WorldWideScience

Sample records for terapia combinada losartan

  1. Estudo clínico randomizado para comparar o efeito da fotobiomodulação laser, da terapia manual e das terapias combinadas no tratamento da disfunção temporomandibular mista

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Thomé Brochado

    2016-01-01

    A disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) é uma doença complexa e multifatorial. Diversas modalidades terapêuticas prometem aliviar os sintomas, melhorar a função e reduzir o impacto da doença na qualidade de vida do paciente. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o efeito da fotobiomodulação (PBM) e da terapia manual (MT) isoladas ou combinadas no controle da dor, no restabelecimento dos movimentos mandibulares, nos aspectos psicossociais e dos níveis de ansiedade nos pacientes com DTM mista. Cin...

  2. Hipolipemiantes y el uso de terapias combinadas en el tratamiento de las dislipidemias: una breve revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Fernández-Travieso

    2013-01-01

    El tratamiento de las dislipidemias tiene como objetivo fundamental disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular, la cual constituye la primera causa de muerte en los países desarrollados, así como en Cuba. Diferentes estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado la correlación existente entre las concentraciones elevados de colesterol total y en particular, del transportado por las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL - C), así como los beneficios clínicos de la terapia hipolipemiante a larg...

  3. Comparación de la eficacia y seguridad de la terapia combinada de cardiomioplastia celular con el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica en dos vías de implatación Comparison of efficacy and safety of combined therapy of cellular cardiomyoplasty and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy in two routes of implantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan M Senior; Clara Saldarriaga; Francisco Cuéllar A; Juan D Gómez; Fabián Jaimes

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la terapia combinada de cardiomioplastia celular con el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía...

  4. Comparación de la eficacia y seguridad de la terapia combinada de cardiomioplastia celular con el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica en dos vías de implatación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Senior, MD., FACP

    2011-03-01

    Conclusión: En nuestro medio es factible realizar terapia combinada con cardiomioplastia celular y factor estimulante de colonias de granulocito; este es un procedimiento seguro con el que se obtiene una mejoría sostenida de la fracción de eyección y los MET más allá de los beneficios que se logran con la revascularización y la terapia farmacológica óptima.

  5. Efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semillas de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Oyarzábal Yera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El policosanol, mezcla de alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores obtenida de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinífera, L, producen efectos antioxidantes demostrados experimental y clínicamente. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en comparar los efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en plasma e hígado de ratas. Las ratas se distribuyeron en 4 grupos: un control y 3 tratados con policosanol, extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada, respectivamente, todos a dosis de 25 mg/kg, durante 4 semanas. Las monoterapias redujeron significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de malondialdehído y de grupos carbonilos asociados a proteínas con respecto al control, lo que mostró similar eficacia. La terapia combinada redujo (p The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obteined from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L. and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinífera, L. produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of proetin-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001 the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01 the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous

  6. Efeitos da terapia combinada atorvastatina e clopidogrel na biodisponibilidade da estatina e na função plaquetária em pacientes com doença coronária estável

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Luiz Fernando Muniz; Izar,Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Kasmas,Soraia Kani; França,Carolina Nunes; Fischer,Simone Cristina Matheus; Barbosa,Simone Pinto de Melo; Nucci,Gilberto de; Ilha,Jaime; Chen,Lu Chi; Carvalho,Antonio Carlos; Póvoa,Rui Manoel dos Santos; Bianco,Henrique Tria; Fonseca,Francisco Antonio Helfenstein

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Atorvastatina 80 mg é recomendada a pacientes portadores de doença coronária para redução de eventos cardiovasculares, havendo controvérsia sobre as interações farmacocinéticas entre doses elevadas das estatinas e uso concomitante de clopidogrel, por compartilharem a mesma via de biotransformação. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos da terapia combinada atorvastatina/clopidogrel na farmacocinética da estatina e função plaquetária em pacientes com doença coronária estável, sob uso crôni...

  7. Losartan and Hydrochlorothiazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzaar® (as a combination product containing Losartan, Hydrochlorothiazide) ... Combination productThis product contains two medications, losartan and hydrochlorothiazide. Please see the individual monographs for information about each of the medications contained in this product.

