 6 mg/kg weight and length of the cases compared to the control group. It appeared that at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day, cleft lip and palates were seen in the animals. The highest anomalies of limbs were also seen at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. The statistical results indicate that alprazolam intake during the second half of pregnancy can lead to irreversible anomalies."n"nConclusion: Our results indicate that alprazolam in doses higher than 4 mg/kg/day might cause teratogenic effect. It seems that benzodiazepine therapy among pregnant woman would be better to avoid during the

  1. Teratogenicity of patulin and patulin adducts formed with cysteine. (United States)

    Ciegler, A; Beckwith, A C; Jackson, L K


    The mean lethal dose of patulin for the chicken embryo injected in the air cell before incubation was determined to be 68.7 mug and that for the 4-day-old embryo was 2.35 mug. Both patulin (1 to 2 mug/egg) and the reaction mixture between patulin and cysteine (15 to 150 mug of patulin equivalents) were teratogenic to the chicken embryo. At least two ninhydrin-negative and four ninhydrin-positive products were formed during the latter reaction. Our explanation of the reaction mechanism remains to be elaborated. PMID:1275488

  2. Systematic procedure for the classification of proven and potential teratogens for use in research. (United States)

    Eltonsy, Sherif; Martin, Brigitte; Ferreira, Ema; Blais, Lucie


    Although there is strong evidence that some medications are teratogenic, the current lists of teratogens to be used in research are outdated. The objective of this study was to develop an updatable and systematic procedure to the classification of medications proven and potentially teratogenic in the first trimester of pregnancy, for use in research. We developed a two-step procedure for teratogen classification. Step 1 includes classifying the medications from Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: a Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk (9th ed.) into two provisional lists: (1) teratogenic medications, and (2) potentially teratogenic medications. We also searched other references to add other medications. In Step 2, the Teratology Information System (TERIS) database was searched, and the medication was classified as teratogenic or potentially teratogenic according to a newly developed scheme. Expert consensus was used if a medication was not recorded in TERIS. A total of 114 medications were identified in Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: a Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, with 57 medications in each provisional list. Seventy-eight medications were identified in other sources. A total of 135 medications were included in Step 2; the TERIS scheme classified 23 medications, and 112 medications required expert opinion. The two experts agreed on 78.6% of the medications (kappa = 0.63). We identified 91 teratogenic and 81 potentially teratogenic medications. Using reliable references, we established a systematic procedure to the classification of medications with evidence of or potential teratogenic risk. These exhaustive lists will be useful in teratology research and related fields. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Teratogenic efects of injected methylmercury on avian embryos (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Kondrad, Shannon L.; Erwin, Carol A.


    Controlled laboratory studies with game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and chickens (Gallus gallus) have demonstrated that methylmercury can cause teratogenic effects in birds, but studies with wild species of birds are lacking. To address this need, doses of methylmercury chloride were injected into the eggs of 25 species of birds, and the dead embryos and hatched chicks were examined for external deformities. When data for controls were summed across all 25 species tested and across all types of deformities, 24 individuals out of a total of 1,533 (a rate of 1.57%) exhibited at least one deformity. In contrast, when data for all of the mercury treatments and all 25 species were summed, 188 deformed individuals out of a total of 2,292 (8.20%) were found. Some deformities, such as lordosis and scoliosis (twisting of the spine), misshapen heads, shortening or twisting of the neck, and deformities of the wings, were seldom observed in controls but occurred in much greater frequency in Hg-treated individuals. Only 0.59% of individual control dead embryos and hatchlings exhibited multiple deformities versus 3.18% for Hg-dosed dead embryos and hatchlings. Methylmercury seems to have a widespread teratogenic potential across many species of birds.

  4. Teratogens: a public health issue – a Brazilian overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mazzu-Nascimento


    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital anomalies are already the second cause of infant mortality in Brazil, as in many other middle-income countries in Latin America. Birth defects are a result of both genetic and environmental factors, but a multifactorial etiology has been more frequently observed. Here, we address the environmental causes of birth defects – or teratogens – as a public health issue and present their mechanisms of action, categories and their respective maternal-fetal deleterious effects. We also present a survey from 2008 to 2013 of Brazilian cases involving congenital anomalies (annual average of 20,205, fetal deaths (annual average of 1,530, infant hospitalizations (annual average of 82,452, number of deaths of hospitalized infants (annual average of 2,175, and the average cost of hospitalizations (annual cost of $7,758. Moreover, we report on Brazilian cases of teratogenesis due to the recent Zika virus infection, and to the use of misoprostol, thalidomide, alcohol and illicit drugs. Special attention has been given to the Zika virus infection, now proven to be responsible for the microcephaly outbreak in Brazil, with 8,039 cases under investigation (from October 2015 to June 2016. From those cases, 1,616 were confirmed and 324 deaths occurred due to microcephaly complications or alterations on the central nervous system. Congenital anomalies impact life quality and raise costs in specialized care, justifying the classification of teratogens as a public health issue.

  5. Teratogenic interactions between methylmercury and mitomycin-C in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, Minoru; Kajiwara, Yuji


    Pregnant mice were given p.o. various nonteratogenic doses (0, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg) of methylmercuric chloride on day 9 of pregnancy, and then injected i.p. with a teratogenic dose (4 mg/kg) of mitomycin-C on day 10. Major malformations produced by mitomycin-C alone were cervical rib and vertebral anomaly, polydactyly of the hindlimb and tail anomaly. Combined treatment significantly increased the incidence of these malformations, showing the dose-effect relationship of methylmercury, whereas methylmercury alone is known not to produce such malformations. When mitomycin-C treatment alone was performed on day 9.5 of pregnancy, only vertebral anomalies increased in incidence. Therefore, mitomycin-C teratogenicity in terms of the manifestation of cervical rib, polydactyly and tail anomaly, but not vertebral anomaly, was suggested to be enhanced by methylmercury. A considerable number of foetuses showed cleft palate involvement following combined treatments, but not by either chemical alone. Cleft palate is known to be a major malformation in mice that is caused by methylmercury, and mitomycin-C also induces cleft palate. Therefore, the two chemicals might have affected foetuses additively and thereby induced cleft palate. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sher


    Full Text Available Article assesses the impact of adverse factors on intrauterine development of the child, first of all, drugs. The author stresses that the importance of drug safety (D is due to the large number of unintended pregnancies worldwide. A list of the D, providing proven teratogenic effects on a child organism is presenting. It is shown that the D teratogenic effect in humans can not be assessed on the basis of experimental data obtained in animals due to the difference between metabolic and detoxification processes in a different mammals and individuals. Key words: drugs, safety, teratogenic effects, fetal development, the unborn child. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 57–60.

  7. Inhibition of thalidomide teratogenicity by acetylsalicylic acid: evidence for prostaglandin H synthase-catalyzed bioactivation of thalidomide to a teratogenic reactive intermediate. (United States)

    Arlen, R R; Wells, P G


    Thalidomide is a teratogenic sedative-hypnotic drug that is structurally similar to phenytoin, which is thought to be bioactivated by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) and other peroxidases to a teratogenic reactive intermediate. The relevance of this mechanism to thalidomide teratogenicity was evaluated in pregnant New Zealand White rabbits treated with thalidomide at 11:00 A.M. on gestational days 8 to 11, with day 0 indicating the time when sperm were observed in the vaginal fluid. Thalidomide (7.5 mg/kg i.v.) produced mainly fetal limb anomalies analogous to those observed in humans. Thalidomide (25-200 mg/kg i.p.), produced a dose-related increase in a spectrum of fetal anomalies, and in postpartum lethality, but did not produce a reliable incidence of limb anomalies. In subsequent studies, pregnant does received the irreversible PHS inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 75 mg/kg i.p., or its vehicle, followed 2 hr later by thalidomide, 7.5 mg/kg i.v., or its vehicle. ASA pretreatment was remarkably embryoprotective, resulting in respective 61.2 and 61.4% decreases in thalidomide-initiated fetal limb anomalies (P = .002) and postpartum fetal lethality (P teratogenicity, suggesting that thalidomide may be bioactivated by PHS to a teratogenic reactive intermediate.

  8. The art and science of teratogen risk communication. (United States)

    Conover, Elizabeth A; Polifka, Janine E


    Despite scientific advances in clinical teratology, exposures during pregnancy still cause great anxiety and misunderstanding. Patients and health care providers are frequently called upon to determine the health implications of scientific studies, which may involve limited and contradictory data. These findings are often conveyed numerically, which is a particularly difficult form of information for both patients and their health providers to understand and interpret. Almost half of the general population (and a substantial minority of physicians) have difficulty with numeracy. Patients with low numeracy tend to interpret information in an absolute manner and ignore uncertainty, have more difficulty using numeric information to inform their choices, and are more easily influenced by emotion and the format used in presenting information. Formats involved in conveying probability include positive or negative framing, use of relative versus absolute risk, and ratios and percentages. Health providers should communicate risk analysis in a fashion that facilitates comprehension and results in informed behavior. This is more likely to be achieved when risks are conceptualized as more than just numbers, and are considered in the context of individuals' life circumstances and values. Most teratogen risk communication is done over the telephone; this presents both advantages and challenges. Strategies are suggested to improve risk communication. These include avoiding the use of relative risk, using a consistent denominator, framing the information in a variety of ways (positive vs. negative), using verbal qualifiers judiciously, and employing visual aids. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The teratogenic effects of imatinib mesylate on rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El Gendy


    Full Text Available Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on the pregnant rats and their fetuses. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups; the first group served as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered imatinib at doses of 36 mg/kg body weight or 54 mg/kg b.wt. on gestation days (SDs 6 through 13 or SDs 13 through 19, respectively. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation. Treatment with imatinib caused a reduction of maternal body weight gain, uterine and placental weights, increased rate of abortion and fetal resorptions. High dose of imatinib caused fetal congenital deformities represented in harelip, contraction of the fore limbs, and paralysis of the hind limbs, exencephaly, encephalocoele and distended abdominal wall, besides occurrence of wavy ribs and absence of other ribs in addition to skeletal growth retardation and lack of ossification of the most skeletal elements. The present work concluded that imatinib is teratogenic when given orally to pregnant rats at 54 mg/kg b.wt. and causes direct maternal or developmental toxicity.

  10. Carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic risks associated with vinyl chloride. (United States)

    Infante, P F; Wagoner, J K; Waxweiler, R J


    The data presented demonstrate clearly that vinyl chloride (VC) is related to a significant excess of mortality from cancer of the liver, lung and brain among workers occupationally exposed to VC. The risk of dying from cancer of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system also appears to increase with an increase in latency. These cancer sites could have been predicted by the animal bioassay conducted by Maltoni. With regard to the liver, even the histophthologic type of cancer (angiosarcoma) was observed first in experimental animals. A study of cancer mortality among populations residing proximate to VC polymerization facilities also demonstrated an increased risk of dying from CNS and lymphatic cancer. These latter findings raise cause for concern about out-plant emmissions of VC, but without further study these cancers obviously cannot be interpreted as being related to out-plant exposure to VC. Various test systems now have elicited a positive mutagenic response to VC. Thus, our observations of a significant excess of fetal mortality among the wives of males, who were occupationally exposed to VC, raise public health concern that VC may be mutagenic in humans. With regard to the teratogenicity of VC, observations of a significant excess of children born with birth defects were reported among populations residing proximate to VC polymerization facilities. Additional epidemiologic study is needed to determine whether a repeated pattern of excessive numbers of children born with birth defects can be observed in other communities with VC polymerization facilities.

  11. Mycophenolate mofetil embryopathy: A newly recognized teratogenic syndrome. (United States)

    Perez-Aytes, Antonio; Marin-Reina, Purificacion; Boso, Virginia; Ledo, Ana; Carey, John C; Vento, Maximo


    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is probably the most common employed immunosuppressant drug in recipients of solid organ transplant and in many autoimmune diseases. In vitro studies, a significant number of single clinical observations and a recent study from a group of different European teratogen information services, have provided very consistent data supporting the existence of a specific MMF embryopathy. The typical malformative pattern of MMF embryopathy includes external ear anomalies ranging from hypoplastic pinna (microtia) to complete absence of pinna (anotia); cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, and ocular anomalies as iris or chorioretinal coloboma and anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Other less frequent features are congenital heart defects, distal limbs anomalies, esophageal atresia, vertebral malformations, diaphragmatic hernia, and kidney and central nervous system anomalies. Neurodevelopmental outcome seems favorable in the small number of patients where information about this issue is available, but neurological deficits have been documented. Physicians in charge of women under MMF therapy should be aware of the potential risk of this drug to cause a specific embryopathy and the need of interrupting the treatment at least six weeks before becoming pregnant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Teratogenic effects of five anticancer drugs on Xenopus laevis embryos. (United States)

    Isidori, Marina; Piscitelli, Concetta; Russo, Chiara; Smutná, Marie; Bláha, Luděk


    In recent years, the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals - including anticancer drugs - is an emerging issue. Because of the lack of appropriate critical studies about anticancer drug effects in frogs, the aim of the present study was to investigate lethal and teratogenic effects of five anticancer drugs widely used in large quantities, i.e. 5-flourouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, etoposide, and imatinib, in the embryos of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, using FETAX - Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay in Xenopus. None of the studied anticancer drugs induced statistically significant mortality within the concentrations tested (0.01-50mg/L, depending on the studied compound), and no growth inhibition of embryos after a 96-h exposure was observed. Except for cisplatin, the other pharmaceuticals induced an increase of developmental malformations such as abdominal edema, axial flexure, head, eyes, gut and heart malformations with statistically significant effects observed at the highest concentrations tested (50mg/L for 5-flourouracil; 30mg/L for etoposide and 20mg/L for capecitabine and imatinib). The results indicate that anticancer drugs can affect embryogenesis mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.


    First awareness that direct topical application of xenobiotics to bird eggs could be harmful to avian development dates back to the turn of the century. The most widely documented evidence of embryotoxicity following direct exposure comes from petroleum contaminant studies, conducted with at least 10 different avian species. Many petroleum crude oils, refined oils, and waste oils are embryotoxic and moderately teratogenic to different species; LD50s are often less than 5 iL of oil per egg. Toxicity is generally dependent upon the PAH concentration and composition (presence of higher weight PAHs). Five of seven industrial effluents caused significant reduction of embryonic growth in mallards following brief immersion of the eggs. Of the insecticides, organophosphates have been the most widely studied with respect to potential for direct embryotoxicity and teratogenicity following spraying or immersion of eggs. Phenoxy herbicides including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been the most widely studied class of herbicides with respect to potential embryotoxicity of spray application. However, more recent evaluations have indicated that this is not the most toxic class of herbicides. Paraquat was found to be highly toxic in at least three species. Herbicides with LC50s that occurred at ten times the field level of application or less for mallard embryos included bromoxynil with MCPA, methyldiclofop, paraquat, prometon, propanil, and trifluralin. Of different gaseous and particulate air pollutants, ozone and particulates rich in PAH content appeared to be potentially embryotoxic, based on laboratory studies. Environmental contaminants in all classes reviewed have been shown to cause physiological and biochemical disturbances in embryos or hatchlings indicative of contaminant exposure, organ damage, or delayed development. Residue studies have shown the presence of DDT, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, decamethrin, petroleum hydrocarbons, and methylmercury after direct exposure of eggs. Ability of

  14. Teratogenic effects of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments on Xenopus laevis embryos. (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Xinhui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Guannan; Tao, Li; Fu, Wenjun; Hou, Jing


    Toxicity of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments was investigated with Xenopus laevis embryos. The effects of sediment organic extracts on the mortality, body length and malformation of X. laevis embryos were tested by the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The 96-h LC₅₀ values for X. laevis embryos ranged from 62 to 137 g/L (g extracted sediment per L), and the toxicity effect on body length of larvae was not significant under 20 g/L. However, the teratogenic effects produced by sediment organic extracts were diverse, including edema, hypopigmentation, cardiac and ocular malformations, abdomen recurved and curved spine. The percentage of malformations increased with increasing sediment organic extracts, and even reached almost 100% at 10 and 20 g/L in Guangzhou district. A gradient of pollution in the Pearl River sediments was discerned from the teratogenic toxicity. Guangzhou district showed higher teratogenic toxicity compared with Panyu and Nansha districts as a possible consequence of high levels of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and NP in the sediments. The teratogenic effects of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments were successfully assessed which indicated the feasibility of teratogenic potential studies of sediments using X. laevis embryos. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage in the mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity. (United States)

    Parman, T; Wiley, M J; Wells, P G


    The sedative drug thalidomide ([+]-alpha-phthalimidoglutarimide), once abandoned for causing birth defects in humans, has found new therapeutic license in leprosy and other diseases, with renewed teratological consequences. Although the mechanism of teratogenesis and determinants of risk remain unclear, related teratogenic xenobiotics are bioactivated by embryonic prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) to a free-radical intermediates that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative damage to DNA and other cellular macromolecules. Similarly, thalidomide is bioactivated by horseradish peroxidase, and oxidizes DNA and glutathione, indicating free radical-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, thalidomide teratogenicity in rabbits is reduced by the PHS inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid, indicating PHS-catalyzed bioactivation. Here, we show in rabbits that thalidomide initiates embryonic DNA oxidation and teratogenicity, both of which are abolished by pre-treatment with the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). In contrast, in mice, a species resistant to thalidomide teratogenicity, thalidomide does not enhance DNA oxidation, even at a dose 300% higher than that used in rabbits, providing insight into an embryonic determinant of species-dependent susceptibility. In addition to their therapeutic implications, these results constitute direct evidence that the teratogenicity of thalidomide may involve free radical-mediated oxidative damage to embryonic cellular macromolecules.

  16. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikkar Bindu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depleted uranium is being used increasingly often as a component of munitions in military conflicts. Military personnel, civilians and the DU munitions producers are being exposed to the DU aerosols that are generated. Methods We reviewed toxicological data on both natural and depleted uranium. We included peer reviewed studies and gray literature on birth malformations due to natural and depleted uranium. Our approach was to assess the "weight of evidence" with respect to teratogenicity of depleted uranium. Results Animal studies firmly support the possibility that DU is a teratogen. While the detailed pathways by which environmental DU can be internalized and reach reproductive cells are not yet fully elucidated, again, the evidence supports plausibility. To date, human epidemiological data include case examples, disease registry records, a case-control study and prospective longitudinal studies. Discussion The two most significant challenges to establishing a causal pathway between (human parental DU exposure and the birth of offspring with defects are: i distinguishing the role of DU from that of exposure to other potential teratogens; ii documentation on the individual level of extent of parental DU exposure. Studies that use biomarkers, none yet reported, can help address the latter challenge. Thoughtful triangulation of the results of multiple studies (epidemiological and other of DU teratogenicity contributes to disentangling the roles of various potentially teratogenic parental exposures. This paper is just such an endeavor. Conclusion In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU.

  17. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C


    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Assessing the availability of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin outside the pregnancy prevention programme : a survey of e-pharmacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagan, Briege M.; Dolk, Helen; White, Bronagh; Uges, Donald R. A.; Sinclair, M.

    PurposeThe increase in online purchasing of medications raises safety concerns regarding teratogenic drugs. The use of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin' for women of childbearing age requires strict adherence to the Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP), a risk minimisation measure imposed on

  19. CD24 expression identifies teratogen-sensitive fetal neural stem cell subpopulations: evidence from developmental ethanol exposure and orthotopic cell transfer models. (United States)

    Tingling, Joseph D; Bake, Shameena; Holgate, Rhonda; Rawlings, Jeremy; Nagsuk, Phillips P; Chandrasekharan, Jayashree; Schneider, Sarah L; Miranda, Rajesh C


    Ethanol is a potent teratogen. Its adverse neural effects are partly mediated by disrupting fetal neurogenesis. The teratogenic process is poorly understood, and vulnerable neurogenic stages have not been identified. Identifying these is a prerequisite for therapeutic interventions to mitigate effects of teratogen exposures. We used flow cytometry and qRT-PCR to screen fetal mouse-derived neurosphere cultures for ethanol-sensitive neural stem cell (NSC) subpopulations, to study NSC renewal and differentiation. The identity of vulnerable NSC populations was validated in vivo, using a maternal ethanol exposure model. Finally, the effect of ethanol exposure on the ability of vulnerable NSC subpopulations to integrate into the fetal neurogenic environment was assessed following ultrasound guided, adoptive transfer. Ethanol decreased NSC mRNAs for c-kit, Musashi-1and GFAP. The CD24(+) NSC population, specifically the CD24(+)CD15(+) double-positive subpopulation, was selectively decreased by ethanol. Maternal ethanol exposure also resulted in decreased fetal forebrain CD24 expression. Ethanol pre-exposed CD24(+) cells exhibited increased proliferation, and deficits in cell-autonomous and cue-directed neuronal differentiation, and following orthotopic transplantation into naïve fetuses, were unable to integrate into neurogenic niches. CD24(depleted) cells retained neurosphere regeneration capacity, but following ethanol exposure, generated increased numbers of CD24(+) cells relative to controls. Neuronal lineage committed CD24(+) cells exhibit specific vulnerability, and ethanol exposure persistently impairs this population's cell-autonomous differentiation capacity. CD24(+) cells may additionally serve as quorum sensors within neurogenic niches; their loss, leading to compensatory NSC activation, perhaps depleting renewal capacity. These data collectively advance a mechanistic hypothesis for teratogenesis leading to microencephaly.

  20. Carcinogens, Teratogens and Mutagens: Their Impact on Occupational Health, Particularly for Women in Veterinary Medicine. (United States)

    Milligan, J. E.; And Others


    Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)

  1. a morphometric study of the teratogenic effect of artesunate on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Summary: The teratogenic influence of maternal administration of artesunate on the morphometry of foetal nervous system was studied. Twenty virgin female Wistar rats weighing between 200g and 230g were used for this study. The animals were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Each group was kept in a separate ...

  2. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs : Use of an international database on malformations and drug exposure (MADRE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpino, C; Brescianini, S; Robert, E; Castilla, EE; Cocchi, G; Cornel, MC; de Vigan, C; Lancaster, PAL; Merlob, P; Sumiyoshi, Y; Zampino, G; Renzi, C; Resano, A; Mastroiacovo, P


    Purpose: The study goal was to assess teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) through the use of a surveillance system (MADRE) of infants with malformations. Methods: Information on all malformed infants (1990-1996) with maternal first-trimester drug exposure was collected by the

  3. Perception of drug teratogenicity among general practitioners and specialists in obstetrics/gynecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Pottegård, Anton; Ennis, Zandra Nymand


    the perception of the teratogenic risk of 9 commonly and 3 rarely prescribed drugs among general practitioners and specialists in obstetrics/gynecology. METHODS: All 811 general practitioners in the Region of Southern Denmark and all 502 specialist obstetricians/gynecologists in Denmark as a whole were invited...

  4. Pharmacological safety during pregnancy: the principles of teratogenesis and teratogenicity of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Reshet’ko


    Full Text Available Drugs used during pregnancy simultaneously have an impact on 2 populations — fetal and maternal. The article is devoted to teratogenic drugs exposition; it points out the need for further research in the field of pharmaceutical safety during pregnancy. Authors analyzed the multiplicity of the congenital disorders in infants, including birth defects cuased by drug application. For ethical reasons, researchers can not conduct any studies on the safety of medicines during pregnancy. Authors suppose that collection of additional information during the marketing phase as a part of the routine pharmacovigilance program and the targeted pharmacoepidemiological trials with the current evaluation of the teratogenic risk of drugs will help to achieve the goals.

  5. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells


    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Yanai, Joseph


    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5–7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (...

  6. Valproic acid increases expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and induces lower teratogenicity in MTHFR deficiency


    Roy, Marc; Leclerc, Daniel; Wu, Qing; Gupta, Sapna; Kruger, Warren D.; Rozen, Rima


    Valproate (VPA) treatment in pregnancy leads to congenital anomalies, possibly by disrupting folate or homocysteine metabolism. Since methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of folate interconversion and homocysteine metabolism, we addressed the possibility that VPA might have different teratogenicity in Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− mice and that VPA might interfere with folate metabolism through MTHFR modulation. Mthfr+/+ and Mthfr+/− pregnant mice were injected with VPA on gest...

  7. The teratogenic effects of Lorazepam on the organogenesis of the rat fetus


    Pasbakhsh P; Mehrannia K; Barbarestani M


    Lorazepam has in increasingly being used in our country in recent years. Pharmacologically, lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepines known for their wide neurotropic properties. There have been several studies on the side effects of the drug as stress disorders, tumors, preconvulsive activities in case of epileptic attacks, overdose, and behavioral problems, but little is known regarding the teratogenicity of the drug and its effects on the craniofascial development. In this study, a group of...

  8. Effect of nitroprusside on furosemide-induced skeletal teratogenicity in rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khaksary Mahabady


    Full Text Available Background: Furosemide as a loop diuretic can use in treatment of hypertension, renal or heart failures and cirrhosis, when sodium retention is significant. It is known that use of furosemide can be lead congenital abnormalities in humans and animals. Nitroprusside as a NO donor can decrease blood supply complications and constriction of placenta and uterus via vasodilation and improvment blood supply. The aim of this study was preventation or decrease of teratogenicity form furosemide in rat fetuses by sodium nitroprusside. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 28 pregnant rats that were divided into four groups, the groups consist control, furosemide, sodium nitroprusside and furosemide plus sodium nitroprusside. Drugs were administrated on 14th and 16th day of gestation. Test groups received furosemide (200mg/kg orally, and nitroprusside (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The rats were euthanized and fetuses were collected at 19th day of gestation, after weight and length determination, they stained by Alizarin red- Alician blue method. Then the skeletal system of the stained fetuses was investigated by stereomicroscope for teratogenicity effects. Results: The results showed the cleft palate, wavy ribs and decreased ossification mean incidence in forelimbs and hindlimbs were 11.11%, 68.88% and 20% in the fetuses of the rats received furosemide, where as it decreased to 7.31%, 21.95% and 12.19% in group which received furosemide plus nitroprusside, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that sodium nitroprusside can significantly decrease teratogenicity induced by furosemide.

  9. Teratogenic Effects of Coadministration of Fluoxetine and Olanzapine on Rat Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Bakhtiarian


    Full Text Available Objective. Depression during pregnancy is a relatively common problem. Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of concomitant administration of fluoxetine and olanzapine during the organogenesis period, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of coadministration of fluoxetine and olanzapine on rat fetuses. Method. Forty-two pregnant rats were divided into seven groups, randomly. The first group received 0.5 mL of normal saline as the control. The second and third groups received fluoxetine at doses of 9 mg/kg and 18 mg/kg, respectively. Olanzapine was injected at 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg to the fourth and fifth groups, respectively. The sixth group received 9 mg/kg fluoxetine and 3 mg/kg olanzapine. Finally, the seventh group was administrated with fluoxetine and olanzapine at 18 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively. Drugs were injected intraperitoneally between day eight and day 15 of the pregnancy. On the 17th day of pregnancy, the fetuses were removed and micro-/macroscopically studied. Results. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of these drugs showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, premature eyelid opening and torsion anomalies, compared to the control group (P≤0.01. It is concluded that these drugs can lead to teratogenicity, so their concomitant use during pregnancy should be avoided, or if necessary their doses must be decreased.

  10. Teratogenicity study of N-methylpyrrolidone after dermal application to Sprague-Dawley rats. (United States)

    Becci, P J; Knickerbocker, M J; Reagan, E L; Parent, R A; Burnette, L W


    Teratogenicity studies were performed in rats given N-methylpyrrolidone, a solvent used in chemical processing. Dosages of 75,237 and 750 mg of N-methylpyrrolidone/kg body weight/day were administered dermally to groups of 25 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats on days 6 through 15 of gestation. Additionally, the study used a positive dermal control. Hexafluoroacetone, was chosen based on its dermal teratogenic activity. An oral positive control, aspirin, was included in order to add significance to the data generated in the experimental positive dermal control group. All animals were killed and subjected to uterine examination on day 20 of gestation. Maternal toxicity was indicated at 750 mg of N-methylpyrrolidone/kg by reduced body weight gain during gestation. Treatment with N-methylpyrrolidone resulted in dose-dependent brightly colored yellow urine and dry skin. Treatment at the high dosage level resulted in fewer live fetuses per dam, an increase in the percentage of resorption sites and skeletal abnormalities. These effects could be the result of maternal toxicity. There was no evidence of teratogenic effects nor effects on the dams at 75 and 237 mg/kg of body weight.

  11. Marshall J. Edwards: discoverer of maternal hyperthermia as a human teratogen. (United States)

    Graham, John M


    In a series of animal studies performed over a career spanning 40 years at the University of Sydney, Professor Marshall J. Edwards investigated the hypothesis that maternal hyperthermia during gestation can be teratogenic to the developing fetus. He is one of few investigators to have discovered a known human teratogen primarily through animal studies. In 1970 he earned his Ph.D. from the University of Sydney, writing a doctoral thesis entitled "A Study of Some Factors Affecting Fertility of Animals with Particular Reference to the Effects of Hyperthermia on Gestation and Prenatal Development of the Guinea-Pig." He went on to prove that hyperthermia-induced malformations in animals involve many organs and structures, particularly the central nervous system. Other defects include craniofacial anomalies, heart defects and hypodactyly, cataracts and coloboma, kyphoscoliosis, renal anomalies, dental agenesis, and abdominal wall defects. In a series of carefully planned and executed experiments, he demonstrated that the type of defect is related to the timing of the hyperthermic insult, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. Cell death, membrane disruption, vascular disruption, and placental infarction were all implicated in causing embryonic damage. This special article reviews the scientific discoveries and personal philosophy of Marshall J. Edwards, the discoverer of maternal hyperthermia as a human teratogen.

  12. The Dihydroxy Metabolite of the Teratogen Thalidomide Causes Oxidative DNA Damage. (United States)

    Wani, Tasaduq H; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Shibata, Norio; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter; Chowdhury, Goutam


    Thalidomide [α-(N-phthalimido)glutarimide] (1) is a sedative and antiemetic drug originally introduced into the clinic in the 1950s for the treatment of morning sickness. Although marketed as entirely safe, more than 10 000 babies were born with severe birth defects. Thalidomide was banned and subsequently approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and complications associated with leprosy. Although known for more than 5 decades, the mechanism of teratogenicity remains to be conclusively understood. Various theories have been proposed in the literature including DNA damage and ROS and inhibition of angiogenesis and cereblon. All of the theories have their merits and limitations. Although the recently proposed cereblon theory has gained wide acceptance, it fails to explain the metabolism and low-dose requirement reported by a number of groups. Recently, we have provided convincing structural evidence in support of the presence of arene oxide and the quinone-reactive intermediates. However, the ability of these reactive intermediates to impart toxicity/teratogenicity needs investigation. Herein we report that the oxidative metabolite of thalidomide, dihydroxythalidomide, is responsible for generating ROS and causing DNA damage. We show, using cell lines, the formation of comet (DNA damage) and ROS. Using DNA-cleavage assays, we also show that catalase, radical scavengers, and desferal are capable of inhibiting DNA damage. A mechanism of teratogenicity is proposed that not only explains the DNA-damaging property but also the metabolism, low concentration, and species-specificity requirements of thalidomide.

  13. Evaluation on Genotoxicity and Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract from Cyclocarya paliurus Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Deng


    Full Text Available Tremendous attentions have been attracted to the foods labeled with natural, green, organic, and nuisanceless conception of healthy diet. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish relative defining guidance for safe assessment of botanicals. Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal. Iljinsk (family Cyclocaryaceae, called sweet tea tree, is a well-known edible and medicinal plant, which has been widely used in China as drug formulation for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes. Despite its benefits, no reports have been described on the safe assessment of C. paliurus leaves aqueous extract. In this study, we have conducted the genotoxicity assay (including Ames test, bone marrow polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test, and sperm abnormality test in mice and traditional teratogenicity assay in rats (maternal toxicity, embryo toxicity, and teratogenicity test to assess the genetic and teratogenic safety of aqueous extracts from C. paliurus leaves. Results of each assay show that the highest dose of C. paliurus leaves aqueous extract is considered relatively nonmutagenic and nonteratogenic, revealing that C. paliurus leaves possess safety and quality as a functional additional ingredient in food.

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay. (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien


    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of the teratogenicity of methylmercury and selenomethionine injected into bird eggs (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.


    Methylmercury chloride and seleno-L-methionine were injected separately or in combinations into the fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and the incidence and types of teratogenic effects were recorded. For all three species,selenomethionine alone caused more deformities than did methylmercury alone. When mallard eggs were injected with the lowest dose of selenium (Se) alone (0.1 μg/g), 28 of 44 embryos and hatchlings were deformed, whereas when eggs were injected with the lowest dose of mercury (Hg) alone (0.2 μg/g), only 1 of 56 embryos or hatchlings was deformed. Mallard embryos seemed to be more sensitive to the teratogenic effects of Se than chicken embryos:0 of 15 chicken embryos or hatchlings from eggs injected with 0.1 μg/g Se exhibited deformities. Sample sizes were small with double-crested cormorant eggs, but they also seemed to be less sensitive to the teratogenic effects of Se than mallard eggs. There were no obvious differences among species regarding Hg-induced deformities. Overall, few interactions were apparent between methylmercury and selenomethionine with respect to the types of deformities observed. However, the deformities spina bifida and craniorachischisis were observed only when Hg and Se were injected in combination. One paradoxical finding was that some doses of methylmercury seemed to counteract the negative effect selenomethionine had on hatching of eggs while at the same time enhancing the negative effect selenomethionine had on creating deformities. When either methylmercury or selenomethionine is injected into avian eggs, deformities start to occur at much lower concentrations than when the Hg or Se is deposited naturally in the egg by the mother.

  16. Common increase of GATA-3 level in PC-12 cells by three teratogens causing autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Rout, Ujjwal K; Clausen, Pete


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a disease of neuro-developmental origin of uncertain etiology. The current understanding is that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of ASD. Exposure to valproate, thalidomide and alcohol during gestation are amongst the environmental triggers that are associated with the development of ASD. These teratogens may disturb the ontogeny of the brain by altering the expression pattern of genes that regulate the normal development of the brain. In this study, a neuron-like PC-12 cell model was used to examine the effects of these compounds on the binding potential of 50 different transcription factors to understand the molecular mechanism/s that may be involved in the teratogenesis caused by these agents. Cells in culture were treated with low or high concentrations of teratogens within a range that are reported in the blood of individuals. A pronounced increase in GATA transcription factor binding was observed for all three teratogens. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that GATA-3 level in the nuclear fractions was enhanced by each of the three teratogens. Results suggest that altered gene expression pattern due to heightened GATA-3 activities in the fetral brains following exposure to these teratogens may contribute to the development of ASD.

  17. Teratogenic effects and monetary cost of selenium poisoning of fish in Lake Sutton, North Carolina (United States)

    A. Dennis. Lemly


    Selenium pollution from coal ash waste water was investigated in Lake Sutton, NC. This lake has been continuously used as a cooling pond for a coal-fired power plant since 1972. Historic and recent levels of contamination in fish tissues (14–105 µg Se/g dry weight in liver, 24–127 in eggs, 4–23 in muscle,7–38 in whole-body) exceeded toxic thresholds and teratogenic...

  18. The use of ultrasonography to study teratogenicity in ruminants: evaluation of Ipomoea carnea in goats. (United States)

    Gotardo, André T; Schumaher, Breno H; Pfister, James A; Traldi, Anneliese S; Maiorka, Paulo C; Spinosa, Helenice S; Górniak, Silvana L


    Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a poisonous plant found in Brazil and other tropical countries that often poison livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids calystegines and mainly swainsonine, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perinatal effects of I. carnea in goats. Forty-seven pregnant goats were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups and given the following doses (g/kg BW) of I. carnea: 0 (IC0), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), 5.0 (IC5) and 7.5 (IC7). The treatment animals were given fresh I. carnea from day 27 of gestation to parturition. Weight gains and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Fetuses were evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements. Goats from the IC7 group showed clinical signs of poisoning. Ultrasound examination revealed that I. carnea feeding in all treatment groups reduced fetal movement compared to the controls. There was an increase in the total number of birth defects (retrognathia and arthrogyposis) in the IC7 and IC5 groups compared to the controls. The results show that I. carnea has teratogenic potential in goats. In addition, ultrasounds were useful in evaluating fetotoxicity and teratogenicity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of the teratogenic potential and reproductive toxicity of coal-derived naphtha. (United States)

    McKee, R H; Hinz, J P; Traul, K A


    Liquids which are derived from coal liquefaction processes and boil above approximately 250 degrees C have induced terata in rats. However, few studies have addressed the teratogenic potential of coal liquids which boil below 250 degrees C. The present studies evaluated the reproductive and teratogenic potential of EDS hydrotreated naphtha, a refined coal liquid boiling below 177 degrees C. These studies were conducted by inhalation exposures with Sprague-Dawley rats at target vapor concentrations of 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/m3. The first study assessed teratogenesis. There was no evidence that inhalation exposures for 6 hr per day between Days 6 and 19 of gestation induced maternal toxicity, fetal toxicity, or malformation. In a second study, rats were exposed for 6 hr per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, and then mated to assess reproductive toxicity. There was little evidence that inhalation exposure to EDS hydrotreated naphtha adversely affected reproductive performance or fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats. A low incidence of malformations was observed in treated groups, but these malformations were probably not treatment related.

  20. Teratogenic risk perception and confidence in use of medicines in pairs of pregnant women and general practitioners based on patient information leaflets. (United States)

    Widnes, Sofia Frost; Schjøtt, Jan; Eide, Geir Egil; Granas, Anne Gerd


    The aim of this study was to examine teratogenic risk perceptions and confidence in the use of medicines in pairs of pregnant women and general practitioners (GPs) through assessments of medicines information texts from patient information leaflets (PILs). A questionnaire was handed out to women attending regular ultrasound examination in week 17-19 of pregnancy. The women stated name and address of their GP and questionnaires were sent to the GPs' clinic. The questionnaires contained texts regarding pregnancy from PILs for pivmecillinam, metoclopramide, paracetamol, escitalopram, Valeriana officinalis and dexchlorpheniramine. For each PIL, teratogenic risk (scale from 0: never teratogenic to 10: always teratogenic), confidence in use of medicines (yes or no) and clarity of the text (scale from 0: exceptionally clear to 3: exceptionally unclear) were assessed. In total, 171 pregnant women and 74 GPs participated, of which 98 pairs were identified. Pregnant women had significantly higher perceptions of teratogenic risks and lower confidence in use of medicines compared to GPs. Differences in teratogenic risk perceptions and confidence in use were highest for escitalopram and lowest for dexchlorpheniramine, representing texts with different phrasing and length. Neither pregnant women nor GPs were confident in using Valeriana officinalis. Perceptions of teratogenic risks and confidence in use of medicines during pregnancy differ within pairs of pregnant women and their GP when they assess PILs. Phrasing of medicines information texts can influence teratogenic risk perceptions and thereby prescribing of medicines and adherence.

  1. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  2. Teratogenicity studies with methotrexate, aminopterin, and acetylsalicylic acid in domestic cats. (United States)

    Khera, K S


    Pregnancy was timed in cats following induced ovulation. Methotrexate, (0.5 mg/kg), aminopterin, (0.1 mg/kg), and acetylsalicylic acid, (25 or 50 mg/kg) were administered orally in gelatin capsules in single daily doses on different days of gestation, methotrexate (MTX) on days 11-14, 14-17, or 17-20, aminopterin on day 12, 14, or 16, and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on days 10-15 or 15-20. Maternal toxicity was produced only by MTX. MTX given on days 11-14 and 14-17 produced high frequencies of malformations including umbilical hernia. Aminopterin caused no conclusive teratogenic response. An overall increased frequency of anomalies occurred after 50 mg/kg ASA but no single anomaly predominated.

  3. Evaluation on biosafety in long-term administration, teratogenicity and local toxicity of developed product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Chun; Kim, Se-Ra; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jin-Hee [Chonnam Nat. Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We performed this study to determine biosafety of developed product in long-term administration and teratogenicity and local toxicity (skin and eye) of developed product (HemoHIM and HemoTonic). It is suggested that long-term administration with the developed products may not exert considerable side effects. It is concluded that the administration of HemoHIM or HemoTonic does not inflict any adverse effect on fetuses of pregnant mice. HemoHIM and HemoTonic could be considered as a no irritating materials to the skin and eye of the test animals. These results indicated that HemoHIM and HemoTonic might be a useful functional food, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

  4. Endocrine disrupting, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects of upper Danube River sediments using effect-directed analysis. (United States)

    Higley, Eric; Grund, Stefanie; Jones, Paul D; Schulze, Tobias; Seiler, Thomas-B; Lübcke-von Varel, Urte; Brack, Werner; Wölz, Jan; Zielke, Hanno; Giesy, John P; Hollert, Henner; Hecker, Markus


    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) can be useful in identifying and evaluating potential toxic chemicals in matrixes. Previous investigations of extracts of sediments from the upper Danube River in Germany revealed acute nonspecific and mechanism-specific toxicity as determined by several bioassays. In the present study, EDA was used to further characterize these sediments and identify groups of potentially toxic chemicals. Four extracts of sediments were subjected to a novel fractionation scheme coupled with identification of chemicals to characterize their ability to disrupt steroidogenesis or cause mutagenic and/or teratogenic effects. All four whole extracts of sediment caused significant alteration of steroidogenesis and were mutagenic as well as teratogenic. The whole extracts of sediments were separated into 18 fractions and these fractions were then subjected to the same bioassays as the whole extracts. Fractions 7 to 15 of all four extracts were consistently more potent in both the Ames fluctuation and H295R assays. Much of this toxicity could be attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, and in fraction 7-naphthoic acids. Because the fraction containing polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorodibenzodioxin/furan, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and several organophosphates did not cause any observable effects on hormone production or a mutagenic response, or were not detected in any of the samples, these compounds could be eliminated as causative agents for the observed effects. These results demonstrate the value of using EDA, which uses multiple bioassays and new fractionation techniques to assess toxicity. Furthermore, to our knowledge this is the first study using the recently developed H295R assay within EDA strategies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. [Study of embryo toxicity and the teratogenicity of 2, 4-dinitroanisole in rats]. (United States)

    Gao, Junhong; Zhang, Panhong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Hong; Yue, Hong; Lu, Qin; Dang, Jun


    To detect the embryo toxicity and the teratogenicity of DNAN in rats and provide basic data to occupational protection. 120 adult female SD rats and 60 male rats are mating for 1: 1, and the pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups by the pregnant time. The negative control group are gavaged with 4% starch, and the three experiment groups are gavaged with DNAN suspension with the dose of 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg respectively, while the positive control give aspirin of 280 mg/kg. All rats of the five groups are administrated gavage from gestation day 5 (GD5) to GD19 continuously. The rats are dislocated in GD20, and the toxicity of embryo and toetus are detected. The net weight growth in all three dose group are less than that of negative group, while the dead foetus in high dose group is more than negative group. Moreover, the body weight, body lenghth, tail lenghth and the anal genital distance of foetus rats in high dose group are all less than that of negative group. The foetus external malformations of three dose groups appear no significant compared with negative group.However, the prevalences of skeleton malformation in high dose group and the internal organs malformation in the median and high dose group appear significant higher than that of negative group. There are significantly maternal reproductive toxicity, embryo toxicity and toetus toxicity in positive group. DNAN can induced maternal reproductive toxicity, embryo toxicity and the teratogenicity to rats.

  6. Teratogen exposure and congenital ocular abnormalities in Brazilian patients with Möbius sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila V. Ventura


    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the sociodemographic profiles, teratogen exposures, and ocular congenital abnormalities in Brazilian patients with Möbius sequence. Method: Forty-four patients were recruited from the Brazilian Möbius Sequence Society. This cross-section comprised 41 patients (age, mean ± standard deviation, 9.0 ± 5.5 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The parent or caregiver answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic data and pregnancy history. Patients underwent ophthalmological assessments. They were subdivided into groups according to misoprostol exposure during pregnancy, and the two groups were compared. Results: Mothers/caregivers reported unplanned pregnancies in 36 (88% cases. Of these, 19 (53% used misoprostol during their first trimesters. A stable marital status tended to be more frequent in the unexposed group (P=0.051. Incomplete elementary school education was reported by two (11% mothers in the exposed group and by three (14% mothers in the unexposed group (P=0.538. The mothers' gestational exposures to cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, and cigarettes were similar in both groups (P=0.297, P=0.297, P=0.428, and P=0.444, respectively. One (5% case of Rubella infection during pregnancy was found in the unexposed group. The main malformations in the exposed and unexposed groups were the following: strabismus (72% and 77%, respectively, lack of emotional tearing (47% and 36%, respectively, and lagophthalmos (32% and 41%, respectively. Conclusion: Stable marital statuses tended to be more frequent among mothers that did not take misoprostol during pregnancy. Exposures to other teratogens and the main ocular abnormalities were similar in both groups.

  7. Interpretation of recurring weak associations obtained from epidemiologic studies of suspected human teratogens. (United States)

    Khoury, M J; James, L M; Flanders, W D; Erickson, J D


    Epidemiological studies of suspected human teratogens not infrequently lead to recurring weak or moderate associations (relative risks or odds ratios ranging from greater than 1 to 3 for adverse effects and from 1/3 to less than 1 for protective effects) between specific defects and prenatal exposures. Examples of such associations include cigarette smoking and oral clefts (odds ratios between 1 and 2) and periconceptional multivitamin/folic acid supplementation and neural tube defects (odds ratios from 1/3 to 1). In this paper, we illustrate that low relative risk recurring in well-designed studies may reflect underlying biologic mechanisms and should not be readily dismissed. Low relative risks could be the result of a combination of the following factors: 1) unmeasured confounding, 2) exposure misclassification (often related to the inability to pinpoint relevant dose and timing), 3) outcome misclassification (related to the etiologic heterogeneity of birth defects), 4) biologic interactions (related to teratogenic effects in population subgroups defined by genetic susceptibility or the presence of other exposures), and 5) differential prenatal survival (related to the combined impact of the exposure and the defect on prenatal survival). These issues can be addressed in epidemiologic studies by using biological markers of exposure and susceptibility, dysmorphologic evaluation of affected infants, subgroup analysis for etiologic heterogeneity, a search for biologic interactions, and the use of prospective cohort studies. Finally, low relative risks in the face of common exposures can reflect an important public health contribution of the exposure to the occurrence of the defect in the population.

  8. The Teratogenic Effects of Antiepileptic Drug, Topiramate, on the Development of Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantima Roongruangchai


    Full Text Available Background: Anti-epileptic drugs are known to be the risk of teratogenicity. Topiramate (TPM is a new kind of such drug, for which no research has confirmed the incidence of producing congenital abnormalities. Objective: This study was conducted to study the teratogenic effects of TPM by using chick embryos as an animal model and the results can be compared to the human embryo of the same stage. Methods: Fertilized Leghorn hen eggs were injected in ovo with two concentrations of TPM, which were 10mg, and 20mg, in NSS at a volume of 0.1 ml into the yolk sac at 21 hrs of incubation and repeated injections at 72 hrs at a volume of 0.05 ml. The chick embryos on day 3, 6 and 11 of incubation were sacrificed and all living embryos were processed for total mount and serial section. Results: The mortality rate increased corresponding to the concentrations of TPM, and the embryonic stage. The total mount of day 3 showed major abnormalities of the eye and heart, such as microphthalmia and looser of heart looping. The serial section of day 3 showed opening of the anterior neuropore, ectopia viscerae and multiple malformations of the eye and heart. Day 6 chick embryos showed ectopia cordis and ectopia viscerae. Moreover, there were retardation and abnormalities of several organs such as eye, heart, liver, mesonephros and gonads. Day 11 chick embryos showed ectopia viscerae and several growth retardations, retardation of ossification of both limb bones and skull bones. Conclusion: This study showed that TPM might cause embryonic death, growth retardation and abnormalities of the eye, heart, an opening of the anterior neuropore and ectopia viscerae. This might indicate abnormalities to the baby born from mother with gestational epilepsy who was taking this drug continuously, and it might lead to spontaneous abortion or congenital anomalies of the fetus.

  9. Potential teratogenic and neurodevelopmental consequences of coffee and caffeine exposure: a review on human and animal data. (United States)

    Nehlig, A; Debry, G


    The teratogenic effect of caffeine has been clearly demonstrated in rodents. The sensitivity of different animals species is variable. Malformations have been demonstrated in mice at 50-75 mg/kg of caffeine, whereas the lowest dose usually needed to induce malformations is 80 mg/kg in rats. However, when caffeine is administered in fractioned amounts during the day, 330 mg/kg/day are necessary to reach teratogenicity in rats. In rodents, the most frequently observed malformations are those of the limbs and digits, ectrodactyly, craniofacial malformations (labial and palatal clefts) and delays in ossification of limbs, jaw and sternum. Nevertheless, even in rodents, caffeine can be considered as a weak teratogenic agent, given the quite large quantities of caffeine necessary to induce malformations and the small number of animals affected. In humans, caffeine does not present any teratogenic risk. The increased risk of the most common congenital malformations entailed by moderate consumption of caffeine is very slight. However, caffeine potentiates the teratogenic effect of other substances, such as tobacco, alcohol, and acts synergistically with ergotamine and propranolol to induce materno-fetal vasoconstrictions leading to malformations induced by ischemia. Therefore, even though caffeine does not seem to be harmful to the human fetus when intake is moderate and spread out over the day, some associations, especially with alcohol, tobacco, and vasoconstrictive or anti-migraine medications should be avoided. Maternal consumption of caffeine affects brain composition, especially in case of a low-protein diet and also seems to interfere with zinc fixation in brain. Maternal exposure to caffeine induces also long-term consequences on sleep, locomotion, learning abilities, emotivity, and anxiety in rat offspring, whereas in humans, more studies are needed to ascertain long-term behavioral effects of caffeine ingestion by pregnant mothers.

  10. The Hydra regeneration assay reveals ecological risks in running waters: a new proposal to detect environmental teratogenic threats. (United States)

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Ceschin, Simona; Larsen, Stefano; Scalici, Massimiliano


    The regenerative ability of Hydra vulgaris was tested as potential biomarker for the development of a new eco-toxicological index. The test is based on the regeneration rate and the aberration frequency of the columna (body and adhesive foot) after separation from head and tentacles by a bistoury. Particularly, 45 columnae were submerged in the rearing solution (that is Hydra medium) to have control, and 285 in potential contaminated waters to have treatments, collected from 19 sites along 10 rivers in central Italy. ANCOVA and chi-square tests were used to compare values from each site to a laboratory control. Subsequently the values on regeneration rate and aberration frequency were inserted in a double entry matrix, where the match of the two entries in the matrix provides the score of the proposed Teratogenic Risk Index (TRI). Each score corresponded to one of the 5 teratogenic risk classes, to which a risk level was associated: from 1 (no risk) to 5 (very high risk). On the whole, 32% of the studied sites were classified as no teratogenic risk while the remaining showed a variable risk level from low to very high. This study proposed for the first time an early warning system to detect the presence of teratogens in running waters, providing a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method. Therefore, TRI may contribute to initiate adequate measures to manage riverine habitats, and to monitor the running water teratogenic status. Specifically, this index may provide the opportunity to identify the disturbance sources and then to drive the decisions, together with competent authorities, on the catchment and landscape management and on the possible use of waters for urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, since they may show significant effects on the human health.

  11. Teratogenic study of phenobarbital and levamisole on mouse fetus liver tissue using biospectroscopy. (United States)

    Ashtarinezhad, Azadeh; Panahyab, Ataollah; Shaterzadeh-Oskouei, Shahrzad; Khoshniat, Hessam; Mohamadzadehasl, Baharak; Shirazi, Farshad H


    Biospectroscopic investigations have attracted attention of both the clinicians and basic sciences researchers in recent years. Scientists are discovering new areas for FTIR biospectroscopy applications in medicine. The aim of this study was to measure the possibility of FTIR-MSP application for the recognition and detection of fetus abnormalities after exposure of pregnant mouse to phenobarbital (PB) and levamisole (LEV) alone or in combination. PB is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with sedative and hypnotic effects. When used by pregnant women, it is known to be a teratogenic agent. LEV is an antihelminthic drug with some applications in immune-deficiency as well as colon cancer therapy. Four groups of ten pregnant mice were selected for the experiments as follows: one control group received only standard diet, one group was injected with 120mg/kg of BP, one group was injected with 10mg/kg of LEV, and the last group was treated simultaneously with both BP and LEV at the above mentioned doses. Drugs administration was performed on gestation day 9 and fetuses were dissected on pregnancy day 15. Each dissected fetus was fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Sections of liver (10μm) were prepared from control and treated groups by microtome and deparaffinized with xylene. The spectra were taken by FTIR-MSP in the region of 4000-400cm(-1). All the spectra were normalized based on amide II band (1545cm(-1)) after baseline correction of the entire spectrum, followed by classification using PCA, ANN and SVM. Both morphological and spectral changes were shown in the treated fetuses as compared to the fetuses in the control group. While cleft palate and C-R elongation were seen in PB injected fetuses, developmental retardation was mostly seen in the LEV injected group. Biospectroscopy revealed that both drugs mainly affected the cellular lipids and proteins, with LEV causing more changes in amide I and lipid regions than PB. Application of

  12. Pulsed magnetic field from video display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H.; Wu, R.Y.; Shao, B.J.; Fu, Y.D.; Yao, G.D.; Lu, D.J. [Zhejiang Medical Univ. (China)


    Eighty-nine Swiss Webster mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) group, a cytosine arabinoside (ara-C, a teratogen) group, and a combined PMF + ara-C group. Mice in the PMF and PMF + ara-C groups were irradiated with a PMF (a sawtooth waveform with 52 {mu}s rise time, 12{mu}s decay time, and 15.6 kHz frequency) at a peak magnetic flux density of 40 {mu}T for 4 hours daily on days 6-17 of gestation. The mice in the ara-C and the PMF + ara-C groups were injected intraperitoneally on day 9 of gestation with 10 mg/kg of ara-C. The incidence of resorption and dead fetuses was not affected by PMF but was increased by ara-C injection. The malformation incidence of cleft palate (CP) and/or cleft lip (CL) was significantly higher in all three of the treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). If, however, statistical analyses had been done on litters rather than on individual fetuses, they would show that the incidence of CP and/or CL in the PMF group is not significantly greater than that in the control group. A significantly higher incidence of CP and/or CL was found in the PMF + ara-C group (49%) than the ara-C alone group (26.1%). These data suggest that PMF might enhance the development of ara-C-induced CP and/or CL. The incidence of minor variations in skeletal development, including reduction of skeletal calcification and loss of skeleton, was not statistically significant in the PMF group. However, it was higher in the two ara-C-treated groups, and there was no significant difference between the ara-C alone group and the ara-C + PMF group. From these results it is concluded that the very weak embryotoxic effects of PMF exposure may be revealed and enhanced in combination with a teratogenic agent.

  13. Distribution, teratogenicity, and embryonic delivered dose of retinoid Ro 23-9223. (United States)

    Willhite, C C; Lovey, A; Eckhoff, C


    Ro 23-9223 is a highly lipophilic aromatic retinoid with antiproliferative and sebum supressive effects in preclinical disease models of acne. To investigate the relation between Ro 23-9223 developmental toxicity, drug distribution, and transplacental transfer, groups of pregnant hamsters were given oral doses of 50-500 mg/kg Ro 23-9223 on days 8 and 9 of gestation. The teratogenic phenotype induced at doses greater than 125 mg/kg per day was similar to that found after exposure to doses of 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin, Accutane) greater than 37.5 mg/kg per day. Oral bioavailability of Ro 23-9223 was very low compared to 13-cis-retinoic acid. The highest concentrations of Ro 23-9223 were found in maternal liver, lung, adipose tissue, cardiac muscle, and placenta, whereas only little of the compound crossed the blood-brain barrier. Based on embryo AUC, Ro 23-9223 had a 30- to 50-fold greater embryo:maternal concentration ratio than 13-cis-retinoic acid plus its bioactive metabolites following similar doses of the two retinoids. In preclinical pharmacology studies, oral doses of Ro 23-9223 (5 mg/kg per day) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (10 mg/kg per day) produced comparable gland size reductions in the hamster ear sebaceous gland reduction assay. Under these conditions, Ro 23-9223 plasma AUC was 40 times smaller than that of 13-cis-retinoic acid plus its bioactive metabolites. Assuming that the near linear dose-exposure relationship of Ro 23-9223 extends beyond the dose range of this study, embryo AUCs of Ro 23-9223 and 13-cis-retinoic acid (plus metabolites) would be near identical following pharmacologically equivalent doses. A comparison of embryo retinoid AUCs suggests a 4-fold lower teratogenic potency of Ro 23-9223 compared to with 13-cis-retinoic acid. Despite high embryo levels in hamsters, the data suggest an improved therapeutic index for Ro 23-9223 compared with 13-cis-retinoic acid in a preclinical acne disease model. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. The Teratogenic Potencies of Valproic Acid Derivatives and Their Effects on Biological End-points are Related to Changes in Histone Deacetylase and Erk1/2 Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Hansen, Maria; Kawa, Anna


    Valproic acid (VPA) is a known teratogen. In the present study, the effects of VPA and seven VPA derivatives with different teratogenic potencies (isobutyl-, 5-methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, pentyl- and hexyl-4-yn-VPA) were investigated in L929 cells in vitro. Evaluated end-points included...... associated with the teratogenic potencies of the VPA derivatives. However, in contrast to changes in Erk1/2 phosphorylation and H3 acetylation, significant changes in GSK-3ß phosphorylation could only be obtained in response to prolonged incubation at high drug concentration. There was an association between...... changes in H3 acetylation and GSK-3ß-Tyr216 phosphorylation, whereas none of these end-points were associated with changes in Erk1/2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that the teratogenic potencies of VPA and VPA derivatives are related to effects on both Erk1/2 and histone deacetylase activities...

  15. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui


    Full Text Available Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P≤0.001. This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.

  16. Apoptosis May Explain the Pharmacological Mode of Action and Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin, Including Teratogenicity. (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C


    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is the most effective sebum-suppressive drug for the treatment of severe acne. Its effect depends on sebocyte apoptosis, which results from isotretinoin-induced expression of the apoptotic protein tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. This review proposes that the pharmacological mode of action of isotretinoin in the treatment of severe acne, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and neuroblastoma results from apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis may be the underlying and unifying mechanism of the adverse effects of isotretinoin on neural crest cells (teratogenicity), hippocampal neurones (depression), epidermal keratinocytes and mucosa cells (mucocutaneous side-effects), hair follicle cells (telogen effluvium), intestinal epithelial cells (inflammatory bowel disease), skeletal muscle cells (myalgia and release of creatine kinase), and hepatocytes (release of transaminases and very low-density lipoproteins). Genetic variants of components of the apoptotic signalling cascade, such as RARA polymorphisms, might explain variations in the magnitude of isotretinoin-induced apoptotic signalling and apparently identify subgroups of patients who experience either stronger adverse effects with isotretinoin therapy or resistance to treatment.

  17. Exploring the Caffeine-Induced Teratogenicity on Neurodevelopment Using Early Chick Embryo (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Xiao-di; He, Rong-rong; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Yang, Xuesong


    Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a “legal drug”, and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation. PMID:22470550

  18. Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions. II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.G.; Busby, W.F. Jr.; Liber, H.L.; Thilly, W.G.


    Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation.

  19. Lack of teratogenicity after combined exposure of pregnant mice to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. (United States)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Jae-Seon; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil


    Concern about the possible adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF)-field exposure on public health has increased because of the extensive use of wireless mobile phones and other telecommunication devices in daily life. The murine fetus is a very sensitive indicator of the effects of stress or stimuli in the environment. Therefore, we investigated the teratogenic effects of multi-signal radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) on mouse fetuses. Pregnant mice were simultaneously exposed to two types of RF signals, single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). Mice received two 45-min RF-field exposures, separated by a 15-min interval, daily throughout the entire gestation period. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg. The animals were killed humanely on the 18th day of gestation and fetuses were examined for mortality, growth retardation, changes in head size and other morphological abnormalities. From the results, we report for the first time that simultaneous experimental exposure to CDMA and WCDMA RF EMFs did not cause any observable adverse effects on mouse fetuses.

  20. Exploring the caffeine-induced teratogenicity on neurodevelopment using early chick embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-lai Ma

    Full Text Available Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a "legal drug", and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation.

  1. Teratogenicity study of the dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase inhibitor and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor Leflunomide in mice. (United States)

    Fukushima, Ryou; Kanamori, Susumu; Hirashiba, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Atsuko; Muranaka, Ri-Ich; Kaneto, Masako; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Kato, Ikuo


    Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive agent that inhibits de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and the activity of protein tyrosine kinase. This study examined the teratogenicity of Leflunomide in mice. Pregnant mice were treated orally with Leflunomide at a dose of 10, 30 or 70 mg/kg/day from day 6 to 15 of pregnancy. At 70 mg/kg, all embryos were resorbed and no live fetuses were detected. At 30 mg/kg, Leflunomide reduced fetal viability, and increased the incidence of multiple external, skeletal and visceral malformations. Characteristic external malformations were neural tube defects, cleft palate and tail deformities. Limb malformations were observed in a small number of fetuses. Skeletal examinations revealed malformations of cervical to sacral vertebrae, ribs and sternebrae. In the viscerae, the main anomalies were membranous ventricular septum defect and persistent truncus arteriosus. The results of this study indicate that Leflunomide administered at 30 mg/kg on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy can induce craniofacial malformations and deformities of the axial skeleton, heart and great vessels in mice.

  2. Fate of the teratogenic and carcinogenic ochratoxin A in human perfused placenta. (United States)

    Woo, Chit Shing Jackson; Partanen, Heidi; Myllynen, Päivi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; El-Nezami, Hani


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most frequent mycotoxins detected in human blood worldwide. Apart from its well known nephrotoxicity, OTA-induced teratogenicity and carcinogenicity proven in animals are potential effects also in humans. Pregnant women have been exposed to this food contaminant via dietary exposure in a continuous and widespread manner. Although the transplacental transfer of OTA has been demonstrated in laboratory animals and the presence of OTA in human fetal samples has been reported, little is known about the role of human placenta in OTA toxicokinetics. In this study, human perfused placenta was used to reveal the actual placental toxicokinetics of OTA using concentrations found in serum of pregnant women. Moreover, the effect of protein concentration and biological significance of placental transporters on the OTA transfer in human placenta were also determined. Our study is the first to pursue the transfer of OTA through perfused human placenta. The transfer of OTA through term human placenta was barely detectable in all perfusions. Inhibitors of neither ABCG2 nor ABCC2 increased the transport of OTA to fetal circulation in placental perfusion, and thus these transporters apparently do not have biological significance in inhibiting transplacental transfer of OTA. Human albumin has inhibited OTA transfer through a tight monolayer of BeWo b30 cells. Finding from this study clearly contradict the existing epidemiological studies reporting higher OTA levels in fetal than in maternal circulation in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell motility is inhibited by the antiepileptic compound, valproic acid and its teratogenic analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, P S; Foley, A; Berezin, A


    analysis, and it was found that VPA and selected VPA-analogues inhibited individual cell motility of L-cells in a dose-dependent manner. The compounds caused a decrease in the root-mean-square speed, S, and in the rate of diffusion, R, but an increase in the time of persistence in direction, P. Using short......Valproic acid (VPA) is an established human teratogen that causes neural tube defects in 1-2% of human foetuses exposed to the drug during early pregnancy. In this study, individual cell motility was evaluated using short- and long-term time-lapse video-recording and computer assisted image...... the neuronal marker NCAM and in the neuronal cell line N2a. Furthermore, the observed effect was independent of culture substratum, being observed for L-cells grown on fibronectin as well as on plastic. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that VPA-treatment of mouse L-cells caused a redistribution of F...