  8. Inmunodeficiencia combinada severa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Lina

    2011-01-01

    El caso presentado ilustra ampliamente el comportamiento de una inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada, con un paciente que con una inmunidad aparentemente normal durante dos años, inicia su enfermedad con un problema respiratorio que se vuelve crónico y fallece en estado caquéctico siete meses más tarde. Tiene un desarrollo pondoestatural de un niño de ocho meses y desarrolla como consecuencia de su problema inmune una micosis profunda sistémica por Criptococos y un Linfoma primario del Sistema ...

  9. Inmunodeficiencia combinada severa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jaramillo

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available El caso presentado ilustra ampliamente el comportamiento de una inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada, con un paciente que con una inmunidad aparentemente normal durante dos años, inicia su enfermedad con un problema respiratorio que se vuelve crónico y fallece en estado caquéctico siete meses más tarde. Tiene un desarrollo pondoestatural de un niño de ocho meses y desarrolla como consecuencia de su problema inmune una micosis profunda sistémica por Criptococos y un Linfoma primario del Sistema Nervioso Central.

  10. Combination hyperbaric oxygen and temozolomide therapy in c6 rat glioma model Terapia combinada de oxigênio hiperbárico e temozomida no modelo C6 de glioma em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Dagıstan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Temozolomide (TMZ has anti-tumor activity in patients with malignant glioma. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO may enhance the efficacy of certain therapies that are limited because of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. We examined the combined effects of TMZ-HBO in a rat glioma model. METHODS: After stereotactic injection of C6/LacZ rat glioma cells into the Wistar rats brain, the rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups [group 1, control treatment; group 2, TMZ alone; group 3, a combination of TMZ and HBO]. Rats were sacrificed 18 days after treatment, and number of intra-/peri-tumoral vessels, microendothelial proliferations, immunohistochemistry and necrotic area were evaluated. RESULTS: Tumoral tissue was stained only sparsely with GFAP. Temozolomide treatment was significantly decreased in tumor tissue intratumoral vessel number / total tumor area level. The level of Ki67 was significantly decreased in the tumor tissue of the group 3. Additionally, the total necrotic area / total tumor volume (% was decreased significantly in tumor tissue of the group 3 rats compared to group1 and 2. CONCLUSION: The combination of hyperbaric oxygen with temozolomide produced an important reduction in glioma growth and effective approach to the treatment of glioblastoma.OBJETIVO: A temozolomida (TMZ tem atividade anti-tumoral em pacientes com glioma maligno. Oxigênio hiperbárico (HBO pode aumentar a eficácia de terapias que são limitadas devido a um microambiente do tumor hipóxico. Foram examinados os efeitos combinados de TMZ-HBO em um modelo de glioma em rato. MÉTODOS: Após a injeção estereotáxica de células de glioma de rato C6/LacZ no cérebro de ratos Wistar, os ratos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de tratamento: Grupo 1: tratamento de controle. Grupo 2: TMZ sozinho. Grupo 3: uma combinação de TMZ e HBO. Os ratos foram sacrificados 18 dias após o tratamento. Foram avaliados o número de vasos intra

  11. Estudo da síndrome da ceratoconjuntivite seca de pacientes soropositivos para o vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida humana tipo 1 e com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, em uso ou não de terapia anti-retroviral combinada (HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Márcia Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a presença de olho seco e de alterações no epitélio conjuntival em pacientes com sorologia positiva para o HIV-1 e com AIDS; relacionar as eventuais alterações com as características e com outras condições oculares e sistêmicas dos pacientes; estudar a influência da terapia anti-retroviral combinada na ceratoconjuntivite seca (KCS, nos pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados pacientes com confirmação laboratorial da infecção pelo HIV, divididos em 2 grupos: I. HIV+ (sem diagnóstico clínico e com contagem de CD4+ acima de 200 células/mm³ e II. pacientes com AIDS (contagem de CD4+ abaixo de 200 células e/ou manifestação clínica. Foram estudadas alterações oculares, dados laboratoriais, análise do filme lacrimal e estudo da citologia de impressão conjuntival. Método estatístico: qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Incluídos 43 pacientes do grupo I e 77 do grupo II. Após a introdução do HAART houve queda significativa das manifestações oculares internas; entretanto, o mesmo não ocorreu com as externas. Dos pacientes que apresentaram quadro clínico de olho seco, 65,1% eram do sexo masculino. As alterações do teste de Schirmer e tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal não estiveram relacionados com a gravidade da doença pelo HIV e nem com a contagem de CD4+.Todos os pacientes com alterações na citologia de impressão apresentavam KCS e 88,8% pertenciam ao grupo II. Observou-se aumento da freqüência dessas alterações nos pacientes com tempo de doença superior a 4 anos. CONCLUSÃO: O decréscimo da produção lacrimal não esteve relacionado com a gravidade da infecção pelo HIV e a introdução do HAART não interferiu na freqüência da síndrome de olho seco nos pacientes HIV positivos.

  12. Hiperlipidemia familiar combinada: documento de consenso

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo; Ruíz-Garcia, Antonio; Jose L. Díaz-Díaz; González, Noemí; Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Martínez-Faedo, Ceferino; Morón, Ignacio; Arranz, Ezequiel; Aguado, Rocío; Argueso, Rosa; Perez de Isla, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    La hiperlipidemia familiar combinada (HFC) es un trastorno muy frecuente asociado a enfermedad coronaria prematura. Se transmite de forma autosómica dominante, aunque no existe un gen único asociado al trastorno. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante criterios clínicos, y son importantes la variabilidad del fenotipo lipídico y la historia familiar de hiperlipidemia. Es frecuente la asociación con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensión arterial y obesidad central. Los pacientes con HFC se cons...

  13. Omkostningseffektivitet ved hypertensionsbehandling med Losartan i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hildebrandt, Per; Burke, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Formålet med denne analyse var set såvel fra samfundets som fra det danske sundhedsvæsens perspektiv at evaluere omkostningseffektiviteten af losartan sammenlignet med atenolol ved behandling af hypertension, baseret på Losartan Intervention For Endpoint (LIFE)-undersøgelsens data Udgivelsesdato...

  14. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Losartan Potassium in Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Diane A. Aniñon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the quality control of pharmaceutical products, it is of utmost importance that validated analytical methods are used to ensure the credibility of the results generated. At the time of the study, official monographs from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF for the quantification of Losartan potassium in tablets were unavailable, denoting the need for a validated analytical procedure for the analysis of the drug. The study adapted direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry methods proposed by Bonfilio and others (2010 for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 50 mg. capsules, then modified and validated the said procedures for the assay of Losartan potassium in Losartan 100 mg. tablets following the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines on method validation for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. Results demonstrated that all the performance characteristics of both methods were highly satisfactory and confirmed the possible application of the methods in routine analysis of Losartan potassium tablets.

  16. Losartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other parts of the body. Damage to these organs may cause heart disease, a heart attack, heart ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat, ...

  17. Losartan: il valore clinico ed economico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB that has been proven effective and well tolerated in the treatment of hypertension and in the reduction of global cardiovascular risk, but is more expensive than many alternatives. The present paper resumes its main pharmacological and clinical features, as a basis for analyzing its economical value. Despite the universally accepted relevance of good blood pressure control, hypertension is still undertreated and poorly controlled. Among the main reasons for this, poor adherence to therapeutic regimens plays a relevant role. Losartan and ARBs have been shown to be associated with compliance rates superior to those observed with any other antihypertensive drug class, due to an adverse events incidence similar to placebo and scarcity of relevant pharmacological interactions, and can therefor improve the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment. Several trials have indicated that losartan determines clinical benefits that go beyond its haemodynamic effect, such as renal protection, reduced incidence of stroke and cognitive improvement. The addition of losartan to conventional hypertensive therapy in diabetic patients with nephropathy has been estimated to induce net health cost savings in different settings, a relevant result, as very few medical interventions have demonstrated such a potential. To understand the real economical value of losartan, its drug acquisition costs have to be balanced against the benefits deriving from antihypertensive effectiveness, high compliance and non-haemodynamic target organ protection.

  18. Terapia periodontal no quirurgica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guzman Zuluaga, Isabel Cristina; Botero Zuluaga, Leticia; Bedoya Trujillo, Juan Sebastian; Botero Botero, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    .... El principal objetivo de este articulo es demostrar la efectividad de la terapia periodontal no quirurgica evidenciada en multiples estudios con relacion a las indicaciones, aspectos microbiologicos...

  19. Functional effects of losartan in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin Irene; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of disease-modifying treatments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to assess if losartan could improve or ameliorate deterioration of cardiac function and exercise capacity. METHODS: Echocardiography, exercise...