  4. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. (United States)

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A; Yanai, Joseph


    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5-7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) according to a procedure originally developed for mice. A small percentage of the cells survived, proliferated and formed nestin-positive neurospheres. After removal of the growth factors to allow differentiation (5 days), 74% of the cells differentiated into all major lineages of the nervous system, including neurons (Beta III tubulin-positive, 54% of the total number of differentiated cells), astrocytes (GFAP-positive, 26%), and oligodendrocytes (O4-positive, 20%). These findings demonstrate that the cells were indeed neural stem cells. Next, the cells were transplanted in two allograft chick models; (1) direct cerebral transplantation to 24-h-old chicks, followed by post-transplantation cell tracking at 24 h, 6 days and 14 days, and (2) intravenous transplantation to chick embryos on E13, followed by cell tracking on E19. With both methods, transplanted cells were found in the brain. The chick embryo provides a convenient, precisely-timed and unlimited supply of neural progenitors for therapy by transplantation, as well as constituting a fast and simple model in which to evaluate the ability of neural stem cell transplantation to repair neural damage, steps that are critical for progress toward therapeutic applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The teratogenic effects of Lorazepam on the organogenesis of the rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasbakhsh P


    Full Text Available Lorazepam has in increasingly being used in our country in recent years. Pharmacologically, lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepines known for their wide neurotropic properties. There have been several studies on the side effects of the drug as stress disorders, tumors, preconvulsive activities in case of epileptic attacks, overdose, and behavioral problems, but little is known regarding the teratogenicity of the drug and its effects on the craniofascial development. In this study, a group of adult wistar rats of definite average of age and weight were selected and exposed to 2 mg/kg/day to 20 mg/kg day of lorazepam after conception (during the organogenesis in the days 9 to 18 in case and control groups. The fetuses were first studied macroscopically regarding gross anomalies, and then histologically and histochemically to exactly inspect the defects of tissue organogenesis. According to the results obtained, there was significant difference in the weight and length of the cases compared to the control group. Several anomalies of the eyes and ears (Coloboma of the eyelids with protruded globes and absence of the auricle and external auditory meatus, anomalies of the skull (Acrocephaly, and large rhombencephalon were found. The craniofascial organs such as the nasal epithelium, tongue, salivary glands and the palates were also affected. According to the final analysis, there is a significant difference between the case and control groups. It was also found that taking the drug in the second half of pregnancy could affect the migration of the neural crest cells (being very sensitive and change the mesenchymal structure of the neural crests. It also promotes the synthesis of proteins like growth hormone and growth factors. The fast, uncontrolled growth, defects the normal maturing process of the tissues during organogenesis, which ends in irreversible malformations.

  6. Teratogen update: evaluation of the reproductive and developmental risks of caffeine. (United States)

    Christian, M S; Brent, R L


    plasma level that could never be obtained from consuming caffeine containing products. More recent animal studies have demonstrated, that depending on the method of administration and species, the developmental NOEL in rodents is approximately 30 mg/kg per day, the teratogenic NOEL is 8,100 mg/kg per day, and the reproductive NOEL approximately 80-120 mg/kg per day. Lack of biological plausibility to support the concept that caffeine has been responsible for human malformations is another important part of this analysis. For example, no one has described the Caffeine "teratogenic syndrome," a cluster of malformations associated with caffeine ingestion. Proven human teratogens have an identifiable syndrome. The malformations described in the animal studies at very high doses fit the description of vascular disruptive types of malformations. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  7. Inhibition of trimethadione and dimethadione teratogenicity by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid: a unifying hypothesis for the teratologic effects of hydantoin anticonvulsants and structurally related compounds. (United States)

    Wells, P G; Nagai, M K; Greco, G S


    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant phenytoin may be due in part to its bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase, forming a reactive free radical intermediate. We examined whether teratogenicity of the structurally similar oxazolidinedione anticonvulsants, trimethadione and its N-demethylated metabolite dimethadione, could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Trimethadione, 700 or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was given to pregnant CD-1 mice during (Gestational Days 12 and 13) or before (Days 11 and 12) the critical period of susceptibility to phenytoin-induced fetal cleft palates. Dimethadione was given similarly on Days 11 and 12, or 12 and 13, in a dose (900 mg/kg ip) that was equimolar to 1000 mg/kg of trimethadione. ASA, 10 or 1 mg/kg ip, was given 2 hr before trimethadione or dimethadione on Days 11 and 12, and before trimethadione on Day 11 only. Dams were killed on Day 19 and fetuses were examined for anomalies. Either dose of trimethadione given on Days 12 and 13 was negligibly teratogenic, as evidenced by a non-dose-related, 1.1% mean incidence of fetal cleft palates. However, when given earlier on Days 11 and 12, trimethadione 1000 mg/kg caused an 8.9% incidence of cleft palates (p less than 0.05). Similarly, dimethadione caused a 3.9-fold higher incidence of cleft palates when given earlier on Days 11 and 12 (17.3-34.9%) than on Days 12 and 13 (4.4%) (p less than 0.05). At equimolar doses, dimethadione caused a 1.9- to 3.9-fold higher incidence of cleft palates compared to trimethadione (p less than 0.05), suggesting that dimethadione may be the proximate teratogen. Either dose of ASA given on both days before trimethadione totally prevented cleft palates, and ASA 10 mg/kg given only on Day 11 reduced the incidence of trimethadione-induced cleft palates to 1.1% (p less than 0.05). ASA reduced the incidence of cleft palates caused by dimethadione given on Days 11 and 12 from 34.9 to 20.3% (p less than

  8. The Teratogenic Effect of The Mindi (Melia azedarach L Leaves Ethanol Extract on Mice (Mus musculus Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisti Erlina Sutomo


    Full Text Available Background: Mindi leaves (Melia azeradach L. were used by Indonesians as a traditional medicine for pregnant women because it was considered to be safe. Mindi leaves contain several active compounds and one of them is suspected as a teratogen and can disrupt fetus growth in gestation. This research aims to know about the teratogenic effect of ethanol extract of Mindi leaves by using mice. Methods: This was a laboratory experimental study using 27 pregnant female mice (Mus musculus of Swiss Webster strain which were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9 controlled (Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% for day 1–18 of pregnancy, group I (mindi leaves ethanol extract 3.22 mg+Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% day 1–5 of pregnancy, and group II (mindi leaves ethanol extract 3.22 mg+Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% day 6–18 of pregnancy. Observation was done to see total amount of fetus, live normal fetus count, length and weight of fetus, abnormal fetus count consisting of dead fetus count with normal and abnormal external morphology, and resorbed fetus count. This research was done from October to November 2012 in Pharmacological laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjajdjaran. Data analysis utilized unpaired t-test. Results: The result showed a significant difference (p<0.05, seen from live normal fetus count and abnormal fetus count consisting of dead fetus count with normal and abnormal external morphology, and resorpted fetus count. Conclusions: Administration of Mindi leaves extract during pregnancy of mices can cause teratogenic effect.

  9. Effects of maternal administration of vitamins C and E on ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity in the guinea pig. (United States)

    Nash, Christopher M; Ibram, Ferda; Dringenberg, Hans C; Reynolds, James N; Brien, James F


    Consumption of ethanol during human pregnancy can produce a wide spectrum of teratogenic effects, including neurobehavioral dysfunction. This study, in the guinea pig, tested the hypothesis that chronic maternal administration of antioxidant vitamins C plus E, together with ethanol, mitigates ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following four chronic oral regimens: ethanol and vitamins C plus E; ethanol and vitamin vehicle; isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vitamins C plus E; or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vehicle. Vitamins C (250 mg) plus E (100mg) or vehicle were given daily, and ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day) (E) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding was given for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 days of no treatment each week throughout gestation. One neonate from selected litters was studied on postnatal day (PD) 0. Neurobehavioral function was determined by measuring task acquisition and task retention using an 8-day moving-platform version of the Morris water-maze task, starting on PD 45. Thereafter, in vivo electrophysiologic assessment of changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity was conducted. There was an ethanol-induced decrease in neonatal brain weight compared with sucrose. The vitamins C plus E regimen protected hippocampal weight relative to brain weight in ethanol offspring, and mitigated the ethanol-induced deficit in the task-retention component of the water-maze task. However, in the sucrose group, this Vit regimen produced deficits in both task acquisition and task retention. The vitamins C plus E regimen did not mitigate the ethanol-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation. These results indicate that maternal administration of this high-dose vitamins C plus E regimen throughout gestation has limited efficacy and potential adverse effects as a therapeutic intervention for E neurobehavioral teratogenicity.

  10. Health care providers' requests to Teratogen Information Services on medication use during pregnancy and lactation. (United States)

    Gendron, Marie-Pierre; Martin, Brigitte; Oraichi, Driss; Bérard, Anick


    Medication use during pregnancy and lactation is prevalent. However, current knowledge of the risks and benefits of medication use during pregnancy and lactation is incomplete as the best available evidence has been obtained from cohort studies of inadvertent exposures and registries. This situation may partly explain health care providers' (HCP) risk perceptions and thus the increasing number of calls to Teratogen Information Services (TIS). The objectives of this study were (1) to identify the medication classes for which HCP are seeking counseling from the IMAGe center, a Quebec TIS; (2) to identify the medical conditions for which medication classes were used during pregnancy and lactation; (3) to identify and quantify predictors of medication information requests during pregnancy and lactation. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted within the population served by the IMAGe center, a TIS based at CHU Ste-Justine in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, that serves the French population of Canada. To be included, calls had to be received between January 1, 2004 and April 30, 2007, and the subject of the call had to be directly associated with the exposure, or not, of a pregnant or breastfeeding woman to medication. Multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models were performed to identify the predictors of medication requests. A total of 11, 076 requests regarding medication exposure during pregnancy, 12 055 requests regarding pregnant women before the exposure took place, and 13, 364 requests regarding lactation were included for analyses. Pregnant women were most frequently exposed to antidepressants (17.3), antibiotics (6.3%), and benzodiazepines (5.3%). Prior to drug exposure, the most frequent inquiries by HCP were on antibiotics (11.0%), anti-inflammatory drugs (6.0%), and antiemetics (5.1%). Inquiries concerning lactating women most frequently requested information on the drug classes of antidepressants (10.8%), antibiotics (9.1%), and

  11. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail:


    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2α, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ► Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ► Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ► PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ► ROS-mediated ER

  12. Teratogenic effects of bis-diamine on early embryonic rat heart: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Nishijima, S; Nakagawa, M; Fujino, H; Hanato, T; Okamoto, N; Shimada, M


    Bis-diamine induces cardiac defects, including conotruncal anomalies in rat embryos when the agent is administered to the mother. To evaluate the teratogenic effects and mechanism of bis-diamine, we performed morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of early rat embryos cultured in medium containing bis-diamine. The embryos were removed from mother rats on gestational day 10.5 and cultured in medium containing 1 mg of bis-diamine for 6 hr. The embryos were then cultured in medium only for another 6, 12, 18, and 42 hr, corresponding to embryonic day (ED) 11.0, 11.25, 11.5, and 12.5, respectively. Some embryos from the same mothers were used as controls and were cultured in medium only for the corresponding periods to the embryos exposed to bis-diamine. Some mother rats were given a single oral dose of 200 mg of bis-diamine on gestational day 10.5. Embryos from these pregnant rats were removed 6 hr after the oral administration of bis-diamine, and were also cultured in medium only for 6, 12, 18, and 42 hr. No cardiac abnormalities were detected in the controls at any stage of development. Thirty-three of 51 (65%) embryos exposed to bis-diamine and 15 of 20 (75%) embryos removed from bis-diamine-administered mothers showed abnormal cardiac development, including dilated ventricle, elongation of outflow tract, and pericardial defect on ED 11.5. Four of six (67%) embryos exposed to bis-diamine, and five of seven (71%) removed from bis-diamine-administered mothers also presented almost the same cardiac abnormalities on ED 12.5. No cardiac abnormalities were detected in bis-diamine-treated embryos before ED 11.5. In addition, the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) was examined using immunohistochemical methods. Fewer N-CAM immunoreactive cells were detected in the third and fourth aortic arches in the bis-diamine-treated embryos than in controls on ED 11.5. However, more N-CAM immunoreactive cells were detected in the bis-diamine-treated embryos

  13. Teratogenicity of Australian Simbu serogroup and some other Bunyaviridae viruses: the embryonated chicken egg as a model. (United States)

    McPhee, D A; Parsonson, I M; Della-Porta, A J; Jarrett, R G


    The use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for assessing the teratogenic potential of animal viruses was investigated with 12 members of the Bunyaviridae family. Infection of 4-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the yolk sac with 10 of the viruses resulted in deaths or congenital deformities that were similar to those observed in Akabane virus infections of fetal ruminants and included arthrogryposis, scoliosis, mandible defects, and retarded development. Statistical analysis showed that the viruses fell into three main groupings, namely, those that caused both death and deformities (Akabane, Aino, Tinaroo, and Belmont viruses), those that mainly caused death (Peaton, Thimiri, and Facey's Paddock viruses), and those that required very high doses to cause either death or deformities (Douglas and CSIR0296 viruses). In addition, two viruses (Kowanyama and Mapputta viruses) caused neither death nor deformities. A difference in the pathogenic potential between two Akabane isolates (B8935 and CSIR016) in the embryonated chicken egg model was found to correlate with differences previously observed in experimentally infected sheep; Akabane CSIR016 was the more pathogenic. It is concluded that the embryonated chicken egg model should also be of value in assessing the teratogenic potential of other Bunyaviridae and attenuated vaccine viruses, although it does not assess the ability of the virus to cross the placenta.

  14. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos. (United States)

    Ganesan, Santhanamari; Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Naveenkumar; Raghunath, Azhwar; Vijayakumar, Savitha; Perumal, Ekambaram


    Nano-copper oxides are a versatile inorganic material. As a result of their versatility, the immense applications and usage end up in the environment causing a concern for the lifespan of various beings. The ambiguities surround globally on the toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Hence, the present study endeavored to study the sub-lethal acute exposure effects on the developing zebrafish embryos. The 48 hpf LC50 value was about 64 ppm. Therefore, we have chosen the sub-lethal dose of 40 and 60 ppm for the study. Accumulation of CuO-NPs was evidenced from the SEM-EDS and AAS analyzes. The alterations in the AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities disrupted the development process. An increment in the levels of oxidants with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggered apoptosis in the exposed embryos. Developmental anomalies were observed with CuO-NPs exposure in addition to oxidative stress in the developing embryos. Decreased heart rate and hatching delay hindered the normal developmental processes. Our work has offered valuable data on the connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity leading to lethality caused by CuO-NPs. A further molecular mechanism unraveling the uncharted connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity will aid in the safe use of CuO-NPs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Bmp Reporter Transgene Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Model as a Tool to Identify and Characterize Chemical Teratogens. (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Tharmann, Julian; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M; Kemler, Rolf; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael


    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were first isolated from mouse embryos more than 30 years ago. They have proven invaluable not only in generating genetically modified mice that allow for analysis of gene function in tissue development and homeostasis but also as models for genetic disease. In addition, ESCs in vitro are finding inroads in pharmaceutical and toxicological testing, including the identification of teratogenic compounds. Here, we describe the use of a bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-reporter ESC line, isolated from a well-characterized transgenic mouse line, as a new tool for the identification of chemical teratogens. The Bmp-mediated expression of the green fluorescent protein enabled the quantification of dose- and time-dependent effects of valproic acid as well as retinoic acid. Significant effects were detectable at concentrations that were comparable to the ones observed in the classical embryonic stem cell test, despite the fact that the reporter gene is expressed in distinct cell types, including endothelial and endodermal cells. Thus these cells provide a valuable new tool for the identification and characterization of relevant mechanisms of embryonic toxicity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy. (United States)

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro


    While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Modified Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Test for Evaluating the Teratogenic Effects of Drugs on Early Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoxing Yu

    Full Text Available Mammalian fetal development is easily disrupted by exogenous agents, making it essential to test new drug candidates for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. To standardize the testing of drugs that might be used to treat pregnant women, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA formulated special grade categories, labeled A, B, C, D and X, that define the level of risk associated with the use of a specific drug during pregnancy. Drugs in categories (Cat. D and X are those with embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects on humans and animals. However, which stages of pregnancy are affected by these agents and their molecular mechanisms are unknown. We describe here an embryonic stem cell test (EST that classifies FDA pregnancy Cat.D and Cat.X drugs into 4 classes based on their differing effects on primitive streak formation. We show that ~84% of Cat.D and Cat.X drugs target this period of embryogenesis. Our results demonstrate that our modified EST can identify how a drug affects early embryogenesis, when it acts, and its molecular mechanism. Our test may thus be a useful addition to the drug safety testing armamentarium.

  18. Allopurinol Use during Pregnancy - Outcome of 31 Prospectively Ascertained Cases and a Phenotype Possibly Indicative for Teratogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hoeltzenbein

    Full Text Available Allopurinol is a purine analogue that inhibits xanthine oxidase. It is mainly used for the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients with gout or tumor lysis syndrome. Experience with allopurinol in pregnancy is scarce. In 2011, Kozenko et al. reported on a child with multiple malformations after maternal treatment with allopurinol throughout pregnancy. Possible teratogenicity of allopurinol was proposed due to the similarity of the pattern of malformations in children with mycophenolate embryopathy. A possible common mechanism of both drugs, i.e. disruption of purine synthesis, was discussed. We report on the outcome of 31 prospectively ascertained pregnancies with allopurinol exposure at least during first trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were 2 spontaneous abortions, 2 elective terminations of pregnancy and 27 live born children. The overall rate of major malformations (3.7% and of spontaneous abortions (cumulative incidence 11%, 95%-CI 3-40 were both within the normal range. However, there was one child with severe malformations including microphthalmia, cleft lip and palate, renal hypoplasia, low-set ears, hearing deficit, bilateral cryptorchidism, and micropenis. The striking similarity of the anomalies in this child and the case described by Kozenko et al. might be considered as a signal for teratogenicity. Thus, we would recommend caution with allopurinol treatment in the first trimester, until further data are available.

  19. Depression Screening (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  20. Free radical intermediates of phenytoin and related teratogens. Prostaglandin H synthase-catalyzed bioactivation, electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, and photochemical product analysis. (United States)

    Parman, T; Chen, G; Wells, P G


    Phenytoin and related xenobiotics can be bioactivated by embryonic prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) to a teratogenic free radical intermediate. The mechanism of free radical formation was evaluated using photolytic oxidation with sodium persulfate and by EPR spectrometry. Characterization of the products by mass spectrometry suggested that phenytoin photolyzes to a nitrogen-centered radical that rapidly undergoes ring opening to form a carbon-centered radical. PHS-1 was incubated with teratogen (phenytoin, mephenytoin, trimethadione, phenobarbital, and major metabolites) or its vehicle and the free radical spin trap alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, and incubations were analyzed by EPR spectrometry. There was no alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone radical adduct in control incubations. For phenytoin, a putative unstable nitrogen-centered radical adduct and a stable carbon-centered radical adduct were detected. Free radical spin adducts also were detected for all other teratogens and metabolites except carbamazepine. The PHS inhibitor eicosatetraynoic acid abolished the free radical EPR signal. Incubation of 2'-deoxyguanosine with phenytoin and PHS-1 resulted in a 5-fold increase in its oxidation to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. This is the first direct chemical evidence for PHS-catalyzed bioactivation of phenytoin and related teratogens to a free radical intermediate that initiates DNA oxidation, which may constitute a common molecular mechanism of teratologic initiation.

  1. The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease. (United States)

    Several species of lupine (Lupinus spp.) are toxic to livestock, causing death losses in sheep and cattle but more commonly “crooked calf disease” in pregnant range cows. The major toxic alkaloids in lupine are of the quinolizidine alkaloid group and include the teratogen anagyrine, which is primari...

  2. Assessing the availability of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin outside the pregnancy prevention programme: a survey of e-pharmacies. (United States)

    Lagan, Briege M; Dolk, Helen; White, Bronagh; Uges, Donald R A; Sinclair, M


    The increase in online purchasing of medications raises safety concerns regarding teratogenic drugs. The use of the teratogenic drug 'isotretinoin' for women of childbearing age requires strict adherence to the Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP), a risk minimisation measure imposed on prescribers and users. We sought to determine how readily consumers can purchase isotretinoin online and the associated safety procedures and information. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted of 50 e-pharmacies identified from commonly used search engines. E-pharmacy characteristics and isotretinoin PPP specific criteria were evaluated. Purchases of isotretinoin from seven e-pharmacies not bearing authentication logos and not requiring a prescription were assessed for PPP policy adherence, purchasing procedures and compound quality. Forty-three (86%) of the e-pharmacies did not have an authentication seal/logo. Isotretinoin could be purchased from 42 sites without a valid prescription. Information on isotretinoin causing birth defects was lacking in 25 of the 50 sites, on not taking isotretinoin in pregnancy in 24 sites and not taking isotretinoin if planning or at risk of a pregnancy in 33 sites. Of the eight attempted purchases, seven arrived, all without any patient information leaflet. All were verified as isotretinoin. The Internet provides a loophole for purchasing of medications known to cause congenital abnormalities, which needs to be addressed by medicines regulatory agencies worldwide. The current PPP for isotretinoin may be failing to protect mothers and babies from preventable harm-clinicians need to be aware of this, and the public needs to be educated about the potential risks. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Assessing the availability of the teratogenic drug isotretinoin outside the pregnancy prevention programme: a survey of e-pharmacies† (United States)

    Lagan, Briege M; Dolk, Helen; White, Bronagh; Uges, Donald R A; Sinclair, M


    Purpose The increase in online purchasing of medications raises safety concerns regarding teratogenic drugs. The use of the teratogenic drug ‘isotretinoin’ for women of childbearing age requires strict adherence to the Pregnancy Prevention Programme (PPP), a risk minimisation measure imposed on prescribers and users. We sought to determine how readily consumers can purchase isotretinoin online and the associated safety procedures and information. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted of 50 e-pharmacies identified from commonly used search engines. E-pharmacy characteristics and isotretinoin PPP specific criteria were evaluated. Purchases of isotretinoin from seven e-pharmacies not bearing authentication logos and not requiring a prescription were assessed for PPP policy adherence, purchasing procedures and compound quality. Results Forty-three (86%) of the e-pharmacies did not have an authentication seal/logo. Isotretinoin could be purchased from 42 sites without a valid prescription. Information on isotretinoin causing birth defects was lacking in 25 of the 50 sites, on not taking isotretinoin in pregnancy in 24 sites and not taking isotretinoin if planning or at risk of a pregnancy in 33 sites. Of the eight attempted purchases, seven arrived, all without any patient information leaflet. All were verified as isotretinoin. Conclusion The Internet provides a loophole for purchasing of medications known to cause congenital abnormalities, which needs to be addressed by medicines regulatory agencies worldwide. The current PPP for isotretinoin may be failing to protect mothers and babies from preventable harm—clinicians need to be aware of this, and the public needs to be educated about the potential risks. PMID:24493556

  4. Editor's Highlight: Identification and Characterization of Teratogenic Chemicals Using Embryonic Stem Cells Isolated From a Wnt/β-Catenin-Reporter Transgenic Mouse Line. (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Kemler, Rolf; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael


    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are commonly used for the analysis of gene function in embryonic development and provide valuable models for human diseases. In recent years, ESCs have also become an attractive tool for toxicological testing, in particular for the identification of teratogenic compounds. We have recently described a Bmp-reporter ESC line as a new tool to identify teratogenic compounds and to characterize the molecular mechanisms mediating embryonic toxicity. Here we describe the use of a Wnt/β-Catenin-reporter ESC line isolated from a previously described mouse line that carries the LacZ reporter gene under the control of a β-Catenin responsive promoter. The reporter ESC line stably differentiates into cardiomyocytes within 12 days. The reporter was endogenously induced between day 3-5 of differentiation reminiscent of its expression in vivo, in which strong LacZ activity is detected around gastrulation. Subsequently its expression becomes restricted to mesodermal cells and cells undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The Wnt/β-Catenin-dependent expression of the reporter protein allowed quantification of dose- and time-dependent effects of teratogenic chemicals. In particular, valproic acid reduced reporter activity on day 7 whereas retinoic acid induced reporter activity on day 5 at concentrations comparable to the ones inhibiting the formation of functional cardiomyocytes, the classical read-out of the embryonic stem cell test (EST). In addition, we were also able to show distinct effects of teratogenic chemicals on the Wnt/β-Catenin-reporter compared with the previously described Bmp-reporter ESCs. Thus, different reporter cell lines provide complementary tools for the identification and analysis of potentially teratogenic compounds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Antifungal triazole alcohols: A comparative analysis of structure-activity, structure-teratogenicity and structure-therapeutic index relationships using the Multiple Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation (Multi-CASE) methodology (United States)

    Klopman, Gilles; Ptchelintsev, Dmitri


    An increase in the opportunistic fungal infections necessitates a design of new more effective and safer antifungal agnets. Triazole alcohols are effective antifungals, but have a risk of teratogenicity associated with them. Therefore, successful design of drugs from this class depends on understanding the structure-activity and structure-teratogenicity relationships in conjunction. To this end, we applied the Multiple Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation (Multi-CASE) methodology to a study of the relationships between the structures of 71 triazole alcohols and their in vitro antifungal activity, teratogenicity, and therapeutic index. For each end point, several relevant structural descriptors were identified. A comparative analysis of the Multi-CASE results indicates that cyano, methoxy groups, and ortho-difluorination on the aromatic ring decrease antifungal activity, but not the therapeutic index because of the concomitant negative contribution to teratogenicity. Metabolically deactivating para-substitution in the benzene ring is beneficial for the therapeutic index in agreement with the idea of metabolically induced teratogenicity. Fluorinated para-alkyl substituents are most preferable. The pattern of ortho-substitution in the benzene ring affects both antifungal and teratogenic activity. This suggests that the relative orientation of the benzene ring with respect to the rest of the molecule may play a modulating role. The Multi-CASE model could correctly predict, a priori, the teratogenicity and antifungal potency of SCH 39304 and ICI 156,066 and be used to optimize the structure and therapeutic index of the latter.

  6. Screening, diagnosing and prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome: is this syndrome treatable? (United States)

    Ismail, Sahar; Buckley, Stephanie; Budacki, Ross; Jabbar, Ahmad; Gallicano, G Ian


    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects on a developing fetus. As a whole, these teratogenic outcomes are generally known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, the most severe of which is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Clinically, children diagnosed with FAS vary greatly in their presentation of symptoms, likely due to the amount of alcohol and timing of exposure, as well as maternal and genetic influences. All these factors play a role in determining the mechanisms through which alcohol damages a developing brain, the details of which are still largely unknown. However, continuing research and recent developments have provided promising results that may lead to screening mechanisms and treatment therapies for children with FAS. Here we review the teratogenic effects of alcohol, strategies for detecting maternal alcohol consumption, identification of fetal biological markers, and prevention methods for FAS. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Anticonvulsant profile and teratogenicity of 3,3-dimethylbutanoylurea: a potential for a second generation drug to valproic acid. (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Yagen, Boris; Pessah, Neta; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Finnell, Richard H; Bialer, Meir


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity and teratogenic potential of branched aliphatic acylureas represented by isovaleroylurea (IVU), pivaloylurea (PVU) and 3,3-dimethylbutanoylurea (DBU), as potential second-generation drugs to valproic acid (VPA). The anticonvulsant activity of IVU, PVU, and DBU was determined in mice and rats utilizing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the pentylenetetrazole (scMet) tests. The ability of DBU to block electrical-, or chemical-induced seizures was further examined in three acute seizure models: the psychomotor 6 Hz model, the bicuculline and picrotoxin models and one model of chronic epilepsy (i.e., the hippocampal kindled rat model). The induction of neural tube defects (NTDs) by IVU, PVU, and DBU was evaluated after i.p. administration at day 8.5 of gestation to a mouse strain highly susceptible to VPA-induced teratogenicity. The pharmacokinetics of DBU was studied following i.v. administration to rats. DBU emerged as the most potent compound having an MES-ED(50)of 186 mg/kg (mice) and 64 mg/kg (rats) and an scMet-ED(50)of 66 mg/kg (mice) and 26 mg/kg (rats). DBU underwent further evaluation in the hippocampal kindled rat (ED(50)= 35 mg/kg), the psychomotor 6 Hz mouse model (ED(50)= 80 mg/kg at 32 mA and ED(50)= 133 mg/kg at 44 mA), the bicuculline- and picrotoxin-induced seizure mouse model (ED(50)= 205 mg/kg and 167 mg/kg, respectively). In contrast to VPA, DBU, IVU, and PVU did not induce a significant increase in NTDs as compared to control. DBU was eliminated by metabolism with a half-life of 4.5 h. DBU's broad spectrum and potent anticonvulsant activity, along with its high safety margin and favorable pharmacokinetic profile, make it an attractive candidate to become a new, potent, and safe AED.

  8. Sensitivity of modified Biel-maze task, compared with Y-maze task, to measure spatial learning and memory deficits of ethanol teratogenicity in the guinea pig. (United States)

    Dobson, Christine C; Mongillo, Daniel L; Poklewska-Koziell, Margo; Winterborn, Andrew; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N


    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of teratogenic effects in offspring, termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The most debilitating and permanent consequence of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) is neurobehavioral teratogenicity, which often manifests as cognitive and behavioral impairments, including deficits in spatial learning and memory. This study tested the hypothesis that a modified dry-land version of the multi-choice Biel-maze task is more sensitive than the rewarded-alternation Y-maze task for the determination of spatial learning and memory deficits of ethanol teratogenicity. Pregnant guinea pigs received ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding (control) for 5days/week throughout gestation. CPEE resulted in ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity in offspring, as demonstrated by increased spontaneous locomotor activity at postnatal day (PD) 10 and decreased brain weight at euthanasia (PD 150-200). On PD 21, offspring were randomly assigned to one of two tasks to assess spatial learning and memory performance: a dry-land version of the Biel maze or a rewarded-alternation Y-maze. Animals were habituated to the environment of their assigned task and performance of each CPEE or control offspring was measured. In the modified Biel maze, CPEE and control offspring were not different for percent completed trials or time to complete a trial. However, CPEE offspring made more errors (reversals and entering dead ends) in the Biel maze, demonstrating impaired spatial learning and memory. In contrast, CPEE offspring did not have impaired performance of the rewarded-alternation Y-maze task. Therefore, the modified dry-land version of the Biel-maze task, which measures cognitive performance using a complex multi-choice design, is more sensitive in demonstrating CPEE-induced spatial learning and memory deficits compared with a simple, rewarded-alternation Y-maze task. Copyright © 2012

  9. Congenital bladder exstrophy associated with Duogynon hormonal pregnancy tests-signal for teratogenicity or consumer report bias? (United States)

    Tümmler, Gregor; Rißmann, Anke; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof


    A combination of ethinylestradiol and 10mg norethisterone under the brand names of Duogynon (Germany) or Primodos (UK) was used as a pregnancy test until the 1970s. Until very recently there was continuing public concern about the safety of these drugs and legal proceedings were instituted against the medicinal authorization holder. Given the lack of epidemiological studies focusing on Duogynon/Primodos, the present study evaluates 296 consumer reports of the German Duogynon database and compares the reported birth defects with data from a population based birth registry. The most striking result is an increase of bladder exstrophy (OR=37.27; 95%-CI 14.56-95.28). Neural tube defects (OR=2.99; 95%-CI 1.85-4.84) and renal agenesis (OR=2.53; 95%-CI 1.17-5.45) were also significantly increased. Bladder exstrophy may be a yet undetected teratogenic effect of Duogynon, but may also represent a reporting bias. The present study highlights the difficulties of evaluating consumer reports which may be influenced by public media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds. (United States)

    Shrivastava, S; Ansari, A S; Lohiya, N K


    To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD), 100 mg (2× CD), 250 mg (5× CD) and 500 mg (10× CD)/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2× CD, 5× CD and 10× CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  11. [Experimental model for the study of the teratogenic interaction of chemical agents and drugs (toluene and acetylsalicylic acid)]. (United States)

    Tátrai, E; Hudák, A; Ungváry, G


    On the 10th-13th days of pregnancy toluene (3600 mg/m3) by inhalation) and on 12th day acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg/kg of body weight per os) were administered to CFY rats and the common effect of these agents was studied. It was established that: 1. the maternal toxicity increased, i.e. increased the mortality rate, decreased the consumption of the food and the gain of weight, increased the relative weight of the liver; 2. the foetal toxicity increased, i.e. increased the mortality rate of foetuses, the rate of the loss of the body weight, the number of the anomalies of the sternum and the incidence of the supernumerary ribs. It is believed, that the non-teratogenic toluene rises the utilization of the glycine and the level of the free salicylic-acid, consequently the embryotoxic effect of the acetylsalicylic-acid. The danger of the occurrence of malformations as an effect of interaction of chemical agents and drugs taken in therapeutic doses is stressed.