  20. Terapia de choque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    No hay alternativa, nos dicen. Ya no hay líneas rojas. Sólo un poco más de terapia de choque para aumentar el desorden bipolar entre los que tienen y los que no.......No hay alternativa, nos dicen. Ya no hay líneas rojas. Sólo un poco más de terapia de choque para aumentar el desorden bipolar entre los que tienen y los que no....

  1. An association of losartan-hydrochlorothiazide, but not losartan-furosemide, completely arrests progressive injury in the remnant kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Simone Costa Alarcon; Souza, Renata Alves; Malheiros, Denise Maria Avancini Costa; Fanelli, Camilla; Fujihara, Clarice Kazue; Zatz, Roberto

    2016-01-15

    We have previously shown that an association of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide, initiated 1 mo after 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), reversed hypertension and albuminuria and promoted lasting renoprotection. In this new study, we investigated whether equal or even better protection could be obtained by combining losartan and furosemide. Nx was performed in 58 Munich-Wistar rats. One month later, tail-cuff pressure and albuminuria were markedly elevated. At this time, Nx rats were distributed among the following four groups: untreated Nx rats, Nx rats that received losartan, Nx rats that received losartan + hydrochlorothiazide, and Nx rats that received losartan + furosemide. Seven months later, Nx rats exhibited high mortality, severe hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis. Losartan treatment limited mortality and attenuated the renal and hemodynamic abnormalities associated with Nx. As previously shown, the losartan + hydrochlorothiazide association normalized tail-cuff pressure and albumin, prevented renal injury, and reduced mortality to zero. The losartan + furosemide treatment failed to reduce tail-cuff pressure or albumin to normal and prevented renal injury less efficiently than the losartan and hydrochlorothiazide regimen. The reasons for the differing efficacies of the losartan + furosemide and losartan + hydrochlorothiazide schemes are unclear and may include beneficial nondiuretic actions of thiazides, such as vasorelaxation and antiproliferative activity. These results refute the established concept that thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics are ineffective at advanced chronic kidney disease stages. Rather, they suggest that, in view of their renoprotective action, these compounds may even be preferable to loop diuretics in the management of hypertension in advanced chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Losartan alleviates hyperuricemia-induced atherosclerosis in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongchao; Li, Ning; Ding, Yueyou; Miao, Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of losartan on hyperuricemia-induced aortic atherosclerosis, in an experimental rabbit model. Male rabbits (n = 48) were divided into control, hyperuricemia (HU), hypercholesterolemia + hyperuricemia (HC + HU) and high-purine with 30-mg/kg/d losartan (HU + losartan) groups. Serum uric acid (UA) and plasma renin and angiotensin II activities were determined. Aortic tissue specimens were analyzed for histological changes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Liver tissues were sampled for quantitative analyses of liver low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. After 12 weeks, serum UA and plasma renin and plasma angiotensin II activities were enhanced in the HU and HU + HC groups (P losartan group plasma renin activity was not different and serum UA concentrations as well as plasma angiotensin II activity were moderately enhanced (P losartan group. In contrast, transcription and expression of LDLR mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the control and HU + losartan groups compared to the HU and HU + HC groups. Both the HU and HU + HC groups had elevated intima thickness and intima areas compared to the control and HU + losartan groups. Losartan can alleviate experimental atherosclerosis induced by hyperuricemia.

  3. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  4. Aliskiren combined with losartan in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; Persson, Frederik; Lewis, Julia B

    2008-01-01

    patients received 100 mg of losartan daily, patients were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of treatment with aliskiren (150 mg daily for 3 months, followed by an increase in dosage to 300 mg daily for another 3 months) or placebo, in addition to losartan. The primary outcome was a reduction...

  5. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Beer`s law was obeyed in the range of 10 - 50 µg/ml with a ... drug complex analysis by. UV/VIS spectrophotometer. For the preparation of drug complex, pure losartan potassium and cupric acetate were chosen. Different ratios of losartan potassium and .... copper complex has displayed a moderately anti tumour activity.

  6. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with copper. Method: A coloured complex based on UV/Vis spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of losartan potassium concentration in pharmaceutical ...

  7. comparison of losartan and enalapril effects on renal function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... Its prevalence is increasing at a rate of 8% per year worldwide (1). The etiology of CKD differs by region, ..... proportions of patients at each level of proteinuria. A stacked bar graph for enalapril and losartan was .... 767-8. 6. Parving H-H, Persson F, Lewis JB, et al. Aliskiren. Combined with Losartan in Type ...

  8. Terapia fotodin??mica intralesional en el tratamiento del carcinoma basocelular nodular

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Sixto, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    104 p. En la presente tesis doctoral se pretende valorar la respuesta cl??nica/histol??gica a corto plazo (3 meses) de la terapia combinada con aminolevulinato m??s l??ser diodo en el tratamiento del carcinoma basocelular nodular (CBCn) que es el tumor maligno m??s frecuente en la raza cauc??sica y conocer la tasa de recidiva a largo plazo tras el tratamiento. El estudio se realiz?? con los historiales cl??nicos de los pacientes con CBCn que fueron tratados en el Servicio de Dermatolog?...

  9. terapias múltiples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Valencia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la comparación de tres modalidades de intervención: terapia psicosocial, musicoterapia, y terapias múltiples, en 58 pacientes con esquizofrenia quienes fueron canalizados aleatoriamente a los tres grupos bajo estudio. Los pacientes fueron evaluados al inicio y al final de las intervenciones que tuvieron seis meses de duración. Los pacientes de las tres modalidades obtuvieron beneficios terapéuticos de distinta proporción en el funcionamiento psicosocial y en la actividad global, y con diferencias en la magnitud de la eficacia de cada intervención, siendo las más efectivas la terapia psicosocial, y la musicoterapia. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tres grupos en cuanto a recaídas y rehospitalizaciones. En la terapia psicosocial y en la musicoterapia el grado de deserción fue en menor grado y de igual forma estas dos intervenciones presentaron un mayor nivel de adherencia terapéutica en comparación con las terapias múltiples

  10. Permeasi Transdermal Losartan In Vitro dari Larutan dengan Variasi Kadar Losartan dan Propilen Glikol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annas Binarjo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Losartan, senyawa antagonis reseptor angiotensin II, mempunyai bioavailabilitas oral 0.25-0.35.  Bioavailabilitas yang rendah ini dapat diatasi dengan penghantaran obat secara transdermal. Enhancer sering ditambahkan ke dalam formula sediaan transdermal, misalnya propilen glikol (PG.  Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh kadar propilen glikol terhadap permeasi transdermal losartan pada kadar obat yang berbeda. Penelitian dilakukan secara in vitro dengan sel difusi tipe vertikal dilakukan terhadap empat formula yaitu 2% potasium losartan (k-los :15% PG (F1, 10% k-los :15% PG (F2, 2% k-los :20% PG (F3, dan 10% k-los: 20% PG (F4 dengan dapar sitrat pH 5 sebagai mediumnya.  Kulit punggung tikus jantan galur wistar digunakan sebagai membran, PBS pH 7,4 sebagai medium kompartemen reseptor, dan HPLC untuk pengukuran kadar k-los dalam kompartemen reseptor dengan detektor UV. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kadar k-los dari 2% ke 10% pada kadar PG 15% meningkatkan fluks, sedangkan pada kadar 20% tidak berpengaruh terhadap fluks.  Peningkatan kadar PG dari 15% ke 20% justru menurunkan fluks pada kadar k-los 2%, dan tidak berpengaruh pada kadar k-los 10%.  Nilai lag time tidak berbeda diantara semua fomula. Hal ini berarti penggunaan enhancer PG lebih dari 15% justru merugikan permeasi transdermal. Kata Kunci : transdermal, losartan, propilen glikol, enhancer   Abstract Losartan is an angiotensin receptor antagonis which has low oral bioavailability (0.25-0.35.  Transdermal drug delivery system is needed as one solution for this low oral bioavailability drug.  Propilen glikol (PG, as enhancer, is frequently added in transdermal dosage form.  This research was purposed to explore the effect of PG as losartan permeation enhancer in various concentration of potasium losartan (k-los. The research was carried out in vitro using vertical tipe difusion cel for 4 formulas, i.e. 2% potasium losartan (k-los :15% PG (F1, 10% k

  11. Losartan Attenuates Scar Formation in Filtering Bleb After Trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Wang, Huiying; Fu, Shuhao; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Yiqin; Ye, Wen