  12. Depletion of retinoic acid receptors initiates a novel positive feedback mechanism that promotes teratogenic increases in retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico D'Aniello

    Full Text Available Normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis require precise levels of retinoic acid (RA signaling. Despite the importance of appropriate embryonic RA signaling levels, the mechanisms underlying congenital defects due to perturbations of RA signaling are not completely understood. Here, we report that zebrafish embryos deficient for RA receptor αb1 (RARαb1, a conserved RAR splice variant, have enlarged hearts with increased cardiomyocyte (CM specification, which are surprisingly the consequence of increased RA signaling. Importantly, depletion of RARαb2 or concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and RARαb2 also results in increased RA signaling, suggesting this effect is a broader consequence of RAR depletion. Concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and Cyp26a1, an enzyme that facilitates degradation of RA, and employment of a novel transgenic RA sensor line support the hypothesis that the increases in RA signaling in RAR deficient embryos are the result of increased embryonic RA coupled with compensatory RAR expression. Our results support an intriguing novel mechanism by which depletion of RARs elicits a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop that can result in developmental defects due to teratogenic increases in embryonic RA.

  13. Low- and high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation have no deleterious or teratogenic effects on pregnant mice. (United States)

    Yokoyama, L M; Pires, L A; Ferreira, E A Gonçalves; Casarotto, R A


    To evaluate the effects of application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at low and high frequencies to the abdomens of Swiss mice throughout pregnancy. Experimental animal study. Research laboratory. Thirty Swiss mice received TENS throughout pregnancy. They were divided into three groups (n=10): placebo, low-frequency TENS (LF group) and high-frequency TENS (HF group). In the placebo group, the electrodes were applied to the abdominal region without any electrical current. In the LF group, the frequency was 10 Hz, pulse duration was 200 μs and intensity started at 2 mA. In the HF group, the same parameters were applied and the frequency was 150 Hz. All stimulation protocols were applied for 20 min/day from Day 0 until Day 20. The pregnant mice were weighed on Days 0, 7, 14 and 20 to verify weekly weight gain by two-way analysis of variance. The numbers of fetuses, placentas, implantations, resorptions and major external fetal malformations on Day 20 were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. No significant differences were found between the placebo and TENS groups (P>0.05). Application of low- and high-frequency TENS to the abdomens of pregnant mice did not cause any deleterious or major teratogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice (United States)

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj


    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  15. Toxicology screen (United States)

    ... this page: // Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  16. Carrier Screening (United States)

    ... pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have screening ... caused by a change in genes or chromosomes. Hemoglobinopathies: Any inherited disorder caused by changes in the ...

  17. Airport Screening (United States)

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and ...

  18. MRSA Screening (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search MRSA Screening Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Related Content Related Images View Sources Formal Name Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening This article was last reviewed on February ...

  19. Cancer Screening


    Krishna Prasad


    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  20. Nanosecond pulsed electric field incorporation technique to predict molecular mechanisms of teratogenicity and developmental toxicity of estradiol-17β on medaka embryos. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kono, Susumu; Iida, Midori; Uchida, Masaya; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki


    Herein, we propose using a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) technique to assess teratogenicity and embryonic developmental toxicity of estradiol-17β (E 2 ) and predict the molecular mechanisms of teratogenicity and embryonic developmental defects caused by E 2 on medaka (Oryzias latipes). The 5 hour post-fertilization embryos were exposed to co-treatment with 10 μm E 2 and nsPEF for 2 hours and then continuously cultured under non-E 2 and nsPEF conditions until hatching. Results documented that the time to hatching of embryos was significantly delayed in comparison to the control group and that typical abnormal embryo development, such as the delay of blood vessel formation, was observed. For DNA microarray analysis, 6 day post-fertilization embryos that had been continuously cultured under the non-E 2 and nsPEF condition after 2 hour co-treatments were used. DNA microarray analysis identified 542 upregulated genes and one downregulated gene in the 6 day post-fertilization embryos. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses using differentially expressed genes revealed that E 2 exposure affected various gene ontology terms, such as response to hormone stimulus. The network analysis also documented that the estrogen receptor α in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway may be involved in regulating several transcription factors, such as FOX, AKT1 and epidermal growth factor receptor. These results suggest that our nsPEF technique is a powerful tool for assessing teratogenicity and embryonic developmental toxicity of E 2 and predict their molecular mechanisms in medaka embryos. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Modulation of phenytoin teratogenicity and embryonic covalent binding by acetylsalicylic acid, caffeic acid, and alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone: implications for bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.G.; Zubovits, J.T.; Wong, S.T.; Molinari, L.M.; Ali, S.


    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin is thought to involve its bioactivation by cytochromes P-450 to a reactive arene oxide intermediate. We hypothesized that phenytoin also may be bioactivated to a teratogenic free radical intermediate by another enzymatic system, prostaglandin synthetase. To evaluate the teratogenic contribution of this latter pathway, an irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was administered to pregnant CD-1 mice at 9:00 AM on Gestational Days 12 and 13, 2 hr before phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip. Other groups were pretreated 2 hr prior to phenytoin administration with either the antioxidant caffeic acid or the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). Caffeic acid and PBN were given ip in doses that respectively were up to 1.0 to 0.05 molar equivalents to the dose of phenytoin. Dams were killed on Day 19 and the fetuses were assessed for teratologic anomalies. A similar study evaluated the effect of ASA on the in vivo covalent binding of radiolabeled phenytoin administered on Day 12, in which case dams were killed 24 hr later on Day 13. ASA pretreatment produced a 50% reduction in the incidence of fetal cleft palates induced by phenytoin (p less than 0.05), without significantly altering the incidence of resorptions or mean fetal body weight. Pretreatment with either caffeic acid or PBN resulted in dose-related decreases in the incidence of fetal cleft palates produced by phenytoin, with maximal respective reductions of 71 and 82% at the highest doses of caffeic acid and PBN (p less than 0.05).

  2. Potentiation of the teratogenic effects induced by coadministration of retinoic acid or phytanic acid/phytol with synthetic retinoid receptor ligands. (United States)

    Elmazar, M M A; Nau, H


    Previous studies in our laboratory identified retinoid-induced defects that are mediated by RAR-RXR heterodimerization using interaction of synthetic ligands selective for the retinoid receptors RAR and RXR in mice (Elmazar et al. 1997, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 146:21-28; Elmazar et al. 2001, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 170:2-9; Nau and Elmazar 1999, Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 139, Retinoids, Springer-Verlag, pp 465-487). The present study was designed to investigate whether these RAR-RXR heterodimer-mediated defects can be also induced by interactions of natural and synthetic ligands for retinoid receptors. A non-teratogenic dose of the natural RXR agonist phytanic acid (100 mg/kg orally) or its precursor phytol (500 mg/kg orally) was coadministered with a synthetic RARalpha-agonist (Am580; 5 mg/kg orally) to NMRI mice on day 8.25 of gestation (GD8.25). Furthermore, a non-teratogenic dose of the synthetic RXR agonist LGD1069 (20 mg/kg orally) was also coadministered with the natural RAR agonist, all- trans-retinoic acid (atRA, 20 mg/kg orally) or its precursor retinol (ROH, 50 mg/kg orally) to NMRI mice on GD8.25. The teratogenic outcome was scored in day-18 fetuses. The incidence of Am580-induced resorptions, spina bifida aperta, micrognathia, anotia, kidney hypoplasia, dilated bladder, undescended testis, atresia ani, short and absent tail, fused ribs and fetal weight retardation were potentiated by coadministration of phytanic acid or its precursor phytol. Am580-induced exencephaly and cleft palate, which were not potentiated by coadministration with the synthetic RXR agonists, were also not potentiated by coadministration with either phytanic acid or its precursor phytol. LGD1069 potentiated atRA- and ROH-induced resorption, exencephaly, spina bifida, aperta, ear anotia and microtia, macroglossia, kidney hypoplasia, undescended testis, atresia ani, tail defects and fetal weight retardation, but not cleft palate. These results suggest that synergistic

  3. Double screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)


    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  4. QSAR model for human pregnane X receptor (PXR) binding: Screening of environmental chemicals and correlations with genotoxicity, endocrine disruption and teratogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Marianne; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Wedebye, Eva Bay


    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) has a key role in regulating the metabolism and transport of structurally diverse endogenous and exogenous compounds. Activation of PXR has the potential to initiate adverse effects, causing drug–drug interactions, and perturbing normal physiological functions. There...

  5. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L


    than for the non-exposed teen beyond .0001 alpha level. The positive media program closed estimated grade point average differences and risks of later problems to a non-statistically significant margin, p >.05. Conclusion Ratings for prenatal cocaine were more negative than comparable ratings for alcohol, nicotine or caffeine exposure. Stereotypes can be reduced, showing viewers that positive postnatal environments ameliorate potential teratogenic effects of cocaine. Reducing negative stereotypes for crack babies may be a requisite for substantive changes in current policy.

  6. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design (United States)

    Ginsburg, Harvey J; Raffeld, Paul; Alanis, Kelly L; Boyce, Angela S


    beyond .0001 alpha level. The positive media program closed estimated grade point average differences and risks of later problems to a non-statistically significant margin, p >.05. Conclusion Ratings for prenatal cocaine were more negative than comparable ratings for alcohol, nicotine or caffeine exposure. Stereotypes can be reduced, showing viewers that positive postnatal environments ameliorate potential teratogenic effects of cocaine. Reducing negative stereotypes for crack babies may be a requisite for substantive changes in current policy. PMID:16722564

  7. Evaluation of the perinatal, postnatal and teratogenic effects of cocoa powder and theobromine in Sprague-Dawley/CD rats. (United States)

    Tarka, S M; Applebaum, R S; Borzelleca, J F


    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cocoa powder (CP) and theobromine (TBR) on perinatal and postnatal parameters and to assess their potential teratogenicity in the rat. In the peri/postnatal study, CP was given at 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5% in the diet throughout gestation and lactation (postnatal day 21). In the teratology study, rats were given diets containing 0, 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR on days 6-19 of gestation. The CP-treated dams in the peri/postnatal study consumed significantly more food than did the controls during gestation. Weight gain was increased only in the 5.0 and 7.5% CP groups during lactation. Litter size was reduced slightly at 7.5% CP and pup survival was slightly decreased at 5.0 and 7.5% CP but none of these reductions was statistically significant. However, small but statistically significant decreases in pup body weights were noted in all treatment groups throughout lactation. In the teratology studies, rats given 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR consumed significantly more food than did the controls and the CP-treated dams gained significantly more weight. The percentage of pregnant dams and the mean number of corpora lutea were not affected by either CP or TBR. Foetuses exposed to 0.135 TBR had a significantly higher incidence of incompletely ossified or absent sternebrae and pubic bones, indicating a delay in osteogenesis. On the basis of the survival of treated offspring in the peri/postnatal study, these effects were not considered to be deleterious to either growth or survival. The effects are similar to those that have been reported elsewhere and been considered to indicate potential maternal or foetal toxicity that is unrelated to a specific compound/treatment. We conclude that any variations observed in these studies may be attributed to this non-specific maternal toxicity and are not related to the ingestion of either CP or TBR. The major methylxanthine found in the serum after CP or TBR ingestion was

  8. Teratogenic and toxic effects of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), on zebrafish embryo as model. (United States)

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Alfonso, Noel F; Eguchi, Fumio


    This paper highlights the teratogenic and toxic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom) extract on zebrafish embryos. Hatchability, malformations, and lethality rate of zebrafish embryos were assessed to provide valuable information regarding the potential teratogenic activity of G. lucidum. Hatching was completed 48 h post treatment application (hpta) at 1% or lower concentrations of extract and embryo water. The hatching rate of embryos treated with 5% or higher concentrations was significantly lower (p> 0.05) than the control. Tail malformation was the most marked morphological abnormality in embryos at 72 hpta, which was obviously caused by 1% extract (55.56% tail malformation) and was observed in all embryos exposed to 5% of extract. Growth retardation was evident in embryos exposed to 5%, 10%, and 20%. However, lethal effect of extract of G. lucidum was dependent on dose and time of exposure. Mortality rates of embryos treated with 5% (44.44%) or higher concentrations of the extract was significantly higher (p > 0.05) than that of the control embryos at 72 hpta. These results suggest that G. lucidum extract has lethal and sub-lethal effects on zebrafish embryos.

  9. European medicinal and edible plants associated with subacute and chronic toxicity part I: Plants with carcinogenic, teratogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects. (United States)

    Kristanc, Luka; Kreft, Samo


    In recent decades, the use of herbal medicines and food products has been widely embraced in many developed countries. These products are generally highly accepted by consumers who often believe that "natural" equals "safe". This is, however, an oversimplification because several botanicals have been found to contain toxic compounds in concentrations harmful to human health. Acutely toxic plants are in most cases already recognised as dangerous as a result of their traditional use, but plants with subacute and chronic toxicity are difficult or even impossible to detect by traditional use or by clinical research studies. In this review, we systematically address major issues including the carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine-disrupting effects associated with the use of herbal preparations with a strong focus on plant species that either grow natively or are cultivated in Europe. The basic information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the individual subtypes of plant-induced non-acute toxicity is given, which is followed by a discussion of the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. We describe the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of alkenylbenzenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and bracken fern ptaquiloside, the teratogenicity issues regarding anthraquinone glycosides and specific alkaloids, and discuss the human health concerns regarding the phytoestrogens and licorice consumption in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental Screening (United States)

    ... bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, or things most children can do by a ... screening are ways to look for your child’s developmental milestones. Developmental Monitoring Developmental Screening WHO: You — parents, grandparents, ...

  11. [Screening of compounds of nitrofuran in imported meat raw materials]. (United States)

    Zakrevskii, V V; Leleko, S N


    The article presents the results of screening studies of quantification of the nitrofuran drugs imported in raw meat (turkey, beef pork, veal, lamb, chicken). Identification was carried out by the detection ofsuch nitrofurans metabolites as: 1-aminogidantoin (AGD), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ). There are analyzed the positive and negative effects of nitrofuran drugs. The data for the establishment of the potential risks to human health when using contaminated raw meat metabolites of nitrofurans are discussed. These drugs are prohibited in livestock in Europe since 1995 due to the adverse effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and toxic) on animals and the potential risk to humans. In the Russian Federation in accordance with SanPin 01.01.2012 for the first time the was introduced rationing for nitrofurans (including furazolidone).

  12. Streptococcal screen (United States)

    ... Considerations This test screens for the group A streptococcus bacteria only. It ... MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  13. Hypertension screening (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.


    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  14. Teratogenic effects of the interaction acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol: morphologic and morphometric evaluation of the lingual epithelium in rat fetuses. (United States)

    Marinho, S A; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; de Moraes Grisi, M F; Novaes, A B; de Souza, S L S; Taba, M


    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of the interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol on the epithelium of the lingual mucosa in rat fetuses. On the 10th pregnancy day, a single intraperitoneal ethanol dose (2.96 g/kg body weight) (Group I), ASA (200 mg/kg body weight) (Group II) and ASA plus ethanol, in the same doses (Group III), or saline (Group IV - control), were administrated. The epithelial alterations were assessed by means of histological and morphometric methods, on posterior dorsal, anterior dorsal and ventral regions of the tongue. ASA reduced, in rat fetuses, the ethanol deleterious effects on nuclear size in the epithelial prickle cell of the lingual mucosa. On the other hand, ASA did not influence the effects of ethanol in both epithelial layers of the lingual mucosa, when the nuclear shape, cell volume or epithelial layers thickness were evaluated.

  15. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  16. Testicular Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... testicles, and need to be followed closely. Testicular Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  17. Alcohol Use Screening (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  18. Hearing Screening (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette


    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  19. Screening Tests (United States)

    ... gov/publications/AssessingAlcohol/index.htm .) This issue of Alcohol Research & Health highlights some of the most popular screening ... tolerance to more than two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol ...

  20. Teratogenic Effects of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae on the Femur of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokutima A. Eluwa


    Full Text Available Introduction. Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used as a sedative and in the treatment of psychotic tendency. This study was on the teratogenic effects of its root bark and leaf extracts on Wistar rat’s fetal femurs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five female rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were divided into 5 groups, of 5 rats each. Group A was the control, while Groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with mature male rats to allow for pregnancy. Groups B and C animals received orally 150 mg/kg each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, while Groups D and E animals received 250 mg/kg bodyweight each of the root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria, respectively, from day 7 to day 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses were examined, and their femurs were dissected out and preserved, decalcified, and routinely processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method. Results. Histological observations of the fetal femur bones showed numerous osteoblast and osteoclast, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia of bone cells compared with the control. Conclusion. Ethanolic root bark and leaf extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may lead to advanced skeletal development.

  1. Mental Health Screening Center (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  2. Breast cancer screening (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  3. Acute Toxicity, Teratogenic, and Estrogenic Effects of Bisphenol A and Its Alternative Replacements Bisphenol S, Bisphenol F, and Bisphenol AF in Zebrafish Embryo-Larvae. (United States)

    Moreman, John; Lee, Okhyun; Trznadel, Maciej; David, Arthur; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro; Tyler, Charles R


    Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical incorporated into plastics and resins, has estrogenic activity and is associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Similarly structured BPA analogues are widely used but far less is known about their potential toxicity or estrogenic activity in vivo. We undertook the first comprehensive analysis on the toxicity and teratogenic effects of the bisphenols BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF in zebrafish embryo-larvae and an assessment on their estrogenic mechanisms in an estrogen-responsive transgenic fish Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP). The rank order for toxicity was BPAF > BPA > BPF > BPS. Developmental deformities for larval exposures included cardiac edema, spinal malformation, and craniofacial deformities and there were distinct differences in the effects and potencies between the different bisphenol chemicals. These effects, however, occurred only at concentrations between 1.0 and 200 mg/L which exceed those in most environments. All bisphenol compounds induced estrogenic responses in Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP) zebrafish that were inhibited by coexposure with ICI 182 780, demonstrating an estrogen receptor dependent mechanism. Target tissues included the heart, liver, somite muscle, fins, and corpuscles of Stannius. The rank order for estrogenicity was BPAF > BPA = BPF > BPS. Bioconcentration factors were 4.5, 17.8, 5.3, and 0.067 for exposure concentrations of 1.0, 1.0, 0.10, and 50 mg/L for BPA, BPF, BPAF, and BPS, respectively. We thus show that these BPA alternatives induce similar toxic and estrogenic effects to BPA and that BPAF is more potent than BPA, further highlighting health concerns regarding the use of BPA alternatives.

  4. Prevalence of periconceptional folic acid use and perceived barriers to the postgestation continuance of supplemental folic acid: survey results from a Teratogen Information Service. (United States)

    Goldberg, Beck B; Alvarado, Sonia; Chavez, Carmen; Chen, Brian H; Dick, Lyn M; Felix, Robert J; Kao, Kelly K; Chambers, Christina D


    Fewer than 40% of U.S. women are taking folic acid supplements periconceptionally at a time when the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be reduced by supplementation. A better understanding of the vitamin-taking habits of childbearing-age women and effective methods for improving periconceptional supplement use are needed. A telephone survey conducted through the California Teratogen Information Service (TIS) between August 2003 and January 2004 assessed the prevalence and characteristics of pregnant callers who did not use folic acid supplements in the periconceptional period, and explored attitudes toward advice to continue vitamin use following pregnancy in order to be protected in a future pregnancy. A total of 327 pregnant women who called the TIS for information agreed to participate in the survey. More than half (53.2%) were not taking folic acid-containing supplements in the periconceptional period. Predictors of lack of use included a higher prepregnancy body mass index, younger maternal age, non-white race/ethnicity, lower education level, and unplanned pregnancy. One-quarter of the women said they would be willing to continue taking vitamins after the pregnancy if advised to do so by a physician. The remainder identified obstacles to following that advice--notably, not planning to become pregnant again and the belief that enough folate is derived from diet alone. More than half of the callers to the TIS were not compliant with recommendations regarding periconceptional folic acid supplementation. This represents an opportunity for TIS specialists and physicians to intervene in a current pregnancy to encourage maintenance of supplement use in the subsequent interpregnancy interval. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. RBC Antibody Screen (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Indirect Coombs Test; Indirect Anti-human Globulin Test; Antibody Screen Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen ...

  6. Screen time and children (United States)

    ... page: // Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  7. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, July 2017 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  8. Endometrial Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  10. DNA oxidation as a potential molecular mechanism mediating drug-induced birth defects: phenytoin and structurally related teratogens initiate the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro and in vivo in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues. (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G


    A considerable number of teratogens, including the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin and structurally related drugs and environmental chemicals, may be bioactivated by peroxidases, such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) and lipoxygenases (LPOs), to a reactive free radical intermediate that initiates birth defects. However, the molecular targets of the reactive free radical intermediates mediating chemical teratogenesis, and hence the fundamental determinants of susceptibility, are poorly understood. In these studies, a teratogenic dose of phenytoin (65 mg/kg), when injected into pregnant CD-1 mice during organogenesis on gestational day 12, initiated the oxidation of DNA in maternal hepatic and embryonic nuclei, forming 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Significant maternal and embryonic DNA oxidation occurred at 6 and 3 h, respectively, suggesting relative embryonic deficiencies in free radical-related cytoprotective enzymes, although the rates appeared similar. Maximal DNA oxidation in both maternal and embryonic tissues occurred at 6 h, presumably reflecting the balance of DNA oxidation and repair, the latter of which appeared similar in both tissues. Inhibition of phenytoin-initiated embryonic DNA oxidation by the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (41.5 mg/kg), and by acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of PHS, was consistent with the previously reported reduction by these inhibitors of phenytoin-initiated murine birth defects. In vitro studies using a horseradish peroxidase (0.5 mg/ml)-H2O2 (5.45 micrograms/ml) bioactivating system for drug-initiated oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine (3.74 mM), indicated that the potency of xenobiotic-initiated formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine for the structurally related drugs and metabolites phenytoin, 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, trimethadione, dimethadione, l-mephenytoin, l-nirvanol, d-nirvanol (80 microM each), or thalidomide (64 micro

  11. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T


    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  12. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... all skin colors can get skin cancer. Skin Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  13. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  14. Screening for Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S


    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity ...

  16. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  17. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  18. Screening for Glaucoma (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Glaucoma The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Glaucoma . This final recommendation statement ...

  19. Video Screen Capture Basics (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura


    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  20. Overdiagnosis in cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J


    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily...

  1. Screening for Lung Cancer (United States)

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.


    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  2. Principles of Cancer Screening. (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F


    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosch, H.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.


    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current data about low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) lung cancer screening.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was the first study that provided statistical evidence that LD-CT screening for lung cancer significantly reduces lung

  4. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil


    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ing is started, frequency of screening, ideal and cost-effective technique, provi- sion of screening services to the most needy ... Based on data from Cali, Colombia, the impact of starting cervical screening at different ages shows that starting ... Hospital, Durban, and obtained his. Fellowship in 1996. His current field of.

  6. Manifestaciones cutáneas como parámetro de teratogenicidad en la intoxicación con metales pesados Cutaneous signs as parameter in teratogenicity by heavy metal intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N L Pauza


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los efectos teratogénicos de metales pesados (acetatos de Cd2+ y Pb2+ y sulfato de Cu2+, en embriones de pollo en desarrollo, después de la administración de una monodosis del metal. Los huevos embrionados fueron inyectados en la yema en el día 12 de incubación. Las concentraciones de los iones fueron (nmoles/g huevo: Cd2+: Dosis 1 (D1: 0,16 y Dosis 2 (D2: 0,32; Pb2+: D1: 8,0 y D2: 16,0 y Cu2+: D1: 1,7 y D2: 3,3. Los resultados se evaluaron después de continuar la incubación in ovo durante 12 y 60 hs Cu2+ y Pb2+ no aumentaron la mortalidad de los embriones, en cambio, la presencia de Cd2+ produjo entre 30 y 86 % de mortalidad de los embriones, con efectos dosis y tiempo dependientes. Los embriones intoxicados con la D2 de Cd2+ durante 60 hs fueron los únicos ejemplares que presentaron disminución en su peso promedio, respecto de los ejemplares de control. La administración de Cd2+ causó efectos teratogénicos más severos que los tratamientos con Cu2+ y Pb2+. Se puede concluir que los metales pesados son embriotóxicos e inducen teratogenia en embriones de pollo en desarrollo. Se sugiere que los mejores parámetros para evaluar la teratogenicidad producida por la intoxicación Cd2+, Cu2+ y Pb2+ son los derrames cutáneos y hepáticos.Teratogenic effects of heavy metals (Cd2+- and Pb2+- acetates and Cu2+- suphate were studied on chick embryos, after the administration as a single dose. Test materials were injected into the yolk on day 12 of incubation. Tested concentrations were (nmole/g egg: Cd2+ Dose 1 (D1: 0.16 and Dose 2 (D2: 0.32; Pb2+: D1: 8.0 and D2: 16.0 and Cu2+: D1: 1.7 and D2: 3.3. Evaluations were performed after in ovo incubation for 12 and 60 hours. Embryonic mortality did not increase at the two dose levels of Cu2+ and Pb2+, while Cd2+ caused 30 and 86% of mortality, showing dose and time responses. Eggs treated with D2 of Cd2+ for 60 hs, significantly decreased the average of body mass embryo, when

  7. Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat and rabbit. (United States)

    Otabe, A; Fujieda, T; Masuyama, T


    To assess its teratogenic potential, advantame (N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate) was administered to mated rats (22/group) in the diet at 0, 5000, 15,000, and 50,000 ppm (providing approximately 465, 1418, and 4828 mg/kg body weight/day), and to mated rabbits (24/group) via oral gavage at 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day throughout gestation. Shortly before delivery (rats: day 20; rabbits: day 29), animals were killed and subjected to a detailed necropsy. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. Atypical coloration of the feces and cage liners seen with test diets in both rats and rabbits was attributed to excretion of test material/metabolites in the feces and urine. Advantame had no adverse effect on rat offspring survival or development. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both maternal and developmental toxicity in rats was 50,000 ppm, the highest dietary concentration tested. Due to adverse effects associated with reduced food intake and fecal output, approximately 20% of mated rabbits receiving 200 0mg/kg body weight/day and 1 animal at 1000 mg/kg body weight/day had to be terminated before scheduled necropsy. A NOAEL of 500 mg/kg body weight/day was established for maternal toxicity in rabbits. No teratogenic effects were observed in any animals, and based on a slightly increased incidence of fetal deaths at 2000 mg/kg body weight/day, a finding that was considered to be indirectly related to advantame treatment, 1000 mg/kg body weight/day was considered the NOAEL for developmental toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacogenetic evaluation of ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in teratogenicity of anti-epileptic drugs in women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Jose


    Full Text Available Aim: Pregnancy in women with epilepsy (WWE who are on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs has two- to three-fold increased risk of fetal malformations. AEDs are mostly metabolized by Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and Cyp3A4 and transported by ABCB1. Patients on AED therapy can have folate deficiency. We hypothesize that the polymorphisms in ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR might result in differential expression resulting in differential drug transport, drug metabolism and folate metabolism, which in turn may contribute to the teratogenic impact of AEDs. Materials and Methods: The ABCB1, Cyp2C9, Cyp2C19 and MTHFR polymorphisms were genotyped for their role in teratogenic potential and the nature of teratogenecity in response to AED treatment in WWE. The allelic, genotypic associations were tested in 266 WWE comprising of 143 WWE who had given birth to babies with WWE-malformation (WWE-M and 123 WWE who had normal offsprings (WWE-N. Results: In WWE-M, CC genotype of Ex07 + 139C/T was overrepresented (P = 0.0032 whereas the poor metabolizer allele FNx012 and FNx012 FNx012 genotype of CYP2C219 was significantly higher in comparison to WWE-N group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.005, respectively. All these observations were independent of the nature of malformation (cardiac vs. non cardiac malformations. Conclusion: Our study indicates the possibility that ABCB1 and Cyp2C19 may play a pivotal role in the AED induced teratogenesis, which is independent of nature of malformation. This is one of the first reports indicating the pharmacogenetic role of Cyp2C19 and ABCB1 in teratogenesis of AED in pregnant WWE.

  9. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter


    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...... for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  10. Cardiac Screening for Athletes


    Senem Ozgur; Selmin Karademir


    As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommen...

  11. Environmental Stress Screening Technology. (United States)


    2402 04 47 11 TITLE (Includ& Security Classofication) Environmental Stress Screening Technology 12 PRSONAL AUTOR(S) Quartin, Herbert; Kube, Frank...Infrared (IR), Environmental Stress Screening, 09 03 Thermography, Acceptance Testing, Electronics 14 i _ .. .. 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse of...become a necessity (Ref I and 2). A principal driver of the effectiveness of Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) is the ability to rapidly and

  12. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David


    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  13. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening]. (United States)

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J


    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter


    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality......, but it is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational requirements...... for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  15. Is it time for Newborn Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Commentary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A PASS


    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is one of the most common causes of acquired mental retardation in the United States and worldwide. The fetal brain is highly susceptible to the teratogenic effects of alcohol from maternal consumption during pregnancy resulting in newborns with mental deficits and congenital malformations. FAS diagnosis is difficult to diagnose in newborns where distinct anatomical defects are not apparent from mothers of moderate to light alcohol use. Hence, medical diagnoses are often not ascertained until mid-childhood after irreparable brain damage has already occurred. Such infants will have been deprived of available socioclinical interventions, trainings, measures, and future treatments that may someday be implemented soon after birth. Presently, there are no FASD newborn biomarker screening programs in place despite cost benefit analyses revealing an annual societal cost of $1.3 million per FASD incident case. Since newborn biomarkers have been reported in the biomedical literature, can we afford not to implement newborn screening for FASD?

  16. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten


    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  17. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  18. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard


    for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen practice...

  19. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter


    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  20. Aneuploidy Screening in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Dashe, Jodi S


    Prenatal aneuploidy screening has changed dramatically in recent years with increases in the types of chromosomal abnormalities reliably identified and in the proportion of aneuploid fetuses detected. Initially, screening was available only for trisomies 21 and 18 and was offered only to low-risk pregnancies. Improved detection with the quadruple- and first-trimester multiple marker screens led to the option of aneuploidy screening for women 35 years of age and older. Cell-free DNA tests now screen for common autosomal trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies. Cell-free DNA screening is particularly effective in older women because of higher positive predictive values and lower false-positive rates. Integrated first- and second-trimester multiple marker tests provide specific risks for trisomies 21, 18, and possibly 13, and may detect an even wider range of aneuploidies. Given current precision in risk assessment, based on maternal age and preferences for screening or diagnostic tests, counseling has become more complex. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of available aneuploidy screening methods along with counseling considerations when offering them.

  1. Scoliosis Screening in Schools. (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  2. Lung Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... experience complications from follow-up tests. For this reason, lung cancer screening is offered to people who are in ... is more likely to be cancerous. For that reason, you might be referred to a lung ... problems. Your lung cancer screening test may detect other lung and heart ...

  3. [Colorectal cancer screening]. (United States)

    Castells, Antoni


    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freedman, Ben; Camm, A. John; Calkins, Hugh


    in September 2015 to promote discussion and research about AF screening as a strategy to reduce stroke and death and to provide advocacy for implementation of country-specific AF screening programs. During 2016, 60 expert members of AF-SCREEN, including physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, health......Approximately 10% of ischemic strokes are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) first diagnosed at the time of stroke. Detecting asymptomatic AF would provide an opportunity to prevent these strokes by instituting appropriate anticoagulation. The AF-SCREEN international collaboration was formed...... or by intermittent ECG recordings over 2 weeks is not a benign condition and, with additional stroke factors, carries sufficient risk of stroke to justify consideration of anticoagulation. With regard to the methods of mass screening, handheld ECG devices have the advantage of providing a verifiable ECG trace...

  5. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Henneberg, E W


    In spite of increasing number of elective resections of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) the mortality or ruptured AAA is increasing. The advantages of elective operations are obvious; the lethality is 2-6% while the lethality of ruptured AAA is 75-95%. However, AAA seldom causes symptoms before...... rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... to 80 year of age are caused by ruptured AAA. Screening men over 65 for AAA can theoretically prevent a substantial number of deaths. Our calculations predict one prevented AAA-death per 200-300 scans for a cost of about 4000 DKK per saved year of life. However, cost-benefit analyses are based...