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effects of losartan on scar formation after trabeculectomy and on fibrotic changes of human Tenon's fibroblasts (HTFs). Trabeculectomy was performed on New Zealand rabbits. They were randomized to receive one of the following treatments: 0.9% normal saline, mitomycin-C, or one of the three doses of losartan. Bleb morphology, IOP, and histopathology examination were performed. Primary cultured HTFs were treated with losartan or vehicle, with or without angiotensin II (Ang II). Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and cell migration was detected by scratch wound and transwell assay. Transdifferentiation was evaluated through the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot. The expression of fibronectin (FN) was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blot. An amount of 5 mg/mL of losartan subconjunctival injection significantly decreased IOP postoperatively and attenuated wound healing of the filtering bleb in the rabbit model. Immunostaining results showed less myofibroblast and collagen deposition around the bleb area in the losartan-treated eyes. Losartan (10-5 M) in vitro significantly attenuated Ang II's stimulatory effects on proliferation and migration of HTFs. Expressions of α-SMA and FN in these cells were also decreased by losartan pretreatment. Losartan attenuates scar formation of filtering bleb after trabeculectomy likely via decreasing proliferation, migration, transdifferentiation, and extracellular matrix deposition of Tenon's fibroblasts. These results indicate that losartan may be an effective therapeutic agent in preventing bleb scar formation and in improving surgical outcome after trabeculectomy.

  12. Fifteen years of losartan: what have we learned about losartan that can benefit chronic kidney disease patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ripley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Ripley, Ari HirschDivision of Nephrology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USAAbstract: Losartan, the first AT1 receptor blocker (ARB, was FDA approved 15 years ago.During those years, researchers and clinicians have developed a growing base of knowledge on the benefits of losartan, particularly for hypertension and renal disease. These benefits include decreasing proteinuria, slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy, controlling hypertension, and decreasing stroke risk in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Although many of the benefits of losartan represent a class effect for ARBs, losartan has pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and effects that are unique and are not a class effect. For example, a shorter duration of action is seen with this first ARB compared with other more recently approved ARBs. Losartan also has a uricosuric effect not seen in other ARBs and attenuates platelet aggregation, which is not seen or is seen to a lesser extent with the other ARBs. This review presents the physiological effects of losartan on the kidney and discusses relevant clinical outcomes.Keywords: losartan, chronic kidney disease

  13. Psoriasis y nuevas terapias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo N. Chouela R., Dr.

    2011-11-01

    Esta reseña de las nuevas terapias disponibles de la psoriasis y de las que están en camino de ser aprobadas por las autoridades sanitarias, permitirá al lector tener una idea del estado actual del tratamiento de esta enfermedad.

  14. Losartan and its interaction with copper(II): biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Susana B; Ferrer, Evelina G; Naso, Luciana; Barrio, Daniel A; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Williams, Patricia A M

    2007-10-01

    Losartan, the potassium salt of 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazol, is an efficient antihypertensive drug. The vibrational FTIR and Raman spectra of Losartan (its anionic and protonated forms) are discussed. In addition, the copper(II) complex of Losartan was obtained and characterized as a microcrystalline powder. The metal center is bound to the ligand through the nitrogen atoms of the tetrazolate moiety as determined by vibrational spectroscopy. The compound is a dimer with the metal centers in a tetragonal distorted environment but the presence of a monomeric impurity has been determined by EPR spectroscopy. The antioxidant properties of the complex (superoxide dismutase mimetic activity) and its effect on the proliferation and morphology of two osteoblast-like cells in culture are reported. The new compound exerted more toxic effects on tumoral cells than the copper(II) ion and Losartan.

  15. Losartan attenuates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, F; Sun, Y B; Su, L; Li, S; Liu, Z F; Li, J; Hu, X T; Li, J

    2015-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and can cause pulmonary fibrosis in the cases with intoxication. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on the treatment of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of losartan on pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-intoxicated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32, 180-220 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) control group; (ii) PQ group; (iii) PQ + losartan 7d group; and (iv) PQ + losartan 14d group. Losartan treatment (intragastrically (i.g.), 10 mg/kg) was performed for 7 and 14 days after a single i.g. dose of 40 mg/kg PQ. All rats were killed on the 16th day, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine lung injury and fibrosis. The levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III were also detected. PQ caused a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1, and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III ( p losartan significantly decreased the amount of hydroxyproline and downregulated TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1 mRNA and collagen type I and III expressions ( p losartan could markedly reduce such damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that losartan could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Effect of Losartan on Mitral Valve Changes After Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, Philipp E; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Guerrero, J Luis; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Szymanski, Catherine; Kim, Dae-Hee; Seybolt, Margo M; Handschumacher, Mark D; Sullivan, Suzanne; Garcia, Michael L; Titus, James S; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Irvin, Whitney S; Messas, Emmanuel; Hagège, Albert A; Carpentier, Alain; Aikawa, Elena; Bischoff, Joyce; Levine, Robert A