  6. EFECTOS TERATOGÉNICOS DE ALGUNOS FÁRMACOS QUE PUEDEN PRODUCIR CARDIOPATÍAS CONGÉNITAS Y OTRAS ANOMALÍAS / Teratogenic effects of some drugs that can cause congenital heart disease and other abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissett Batista Santos


    Full Text Available Resumen Muchas de las malformaciones o anomalías de carácter anatómico o funcional provocadas en el feto se deben a la utilización de medicamentos por la madre, durante la gestación. Estos trastornos pueden detectarse en la vida intrauterina, inmediatamente después del nacimiento o, en ocasiones, muchos años después; pero generalmente se diagnostican tempranamente y en determinadas circunstancias pueden comprometer la vida del enfermo. En este artículo se exponen, de forma general, los principales efectos teratogénicos de algunos fármacos que pueden predisponer a cardiopatías y otras anomalías congénitas. El ambiente de una gestante se encuentra cargado de sustancias agresivas para el futuro producto de la gestación. La mayoría de las malformaciones más importantes son producidas durante el período teratogénico que comprende de la tercera a la octava semana de la gestación. Las medidas de prevención secundaria se sustentan en el diagnóstico prenatal y el asesoramiento genético. / Abstract Many of the malformations or abnormalities of anatomical or functional character provoked in the fetus are due to drug use by the mother during gestation. These disorders can be detected during intrauterine life, immediately after birth or at times, many years later, but they are generally diagnosed early and in certain circumstances they can compromise the life of the newborn. The main teratogenic effects of some drugs that can predispose to heart diseases and other congenital abnormalities are set out in this article in a general way. The environment of a pregnant woman is loaded with aggressive substances for the future product of gestation. The majority of the most relevant malformations are produced during the teratogenic period, which comprises weeks third to eigth of gestation. Secondary prevention measures are based on prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  7. Screening for Down syndrome. (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin


    Screening for Down Syndrome was initially only related to maternal age and has successively developed by introducing biochemical markers and algorithms to estimate the risk for particularly trisomy 21 and 18. We now have a long experience of screening with four biochemical markers, alpha-fetoprotein, total hCG, unconjugated estriol and free β-hCG during the second trimester. Screening is now moving towards screening in the first trimester using a combination of ultrasound (Nuchal Translucency) and the maternal serum biochemical markers free β-hCG and Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A). This has become known as the combined test. Several maternal and pregnancy factors which can influence the concentrations of biochemical markers are discussed. The possibilities of screening for other aneuploidies in the first trimester and an outline of recent methods to improve overall screening performance are highlighted and the review will suggest some possible options for the future in which Cell Free DNA techniques may become part of an improved overall screening strategy. In conclusion it is emphasized that the time has come to invert the Pyramid of Antenatal Care to focus on the 11-13 week assessment.

  8. Preimplantation genetic screening. (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C


    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates. This procedure, preimplantation genetic screening, was initially performed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, but 11 randomised controlled trials of screening using this technique showed no improvement in in vitro fertilisation delivery rates. Progress in genetic testing has led to the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridisation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic screening, and three small randomised controlled trials of preimplantation genetic screening using these new techniques indicate a modest benefit. Other trials are still in progress but, regardless of their results, preimplantation genetic screening is now being offered globally. In the near future, it is likely that sequencing will be used to screen the full genetic code of the embryo.

  9. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter


    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  10. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer. (United States)

    Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Canto, Marcia Irene


    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal disease that can only be cured by complete surgical resection. However, most patients with PC have unresectable disease at the time of diagnosis, highlighting the need to detect PC and its precursor lesions earlier in asymptomatic patients. Screening is not cost-effective for population-based screening of PC. Individuals with genetic risk factors for PC based on family history or known PC-associated genetic syndromes, however, can be a potential target for PC screening programs. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology and genetic background of familial PC and discusses diagnostic and management approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sperm shape abnormalities induced by energy-related hydrocarbons and industrial chemicals. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1979. [Methods of screening for toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.


    Using existing and new biological screening and testing systems, the presence of carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and physiologic or metabolically toxic agents associated with coal and oil shale extraction, conversion or utilization was identified. The purpose of the study is to further develop and apply the detection of morphologically abnormal mammalian sperm as a rapid, simple, quantitative assay of the pathologic response of the male gonad to toxic agents associated with the recovery, process stream, and emission of nonnuclear sources of energy, with primary attention to substances from in situ coal gasification and in situ oil-shale extraction. Changes in mouse sperm head dimensions following low dose x-ray exposure have been compiled and analyzed.

  12. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  13. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma. (United States)

    Desai, Meena P


    Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH) are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS) for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  14. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai


    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  15. Screening for Prostate Cancer (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the ... in front of the rectum. Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  17. TMIST Breast Screening Study (United States)

    TMIST is a randomized breast screening trial that compares two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved types of digital mammography, standard digital mammography (2-D) with a newer technology called tomosynthesis mammography (3-D).

  18. Screening for Depression (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  19. Audiometry screening and interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S


    .... If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry...

  20. Urine drug screen (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  1. Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ) (United States)

    ... screening research includes finding out who has an increased risk of cancer. Scientists are trying to better ... more people are surviving cancer longer, but in reality, these are people who would not have died ...

  2. Environmental Stress Screening 2000 (United States)

    Gibbel, Mark


    The following identifies the authors of this report and the organizations that sponsored the effort conducted under the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) 2000 Project.

  3. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J


    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...

  4. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  5. Score test variable screening


    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi


    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient...

  6. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  7. [Organized breast cancer screening]. (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn


    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  8. Crystallographic fragment screening. (United States)

    Badger, John


    Crystallographic fragment screening is a technique for initiating drug discovery in which protein crystals are soaked or grown with high concentrations of small molecule compounds (typically MW 110-250 Da) chosen to represent fragments of potential drugs. Specific binding of these compounds to the protein is subsequently visualized in electron density maps obtained from analysis of X-ray diffraction data collected from these crystals. Theoretical and practical experience indicate that a suitably diverse library of fragment compounds containing only a few hundred compounds may be sufficient to provide a comprehensive screen of the protein target. By soaking crystals in mixtures of 3-10 compounds a fragment screen may be completed within ∼100 diffraction data sets. This data collection requirement may be met given reproducible well-diffracting protein crystals and robotic sample handling equipment at a high flux X-ray source. The leading practical issue for most crystallography laboratories that wish to launch a fragment screening project is the design and/or procurement of an appropriate fragment library. Although several off-the-shelf fragment libraries are available from chemical suppliers, the numbers, sizes, and solubility of the compounds in relatively few of these libraries are well-match to the specific needs of the crystallographic screening experiment. Informed consideration of the properties of compounds in the screening library, possibly augmented by additional filtering of available compounds with appropriate search tools, is required to design a successful experiment. The analysis of results from crystallographic fragment screening involves highly repetitive application of routine image data processing and structure refinement calculations from many very similar crystals. Efficient handling of the data applies a high-throughput structure determination methodology that conveniently packages the structure solution calculations into a single process that

  9. Score test variable screening. (United States)

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi


    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  10. [Colorectal cancer screening]. (United States)

    Castells, Antoni


    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Short apraxia screening test. (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark


    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  12. Asphyxia screening kit. (United States)

    Zabidi, A; Khuan, L Y; Mansor, W


    Infant asphyxia is a condition due to insufficient oxygen intake suffered by newborn babies. A 4 to 9 million occurrences of infant asphyxia are reported each year by WHO. Early diagnosis of asphyxia is important to avoid complications such as damage to the brain, organ and tissue that could lead to fatality. This is possible with the automation of screening of infant asphyxia. Here, a non-invasive Asphyxia Screening Kit is developed. It is a Graphical User Interface that automatically detects asphyxia in infants from early birth to 6 months from their cries and displays the outcome of analysis. It is built with Matlab GUI underlied with signal processing algorithms, capable of achieving a classification accuracy of 96.03%. Successful implementation of ASK will assist to screen infant asphyxia for reference to clinicians for early diagnosis. In addition, ASK also provides an interface to enter patient information and images to be integrated with existing Hospital Information Management System.

  13. [Heart screening of elite athletes]. (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Rasmusen, Hanne; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Hansen, Peter Riis


    Sudden cardiac death in competing athletes is usually caused by unsuspected heart disease, and pre-participation screening may reduce the incidence of this tragic event. Although the cost-effectiveness of screening programs is unclear, international sports associations are currently implementing mandatory screening of elite athletes. During the first year of screening in the top Danish soccer league, all athletes were found to be eligible for continued participation in the game, suggesting that concern about false positive screening results may be exaggerated.

  14. [Screening: ethical principles]. (United States)

    Haehnel, P


    Mass cancer screening is new in France inasmuch as the country has never up to now carried out such a large-scale and wide-reaching public healthcare operation. The organisation of the screening brings up the question of where healthcare is actually heading. Should the community as a whole should have preference over the individual or, on the other hand, should the individual and his or her private life be defended against a faceless community that is becoming more and more demanding? This question is fundamental to all the difficulties that are met when organising mass screenings. There are, of course, certain technical aspects and indicators of effectiveness that are common to all screening campaigns, but there are also wider considerations that must be respected, such as social justice and liberty of both the individual and the community. Anyone who wishes to take advantage of the screening should be free to do so, but the individual must also be free to refuse. Screening must remain voluntary. It is essential to maintain full data secrecy and to provide appropriate training for the doctors involved. It is also of fundamental importance to carry out an assessment of the campaign from a neutral angle. The training issue is crucial, with the doctor's suitability to carry out the test a key factor. Doctors need to be trained to acquire the necessary skills, especially as it will soon become necessary to monitor doctors' competence in the field. An assessment will have to be made not simply of performance but also of doctors' ability to handle a given situation.

  15. Inertial Screening in Sedimentation


    Segre, P. N.


    We use particle image velocimetry to measure the sedimentation dynamics of a semi-dilute suspension of non-Brownian spheres at Reynolds numbers, $0.001\\le Re\\le 2.3$, extending from the Stokes to the moderately inertial regime. We find that the onset of inertial corrections to Stokes sedimentation occurs when the inertial screening length $l=a/Re$ becomes similar to the Stokes sedimentation length $\\xi_0$, at $Re_c= a/\\xi_0\\approx 0.05$. For $Re>Re_c$, inertial screening significantly reduces...

  16. Efecto teratogénico y toxico de ácidos grasos de cadena corta insaturados, en Rhodnius prolixus Teratogenic and toxic effect of unsaturated fatty acids of short chain, in Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Gomez


    Full Text Available Se estudia el papel teratogénico de dos ácidos grasos insaturados de cadena corta, ácido octinoico y ácido undecilénico, sobre insectos de metamorfosis hemimetábola, Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera. La penetración de los ácidos, se realiza a través de la cutícula del abdomen y de los tarsos, se presenta como una acción independiente del grado de distensión de la misma, ya que sus efectos se registran tanto en los insectos repletos, como en los hambrientos; tanto en los tratados tópicamente como en aquellos donde la droga se aplicó al papel de soporte. Los ácidos estudiados aparentemente no afectan la formación de la cutícula, ni la melanización, como tampoco afecta el proceso de la muda. Los daños inducidos por estos ácidos se presentam al azar tanto en los apéndices locomotores como en los cefálicos, observándose un desplazamiento a la proboscide a medida que se incrementa la dosis. De las malformaciones en la proboscide, es el labio el mas dramáticamente dañado, aunque también se presentan daños en los otros apéndices bucales, aisladamente o junto con el daño del labio. El daño en los apéndices locomotores está frecuentemente desplazado al segundo y tercer par de patas, mientras que el par, fue el menos afectado. El ácido octinoico se comportó como teratogénico en las dosis que fueron letales para el insecto con el ácido undecilénico.The teratogenic role of two short-chain unsaturated fatty acids, octinoic acid and undecylenic acid on the hemimetabolic metamorphosis of the insect Rhodnius prolixus (Hemipter is studied. The acids penetrate through the cuticle of the abdomen and tarsi, independently of the amount of distention. The effects are registered equally in satiated or hungry insects, in those treated topically or in those where the treatment was applied to the support paper. The acids apparently do not affect the formation of the cuticle, melanization, nor the metamorphic process. The damage induced by

  17. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H


    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized tri...

  18. Screening and merger activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banal-Estañol, A.; Heidhues, P.; Nitsche, R.; Seldeslachts, J.


    In our paper, the target of a proposed merger, by setting a reserve price, is able to screen prospective acquirers according to their (expected) ability to generate merger-specific synergies. Both empirical evidence and many merger models suggest that the difference between high and low-synergy

  19. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H


    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  20. Colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Bessa Caserras, Xavier


    In the latest meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association, several clinical studies were presented that aimed to evaluate the various colorectal cancer screening strategies, although most assessed the various aspects of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. Data were presented from consecutive FIT-based screening rounds, confirming the importance of adherence to consecutive screening rounds, achieving a similar or superior diagnostic yield to endoscopic studies. There was confirmation of the importance of not delaying endoscopic study after a positive result. Participants with a negative FIT (score of 0) had a low risk for colorectal cancer. Several studies seemed to confirm the importance of high-quality colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening programmes. The implementation of high-quality colonoscopies has reduced mortality from proximal lesions and reduced interval cancers in various studies. Finally, participants with a normal colonoscopy result or with a small adenoma are at low risk for developing advanced neoplasms during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. TB Screening Tests (United States)

    ... Implementation of New TB Screening Requirements for U.S.-Bound Immigrants and Refugees — 2007–2014. Medscape Multispecialty from ... October 28, Rev L). AccuProbe, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Culture Identification Test. Gen-Probe [Package Insert]. Available online ...

  2. Ecological Soil Screening Level (United States)

    The Eco-SSL derivation process is used to derive a set of risk-based ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for many of the soil contaminants that are frequently of ecological concern for plants and animals at hazardous waste sites.

  3. Screening for fetal aneuploidy. (United States)

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E


    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Nationwide colorectal cancer screening].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.


    Usually, colorectal cancer presents with complaints in a late stage, but can be detected in an earlier stage, with better prognosis, by colonoscopy. Using colonoscopy, also precancerous tumours, adenomas, can be detected and excised, but only in a national screening programme. However primary

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Asia. (United States)

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chang, Li-Chun; Wu, Ming-Hsiang


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in Asia, especially in regions with higher levels of economic development. Several Asian countries have launched population CRC screening programs to combat this devastating disease because previous studies have demonstrated that either fecal occult blood test or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy can effectively reduce CRC mortality. Screening includes engaging the population, testing, administering a confirmation examination, and treating screening-detected neoplasms; thus, monitoring the whole process using measurable indicators over time is of utmost importance. Only when the quality of every step is secured can the effectiveness of CRC screening be maximized. Screening and verification examination rates remain low in Asian countries, and important infrastructure, including cancer or death registry systems, colonoscopy capacity, and reasonable subsidization for screening, is lacking or insufficient. Future research should identify potential local barriers to screening. Good communication and dialog among screening organizers, clinicians, professional societies, and public health workers are indispensible for successful screening programs.


    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  7. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening. (United States)

    Square, Regina; And Others


    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  8. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare ...

  9. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis. This final recommendation statement applies to adults who ...

  10. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. ... patients know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  11. Cervical cancer -- screening and prevention (United States)

    ... available to protect against the HPV types that cause most cervical cancer in women. The vaccine is: Given as a ... neoplasia of the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva): etiology, screening, ... Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening ...

  12. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  13. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano


    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  14. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you ... they go home from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time ...

  15. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina


    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  16. The hess screen test. (United States)

    Roper-Hall, Gill


    The Hess screen test was designed by Walter Rudolf Hess in 1908 with subsequent modifications.(1, 2) Hess was a famous neurophysiologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1949 for his research into the functional organization of the vegetative nervous system.(3, 4) The original test used a black screen on which was marked a square-meter tangent scale. The tangent nature of the coordinate lines converts equidistant points, seen in a virtual sphere like a perimeter, into a two-dimensional chart. The test relies on color dissociation using red/green complementary filters. This maximizes the ocular deviation. A red target is illuminated or projected at the juncture where each tangent line crosses. A green light is projected by the patient and each plot is recorded. The test is repeated for the opposite eye resulting in a chart showing an inner and outer range of ocular rotation for each eye.

  17. An experience of qualified preventive screening: shiraz smart screening software. (United States)

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Zare, Hashem; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza


    Computerized preventive screening software is a cost effective intervention tool to address non-communicable chronic diseases. Shiraz Smart Screening Software (SSSS) was developed as an innovative tool for qualified screening. It allows simultaneous smart screening of several high-burden chronic diseases and supports reminder notification functionality. The extent in which SSSS affects screening quality is also described. Following software development, preventive screening and annual health examinations of 261 school staff (Medical School of Shiraz, Iran) was carried out in a software-assisted manner. To evaluate the quality of the software-assisted screening, we used quasi-experimental study design and determined coverage, irregular attendance and inappropriateness proportions in relation with the manual and software-assisted screening as well as the corresponding number of requested tests. In manual screening method, 27% of employees were covered (with 94% irregular attendance) while by software-assisted screening, the coverage proportion was 79% (attendance status will clear after the specified time). The frequency of inappropriate screening test requests, before the software implementation, was 41.37% for fasting plasma glucose, 41.37% for lipid profile, 0.84% for occult blood, 0.19% for flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, 35.29% for Pap smear, 19.20% for mammography and 11.2% for prostate specific antigen. All of the above were corrected by the software application. In total, 366 manual screening and 334 software-assisted screening tests were requested. SSSS is an innovative tool to improve the quality of preventive screening plans in terms of increased screening coverage, reduction in inappropriateness and the total number of requested tests.

  18. An Experience of Qualified Preventive Screening: Shiraz Smart Screening Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Islami Parkoohi


    Full Text Available Background: Computerized preventive screening software is a cost effective intervention tool to address non-communicable chronic diseases. Shiraz Smart Screening Software (SSSS was developed as an innovative tool for qualified screening. It allows simultaneous smart screening of several high-burden chronic diseases and supports reminder notification functionality. The extent in which SSSS affects screening quality is also described. Methods: Following software development, preventive screening and annual health examinations of 261 school staff (Medical School of Shiraz, Iran was carried out in a software-assisted manner. To evaluate the quality of the software-assisted screening, we used quasi-experimental study design and determined coverage, irregular attendance and inappropriateness proportions in relation with the manual and software-assisted screening as well as the corresponding number of requested tests. Results: In manual screening method, 27% of employees were covered (with 94% irregular attendance while by software-assisted screening, the coverage proportion was 79% (attendance status will clear after the specified time. The frequency of inappropriate screening test requests, before the software implementation, was 41.37% for fasting plasma glucose, 41.37% for lipid profile, 0.84% for occult blood, 0.19% for flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, 35.29% for Pap smear, 19.20% for mammography and 11.2% for prostate specific antigen. All of the above were corrected by the software application. In total, 366 manual screening and 334 software-assisted screening tests were requested. Conclusion: SSSS is an innovative tool to improve the quality of preventive screening plans in terms of increased screening coverage, reduction in inappropriateness and the total number of requested tests.

  19. Cardiac Screening for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Ozgur


    Full Text Available As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommends screening with only history and physical examination, while European Society of Cardiology considers the inclusion of the electrocardiography. During sports activities, in response to the growing needs for the heart, a number of structural and electrical changes in the heart of athlete occur. This situation is briefly defined as the athlete heart. Although it is considered to be due to physiological changes in the athlete's heart, these changes are reflected in electrocardiography and they increase the number of false-positive cases. In 2010, European Society of Cardiology divided findings into two groups as physiological and pathological findings in order to prevent this confusion. With these criteria, it was aimed to increase the sensitivity of electrocardiography while reducing the false-positive rates. Despite all the precautions sudden cardiac death could not be completely precluded. Because of this, as well as the protective measures; cautions after the incident are also important. In the emergency plan, knowledgeable and experienced team of resuscitation and external cardiac defibrillator dissemination campaigns are the first things coming to mind. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 575-590

  20. Ellipticity Weakens Chameleon Screening


    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Stevenson, James


    The chameleon mechanism enables a long range fifth force to be screened in dense environments when non-trivial self interactions of the field cause its mass to increase with the local density. To date, chameleon fifth forces have mainly been studied for spherically symmetric sources, however the non-linear self interactions mean that the chameleon responds to changes in the shape of the source differently to gravity. In this work we focus on ellipsoidal departures from spherical symmetry and ...

  1. Solar models and electron screening


    Weiss, A.; Flaskamp, M.; Tsytovich, V. N.


    We investigate the sensitivity of the solar model to changes in the nuclear reaction screening factors. We show that the sound speed profile as determined by helioseismology certainly rules out changes in the screening factors exceeding more than 10%. A slightly improved solar model could be obtained by enhancing screening by about 5% over the Salpeter value. We also discuss how envelope properties of the Sun depend on screening, too. We conclude that the solar model can be used to help settl...

  2. The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory


    The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory


    This paper explores two contexts for Francis Skidmore and George Gilbert Scott's screen at Hereford Cathedral. First, it locates the screen within a succession of choir screens at Hereford from the middle ages to the present, thereby charting the typology of the choir screen within a single institutional context. Second, it shows that Skidmore and Scott's work at Hereford should be understood in light of their related work at Lichfield and Salisbury, and that, more distantly, the three buildi...

  3. Weak bond screening system (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  4. Automated screening for retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodin


    Full Text Available Retinal pathology is a common cause of an irreversible decrease of central vision commonly found amongst senior population. Detection of the earliest signs of retinal diseases can be facilitated by viewing retinal images available from the telemedicine networks. To facilitate the process of retinal images, screening software applications based on image recognition technology are currently on the various stages of development.Purpose: To develop and implement computerized image recognition software that can be used as a decision support technologyfor retinal image screening for various types of retinopathies.Methods: The software application for the retina image recognition has been developed using C++ language. It was tested on dataset of 70 images with various types of pathological features (age related macular degeneration, chorioretinitis, central serous chorioretinopathy and diabetic retinopathy.Results: It was shown that the system can achieve a sensitivity of 73 % and specificity of 72 %.Conclusion: Automated detection of macular lesions using proposed software can significantly reduce manual grading workflow. In addition, automated detection of retinal lesions can be implemented as a clinical decision support system for telemedicine screening. It is anticipated that further development of this technology can become a part of diagnostic image analysis system for the electronic health records.

  5. Push for the Second Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    Users’ perception of the relation between the TV screen and a secondary screen (e.g. smartphone or tablet) is examined empirically in a pilot project through a low-fi prototype and interviews. Early observations indicate that the user value/acceptance of push-messages delivered to the second screen...

  6. Mental Health Screening in Schools (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon


    Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and…

  7. Congenital toxoplasmosis: to screen or not to screen? (United States)

    Joss, A W; Chatterton, J M; Ho-Yen, D O


    We have reviewed the present day quantifiable cost to society of the 73 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis which are estimated to occur annually in Scotland with the cost of preventing the disease by screening and treatment. Our analysis includes advances in laboratory techniques. The cost of screening would depend on its scale and if in-house or commercial tests are used. If only 2 specimens were screened, at booking and at delivery, the screening costs are estimated to be between 0.5-0.9 times the preventable costs. If a third specimen were tested in the second trimester, to maximise scope for remedial action during pregnancy, the screening costs are 0.7-1.2 times preventable costs. As likely screening costs in most of the schemes we consider are now less than the preventable costs, a screening programme should be adopted.

  8. Visual Screening for Malignant Melanoma (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Geller, Alan; Beddingfield, Frederick C.; Wolf, Lindsey L.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.


    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various melanoma screening strategies proposed in the United States. Design We developed a computer simulation Markov model to evaluate alternative melanoma screening strategies. Participants Hypothetical cohort of the general population and siblings of patients with melanoma. Intervention We considered the following 4 strategies: background screening only, and screening 1 time, every 2 years, and annually, all beginning at age 50 years. Prevalence, incidence, and mortality data were taken from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Sibling risk, recurrence rates, and treatment costs were taken from the literature. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lifetime costs. Cost-effectiveness ratios were in dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY) gained. Results In the general population, screening 1 time, every 2 years, and annually saved 1.6, 4.4, and 5.2 QALYs per 1000 persons screened, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $10 100/QALY, $80 700/QALY, and $586 800/QALY, respectively. In siblings of patients with melanoma (relative risk, 2.24 compared with the general population), 1-time, every-2-years, and annual screenings saved 3.6, 9.8, and 11.4 QALYs per 1000 persons screened, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $4000/QALY, $35 500/QALY, and $257 800/QALY, respectively. In higher risk siblings of patients with melanoma (relative risk, 5.56), screening was more cost-effective. Results were most sensitive to screening cost, melanoma progression rate, and specificity of visual screening. Conclusions One-time melanoma screening of the general population older than 50 years is very cost-effective compared with other cancer screening programs in the United States. Screening every 2 years in siblings of patients with melanoma is also cost-effective. PMID:17224538

  9. Gastric Cancer Screening


    Ayala Acosta, Juan Carlos; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Lotero Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana


    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world, being more common in developing countries. An early detection of the disease and an early treatment are key strategies to reduce mortality. in this review will present recent data regarding epidemiology and the most effective methods for screening of gastric cancer, which remain subject to review and ongoing controversy in the world due to the emergence of new techniques...

  10. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity (United States)

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro


    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  11. Influence of Methionine Supplementation on Nicotine Teratogenicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated from day 9 through 12 of gestation with either nicotine alone (6 mg/kg/day nicotine osmotic minipump or nicotine plus methionine (200 mg/kg) by gavage. Fetuses and embryos were recovered on gestational day-20 or day-12, respectively and were quantitatively and qualitatively ...

  12. Overdiagnosis in screening mammography in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Blichert-Toft, Mogens


    To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography.......To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography....

  13. Impact of Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines on Screening for Chlamydia. (United States)

    Ursu, Allison; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack


    The highest prevalence of chlamydia infection in the United States is among people aged 15 to 24 years. We assessed the impact of not doing routine cervical cancer screening on the rates of chlamydia screening in women aged 15 to 21 years. We classified visits to family medicine ambulatory clinics according to their timing relative to the 2009 guideline change that led to more restrictive cervical cancer screening. Women had higher odds of being screened for chlamydia before vs after the guideline change (odds ratio = 13.97; 95% CI, 9.17-21.29; P <.001). Chlamydia and cervical cancer screening need to be uncoupled and new screening opportunities should be identified. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. [Primary cervical cancer screening]. (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María


    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular screening in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsas, L.J.; Singh, R.; Fernhoff, P.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others


    Classical galactosemia (G/G) is caused by the absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity while the Duarte allele produces partial impairment and a specific biochemical phenotype. Cloning and sequencing of the human GALT gene has enabled the identification of prevalent mutations for both Classical and Duarte alleles. The G allele is caused by a Q188R codon mutation in exon 6 in 70% of a Caucasian population while the D allele is caused by an N134D codon mutation in exon 10. Since the Q188R sequence creates a new Hpa II site and the N314D sequence creates a new Sin I site, it is relatively easy to screen for both mutations by multiplex PCR and restriction digest. Here we describe a method for detection of new mutations producing impaired GALT. Patient DNAs are subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis of their 11 GALT exons. Direct sequencing of the exons targeted by SSCP has revealed many codon changes: IVSC 956 (a splice acceptor site loss), S135L, V151A, E203K, A320T, and Y323D. Two of these codon changes, V151A and S135L, have been confirmed as mutations by finding impaired GALT activity in a yeast expression system. We conclude that molecular screening of GALT DNA will clarify the structural biology of GALT and the pathophysiology of galactosemia.

  16. Substation noise screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maybee, Nigel; Everton, Pascal [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. (Canada)], email:; Chow, Vincent [Altalink Management Ltd. (Canada)], email:


    Alberta noise regulations require energy-related facilities to conduct predictions on sound levels, especially for large and medium noise sources. This is usually done with well-known modelling software, but that can be disadvantageous when assessing the noise impact of smaller noise sources, such as transformer substations. This paper focuses on the development of a spreadsheet substation noise screening tool to assess the noise impact of a small transformer substation with precision and ease-of-use. Three aspects must be considered: transformer sound levels, which can be provided by the manufacturer or extracted from accepted sound level references; sound power calculations, which depend on the substation size and operating regime; and sound propagation calculations, which take into account the distance of the receptor from the substation and sound absorption by the air and ground. Comparison of results obtained with this tool with results generated by standard sound modelling software shows the utility, accuracy and ease-of-use of this screening method for assessing the noise impact of transformer substations.

  17. Audiometry screening and interpretation. (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S


    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation.

  18. Forward chemical genetic screening. (United States)

    Choi, Hyunmo; Kim, Jun-Young; Chang, Young Tae; Nam, Hong Gil


    Chemical genetics utilizes small molecules to perturb biological processes. Unlike conventional genetics methods, which involve the alteration of genetic information mostly with lasting effects, chemical genetics allows temporary and reversible alterations of biological processes. Furthermore, it enables the alteration of biological processes in a dose-dependent manner, providing an advantage over conventional genetics. In the present chapter, the general procedures of forward chemical genetic screening are described. Forward chemical genetic screening can be performed in three steps. The first step involves the identification of small molecules that induce phenotypic or physiological changes in a biological system from a chemical library. In the second step, cellular targets that interact with the isolated chemical, which are mostly proteins, are identified. Although several methods can be applied in the second step, the most common one is affinity pull-down assay using a target protein that binds to the isolated compound. However, affinity pull-down of a target protein is a formidable barrier in forward chemical genetics. We introduced a tagged chemical library approach that significantly facilitates the identification of target proteins. The third step consists of the validation of the target protein, which should include the assessment of target specificity. This step is critical because small molecules often show pleiotropic effects due to low specificity. The specificity test may include a competition assay using cold competitors and a genetic study using mutants or transgenic lines modified for the cellular target.

  19. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene


    Including children with special needs in the common school has become an international political priority over the past 15-­‐20 years. In reponse, new social technologies have emerged. This article analyses one such technology, an action plan called a SMTTE, and proposes that we understand...... it as a “screening device”. It is a “device” in the sense that it distributes agency, and it “screens” in the word’s multiple meanings: “projecting” as in creating a viewer position;“sifting” and “systematizing” as in discriminating “knowledge” from mere “opinionings”; and “protecting” teachers from noise. Using...... ethnographic data from a Danish school, the article explores,first, the script and agencement of the SMTTE and, second, how the screening properties of the SMTTE are achieved, including how these properties challenge management-­‐teacher relations when the SMTTE travels to other networks at the school...

  20. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte


    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  1. Antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Australia. (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle


    Haemoglobinopathy screening should be performed in women with microcytic indices, women from high risk ethnic populations and those with unexplained anaemia. Early testing of women and their partners expedites appropriate management prior to and during pregnancy. Haemoglobinopathy screening is a multistep process beginning with a full blood count, ferritin assay, screening tests for haemoglobinopathies (ie, haemoglobin electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) and assessment of clinical risk. Iron deficiency may obscure the diagnosis of β-thalassaemia trait. If possible, haemoglobinopathy testing should be performed when the woman is iron-replete. Genetic testing can be offered on the basis of the combined risk of the couple; but turnaround times are lengthy at present, hence the emphasis on early pregnancy or pre-conception screening. Screening processes vary between states and local health districts; a uniform approach to screening and genetic testing with a national registry to record results would improve management of this growing problem.

  2. Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Guide (United States)


    Environmental Stress ", Screening (ES Gud -.-Authored By: William H. Homer, Project Manager.- t j Report Date: January 1989 Distribution unlimited... Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Guide (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) William H. Homer, Project Manager, and Evaluation Research Corporation, McLean, VA the planning, implementing, and monitoring of an Environmental Stress Screening (ESS).Plfrogram for Army Materiel Commao. (AMCylIroop Support

  3. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The «Korean Wave», or Hallyu phenomenon, has brought South Korean popular culture to the global population. Studies on Korean visual culture have therefore often focused on this aspect, leaving North Korea sidelined and often considered in a negative light because of its political regime. Korean...... – including online gaming and television drama – and concentrates on the margins, in which the very nature of «The South» is contested. «The South and the North» examines North Korea as an ideological other in South Korean popular culture as well as discussing North Korean cinema itself. «The Global» offers...... Screen Cultures sets out to redress this imbalance with a broad selection of essays spanning both North and South as well as different methodological approaches, from ethnographic and audience studies to cultural materialist readings. The first section of the book, «The South», highlights popular media...

  4. Taking place, screening place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit


    Danish television dramas: The Legacy (2014-) and Norskov (2015-). There are several reasons for this comparison: both have been sold for international distribution; some of the production personnel converge; they are broadcast by the two main Danish television public service broadcasters (DR and TV 2...... to a large extent in studios, while Norskov is shot entirely on location. The study is based on interviews with producers, broadcasters, location scouts, production designers and writers, as well as quantitative and qualitative textual analyses of television drama series, the geographical places, and related......We introduce location studies as a new empirical approach to screen studies. Location studies represent an interdisciplinary perspective, including media, aesthetics and geography, and reflect a growing interest in places in a global media and consumption culture. The chapter analyses two recent...

  5. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi


    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  6. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard


    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...... conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role...... potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis...

  7. The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory


    Full Text Available This paper explores two contexts for Francis Skidmore and George Gilbert Scott's screen at Hereford Cathedral. First, it locates the screen within a succession of choir screens at Hereford from the middle ages to the present, thereby charting the typology of the choir screen within a single institutional context. Second, it shows that Skidmore and Scott's work at Hereford should be understood in light of their related work at Lichfield and Salisbury, and that, more distantly, the three buildings were subject to significant "improvements" in the eighteenth century that Scott and Skidmore's work was intended to erase.

  8. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer


    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...... estimate of overdiagnosis. Screening affects cohorts of screened women. Danish registers allow very accurate mapping of the fate of every woman. We should be past the phase where studies of overdiagnosis are based on the fixed age groups from routine statistics....

  9. Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening (United States)

    Inadomi, John M.; Vijan, Sandeep; Janz, Nancy K.; Fagerlin, Angela; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Lin, Yunghui V.; Muñoz, Roxana; Lau, Chim; Somsouk, Ma; El-Nachef, Najwa; Hayward, Rodney A.


    Background Despite evidence that several colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies can reduce CRC mortality, screening rates remain low. This study aimed to determine whether the approach by which screening is recommended influences adherence. Methods We used a cluster randomization design with clinic time block as the unit of randomization. Persons at average risk for development of CRC in a racially/ethnically diverse urban setting were randomized to receive recommendation for screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, or their choice of FOBT or colonoscopy. The primary outcome was completion of CRC screening within 12 months after enrollment, defined as performance of colonoscopy, or 3 FOBT cards plus colonoscopy for any positive FOBT result. Secondary analyses evaluated sociodemographic factors associated with completion of screening. Results A total of 997 participants were enrolled; 58% completed the CRC screening strategy they were assigned or chose. However, participants who were recommended colonoscopy completed screening at a significantly lower rate (38%) than participants who were recommended FOBT (67%) (PChinese) completed screening more often than African Americans. Moreover, non-white participants adhered more often to FOBT, while white participants adhered more often to colonoscopy. Conclusions The common practice of universally recommending colonoscopy may reduce adherence to CRC screening, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. Significant variation in overall and strategy-specific adherence exists between racial/ethnic groups; however, this may be a proxy for health beliefs and/or language. These results suggest that patient preferences should be considered when making CRC screening recommendations. Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00705731 PMID:22493463

  10. Screening Tests for Birth Defects (United States)

    ... Rate Combined first-trimester screening Blood test for PAPP-A and hCG, plus an ultrasound exam Down syndrome ... tube defects 81% Integrated screening Blood test for PAPP-A and an ultrasound exam in the first trimester, ...

  11. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  12. Screening for type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.E.H.M.


    Summary and comment: Original articles: Diabetic patients detected by population-based stepwise screening already have a diabetic cardiovascular risk profile. Spijkerman AMW, Adriaanse MC, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CDA, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(10): 1784–9. Screening

  13. NELSON lung cancer screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhao (Yingru); X. Xie (Xueqian); H.J. de Koning (Harry); W.P. Mali (Willem); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)


    textabstractThe Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON study) was designed to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk subjects will lead to a decrease in 10-year lung cancer mortality of at

  14. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer


    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  15. Designing screened enclosures: Part III. (United States)

    Bearpark, Jon


    The engineer will be able to design a successful screened enclosure using careful selection of materials, gaskets and, if necessary, screened optical windows. Many of the techniques covered in this series of articles can be employed during the research and development stage to arrive at a cost-effective solution that offers the required mechanical, aesthetical, environmental and electrical properties.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellnlar carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific anti- gen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  17. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers. (United States)

    Cuckle, Howard


    Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  18. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle


    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  19. Inertial Screening in Sedimentation (United States)

    Segre, P. N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)


    Using particle image velocimetry we have measured the sedimentation dynamics of non-Brownian spheres over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re) between 0.001 and 2.5. Particle velocity fluctuations about the mean settling velocity show large-scale correlations whose spatial extent and magnitude Delta V/V are independent of Re up to a critical value Re less than Re(sub c). For Re greater than Re(sub c) the fluctuations substantially diminish with increasing Reynolds number due to inertial screening of the long-range hydrodynamic interactions (HI). The onset of inertial affects is found to occur when the Oseen length l(sub o)=v/V becomes of order the correlation length. In the inertial regime, the velocity fluctuations follow -(Delta V/V)(sup 2) approaching ln(Re), in agreement with an integration of the (l/r) HI over a narrow region extending up to the Oseen length l(sub o). A simple "blob" model connects the measured correlation lengths to the magnitudes of the velocity fluctuations.

  20. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening]. (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette


    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected.

  1. Data Quality Screening Service (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Lynnes, Christopher; Hearty, Thomas; Won, Young-In; Fox, Peter; Zednik, Stephan


    A report describes the Data Quality Screening Service (DQSS), which is designed to help automate the filtering of remote sensing data on behalf of science users. Whereas this process often involves much research through quality documents followed by laborious coding, the DQSS is a Web Service that provides data users with data pre-filtered to their particular criteria, while at the same time guiding the user with filtering recommendations of the cognizant data experts. The DQSS design is based on a formal semantic Web ontology that describes data fields and the quality fields for applying quality control within a data product. The accompanying code base handles several remote sensing datasets and quality control schemes for data products stored in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a common format for NASA remote sensing data. Together, the ontology and code support a variety of quality control schemes through the implementation of the Boolean expression with simple, reusable conditional expressions as operands. Additional datasets are added to the DQSS simply by registering instances in the ontology if they follow a quality scheme that is already modeled in the ontology. New quality schemes are added by extending the ontology and adding code for each new scheme.

  2. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  3. Touch/Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ross


    Full Text Available In 2004 Bernard Stiegler posed “the tragic question of cinema” as that of the germ of regres-­‐‑ sion to television and pornography it has always contained, just as in 1944 Adorno and Hork-­‐‑ heimer argued that Enlightenment reason has always contained a germ of regression making possible a prostitution of theory leading only to the threat of fascism. If comparable threats attend Stiegler’s cinematic question, then this implies the need for an account of this potential for regression, that is, an account of the relationship between desire, technology and knowledge. Tracing the aporias of the origin of desire and trauma in psychoanalysis is one crucial way to pursue this account. Exiting these aporias depends on recognizing that the origin of desire has for human beings always been technical, and hence that the instruments of desire form its conditions and condition its forms. By thus analysing the staging of desire and the setting of fantasy it becomes possible to reflect, for example, on what it means that for Genet fascism was theatre, that for Syberberg Hitler was cinema, and that for Stiegler the new prostitution of the tele-­‐‑visual graphic is digital and algorithmic. Hence arises the potentially tragic question of the possibility or otherwise, in the age of the ubiquitous screen, of a new cinematic invention and a new cinematic practice.

  4. Beam screen issues

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E


    In the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC), a beam energy of about 16.5 TeV is currently contemplated. The beam screen issues linked to the use of 20 T dipole magnets instead of 8.33 T are discussed, with a particular emphasis on two mechanisms, the magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect, assuming the nominal machine and beam parameters. The magneto-resistance effect always leads to an increase of the material resistivity (as the mean free path in the presence of a transverse magnetic field becomes smaller). As concerns the anomalous skin effect, the anomalous increase of surface resistance of metals at low temperatures and high frequencies is attributed to the long mean free path of the conduction electrons: when the skin depth becomes much smaller than the mean free path, only a fraction of the conduction electrons moving almost parallel to the metal surface is effective in carrying the current and the classical theory breaks down.

  5. Effectiveness and costeffectiveness of screening immigrants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One cost effectiveness analysis was found that compared the costs of; active PoA screening, general practice screening and homeless screening groups. The cost of detecting a case of TB were; £1.26, £13.17and £96.36 for PS, homeless screening and active PoA screening respectively. The cost of preventing a case of TB ...

  6. Comparison of regional screening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rowe, M.D.


    This report describes results of tests of different regional screening methods applied to data from western Maryland and the western United States. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether or not different regional screening methods produce different results, and to obtain some understanding of the nature of any differences found. Methods tested include Exclusionary Screening, Weighting Summation, Power Law, and Decision Analysis; weighting methods used include Categorization, Rating, Metfessel Allocation, Indifference Tradeoff, Churchman-Ackoff, and Decision Analysis. Results show that different methods do, indeed, produce different results, and that choice of decision rule is most important to results. Exclusionary Screening, in particular, can force decision tradeoffs that decision makers would not make were they to evaluate them directly. Nevertheless, differences in regional screening results do not necessarily mean differences in quality of the final site decision. The final result can depend on the skill with which the stages of the siting process following screening are conducted. The function of screening is to ease the task in those following stages by selecting candidate areas having high probability of containing suitable candidate sites. 32 refs., 32 figs., 43 tabs.

  7. The screening Horndeski cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS,Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350,Université de Tours,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)


    We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing “the emergence of time”. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.

  8. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests? (United States)

    ... screening research includes finding out who has an increased risk of cancer. Scientists are trying to better ... more people are surviving cancer longer, but in reality, these are people who would not have died ...

  9. When should we stop screening? (United States)

    Rich, J S; Black, W C


    Although the age at which screening should be started is the subject of considerable debate, the question of when to stop has received little attention. Days of life lost by stopping screening at various ages. For each of three types of cancer (breast, cervical, and colon), we used life tables to calculate life expectancy at various ages for stopping screening and for continuing screening until death. The days of life lost by stopping screening is the difference in life expectancy between the two life tables for a specified age. All-cause and cancer-specific mortality were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Survey (SEER). ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT BENEFIT: On the basis of randomized trial data, we used a 30% reduction in cancer-specific mortality for breast and colon cancer screening. Because there are no comparable data for cervical cancer, we assumed a 30% reduction in the mortality rate for the "best-guess" analysis and a 70% reduction in the mortality rate for the "best-case" analysis. We assumed that these benefits persisted for the elderly. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HARM: We assumed that there was no harm with screening. Given a starting age of 50 years, screening throughout life has a maximum potential life expectancy benefit of 43 days for breast cancer and 28 days for colon cancer. The average 75-year-old who stops either mammography or fecal occult blood testing would give up a maximum of 9 days. By stopping at age 80, she would give up a maximum of 5 days. Given a starting age of 20, Pap smear screening has a maximum potential benefit of 47 days in the best-case analysis and 7 days in the best-guess analysis. The average 75-year-old who forgoes Pap smear screening would give up a maximum of 3 days (best case) or 0.5 days (best guess). By stopping at age 80, she would give up a maximum of 1.5 days and 0.2 days, respectively. Even assuming that the mortality reduction with screening persists in the elderly

  10. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada


    , screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... in women vaccinated later. The challenge now is therefore to find an algorithm for screening of a heterogeneous population including non-vaccinated women; women vaccinated prior to start of sexual activity; and women vaccinated later....

  11. Newborn screening in southeastern Europe. (United States)

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej


    The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G


    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis...... length acylcarnitines, octanoylcarnitine (C8) and decanoylcarnitine (C10), were measured on newborn screening blood spot cards. Out of 121,000 live births, 17 newborns had C8 values above the screening cut-off of 0.38 umol/L. Ten newborns had elevated C8 on repeat cards and were investigated further...

  13. [Comparison of screens and screen-film-systems (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Maurer, H J; Goos, F


    Important details are to be payed attention in comparison of different scrreens resp. screen-film-systems: 1. Physical characteristics of different groups of luminescent materials: f.i. calcium tung-state, rare-earths compounds, double halogenides. - 2. Different types of screens: highest details up to highest speed intensifying screens, have to be defined more specifically and differentiated against to each other too. - 3. Besides intensification, resolution has to be included into consideration since one of these dates alone does not allow any statement on the total function of a screen or a screen-film-system. - 4. The technical methodological conditions of apparatuses, object and its positioning have to be defined, f.i. X-ray quality, distances, grid, and in automatically controlled exposition, if necessary, position of ionization chamber as well as absorption of cassetts and screen. - 5. Considering these points gradation curves have to include the whole necessary or interesting diagnostic range. - 6. Due to functional correlation between intensification and resolution, the resolution has to be taken in consideration due to application; its interdependence of density and object (f.i. scattered radiation) is often not taken enough in consideration.

  14. Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Home For Patients Search ... Screening and Diagnosis FAQ171, June 2017 PDF Format Cystic Fibrosis: Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis Pregnancy What is cystic ...

  15. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  16. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby (United States)

    ... your baby > Newborn screening tests for your baby Newborn screening tests for your baby E-mail to ... can be treated if found early. What is newborn screening? Before your baby leaves the hospital, he ...

  17. First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen (United States)

    ... follow up should interpret the screening results. A mathematical calculation using the results obtained from the PAPP- ... Available online at Accessed 12/26/ ...

  18. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening (United States)

    ... Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) ... women and their healthcare practitioners make decisions about managing their pregnancies. Screening will not detect all cases ...

  19. Ambient and Augmented Architectural Screens


    Vyzoviti, Sophia


    Part of topic : Projecting and manufacturing the ambiances of tomorrow; International audience; The paper investigates architectural screens as minimum yet definitive architectural elements: pop-up surfaces that produce ambient effects, outlining a sensorial envelope loaded with impactful environmental decorum.

  20. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer: Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical ...

  1. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette


    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  2. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard (United States)

    ... Other Communication Disorders Click to enlarge image Newborn Hearing Infographic Illustration: NIH, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders In 1993, children born in the U.S. were screened for hearing ...

  3. Transforming Security Screening With Biometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hearnsberger, Brian J


    ... and identity theft to dramatically improve physical security. Today, biometric technology could be implemented to transform physical security by enhancing screening procedures currently in use at U.S...

  4. Virtual screening of bioassay data. (United States)

    Schierz, Amanda C


    There are three main problems associated with the virtual screening of bioassay data. The first is access to freely-available curated data, the second is the number of false positives that occur in the physical primary screening process, and finally the data is highly-imbalanced with a low ratio of Active compounds to Inactive compounds. This paper first discusses these three problems and then a selection of Weka cost-sensitive classifiers (Naive Bayes, SVM, C4.5 and Random Forest) are applied to a variety of bioassay datasets. Pharmaceutical bioassay data is not readily available to the academic community. The data held at PubChem is not curated and there is a lack of detailed cross-referencing between Primary and Confirmatory screening assays. With regard to the number of false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the analysis carried out has been shallow due to the lack of cross-referencing mentioned above. In six cases found, the average percentage of false positives from the High-Throughput Primary screen is quite high at 64%. For the cost-sensitive classification, Weka's implementations of the Support Vector Machine and C4.5 decision tree learner have performed relatively well. It was also found, that the setting of the Weka cost matrix is dependent on the base classifier used and not solely on the ratio of class imbalance. Understandably, pharmaceutical data is hard to obtain. However, it would be beneficial to both the pharmaceutical industry and to academics for curated primary screening and corresponding confirmatory data to be provided. Two benefits could be gained by employing virtual screening techniques to bioassay data. First, by reducing the search space of compounds to be screened and secondly, by analysing the false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the technology may be improved. The number of false positives arising from primary screening leads to the issue of whether this type of data should be used for

  5. Virtual screening of bioassay data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierz Amanda C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are three main problems associated with the virtual screening of bioassay data. The first is access to freely-available curated data, the second is the number of false positives that occur in the physical primary screening process, and finally the data is highly-imbalanced with a low ratio of Active compounds to Inactive compounds. This paper first discusses these three problems and then a selection of Weka cost-sensitive classifiers (Naive Bayes, SVM, C4.5 and Random Forest are applied to a variety of bioassay datasets. Results Pharmaceutical bioassay data is not readily available to the academic community. The data held at PubChem is not curated and there is a lack of detailed cross-referencing between Primary and Confirmatory screening assays. With regard to the number of false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the analysis carried out has been shallow due to the lack of cross-referencing mentioned above. In six cases found, the average percentage of false positives from the High-Throughput Primary screen is quite high at 64%. For the cost-sensitive classification, Weka's implementations of the Support Vector Machine and C4.5 decision tree learner have performed relatively well. It was also found, that the setting of the Weka cost matrix is dependent on the base classifier used and not solely on the ratio of class imbalance. Conclusions Understandably, pharmaceutical data is hard to obtain. However, it would be beneficial to both the pharmaceutical industry and to academics for curated primary screening and corresponding confirmatory data to be provided. Two benefits could be gained by employing virtual screening techniques to bioassay data. First, by reducing the search space of compounds to be screened and secondly, by analysing the false positives that occur in the primary screening process, the technology may be improved. The number of false positives arising from primary screening leads to

  6. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers


    Howard Cuckle


    Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application ...

  7. Screening for type 2 diabetes


    Rutten, G E H M


    Summary and comment: Original articles: Diabetic patients detected by population-based stepwise screening already have a diabetic cardiovascular risk profile. Spijkerman AMW, Adriaanse MC, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CDA, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(10): 1784–9. Screening for Type 2 diabetes — should it be now? Borch-Johnsen K, Lauritzen T, Glümer C, Sandbæk A. Diabetic Med 2003; 20(3): 175–81.

  8. Screening_mgmt: a Python module for managing screening data. (United States)

    Helfenstein, Andreas; Tammela, Päivi


    High-throughput screening is an established technique in drug discovery and, as such, has also found its way into academia. High-throughput screening generates a considerable amount of data, which is why specific software is used for its analysis and management. The commercially available software packages are often beyond the financial limits of small-scale academic laboratories and, furthermore, lack the flexibility to fulfill certain user-specific requirements. We have developed a Python module, screening_mgmt, which is a lightweight tool for flexible data retrieval, analysis, and storage for different screening assays in one central database. The module reads custom-made analysis scripts and plotting instructions, and it offers a graphical user interface to import, modify, and display the data in a uniform manner. During the test phase, we used this module for the management of 10,000 data points of various origins. It has provided a practical, user-friendly tool for sharing and exchanging information between researchers. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening with AMIGAS (United States)

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Byrd, Theresa L.; Smith, Judith Lee; Fernandez, Maria E.; Wilson, Katherine M.


    Background Hispanic women have a higher incidence of cervical cancer than all other races and ethnicities. In Hispanic subgroups, Mexican American women were among the least likely to have received cervical cancer screening. In a recent RCT, Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guia, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) was shown to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent at 6 months in all intervention arms compared to the control arm. Limited information exists about the economics of interventions to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent. Purpose This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the alternative AMIGAS intervention methods for increasing cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent in three U.S. communities. Methods Cost data were collected from 2008 to 2011 alongside the AMIGAS study of 613 women. Receipt of Pap test within 6 months of intervention was the primary outcome measure in the cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted during 2012–2013. Results The cost per additional woman screened comparing the video-only intervention to usual care was $980. The cost increased to $1,309 with participant time cost included. With an additional cost per participant of $3.90 compared to flipchart only, the full AMIGAS program (video plus flipchart) yielded 6.8% additional women screened. Conclusions Results on the average and incremental cost-effectiveness of the AMIGAS program elements may assist health policymakers and program managers to select and appropriately budget for interventions shown to increase cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent. PMID:24842738

  10. Eletrodos fabricados por "silk-screen" Screen-printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valberes B. Nascimento


    Full Text Available A review dealing with the use of screen-printing technology to manufacture disposable electrodes is presented, covering in details virtually all the publications in the area up to early 1997 and including 206 references. The elements and different strategies on constructing modified electrodes are highlighted. Commercial and Home-made ink recipes are discussed. Microelectrode arrays, built by the combination of photostructuring and screen-printing technologies to the mass production of advanced disposable sensors, are also discussed. Future research trends are predicted.

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PSA) were used at similar rates for screening in all locations. Screening is primarily focused in men over age 50 and those with symptoms. Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary ...

  12. Novel approaches to screening for noncommunicable diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on specifically designed screening registers, then entered and analysed in Excel. Results: Over 14,000 adults (≥ 12 years old) were screened for an array of common conditions at community screening events. Of these adults, 58% (n = 8133) and 29% (n = 4016) were screened for hypertension and ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary reason for screening use in EW. Financial and cultural barriers to screening were more commonly reported in EW than SA. Similar detection approaches were used in all regions, with free PSA and PSA velocity being more ...

  14. Delirium diagnosis, screening and management (United States)

    Lawlor, Peter G.; Bush, Shirley H.


    Purpose of review Our review focuses on recent developments across many settings regarding the diagnosis, screening and management of delirium, so as to inform these aspects in the context of palliative and supportive care. Recent findings Delirium diagnostic criteria have been updated in the long-awaited Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Studies suggest that poor recognition of delirium relates to its clinical characteristics, inadequate interprofessional communication and lack of systematic screening. Validation studies are published for cognitive and observational tools to screen for delirium. Formal guidelines for delirium screening and management have been rigorously developed for intensive care, and may serve as a model for other settings. Given that palliative sedation is often required for the management of refractory delirium at the end of life, a version of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale, modified for palliative care, has undergone preliminary validation. Summary Although formal systematic delirium screening with brief but sensitive tools is strongly advocated for patients in palliative and supportive care, it requires critical evaluation in terms of clinical outcomes, including patient comfort. Randomized controlled trials are needed to inform the development of guidelines for the management of delirium in this setting. PMID:25004177

  15. [Cardiac screening of young athletes]. (United States)

    Stokstad, Magnus Thue; Berge, Hilde Moseby; Gjesdal, Knut


    Young athletes are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death compared to others. Cardiac screening has been proposed to prevent deaths. We wished to review the evidence for cardiac screening of young athletes. We have conducted a literature search in PubMed on sudden cardiac death in young athletes, using a combination of search terms related to screening, incidence, cost efficiency and recommendations, supplemented by secondary references and articles from our own archive. Published studies utilise a variety of definitions of athlete and sudden death, and some studies also include cardiac arrest with subsequent successful resuscitation. Retrospective studies, often based on media searches, remain the most common form. The cause of death is not invariably determined by an autopsy. Recommendations in favour of screening are based on studies of limited quality and on the personal, often regional, experiences of experts. The differences in study methods result in uncertain incidence figures. The estimates of cost efficiency are therefore questionable. To improve the quality of knowledge, standardised methods need to be devised, ideally also including a register of cardiac arrest in children and young people. To date, we have insufficient knowledge to recommend mandatory cardiac screening with ECG in Norway. Should this be introduced, it should be differentiated according to gender, type of sport and competition level. Cost efficiency could probably be improved with the aid of standardised questionnaires and a standardised interpretation of ECG among athletes.

  16. The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Workflow (United States)

    Bolster, Nigel M.; Giardini, Mario E.; Bastawrous, Andrew


    Complications of diabetes mellitus, namely diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, are the leading cause of blindness in working aged people. Sufferers can avoid blindness if identified early via retinal imaging. Systematic screening of the diabetic population has been shown to greatly reduce the prevalence and incidence of blindness within the population. Many national screening programs have digital fundus photography as their basis. In the past 5 years several techniques and adapters have been developed that allow digital fundus photography to be performed using smartphones. We review recent progress in smartphone-based fundus imaging and discuss its potential for integration into national systematic diabetic retinopathy screening programs. Some systems have produced promising initial results with respect to their agreement with reference standards. However further multisite trialling of such systems’ use within implementable screening workflows is required if an evidence base strong enough to affect policy change is to be established. If this were to occur national diabetic retinopathy screening would, for the first time, become possible in low- and middle-income settings where cost and availability of trained eye care personnel are currently key barriers to implementation. As diabetes prevalence and incidence is increasing sharply in these settings, the impact on global blindness could be profound. PMID:26596630

  17. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.


    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662

  18. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates. (United States)

    Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto


    The enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding affinity of drug candidates have been acknowledged to be important determinants of the quality of a drug molecule. These quantities, usually summarized in the thermodynamic signature, provide a rapid assessment of the forces that drive the binding of a ligand. Having access to the thermodynamic signature in the early stages of the drug discovery process will provide critical information towards the selection of the best drug candidates for development. In this paper, the Enthalpy Screen technique is presented. The enthalpy screen allows fast and accurate determination of the binding enthalpy for hundreds of ligands. As such, it appears to be ideally suited to aid in the ranking of the hundreds of hits that are usually identified after standard high throughput screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microelectroporation device for genomic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Negrete, Oscar; Claudnic, Mark R.


    We have developed an microelectroporation device that combines microarrays of oligonucleotides, microfluidic channels, and electroporation for cell transfection and high-throughput screening applications (e.g. RNA interference screens). Microarrays allow the deposition of thousands of different oligonucleotides in microscopic spots. Microfluidic channels and microwells enable efficient loading of cells into the device and prevent cross-contamination between different oligonucleotides spots. Electroporation allows optimal transfection of nucleic acids into cells (especially hard-to-transfect cells such as primary cells) by minimizing cell death while maximizing transfection efficiency. This invention has the advantage of a higher throughput and lower cost, while preventing cross-contamination compared to conventional screening technologies. Moreover, this device does not require bulky robotic liquid handling equipment and is inherently safer given that it is a closed system.

  20. Screening and prevention of stillbirth. (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S


    Stillbirth is delivery of a baby at or after 24 weeks of gestational age (UK definition) not showing any signs of life. It affects almost one in 200 pregnancies and is the single major cause of perinatal death. Stillbirth is associated with a wide range of maternal demographic characteristics, but most of the variations in stillbirth risk are independent of these characteristics. Stillbirth is the end point of multiple processes, but the single most common cause is probably placental dysfunction. Stillbirth is associated with a wide range of biochemical and ultrasonic predictors, but there is limited evidence to support population-based screening. However, the evidence based is weak due to the use of poorly characterised screening tests, the failure to couple risk assessment with a clearly effective intervention for those who screen positive and inadequate study sample sizes. Basic research needs to identify better predictors, and clinical trials need to adopt more rigorous methodologies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening. (United States)

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris


    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg


    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  3. Nutritional Screening of Children: A Manual for Screening & Followup. (United States)

    Bureau of Community Health Services (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This manual shows health providers how to perform precisely and expertly each step of several procedures used in screening children for nutritional problems. It is intended for all health providers who are involved in weighing and measuring children, recording and plotting measurements on growth charts, taking blood samples to test for iron…

  4. Gestational Diabetes Screening During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin


    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy in patients who do not have pregestational diabetes. Unless diagnosed and treated on time, it may cause various maternal, fetal and neonatal complications like macrosomia, polyhydramniosis, preterm labor, in utero ex fetus, infections, neonatal metabolic complications. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes stands on single-step or two-step screening/diagnosis strategies. These screening and diagnosis tests should be well known by physicians who are taking care of pregnants. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 348-354

  5. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders. (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J


    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Ernst Th.; Horeweg, Nanda; de Koning, Harry J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; de Jong, Pim A.

    Objectives To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Methods Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were

  7. Screening for pre-eclampsia--lessons from aneuploidy screening. (United States)

    Cuckle, H S


    Antenatal screening for aneuploidy is an established routine clinical practice worldwide. The same statistical methodology, developed and refined over three decades, might be adapted to screening for pre-eclampsia. The published literature is reviewed for evidence that the methodology is valid for pre-eclampsia using first trimester maternal serum PP13, PAPP-A, PlGF, ADAM12 and inhibin A, together with MAP and uterine artery Doppler PI. Risk is estimated for both early onset pre-eclampsia, requiring delivery before 34 weeks, or late onset disease. Prior risk from the background prevalence multiplied by likelihood ratios (LRs) for ethnicity, parity, adiposity and family history is multiplied by an LR from the screening marker profile. Markers are expressed in multiples of the gestation-specific median and adjusted for body mass, ethnicity and smoking status as appropriate. A standardized population with a fixed distribution of risk factors and a multi-variate Gaussian model of marker profiles is used to predict performance. There is sufficient published data to estimate individual risks reasonably well. Modeling predicts that using PAPP-A and one other serum marker, together with the physical markers more than two-thirds of early and one-third of late onset cases can be detected by classifying less than 2% of pregnancies as high risk; three-quarters of early case could be detected with a 5% high risk rate. Whilst more data on some markers is still required modeling so far suggests that extending first trimester aneuploidy screening programs to include pre-eclampsia screening would yield a high detection. However, prospective studies are needed to verify the model predictions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Screening Research Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... ovarian cancer. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  9. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Screening Research Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... ovarian cancer. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  10. Standardized Approach to Lymphedema Screening


    Dylke, Elizabeth S.; Leigh C. Ward; Kilbreath, Sharon L.


    This letter concerns the recent article by O'Toole et al. on the need to standardize the screening and diagnosis of lymphedema. Perometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy, the potential of combining new technologies and available clinical tools, and the need for evidence are discussed.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  12. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (United States)

    ... this procedure, the doctor does not remove the aneurysm but inserts a metal tube into that portion of the aorta to strengthen it. The tube, which is called a stent graft, is attached to the aorta and forms a stable channel for blood flow. Potential Benefits of AAA Screening and Treatment The ...

  13. Molecular screening of oral precancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.P.; Bremmer, J.F.; de Maaker, M.; Brink, A.; Cobussen, P.; Zwart, M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Bloemena, E.; van der Waal, I.; Leemans, C.R.; Brakenhoff, R.H.


    Objectives Early detection and treatment of high risk premalignant mucosal changes of the oral cavity, will expectedly improve survival and reduce treatment-related morbidity. Aims of this study were to evaluate a non-invasive screening approach and to assess the value of molecular markers to

  14. Health screening in police custody. (United States)

    McKinnon, Iain; Grubin, Don


    There have been few previous studies on the health needs of police detainees. London's Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) uses health screening procedures which have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of health problems and 'mental vulnerability' in detainees in police custody, and the efficacy of current health screening procedures. Custody records from five London Boroughs were reviewed. Prevalence data for health problems and mental vulnerability was obtained from the anonymised records of 307 detainees who were referred to the Forensic Medical Examiner (FME). Data were analysed for the identification of physical and psychiatric morbidity. Injuries, epilepsy and asthma were the most common physical health problems noted. Drug and alcohol issues were also frequently encountered along with depression and self-harming behaviour and suicidal ideation. Morbidity was lower than that reported in other, interview based studies. Less than 2% of detainees were thought to require an Appropriate Adult to be present during police interview. A significant amount of health morbidity is present among detainees in police custody. Our findings suggest that current police screening procedures detect only a proportion of this. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of health screening in police custody. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervical cancer screening in France. (United States)

    Schaffer, P; Sancho-Garnier, H; Fender, M; Dellenbach, P; Carbillet, J P; Monnet, E; Gauthier, G P; Garnier, A


    In France, as in other European countries the incidence and mortality rates of carcinoma of the cervix uteri indicate a clear decrease in invasive cancers. Opportunistic screening has spread and, presently, approximately 60% of the female population undergo a regular cytological test. This rate increases up to 80% in the younger age groups and decreases to 20% after the age of 60 years. In 1990, intervention procedures were defined at a consensus conference; the major recommendations were to screen all women exclusively by cervical smears, for ages 25-65 years over a 3-year period. Guidelines on the quality control of cervical smear taking and reading were published by the national agency of evaluation of health intervention (ANAES). Since 1990, four population-based, organised pilot programmes, have been implemented in Isère. Doubs, Bas-Rhin and Martinique. These programmes evaluate the participation rate (from approximately 20-80% depending upon the age and the geographical area), the rate of abnormal tests (0.2-3%), according to the laboratories, the cancer detection rate (0.04%-0.15%) and some other quality indicators. Recently (November 1998) a law was passed stipulating that the screening test will be free of charge when performed in agreement with the national recommendations. A specific organisation for cytological quality control will be implemented. An effort to better identify and to include the screening process the women in the population who are not yet participating has to be made.

  16. Review of Autism Screening Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani


    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that onset in the first 3 years of life and led to lifelong disability.Despite the early onset of symptoms, diagnosis of thissyndromedoes not happenuntil severalyears later, somany childrenlosethe opportunityfor earlyintervention.There arevarious toolsforscreening anddiagnosis, buttheirdesign, strengths and weaknesses aredifferent. The aim of this study was assess these tools from various aspects to provide a comprehensive view. Materials and methods: This study is a narrative literature review on screeningtoolsof autism. Comprehensive searches of the scientific literature were conducted in textbooks and 8 electronic databases(proquest,wiley,google scholar,SID,Scopus, Web of Science ،Science Direct ، and Medline and Pediatric book. language restriction (Persian and English was applied. The search strategy consisted of keywords and medical subject headings for autism and various screening tests. Result: In this study, 28 screening tests were identified from 1992 to 2014. CHAT is oldest test and the most recent test is CAST The minimum age that can perform the screening is six months that related to ITC. Minimum time of testing was 5 minutes  for CHAT and the maximum time was 90-120 minutes for ASIEP-3.RAADS-R test was the highest specificity and specificity (100% and the lowest specificity was 14% in ESAT test Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that any of the autism screening tools consider specific skill and various aspects of the disease, careful evaluation is need to choose proper test.

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Urdu (اردو) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open ... Cancer Screening - español (Spanish) PDF American Cancer Society Urdu (اردو) Expand Section It's No Big Deal - Prostate ...

  18. Screening designs for drug development. (United States)

    Rossell, David; Müller, Peter; Rosner, Gary L


    We propose drug screening designs based on a Bayesian decision-theoretic approach. The discussion is motivated by screening designs for phase II studies. The proposed screening designs allow consideration of multiple treatments simultaneously. In each period, new treatments can arise and currently considered treatments can be dropped. Once a treatment is removed from the phase II screening trial, a terminal decision is made about abandoning the treatment or recommending it for a future confirmatory phase III study. The decision about dropping treatments from the active set is a sequential stopping decision. We propose a solution based on decision boundaries in the space of marginal posterior moments for the unknown parameter of interest that relates to each treatment. We present a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm to implement the proposed approach. We provide an implementation of the proposed method as an easy to use R library available for public domain download ( or

  19. Designing screened enclosures: Part II. (United States)

    Bearpark, J


    Techniques to achieve cost-effective emissions and immunity screening solutions that meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements were provided in Part I of this article, which covered design options for seams and gaskets. Part II continues with a discussion of materials compatibility, corrosion and apertures.

  20. Evidence on Screening: A Comment. (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Hessel


    Critiques two 1992 "Economics of Education" articles using the "P" test to probe the screening hypothesis by comparing educational rates of return in private and public sectors. This method ignores two important phenomena--ability bias and selectivity bias. The outcome of the "P" test might change if a richer data set…

  1. Comparative Phytochemical screening and Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characterization was carried out to determine the saponification value, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide value and acid value of the oil. The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloid, carbohydrate, saponins, glycosides were present in the sample obtained from Romi New ...

  2. Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease. (United States)

    Bodamer, Olaf A; Scott, C Ronald; Giugliani, Roberto


    Started in 1963 by Robert Guthrie, newborn screening (NBS) is considered to be one of the great public health achievements. Its original goal was to screen newborns for conditions that could benefit from presymptomatic treatment, thereby reducing associated morbidity and mortality. With advances in technology, the number of disorders included in NBS programs increased. Pompe disease is a good candidate for NBS. Because decisions regarding which diseases should be included in NBS panels are made regionally and locally, programs and efforts for NBS for Pompe disease have been inconsistent both in the United States and globally. In this article, published in the "Newborn Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Pompe Disease" guidance supplement, the Pompe Disease Newborn Screening Working Group, an international group of experts in both NBS and Pompe disease, review the methods used for NBS for Pompe disease and summarize results of current and ongoing NBS programs in the United States and other countries. Challenges and potential drawbacks associated with NBS also are discussed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Contamination during 4 years of annual CT screening in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghir, Zaigham; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger


    Contamination, defined as screening in the control arm, may dilute the statistical power of randomised screening trials. We investigated the rate of contamination in DLCST during 4 years of annual CT screening....

  4. MTiOpenScreen: a web server for structure-based virtual screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labbé, Céline M; Rey, Julien; Lagorce, David; Vavruša, Marek; Becot, Jérome; Sperandio, Olivier; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Tufféry, Pierre; Miteva, Maria A


    ... 4.2 and automated virtual screening with AutoDock Vina. MTiOpenScreen provides valuable starting collections for screening, two in-house prepared drug-like chemical libraries containing 150 000 PubChem compounds...

  5. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.


    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  6. Lung cancer screening: past, present and future. (United States)

    Finigan, James H; Kern, Jeffrey A


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for men and women. Most lung cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, when cure is no longer an option; this heavily influences mortality. Historically, attempts at lung cancer screening using chest x-rays and sputum cytology have failed to influence lung cancer mortality. However, the recent National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated that low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer decreases mortality. This article outlines the history of lung cancer screening, the current state of screening and possible future adjuncts to screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem


    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  8. Women's perceptions of breast cancer screening. Spanish screening programme survey. (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Expósito-Álvarez, Inmaculada; González-Guerrero, Macarena; Nieto-Vera, Juan; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación


    Participants in breast cancer screening programmes may benefit from early detection but may also be exposed to the risks of overdiagnosis and false positives. We surveyed a sample of Spanish women to assess knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. A total of 434 breast cancer screening programme participants aged 45-69 years were administered questionnaires regarding knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. Scores of 5 or more (out of 10) and 12 or less (out of 24) were established as indicating adequate knowledge and a positive attitude, respectively. Psychosocial impact was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Cancer Worry Scale. Only 42 women (9.7%) had adequate knowledge. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 2.97 (1.16). Better educated women and women without previous false positives had higher scores. The main sources of information were television, press, Andalusian Health Service documentation and family and friends. Most participants (99.1%) had a positive attitude, with a mean (SD) score of 3.21 (2.66). Mean (SD) scores for anxiety, depression and cancer worry were 1.86 (3.26), 0.72 (1.99) and 9.4 (3.04), respectively. Women have a very positive attitude to breast cancer screening, but are poorly informed and use television as their main information source. They experience no negative psychosocial impact from participation in such programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening Sex: revelando e dissimulando o sexo Screening Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Williams


    Full Text Available Neste texto, procura-se contar a história da exibição do sexo em filmes majoritariamente produzidos nos Estados Unidos no período de quase um século. Ao se perguntar quando, porque e como os Estados Unidos se transformaram de uma cultura que não exibia o sexo em uma que o exibe, a autora insiste no duplo significado do verbo screen (tanto como uma revelação quanto uma dissimulação. Exibir é revelar em uma tela. Mas um segundo e igualmente importante significado, como diz o dicionário é "proteger ou esconder atrás de uma tela". Os filmes tanto revelam como escondem. O artigo analisa a forma como mudanças sociais ocorridas nos Estados Unidos, como, por exemplo, a Revolução sexual dos anos 60 e novas visões a respeito da sexualidade, possibilitaram novas maneiras de representação do sexo no cinema, reorganizando a relação entre o público e o privado. O artigo se pergunta também sobre como nossos corpos e sentidos reagem ao encontro com o sexo na tela, introduzindo a ideia de "saber carnal" (carnal knowledge.In this paper, we try to tell the history of the exhibition of sex in movies mainly produced in the United States in almost a century. Asking when, why and how the United States became - from a culture that did not exhibit sex - into a culture that exhibits it, the author insists in the double sense of the verb to screen (as both a revelation and a dissimulation. To exhibit is to reveal in a screen. But another, and important, sense, as says the dictionary, is "to protect or hide behind a screen". Movies show as well as they reveal. The paper analyzes the way social change in the United States, for example the sexual revolution of the sixties and new views on sexuality allowed new ways of representing sex in the movies, creating a new relation between public and private. The paper also asks how our bodies and senses react to sex in the screen, introducing the idea of "carnal knowledge".

  10. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Promotion of early pediatric hearing detection through patient navigation: ... screening tests (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Newborn Screening updates by ...

  11. Screening for Open Neural Tube Defects. (United States)

    Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence W; Carmichael, Jonathan B


    Biochemical prenatal screening was initiated with the use of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein to screen for open neural tube defects. Screening now includes multiple marker and sequential screening protocols involving serum and ultrasound markers to screen for aneuploidy. Recently cell-free DNA screening for aneuploidy has been initiated, but does not screen for neural tube defects. Although ultrasound is highly effective in identifying neural tube defects in high-risk populations, in decentralized health systems maternal serum screening still plays a significant role. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein alone or in combination with other markers may indicate adverse pregnancy outcome in the absence of open neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . This ...

  13. Phytochemical screening and antiproliferative effects of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Phytochemical screening. Thin layer chromatographic profile (TLC) of methanol crude extract and antiproliferative studies were carried out in this research. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, anthraquinone, steroid, triterpenes, saponin, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloid.

  14. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette


    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  15. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you are between the ages ...

  16. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Print A A A ...

  17. Alcohol screening in North Denmark Region hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjaer, Mette; Søndergaard, Lise Nørregaard; Klit, Mona Østergaard


    Background: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for disease, disability and death. Approximately 20% of all hospital admissions are alcohol related. In Denmark, hospitalised patients undergo systematic health risk screenings to establish preventive initiatives if the screening detects a risk....... The frequency and usability of alcohol screening and health professionals' experiences of the screening is unknown. Aim: To examine the frequency and usability of alcohol screening at North Denmark Region hospitals, as well as health professionals' experiences of screening for alcohol. Methods: This study...... consisted of an initial audit of 120 patient records from medical and surgical units at four hospitals assessing information on alcohol screening. This was followed by six focus-group interviews with health professionals (n = 20) regarding their experiences of conducting alcohol screening. Results: Among...

  18. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John


    with the previous survey. CONCLUSION: An implementation of a screening mammography programme provides reassurance for those women invited to the screening. This reassurance is in contrast to the unbalanced proportion between the intended benefits and the unintended harms of the screening programme.......BACKGROUND: Women not offered screening mammography reported higher levels of negative psychosocial aspects than women offered screening. This was demonstrated in a questionnaire survey where 1000 women were included: 500 women living in areas where the public authorities had never offered...... screening mammography and 500 women living in areas where women had been invited to screening mammography for >10 years. After this baseline survey, nationwide screening mammography was implemented. The aim of this follow-up study was to resurvey the 1000 women and to investigate if the identified...

  19. Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... recommendations on Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography . These recommendations are for adult men and women ...

  20. Screening for Hepatitis C Infections in Adults (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for ...

  1. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  2. Sites Pre-Screened for Wind Energy (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  3. Disclosure during prenatal mental health screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kingston, Dawn E; Biringer, Anne; Toosi, Amy; Heaman, Maureen I; Lasiuk, Gerri C; McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Joshua; Sword, Wendy; Jarema, Karly; Austin, Marie-Paule


    While women and healthcare providers have generally viewed perinatal mental health screening favorably, some qualitative studies suggest that some women intentionally decide not to reveal their symptoms during screening...

  4. Sites Pre-Screened for Solar Energy (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RE-Powering Screening Dataset spreadsheet contains detailed site information on over 80,000 contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites with screening results...

  5. Screening for fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Murray, J; Cuckle, H; Taylor, G; Hewison, J


    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF REVIEW. In 1991, the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, a common cause of learning disability, was discovered. As a result, diagnosis of the disorder has improved and its molecular genetics are now understood. This report seems to provide the information needed to decide whether to use DNA testing to screen for the disorder. HOW THE RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED. A literature search of electronic reference databases of published and 'grey' literature was undertaken together with hand searching of the most recent publications. RESEARCH FINDINGS. NATURAL HISTORY. Physical characteristics of fragile X syndrome include facial atypia, joint laxity and, in boys, macro-orchidism. Most affected males have moderate-to-severe learning disabilities with IQs under 50 whereas most females have borderline IQs of 70-85. Behavioural problems are similar to those seen with autism and attention-deficit disorders. Although fragile X syndrome is not curable there are a number of medical, educational, psychological and social interventions that can improve the symptoms. About 6% of those with learning disabilities tested in institutions have fragile X syndrome. Population prevalence figures are 1 in 4000 in males and 1 in 8000 in females. GENETICS. The disorder is caused by a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome which includes a trinucleotide repeat sequence. The mutation is characterized by hyper-expansion of the repeat sequence leading to down-regulation of the gene. In males an allele with repeat size in excess of 200, termed a full mutation (FM), is always associated with the affected phenotype, whereas in females only half are affected. Individuals with alleles having repeat size in the range 55-199 are unaffected but in females the sequence is heritably unstable so that it is at high risk of expansion to an FM in her offspring. This allele is known as a pre-mutation (PM) to contrast it with the FM found in the affected individual. No spontaneous expansions

  6. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Davies, M. J.; Farooqi, A. M.


    Aims: This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high...... risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big...... amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; SD = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64...

  7. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    secondaires dans les extraits d'Asteriscus graveolens subsp. odorus, nous avons effectué un screening phytochimique par la mise en place d'un ensemble de réactions de caractérisation de différents composés chimiques à savoir : les flavonoïdes, les saponines, les tanins, les alcaloïdes, les anthocyanes, les terpènes et.

  8. Shadows Cast on the Screen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    , human-computer interaction, and philosophy. However, a common thread of many studies appears to be the understanding that the relations of a person with his or her avatar(s) are representational: The avatar is seen as the virtual representation of the real in-front-of-the-screen person, like a shadow......, DC Aspen. Finally, with reference to the semiotic understanding it is suggested that we see avatars as transformative mediators of communication...

  9. Developmental screening in family practice


    Portelli, Sarah


    Paediatric screening is an important area of medical practice because, in the words of Dr Mary Sheridan, ''There is general agreement that the younger the age at which children with physical, mental, emotional or social disabilities are discovered and fully assessed, the more hopeful is the prognosis for amelioration or complete rehabilitation. " Family Doctors have many paediatric consultations, and they know the parents and therefore the family and social background, so they are in a good p...

  10. Keuringspanele ("Screening Panels") as Gepaste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several objections have been raised by critics in this regard, for instance, a screening panel infringes on: the right of equal protection/the right of access to the courts/the right to a jury trial/the right to a due process as well as on the trias politica doctrine. These so-called infringements are attended to and eventually a positive ...

  11. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla


    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  12. Labour market screening with intermediaries


    Schweinzer, Paul


    We consider a Rothschild-Stiglitz-Spence labour market screening model and employ a centralised mechanism to coordinate the efficient matching of workers to firms. This mechanism can be thought of as operated by a recruitment agency, an employment office or head hunter. In a centralised descending-bid, multi-item procurement auction, workers submitwage-bids for each job and are assigned stable jobs as equilibrium outcome. We compare this outcome to independent, sequential hiring by firms and ...

  13. 3D mosquito screens to create window double screen traps for mosquito control. (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Jylhä, Kaisa; Hakala, Tomi; Aalto, Mikko; Malima, Robert; Kisinza, William; Honkala, Markku; Nousiainen, Pertti; Meri, Seppo


    Mosquitoes are vectors for many diseases such as malaria. Insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are the principal malaria vector control tools used to prevent malaria in the tropics. Other interventions aim at reducing man-vector contact. For example, house screening provides additive or synergistic effects to other implemented measures. We used commercial screen materials made of polyester, polyethylene or polypropylene to design novel mosquito screens that provide remarkable additional benefits to those commonly used in house screening. The novel design is based on a double screen setup made of a screen with 3D geometric structures parallel to a commercial mosquito screen creating a trap between the two screens. Owing to the design of the 3D screen, mosquitoes can penetrate the 3D screen from one side but cannot return through the other side, making it a unidirectional mosquito screen. Therefore, the mosquitoes are trapped inside the double screen system. The permissiveness of both sides of the 3D screens for mosquitoes to pass through was tested in a wind tunnel using the insectary strain of Anopheles stephensi. Among twenty-five tested 3D screen designs, three designs from the cone, prism, or cylinder design groups were the most efficient in acting as unidirectional mosquito screens. The three cone-, prism-, and cylinder-based screens allowed, on average, 92, 75 and 64% of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes released into the wind tunnel to penetrate the permissive side and 0, 0 and 6% of mosquitoes to escape through the non-permissive side, respectively. A cone-based 3D screen fulfilled the study objective. It allowed capturing 92% of mosquitoes within the double screen setup inside the wind tunnel and blocked 100% from escaping. Thus, the cone-based screen effectively acted as a unidirectional mosquito screen. This 3D screen-based trap design could therefore be used in house screening as a means of avoiding infective bites and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova


    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  15. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie Mia Katrine; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey


    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  16. Towards effective solid form screening. (United States)

    Allesø, Morten; Tian, Fang; Cornett, Claus; Rantanen, Jukka


    Solid form screening is commonly performed using solvent-based crystallizations. However, less attention is paid to the role of secondary manufacturing, during which process-induced transformations of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) may occur, and potentially a new solid form may be discovered. In this study a new approach for effective solid form screening is presented. The technology combines well-plate-based crystallizations with miniaturized processing equipment, mimicking essential unit operations. Process-induced stresses (heat, solvent, shear, pressure) can be introduced directly to the well-plate unit. Theophylline and nifedipine were used as model compounds. Small-scale wet massing of theophylline resulted in an anhydrate-to-monohydrate transformation, followed by dehydration upon drying at 60 degrees C. Amorphous nifedipine was subjected to small-scale milling and compaction. Kinetic profiling of the milling operation enabled the detection of an intermediate, metastable polymorph (beta form), while the stable polymorph (alpha form) was the predominant form after 20 min of milling. Compaction of amorphous nifedipine at 100 MPa resulted in a complete conversion into the stable polymorph. The reported expanded approach is expected to maximize the outcome of solid form screening with minimal consumption of the compound of interest.

  17. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation is...

  18. Effectiveness and costeffectiveness of screening immigrants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veloped countries include; 1) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as “Port of Arrival Screening” (PoA) and. 2) Passive ... Objective: Evaluate efficiency of active PoA TB screening for immigrants from TB endemic-regions compared with Passive Screening ..... Tuberculosis crosses borders. In- ternational journal ...

  19. Design of low cost glaucoma screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A. G.; Langerhorst, C. T.; Geijssen, H. C.; Greve, E. L.


    In 1991 the Netherlands Glaucoma Patient Association organized a glaucoma screening survey. This survey was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low cost screening setting. During a screening period of 8 days, 1259 subjects over the age of 49 years were examined by a team of

  20. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening. (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T


    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Performance data of screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    establishing the benefits of mammographic screening in defined populations.1 As a result, performance benchmarks have been established; any screening should adhere to these to minimise the harm resulting from increased anxiety, false- positive results and increased cost.5,6 If benchmarking for screening is undertaken ...

  2. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening (United States)


    ... due to changes that had to be made to the Final Rule. Data from industry indicates that industry met... that TSA, not private industry through the CCSP, should conduct screening of cargo to be transported on... either federalization or airline- only screening would unduly crowd screening onto airport grounds...

  3. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  4. Implementation of Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasonography. (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A; Hooley, Regina J


    Whole-breast screening ultrasonography is being increasingly implemented in breast imaging centers because numerous studies have shown the benefit of supplemental screening for women with dense breasts and breast density notification laws are becoming more widespread. This article reviews the numerous considerations involved in integrating a screening ultrasonography program into a busy practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is the tide turning against breast screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl


    ABSTRACT: Herein I argue that mammographic screening has not delivered on its fundamental premise: to reduce the incidence of advanced breast cancer. Indeed, achieving this goal is required if screening is to reduce breast cancer mortality or mastectomy use. Rather, screening has caused substanti...

  6. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)


    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  7. Integrated Cancer Screening Performance Indicators: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mema, Silvina C; Yang, Huiming; Vaska, Marcus; Elnitsky, Sherry; Jiang, Zhichang


    .... Population-based screening programs use performance indicators to monitor uptake for each type of cancer screening, but integrated measures of adherence across multiple screenings are rarely reported...

  8. Cholinergic synaptic signaling mechanisms underlying behavioral teratogenicity: effects of nicotine, chlorpyrifos, and heroin converge on protein kinase C translocation in the intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale and on imprinting behavior in an avian model. (United States)

    Izrael, Michal; Van der Zee, Eddy A; Slotkin, Theodore A; Yanai, Joseph


    A wide variety of otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens elicit a common set of behavioral defects centering around cholinergic contributions to cognitive function. We utilized the developing chick to overcome confounds related to maternal effects and compared the actions of nicotine, chlorpyrifos, and heroin on cholinergic signaling in the intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV), which controls imprinting behavior. Chicken eggs were injected with nicotine (10 mg/kg of egg), chlorpyrifos (10 mg/kg of egg), or heroin (20 mg/kg of egg; all doses below the threshold for dysmorphology) on incubation days (ID) 0 and 5, and then tests were conducted posthatching. All three compounds elicited significant deficits in imprinting behavior. We also found defects in cholinergic synaptic signaling specifically involving the muscarinic receptor-mediated membrane translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)-gamma and in the basal levels of both PKCgamma and PKCbetaII, the two isoforms known to be relevant to behavioral performance. In contrast, there were no alterations in the response of PKCalpha, an isoform that does not contribute to the behavior, nor were cytosolic levels of any of the isoforms affected. Taken together with similar results obtained in rodents, our findings suggest that disparate neuroteratogens all involve signaling defects centering on the ability of cholinergic receptors to elicit PKCgamma translocation/activation and that this effect is direct, i.e., not mediated by maternal confounds. The chick thus provides a suitable model for the rapid screening of neuroteratogens and elucidation of the mechanisms underlying behavioral anomalies.

  9. Underuse of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Men Screened for Prostate Cancer (United States)

    Red, Sara N.; Kassan, Elisabeth C.; Williams, Randi M.; Penek, Sofiya; Lynch, John; Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Taylor, Kathryn L.


    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces disease-specific mortality, whereas the utility of prostate cancer screening remains uncertain. However, adherence rates for prostate cancer screening and CRC screening are very similar, with population-based studies showing that approximately 50% of eligible US men are adherent to both tests. Among men scheduled to participate in a free prostate cancer screening program, the authors assessed the rates and correlates of CRC screening to determine the utility of this setting for addressing CRC screening nonadherence. METHODS Participants (N = 331) were 50 to 70 years old with no history of prostate cancer or CRC. Men registered for free prostate cancer screening and completed a telephone interview 1 to 2 weeks before undergoing prostate cancer screening. RESULTS One half of the participants who underwent free prostate cancer screening were eligible for but nonadherent to CRC screening. Importantly, 76% of the men who were nonadherent to CRC screening had a regular physician and/or health insurance, suggesting that CRC screening adherence was feasible in this group. Furthermore, multivariate analyses indicated that the only significant correlates of CRC screening adherence were having a regular physician, health insurance, and a history of prostate cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS Free prostate cancer screening programs may provide a teachable moment to increase CRC screening among men who may not have the usual systemic barriers to CRC screening, at a time when they may be very receptive to cancer screening messages. In the United States, a large number of men participate in annual free prostate cancer screening programs and represent an easily accessible and untapped group that can benefit from interventions to increase CRC screening rates. PMID:20578178

  10. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten


    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  11. Extrapolation of pre-screening trends: Impact of assumptions on overdiagnosis estimates by mammographic screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripping, T.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Haaf, K. Ten; Ravesteyn, N.T. van; Broeders, M.J.M.


    BACKGROUND: Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening is defined as the excess in breast cancer incidence in the presence of screening compared to the incidence in the absence of screening. The latter is often estimated by extrapolating the pre-screening incidence trend. The aim of this theoretical

  12. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique


    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Drug screening using model systems: some basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cagan


    Full Text Available An increasing number of laboratories that focus on model systems are considering drug screening. Executing a drug screen is complicated enough. But the path for moving initial hits towards the clinic requires a different knowledge base and even a different mindset. In this Editorial I discuss the importance of doing some homework before you start screening. 'Lead hits', 'patentable chemical space' and 'druggability' are all concepts worth exploring when deciding which screening path to take. I discuss some of the lessons I learned that may be useful as you navigate the screening matrix.

  14. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn


    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  15. Newborn Screening for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Moser


    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of males with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is essential for preventing loss of life due to adrenal insufficiency and for timely therapy of the childhood cerebral form of X-ALD with hematopoietic cell transplantation. This article describes X-ALD, the current therapies, the history of the development of the newborn screening test, the approval by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the addition of X-ALD newborn screening to the recommended uniform panel of disorders screened as newborns (RUSP and the successful implementation of X-ALD newborn screening in the state of New York beginning on 30 December 2013. Follow-up guidelines that have been established in New York are outlined. Based on the success of newborn screening in New York, and early results in Connecticut, where X-ALD newborn screening started in December 2015, and in California, where X-ALD newborn screening began in September 2016, we are confident and hopeful that X-ALD newborn screening will expand to include all US states and to countries that have established neonatal screening programs. The Minster of Health in the Netherlands has approved the addition of X-ALD to the newborn screening program with a start date expected in 2017. The states, such as Massachusetts, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, Florida and Washington, that have legislative approval will commence screening as soon as budgetary resources, testing and follow-up procedures are in place.

  16. Valuing Equal Protection in Aviation Security Screening. (United States)

    Nguyen, Kenneth D; Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S


    The growing number of anti-terrorism policies has elevated public concerns about discrimination. Within the context of airport security screening, the current study examines how American travelers value the principle of equal protection by quantifying the "equity premium" that they are willing to sacrifice to avoid screening procedures that result in differential treatments. In addition, we applied the notion of procedural justice to explore the effect of alternative selective screening procedures on the value of equal protection. Two-hundred and twenty-two respondents were randomly assigned to one of three selective screening procedures: (1) randomly, (2) using behavioral indicators, or (3) based on demographic characteristics. They were asked to choose between airlines using either an equal or a discriminatory screening procedure. While the former requires all passengers to be screened in the same manner, the latter mandates all passengers undergo a quick primary screening and, in addition, some passengers are selected for a secondary screening based on a predetermined selection criterion. Equity premiums were quantified in terms of monetary cost, wait time, convenience, and safety compromise. Results show that equity premiums varied greatly across respondents, with many indicating little willingness to sacrifice to avoid inequitable screening, and a smaller minority willing to sacrifice anything to avoid the discriminatory screening. The selective screening manipulation was effective in that equity premiums were greater under selection by demographic characteristics compared to the other two procedures. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.


    Mahon, Eugene J


    In 1899, Freud introduced the concept of screen memories. His insights were revolutionary: screen memories do not emerge into consciousness at the time of recall, he argued; they are formed at that time and, moreover, historical accuracy is not their prime concern. In this article, the author reviews two of Freud's screen memories, as well as two screen memories from a completed analysis of one of his own patients. He argues that, if screen memories are formed, a concept such as screen work must be invoked as the agent of their formation. While screen memories may theoretically be formed at any stage of life, adolescence may be a prime time for their formation. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  19. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My


    Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...... were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...

  20. Empirical study of supervised gene screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shuangge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.

  1. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment. (United States)

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby


    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening three-form fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barreiro


    Full Text Available Screening mechanisms for a three-form field around a dense source such as the Sun are investigated. Working with the dual vector, we can obtain a thin-shell where field interactions are short range. The field outside the source adopts the configuration of a dipole which is a manifestly distinct behaviour from the one obtained with a scalar field or even a previously proposed vector field model. We identify the region of parameter space where this model satisfies present solar system tests.

  3. Virtual screening of virtual libraries. (United States)

    Green, Darren V S


    Virtual screening of virtual libraries (VSVL) is a rapidly changing area of research. Great efforts are being made to produce better algorithms, selection methods and infrastructure. Yet, the number of successful examples in the literature is not impressive, although the quality of work certainly is high. Why is this? One reason is that these methods tend to be applied at the lead generation stage and therefore there is a large lead-time before successful examples appear in the literature. However, any computational chemist would confirm that these methods are successful and there exists a glut of start-up companies specialising in virtual screening. Moreover, the scientific community would not be focussing so much attention on this area if it were not yielding results. Even so, the paucity of literature data is certainly a hindrance to the development of better methods. The VSVL process is unique within the discovery process, in that it is the only method that can screen the > 10(30) genuinely novel molecules out there. Already, some VSVL methods are evaluating 10(13) compounds, a capacity that high throughput screening can only dream of. There is a huge potential advantage for the company that develops efficient and effective methods, for lead generation, lead hopping and optimization of both potency and ADME properties. To do this, it requires more than the software, it requires confidence to exploit the methodology, to commit synthesis on the basis of it, and to build this approach into the medicinal chemistry strategy. It is a fact that these tools remain quite daunting for the majority of scientists working at the bench. The routine use of these methods is not simply a matter of education and training. Integration of these methods into accessible and robust end user software, without dilution of the science, must be a priority. We have reached a coincidence, where several technologies have the required level of maturity predictive computational chemistry

  4. Screening for autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M


    The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuable...... parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...... week wash-out period were identified as 'suspicious', and 18.8% (-80 T) and 4.3% (+4 T) as 'positive'. In total, 7 out of 16 (43.8%) subjects had at least one sample exceeding 182.9. Compared to the currently used indirect parameters, the RBCHb:RetHb ratio is the best indicator of autologous blood...

  5. High-throughput crystallization screening. (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei


    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  6. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms (United States)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.


    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  7. Adolescent health screening and counseling. (United States)

    Ham, Peter; Allen, Claudia


    Serious health problems, risky behavior, and poor health habits persist among adolescents despite access to medical care. Most adolescents do not seek advice about preventing leading causes of morbidity and mortality in their age group, and physicians often do not find ways to provide it. Although helping adolescents prevent unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, unintentional injuries, depression, suicide, and other problems is a community-wide effort, primary care physicians are well situated to discuss risks and offer interventions. Evidence supports routinely screening for obesity and depression, offering testing for human immunodeficiency virus infection, and screening for other sexually transmitted infections in some adolescents. Evidence validating the effectiveness of physician counseling about unintended pregnancy, gang violence, and substance abuse is scant. However, physicians should use empathic, personal messages to communicate with adolescents about these issues until studies prove the benefits of more specific methods. Effective communication with adolescents requires seeing the patient alone, tailoring the discussion to the individual patient, and understanding the role of the parents and of confidentiality.

  8. Cardiovascular screening of student athletes. (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Nielsen, N H; Schneider, J F


    Each year, a number of children and adolescents die suddenly from cardiac problems that are associated with a small subgroup of disorders and high-risk behaviors. While sudden cardiac death in any child or adolescent is distressing, it can be particularly devastating when it occurs in a seemingly healthy young athlete. Although uncommon in competitive sports, sudden death is a catastrophe that physicians who care for athletes should attempt to prevent. To prevent the occurrence of sudden death or cardiovascular disease progression in young athletes, the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine have developed or endorsed recommendations for cardiovascular screening of student athletes as part of a comprehensive sports preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE). Knowledge and understanding of these recommendations can help physicians make informed decisions about the eligibility of an athlete to participate in a particular sport and encourage development of a more uniform PPE screening process.

  9. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.


    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  10. Screening and management of gestational diabetes. (United States)

    Benhalima, Katrien; Devlieger, Roland; Van Assche, André


    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a frequent medical condition during pregnancy. It is associated with an increased risk of complications for both the mother and the baby during pregnancy and post partum. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has proposed a new screening strategy for overt diabetes in pregnancy and screening for GDM. However, there is still a lack of international uniformity in the approach to the screening and diagnosis of GDM. Controversies include universal versus selective screening, the optimal time for screening, appropriate tests and cutoff values, and whether testing should be conducted in one or two steps. This review gives an update on screening for GDM and overt diabetes during pregnancy. We also give an overview on the medical and obstetrical management of GDM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethical issues in cancer screening and prevention. (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya


    November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.

  12. Newborn genetic screening: blessing or curse? (United States)

    Kenner, C; Amlung, S


    Newly discovered genes and advances in genetic screening programs prompt many questions reflecting the kinds of ethical dilemmas that go hand in hand with life-changing discoveries. Neonatal genetic screening has been a standard of care for some time, but as our knowledge in the field of genetics expands, should we continue with the same approach? What newborn genetic screening tests should be mandatory, and what are the long-range consequences associated with testing? This article reviews genetic modes of inheritance, outlines and explains the most common newborn screening tests, and enumerates the ethical issues associated with these screening procedures. The role of the neonatal nurse in the newborn genetic screening process is discussed.

  13. Effects of Community Screening for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, Maria; Hansen, Jane Møller; Wildner-Christensen, Mette


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication improves the prognosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), dyspepsia, and possibly gastric cancer. Hp screening tests are accurate and eradication therapy is effective. Hp population screening seems attractive. The aim of this study was to evaluate...... the long-term effect of Hp population screening and eradication on dyspepsia prevalence and the incidence of PUD, and as secondary outcomes to assess the effect on health-care consumption and quality of life. METHODS: At baseline in 1998-1999 20,011 individuals aged 40-65 years were randomized to Hp...... screening and eradication or a control group with no screening. Both groups received a questionnaire on dyspepsia and quality of life. Register data were obtained for all randomized individuals. RESULTS: Baseline questionnaire response rate was 63%. Of the 5,749 screened, 1,007 (17.5%) individuals were Hp...

  14. Carers' experience of memory screening tests. (United States)

    Akintomide, Gbolagade S; Fazil, Qulsom


    Current evidence suggests that patients with dementia find memory tests humiliating and embarrassing. However, the knowledge concerning carers' experience of witnessing patients with dementia undergo memory screening has not been fully explored. This study was to explore the experiences of relatives of patients with dementia witnessing memory-screening tests. Eleven relatives of patients with dementia were recruited from three memory clinics using a purposive sampling method. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. The relatives appreciated the memory-screening tests as a diagnostic tool but the majority did not understand the questioning in the tests. Witnessing memory-screening tests generated anxiety in the relatives and they felt that memory screening tests were humiliating for patients. A collaborative approach where the clinician, the patient and the relative(s) participate in the memory-screening tests is advised. Some relatives may benefit from counselling.

  15. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse


    BACKGROUND: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage...... and participation. METHOD: We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database. Data were linked using unique personal...... identification numbers. Coverage by invitation was defined as (number of invited women/number of targeted women), coverage by examination as (number of screened women/number of targeted women), and participation rate as (number of screened women/number of invited women). RESULTS: Coverage by invitation was close...

  16. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A


    BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...... rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  17. Danish Quality Database for Mammography Screening. (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Njor, Sisse H; Vejborg, Ilse


    The Danish Quality Database for Mammography Screening (DKMS) was established in 2007, with the aim to monitor, sustain, and improve the quality of the Danish national breast cancer screening program. All Danish women aged 50-69 years who were invited every 2 years for breast cancer screening in the nationwide program since July 10, 2007. The DKMS consists of data retrieved from the five regional invitation systems, the National Pathology Registry, and the National Registry of Patients. The DKMS covers the entire screening process and includes variables required to determine the following eleven indicators: 1) radiation exposure, 2) participation among invited women and participation within the target population, 3) time between screening and result, 4) screening interval, 5) recall for further diagnostics, 6) interval cancers consisting of women diagnosed with breast cancer between screening rounds, 7) invasive breast tumors, 8) node-negative cancers, 9) invasive tumors ≤10 mm, 10) ratio of surgery for benign vs malignant lesions, and 11) breast-conserving therapy. As of August 10, 2015, the database included data from 888,151 unique women who have been invited to one or more screenings. In the first three screening rounds, 641,835 (round I), 580,452 (round II), and 641,938 (round III) women were invited, and participation increased from 79% to 84%. In the third round, 79% of the screened women received their result within ten working days, 2.7% of the screened women were recalled for further diagnostics, 82% of the women operated for invasive carcinomas were node negative, and 40% of the women had the tumor size of ≤10 mm. The DKMS has successfully evaluated the quality of the nationwide Danish breast cancer screening program against international quality standards. The quality of the Danish program complies well with international standards particularly as regards to the clinical aspects.

  18. Screen Codes: Visual Hyperlinks for Displays


    Collomosse, J.; Kindberg, T.


    We present 'Screen codes' - a space- and time-efficient, aesthetically compelling method for transferring data from a display to a camera-equipped mobile device. Screen codes encode data as a grid of luminosity fluctuations within an arbitrary image, displayed on the video screen and decoded on a mobile device. These 'twinkling' images are a form of 'visual hyperlink', by which users can move dynamically generated content to and from their mobile devices. They help bridge the 'content divide'...

  19. Characteristics of Football Spectators Using Second Screen


    Florian Pfeffel; Christoph A. Kexel; Peter Kexel; Maria Ratz


    The parallel usage of different media channels has increased recently owing to technological advances. Second Screen describes the use of a second device by television viewers to consume further content which is related to the program they are watching. This study analysed the characteristics of football spectators regarding their media consumption in relation to Second Screen usage while watching a football match on TV. The existing literature on Second Screen usage is still very limited, es...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.


    Full Text Available The article explores the specifics psychological features of a viewer's perception of screen image and screen sound. Also it reveals the degree of an artistic convention which is necessary for creating the sound image in films. Using extensive empirical material, the author explores the evolution of sound aesthetics in movies and he analyzes some aspects of the interaction between technological and creative parts of the on-screen sounds.

  1. Optimization in HIV screening problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Abolnikov


    Full Text Available In this article, the authors use both deterministic and stochastic approaches to the analysis of some optimization problems that arise in the group (“pool” HIV screening practice. Two kinds of testing policies are considered. For the first kind, group-individual testing, the optimal size of the group that should be selected for testing is found. For more general group-subgroup testing procedure the authors develop a numerical algorithm for finding the sequence of successively selected subgroups that minimizes the total cost of testing. Assuming that both arriving and testing processes have a random nature, the authors suggest a stochastic model in which the optimal size of the group in the group-individual testing procedure is found by using methods of queueing theory.

  2. The Territory of the Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Gregory


    Full Text Available Taking Owen Sheers’s novel, I Saw a Man and its representation of a drone strike in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas as its point of departure, this essay explores three ways in which the killing of an individual from thousands of miles away depends upon a series of screens through which the United States asserts, enacts, and enforces a claim over bodies-in-spaces. These are all nominally technical practices—kill lists; signals intercepts; visual feeds—whose supposed objectivity works to underwrite targeted killing as a rational and reasonable process. But they can each be read instead as part of a political technology that produces and executes ‘killable bodies’. Seen thus, the ‘territory of the screen’ diminishes and even de-materializes the corporeality of the human targets that eventually appear in its sights.

  3. Vulval cancer: prevention and screening. (United States)

    Maclean, Allan B


    The incidence of vulval cancer is rising, both in older women and those under 50 years of age. Vulval cancer has at least two types, one arising in association with lichen sclerosus (LS) and the other with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Recent pathological and aetiological descriptions are included, along with the latest description of VIN terminology. Prevention of and screening for vulval cancer will require greater understanding of why some women with LS and VIN are at greater risk: recent studies of molecular change might contribute to this. The use of vulval cytology and toluidine blue staining is described. Patient or vulval awareness may help but clinical features are non-specific. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV and campaigns against smoking may contribute in the future.

  4. Screening of Modified RNA duplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Kjems, Jørgen

    Because of sequence specific gene targeting activity siRNAs are regarded as promising active compounds in gene medicine. But one serious problem with delivering siRNAs as treatment is the now well-established non-specific activities of some RNA duplexes. Cellular reactions towards double stranded...... RNAs include the 2´-5´ oligoadenylate synthetase system, the protein kinase R, RIG-I and Toll-like receptor activated pathways all resulting in antiviral defence mechanism. We have previously shown that antiviral innate immune reactions against double stranded RNAs could be detected in vivo as partial...... protection against a fish pathogenic virus. This protection corresponded with an interferon response in the fish. Here we use this fish model to screen siRNAs containing various chemical modifications of the RNA backbone for their antiviral activity, the overall aim being identification of an siRNA form...

  5. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening. (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui


    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P colon cancer screening.

  6. Health Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... for You (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) TB Screening Tests (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Genetics Genetic Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library ...

  7. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne


    Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (

  8. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  9. Nuclear clustering and the electron screening puzzle (United States)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.


    Electron screening changes appreciably the magnitude of astrophysical nuclear reactions within stars. This effect is also observed in laboratory experiments on Earth, where atomic electrons are present in the nuclear targets. Theoretical models were developed over the past 30 years and experimental measurements have been carried out to study electron screening in thermonuclear reactions. None of the theoretical models were able to explain the high values of the experimentally determined screening potentials. We explore the possibility that the "electron screening puzzle" is due to nuclear clusterization and polarization e_ects in the fusion reactions. We will discuss the supporting arguments for this scenario.

  10. Fatalism and cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky. (United States)

    Royse, David; Dignan, Mark


    Fatalism may play a role in Appalachians' views about cancer screening and contribute to high rates of cancer incidence and mortality, but few studies have explored this issue. A probability telephone survey was conducted of 696 adults living in 51 Appalachian Kentucky counties inquiring about intentions to obtain cancer screening. The Life Orientation Test-Revised as a surrogate measure for fatalism and logistic regression was used to predict screening activity. Insurance coverage was the best overall predictor variable. Fatalism was significant in one model possibly reflecting an appreciation of the costs and barriers associated with obtaining screening in rural counties.

  11. Lung Cancer Screening: Why, When, and How? (United States)

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Gottumukkala, Ravi V; McDermott, Shaunagh; Gilman, Matthew D; Lennes, Inga T; Shepard, Jo-Anne O


    This article explains the rationale of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography and provides a practical approach to all relevant aspects of a lung cancer screening program. Imaging protocols, patient eligibility criteria, facility readiness, and reimbursement criteria are addressed step by step. Diagnostic criteria and Lung-RADS (Lung Computed Tomography Screening Reporting and Data System) nodule management pathways are illustrated with examples. Pearls and pitfalls for interpretation of lung cancer screening low-dose chest computed tomography are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcomes of mass screening for gastric carcinoma. (United States)

    Kunisaki, Chikara; Ishino, Junko; Nakajima, Susumu; Motohashi, Hisahiko; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Nomura, Masato; Matsuda, Goro; Otsuka, Yuichi; Ono, Hidetaka Andrew; Shimada, Hiroshi


    Therapeutic results of gastric cancer have been improved by early detection of gastric cancer with the mass screening system in Japan. The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy of mass screening for gastric cancer by using a barium meal. A series of 1050 patients (364 in the screened group and 686 in the nonscreened group) were included in this study from April 1992 to March 2000. Patient characteristics, therapeutic results, and prognostic factors were compared in the two groups. The screened patients tended to be younger and male, with tumors in the middle third of the stomach that were of a macroscopically superficial type, with a smaller diameter, and at an earlier stage. They had fewer metastatic lymph nodes and underwent more frequent curative resection. Among the screened patients with curatively resected disease, tumors tended to be of a smaller diameter, and there were fewer metastatic lymph nodes in both early and advanced cases. Disease-specific survival was significantly better in the screened cases among all registered and curatively resected patients. Mass screening achieved significantly better surgical results in early or advanced gastric cancer patients who received curative resection. Multivariate analysis revealed that mass screening was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, .3949; P screening by using barium meal examination for gastric cancer detects cancer at an early stage and produces good therapeutic results.

  13. Graphology: A Nontraditional Employment-Screening Technique. (United States)

    Augustin, Harriet M.; Hinkson, Diana; Halatin, Ted J.


    Explains procedures for handwriting analysis (graphology) and the benefits and limitations of its use in employment screening. Presents implications for teaching penmanship in business education. (SK)

  14. Osteoporosis screening preferences of older adults. (United States)

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S; Greenspan, Susan L


    We aimed to examine older adults' osteoporosis screening test preferences, willingness to travel for screening, and willingness to pay for screening. A survey was mailed to 1830 women and men aged 60 yr or older in Pennsylvania, assessing screening test preference (among dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA], heel quantitative ultrasound [QUS], and risk-assessment tools), willingness to travel 20 miles for a better screening test, and willingness to pay $100 for a better screening test, as well as socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate association between screening test preference, willingness to travel, willingness to pay, and potential explanatory variables. Surveys were completed by 1268 individuals (69.3%). Most respondents indicated a screening test preference (73.9%) and, of these, 78.1% preferred DXA. 78.8% of the respondents indicated that they may be willing to travel 20 miles for a better test, and 51.2% indicated that they may be willing to pay $100 for a better test. Similar trends were observed in analyses including only individuals who had not had prior osteoporosis testing or diagnosis. Many older individuals would prefer the "best" test for osteoporosis screening, and may be willing to travel or pay more to obtain a better test.

  15. Screening dynamics in doped titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubensson, J.E.; Luening, J.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others


    The time scale for carrier relaxation in semiconductors is on the same order of magnitude as the life time of shallow core hole states (a few femtoseconds). Resonant Inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS) which involves (virtual) excitations of core levels consequently contains information about the time development of the electronic structure on this time scale. In many cases one can treat the scattering in an absorption (SXA) followed-by-emission (SXE) picture, where simply the rates for various processes can be compared with the intermediate core hole state decay rate as an internal {open_quotes}clock{close_quotes}. By variation of x (0 < x < 1) in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3}, the amount of Ti d electrons in the system can be controlled. SrTiO{sub 3} (x=0) is an insulator with an empty Ti d band. With increasing x, electrons are doped into the Ti d-band, and LaTiO{sub 3} (x=1) is a Mott Hubbard insulator with a Ti 3d{sup 1} configuration. In this work the authors demonstrate that the rate for Ti 2p core hole screening in La{sub x}Sr{sub 1{minus}x}TiO{sub 3} is doping dependent. The screening rate increases with the availability of Ti 3d electrons, and they estimate it to be 3.8 x 10{sup 13}/sec in La{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.95}TiO{sub 3}.

  16. Screen Violence and Youth Behavior. (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J; Bartholow, Bruce D; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J; Ybarra, Michele


    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy. Still, to more fully understand the potential for long-term harm from media violence exposure, the field is greatly in need of additional large-sample, high-quality, longitudinal studies that include validated measures of media violence exposure and measures of other known violence risk factors. Also, although several high-quality media violence intervention studies have been conducted, larger-scale studies with more comprehensive and longer-term assessments are needed to fully understand long-term effects and to inform the development of tools that will help to reduce problems associated with aggression and violence. The evidence that violent screen media constitutes a causal risk factor for increased aggression is compelling. Modern social-cognitive theories of social behavior provide useful frameworks for understanding how and why these effects occur. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Screening Information - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us JSNP Screening Information Data detail Data name Screening Information DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nb...dc00114-003 Description of data contents Information from polymorphism screening experiments. Derived from E...the sequence for polymorphism screening Screened Position position of the polymorphism in the sequence for polymorphism Screened Symbol gene name related to the sequence for polymorphism screening Screened ...OMIM-ID OMIM ID related to the sequence for polymorphism screening About This Dat

  18. Screening of colorectal neoplasm; Screening des kolorektalen Karzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layer, G. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Zentralinstitut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Riemann, J.F. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Medizinische Klinik C, Ludwigshafen (Germany)


    In Germany approximately 29,000 people died of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in 2002; the risk of getting CRC is 4-6% in Germany, rising with age from the 50th year of life. About one third of all people over 50 years of age have polyps with the potential for malignant transformation in the colorectum, which is a sufficiently high prevalence rate to justify screening. In contrast to most other cancer diseases, in the case of CRC it is possible to prevent the cancer and not only to detect it at an early stage. Application of the test for occult blood in persons between their 45th and 80th years can reduce the mortality of CRC by 14%. We can assume that already regular sigmoidoscopies with consistent performance of polypectomy when needed could reduce the incidence of CRC by 50-70%. There is no doubt that coloscopy is the technique of choice for secondary prevention, as it unites the possibility of complete diagnosis and treatment with a justifiably low level of risk. The economic advantages of an avoidance strategy compared with the treatment of CRC, which is certainly expensive, have been documented. On the basis of all the data reported, in the case of CRC preventive strategies can be emphatically recommended. (orig.) [German] In Deutschland starben im Jahr 2002 ca. 29.000 Menschen an einem kolorektalen Karzinom (CRC); das Lebenszeitrisiko, an einem CRC zu erkranken, betraegt mit dem Alter steigend ab dem 50. Lebensjahr in Deutschland 4-6%. Etwa 1/3 aller ueber 50-Jaehrigen hat relevante Polypen im Kolorektum, ein ausreichend hoher Praevalenzwert fuer ein sinnvolles Screening. Im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen Krebserkrankungen kann man beim CRC ausserdem die Krebserkrankung verhindern und nicht nur in einem fruehen Stadium erkennen. Die Mortalitaet des CRC kann durch die Anwendung des Tests auf okkultes Blut (FOBT) bei Personen zwischen dem 45. und 80. Lebensjahr um 14% gesenkt werden. Bereits durch regelmaessige Sigmoidoskopien mit einer konsequenten Polypektomie

  19. Mammography screening: A major issue in medicine. (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu


    Breast cancer mortality is declining in most high-income countries. The role of mammography screening in these declines is much debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the incidence of number of advanced cancers with poor prognosis, while therapies and patient management impact cancer mortality through decreasing the fatality of cancers. The effectiveness of cancer screening is the ability of a screening method to curb the incidence of advanced cancers in populations. Methods for evaluating cancer screening effectiveness are based on the monitoring of age-adjusted incidence rates of advanced cancers that should decrease after the introduction of screening. Likewise, cancer-specific mortality rates should decline more rapidly in areas with screening than in areas without or with lower levels of screening but where patient management is similar. These two criteria have provided evidence that screening for colorectal and cervical cancer contributes to decreasing the mortality associated with these two cancers. In contrast, screening for neuroblastoma in children was discontinued in the early 2000s because these two criteria were not met. In addition, overdiagnosis - i.e. the detection of non-progressing occult neuroblastoma that would not have been life-threatening during the subject's lifetime - is a major undesirable consequence of screening. Accumulating epidemiological data show that in populations where mammography screening has been widespread for a long time, there has been no or only a modest decline in the incidence of advanced cancers, including that of de novo metastatic (stage IV) cancers at diagnosis. Moreover, breast cancer mortality reductions are similar in areas with early introduction and high penetration of screening and in areas with late introduction and low penetration of screening. Overdiagnosis is commonplace, representing 20% or more of all breast cancers among women invited to screening and 30-50% of screen

  20. Screening frequency and histologic type influence the efficacy of cervical cancer screening: A nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Cheng Chiang


    Conclusions: Pap smear is more effective in screening for cervical SCCs compared to cervical ADCs. Improving adherence to screening recommendations is important for the prevention of cervical SCC, especially in elderly women.

  1. Plate-based diversity subset screening: an efficient paradigm for high throughput screening of a large screening file. (United States)

    Bell, Andrew S; Bradley, Joseph; Everett, Jeremy R; Knight, Michelle; Loesel, Jens; Mathias, John; McLoughlin, David; Mills, James; Sharp, Robert E; Williams, Christine; Wood, Terence P


    The screening files of many large companies, including Pfizer, have grown considerably due to internal chemistry efforts, company mergers and acquisitions, external contracted synthesis, or compound purchase schemes. In order to screen the targets of interest in a cost-effective fashion, we devised an easy-to-assemble, plate-based diversity subset (PBDS) that represents almost the entire computed chemical space of the screening file whilst comprising only a fraction of the plates in the collection. In order to create this file, we developed new design principles for the quality assessment of screening plates: the Rule of 40 (Ro40) and a plate selection process that insured excellent coverage of both library chemistry and legacy chemistry space. This paper describes the rationale, design, construction, and performance of the PBDS, that has evolved into the standard paradigm for singleton (one compound per well) high-throughput screening in Pfizer since its introduction in 2006.

  2. Malnutrition screening in acutely unwell elderly inpatients. (United States)

    Sharma, Yogesh; Miller, Michelle; Shahi, Rashmi; Hakendorf, Paul; Horwood, Chris; Thompson, Campbell


    The rate of malnutrition among hospitalised elderly patients in Australia is 42.3%. Malnutrition is known to lead to significant adverse outcomes for the patients and increase hospital costs through increased use of resources. This study assessed nutrition screening adequacy and investigated factors associated with missed opportunity to diagnose malnutrition. A prospective cross-sectional study involving 205 general medical patients aged ≥60 years admitted acutely in a tertiary hospital over a period of 1 year. Patients who were not given initial nutritional screening were noted and all patients underwent nutritional assessment. The researchers assessed demographic data and performed univariate analysis of factors responsible for missed nutritional screening. Only 99 patients (49.5%) were screened for malnutrition and 100 (50.3%) missed initial nutritional screening (data incomplete for 6 patients). Of those screened, more were malnourished (n=64; 61.5%) than those not screened (n=40; 38.5%), p<0.001. There was no significant difference in screening rates over the weekends and public holidays compared with weekdays (p=0.14). Time of day (p=0.03) and ward location (p=0.001) were significant factors, which determined nutrition screening. This study indicates common associations that might explain low inpatient screening rates for malnutrition; these include apparently adequate nutritional status, lower staff to patient ratios and outlier ward locations. Ensuring consistent nutrition screening with appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients and educational interventions for staff could pay dividends not only in terms of improved patient health but also in terms of hospital reimbursement.

  3. Screening questionnaires for parkinsonism: a systematic review. (United States)

    Dahodwala, Nabila; Siderowf, Andrew; Baumgarten, Mona; Abrams, Aaron; Karlawish, Jason


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, treatable movement disorder that often remains undiagnosed despite clinically manifest symptoms. Screening for parkinsonism could lead to improved detection and earlier treatment, and facilitate research studies of PD prevalence. In order to determine the feasibility of screening, this study evaluated the validity of previously developed screening questionnaires. We systematically searched online databases PubMed and EMBASE for English-language studies published between 1980 and 2009. In each database a "Parkinson(s) disease" or "parkinsonism" term was combined with a screening term ("screening instrument," "screening questionnaire," "screen" or "prevalence survey") and a validity term ("validation," "sensitivity" and "specificity"). Included studies reported the psychometric properties of at least one self-report questionnaire for parkinsonism. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. From these studies, 9 screening questionnaires were identified. Sensitivity and specificity estimates varied widely. Sensitivity estimates were as high as 100% when questionnaires were tested among previously diagnosed PD patients and included a high number of parkinsonism specific items, but were as low as 48% when tested among early cases in a community-based sample. Specificity estimates were lower, ranging from 22 to 100%. An older sample, presence of multiple co-morbid conditions and lower literacy led to lower specificity estimates. Higher specificity estimates were seen when the screening questionnaires were administered by a physician. Screening questionnaires can detect symptomatic parkinsonism. However, the performance of these questionnaires varied based on the individual items, study sample, and method of administration. The performance of screening questionnaires in the detection of early or mild parkinsonism was modest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hormone replacement therapy and mammographic screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A


    The benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with oestrogen are well known and have led to widespread usage of HRT in post-menopausal women. There is an increased relative risk of breast cancer with prolonged HRT use of 1.7 at worst and this does not warrant more frequent screening. HRT itself makes mammographic screening less effective by adversely affecting both the sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography. A number of large studies have shown a reduction in the sensitivity of screening mammography of between 7% and 21% in current HRT users. This reduction in sensitivity is seen only in women over the age of 50 and is more marked when using single view mammography. The reduction in sensitivity is largely confined to those women who have a dense mammographic background pattern while on HRT. HRT use is also associated with a reduction in specificity of between 12% and almost 50%. This reduction in specificity is mainly found at incident screens. What can be done to minimize the adverse effects of HRT on mammographic screening? The imminent introduction of two views at all screens within the National Health Breast Screening Programme will be helpful. Short-term cessation of HRT use may deter attendance for screening by HRT users and is unproven. Combined oestrogen and progesterone preparations taken continuously appear to be particularly associated with adverse breast screening performance, while tibolone may have little effect on mammographic density. Manipulation of the type of HRT preparations used may allow the adverse effects of HRT on breast screening to be reduced. Evans, A. (2002)

  5. Extrapolation of pre-screening trends: Impact of assumptions on overdiagnosis estimates by mammographic screening. (United States)

    Ripping, T M; Verbeek, A L M; Ten Haaf, K; van Ravesteyn, N T; Broeders, M J M


    Overdiagnosis by mammographic screening is defined as the excess in breast cancer incidence in the presence of screening compared to the incidence in the absence of screening. The latter is often estimated by extrapolating the pre-screening incidence trend. The aim of this theoretical study is to investigate the impact of assumptions in extrapolating the pre-screening incidence trend of invasive breast cancer on the estimated percentage of overdiagnosis. We extracted data on invasive breast cancer incidence and person-years by calendar year (1975-2009) and 5-year age groups (0-85 years) from Dutch databases. Different combinations of assumptions for extrapolating the pre-screening period were investigated, such as variations in the type of regression model, end of the pre-screening period, screened age range, post-screening age range and adjustment for a trend in women overdiagnosis, i.e. excess cancer incidence in the presence of screening as a proportion of the number of screen-detected and interval cancers. Most overdiagnosis percentages are overestimated because of inadequate adjustment for lead time. The overdiagnosis estimates range between -7.1% and 65.1%, with a median of 33.6%. The choice of pre-screening period has the largest influence on the estimated percentage of overdiagnosis: the median estimate is 17.1% for extrapolations using 1975-1986 as the pre-screening period and 44.7% for extrapolations using 1975-1988 as the pre-screening period. The results of this theoretical study most likely cover the true overdiagnosis estimate, which is unknown, and may not necessarily represent the median overdiagnosis estimate. This study shows that overdiagnosis estimates heavily depend on the assumptions made in extrapolating the incidence in the pre-screening period, especially on the choice of the pre-screening period. These limitations should be acknowledged when adopting this approach to estimate overdiagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Risk stratification in cervical cancer screening by complete screening history: Applying bioinformatics to a general screening population. (United States)

    Baltzer, Nicholas; Sundström, Karin; Nygård, Jan F; Dillner, Joakim; Komorowski, Jan


    Women screened for cervical cancer in Sweden are currently treated under a one-size-fits-all programme, which has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer but does not use all of the participants' available medical information. This study aimed to use women's complete cervical screening histories to identify diagnostic patterns that may indicate an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. A nationwide case-control study was performed where cervical cancer screening data from 125,476 women with a maximum follow-up of 10 years were evaluated for patterns of SNOMED diagnoses. The cancer development risk was estimated for a number of different screening history patterns and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR), with a history of 4 benign cervical tests as reference, using logistic regression. The overall performance of the model was moderate (64% accuracy, 71% area under curve) with 61-62% of the study population showing no specific patterns associated with risk. However, predictions for high-risk groups as defined by screening history patterns were highly discriminatory with ORs ranging from 8 to 36. The model for computing risk performed consistently across different screening history lengths, and several patterns predicted cancer outcomes. The results show the presence of risk-increasing and risk-decreasing factors in the screening history. Thus it is feasible to identify subgroups based on their complete screening histories. Several high-risk subgroups identified might benefit from an increased screening density. Some low-risk subgroups identified could likely have a moderately reduced screening density without additional risk. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening. (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  8. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group

  9. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence: The Impact of Screener and Screening Environment on Victim Comfort (United States)

    Thackeray, Jonathan; Stelzner, Sarah; Downs, Stephen M.; Miller, Carleen


    The barriers that professionals face when screening victims for intimate partner violence (IPV) are well studied. The specific barriers that victims face however when being screened are not. The authors sought to identify characteristics of the screener and screening environment that make a victim feel more or less comfortable when disclosing a…

  10. Systematic Screening at the Elementary Level: Considerations for Exploring and Installing Universal Behavior Screening (United States)

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Ennis, Robin Parks


    This descriptive study reports data from one elementary school whose leadership team explored and installed systematic behavior screening as part of their tiered model of prevention. The authors compared student performance on two school-selected screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and…

  11. TNO I-Screen: Intestinal Microbiotica Screening Platform for Functional Ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abeln, E.; Posno, M.


    TNO’s intestinal screening model (TNO i-screen) helps to quickly identify food ingredients that modulate the intestinal microbiota composition. For manufacturers, searching for health-promoting ingredients is a complex and time-consuming process. Large numbers of substances have to be screened,

  12. The association between general practitioners' attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women's screening participation. (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Mukai, Thomas Ostersen; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter


    Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs) are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs' attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women's participation in the screening programme. Data on women's screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs' attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7%) had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34%) more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  13. Questioning screening | Kent | Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Death rates from cancer are falling in almost all countries. It is tempting to attribute these encouraging trends equally to, screening, early detection and better treatments. There is a great deal of scientific research being invested in these endeavours and all are rigorously scrutinised. Screening has an intuitive attraction and ...

  14. phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the ...

  15. Asymptomatic carotid arterial stenosis - population based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general population is discussed in many countries because of the benefits of carotid endarterectomy in the three trials. Many factors influence the cost-effectiveness of screening. These factors are the prevalence of carotid stenosis, the

  16. Mobile Screens: The Visual Regime of Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.


    In this book on screen media, space, and mobility I compare synchronically, as well as diachronically, diverse and variegated screen media - their technologies and practices – as sites for virtual mobility and navigation. Mobility as a central trope can be found on the multiple levels that are

  17. [Retinophotography--screening method in diabetic retinopathy]. (United States)

    Davidescu, Livia; Ignat, Florica; Preda, Mirela; Damian, Carmen


    The paper presents the modern screening method for diabetic retinopathy-the retino-photography. We present our experience on this issue, regarding the patients with diabetic retinopathy screened in Diabetic Eye Department, Ophthalmology Clinic Craiova, between October 2002-June 2005.

  18. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin


    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  19. Development of Electron-positron Screened Pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a trend in the variation of the screened pseudopotential for metals in the same group in the periodic table and also that the higher the positron annihilation rate in a metal the higher the screened pseudopotential experienced before annihilation. Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics VOLUME 1, AUGUST 2000, pp.

  20. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening (United States)

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas


    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  1. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe


    were significantly larger in the screened groups (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.42) for the two adequately randomised trials that measured this outcome; the use of radiotherapy was similarly increased. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Screening is likely to reduce breast cancer mortality. As the effect was lowest...

  2. Genomic futures of prenatal screening : Ethical reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dondorp, W. J.; Page-Christiaens, G. C M L; de Wert, G. M W R


    The practice of prenatal screening is undergoing important changes as a result of the introduction of genomic testing technologies at different stages of the screening trajectory. It is expected that eventually it will become possible to routinely obtain a comprehensive 'genome scan' of all fetuses.

  3. The Gesell Screening Examination: Psychometric Properties. (United States)

    Walker, Richard N.

    In an assessment of the adequacy of the Gesell screening examination as a test instrument, a Gesell Screening Evaluation was given to 400 children semi-annually from their 4th to 6th year. The sample, which was stratified by parent occupation, included 40 girls and 40 boys at 5 age levels. The test battery corresponded with the Gesell Preschool…

  4. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, phenolics, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Qualitatively screening for free radical scavenging compounds using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) was carried ...

  5. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the leaves, stem bark and roots of Acacia nilotica were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins and sterols in the leaves stem barks and ...

  6. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)


    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  7. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN


    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria and workload ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was 41 (entailing 83 examinations, 4 screening hours, one technician and three doctors). Screening infants with a GA of ≤28 weeks or a .... Overview of study population and outcomes. Table 1. Numbers and proportions of infants .... this classification rule, three infants with a BW. ≥1 200 g and CSROP would have been ...

  9. A Comparative Review of Developmental Screening Tests. (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances P.; And Others


    To help physicians select appropriate screening tests for early childhood identification of developmental disabilities, 19 screening tests were administered by a pediatrician and rated by a panel of pediatricians and a special educator. Five of the tests were identified that approached standards for educational and psychological tests. (TJH)

  10. Screening for gestational diabetes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter; van Assche, Andre


    to European health organizations based on screening uptake rates, maternal well-being, maternal and neonatal health outcomes, equity and cost-effectiveness. Here we describe the ongoing controversy on GDM screening and diagnosis, and provide an overview of important topics for future research concerning GDM...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  12. Screening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Verkerk, Paul H.


    The success rates of screening programmes for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) vary widely. Studies on screening programmes for DDH based on a Medline search for the years 1966–1997 are reviewed. The percentage treated in most studies, especially those using ultrasound, are high and suggest

  13. Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G. M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    Background: Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening.  Objectives: To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences.  Methods: Seven important attributes were

  14. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl


    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  15. Screening for human papillomavirus: is urine useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Tjalma, W.A.


    Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet,

  16. Towards a rational cervical cytology screening strategy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 1, 1995 ... screening were estimated from cytopathology laboratory records and available demographic data. Age-specific prevalence rates among women who had been screened were compared with age at presentation with cervical cancer at the referral hospital. Attendance for colposcopy follow-up was assessed ...

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the plant.

  18. Nephroprevention in children by urinary dipstick screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nephroprevention in children by urinary dipstick screening. ... African Journal of Paediatric Nephrology ... Patients and Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study in which all children 2 months-16 years, attending the children outpatient clinic of Federal Medical Center, Asaba, were screened with urinary dipstick ...

  19. 20 CFR 654.408 - Screening. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Screening. 654.408 Section 654.408 Employees... EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.408 Screening. (a) All... tight fitting, in good repair, and equipped with self-closing devices. ...

  20. Mammographic screening: evidence from randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Koning (Harry)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: All randomised breast cancer screening trials have shown a reduction in breast cancer mortality in the 'invited for mammography' screening arm compared with the 'control arm' for women aged 50 years and older at randomisation (overall 25%). However,