    2017-09-05

    After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition. The study assessed 17 sheep, including 6 sham-operated control animals and 11 with apical MI and papillary muscle retraction short of producing MR; 6 of the 11 were treated with daily losartan, and 5 were untreated, with flexible epicardial mesh comparably limiting left ventricular (LV) remodeling. LV volumes, tethering, and MV area were quantified by using three-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and at 60 ± 6 days, and excised leaflets were analyzed by histopathology and flow cytometry. Post-MI LV dilation and tethering were comparable in the losartan-treated and untreated LV constraint sheep. Telemetered sensors (n = 6) showed no significant losartan-induced changes in arterial pressure. Losartan strongly reduced leaflet thickness (0.9 ± 0.2 mm vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 mm; p losartan-treated sheep. Profibrotic changes of tethered MV leaflets post-MI can be modulated by losartan without eliminating adaptive growth. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms could provide new opportunities to reduce ischemic MR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacokinetic interaction between losartan and Rhodiola rosea in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, M; Vizirianakis, I S; Batzias, G; Niopas, I

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the potential interaction of the herbal medicinal product of Rhodiola rosea on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite EXP3174 after concurrent oral administration to rabbits. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence, cross-over pharmacokinetic study on 6 healthy female New Zealand rabbits, after concurrent oral administration of losartan (5 mg/kg) and the herbal medicinal product of R. rosea (50 mg/kg). Quantification of losartan and its main active metabolite EXP3174 was achieved using a validated HPCL/UV method. Pharmacokinetic and statistical analysis was performed using the EquivTest/PK software. Administration of the herbal medicinal product of R. rosea resulted in a statistically significant increase of the following pharmacokinetic parameters for losartan: the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), the area under the curve (AUC) and the apparent total body clearance (CL/F). An almost 2-fold increase in the AUC of losartan was observed after concurrent administration of the herbal medicinal product of R. rosea. No statistically significant alteration was observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of the active metabolite of losartan EXP3174. The data of this study suggest that R. rosea significantly alters the pharmacokinetic properties of losartan after concurrent oral administration to rabbits. A study in humans should be conducted to assess the clinical significance of a possible herb-drug interaction between the herbal medicinal products of R. rosea and drugs such as losartan, which are substrates of both CYPs and P-gp. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Fifteen years of losartan: what have we learned about losartan that can benefit chronic kidney disease patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Ripley; Ari Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Ripley, Ari HirschDivision of Nephrology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USAAbstract: Losartan, the first AT1 receptor blocker (ARB), was FDA approved 15 years ago.During those years, researchers and clinicians have developed a growing base of knowledge on the benefits of losartan, particularly for hypertension and renal disease. These benefits include decreasing proteinuria, slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy, controlling hypertension, and decrea...

  19. Losartan improves the distribution and efficacy of doxorubicin in CT26 tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, L; Hu, S Q; Wang, L Y; Liu, J X; Li, X Y

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents is impaired by limited delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor cells. Improving drug penetration in tumor tissues is very important. We tested whether losartan, a selective antagonist against type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AT1R) with noted antifibrotic activity, can enhance the penetration and efficacy of doxorubicin. BALB/C mice, which implanted with CT26 tumor cells, were divided into four groups: control, doxorubicin alone, losartan alone and doxorubicin + losartan combination groups. At day 0, the losartan alone and doxorubicin + losartan combination groups received losartan; and at day 8, the doxorubicin alone and doxorubicin + losartan combination groups received doxorubicin i.v. Tumor growth and intratumoral distribution of doxorubicin were evaluated. The mechanism underlying the enhanced anti-tumor effect of the combination of doxorubicin and losartan was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. Treatment with losartan alone did not suppress tumor growth; In contrast, treatment with doxorubicin alone decreased tumor growth; losartan and doxorubicin were administered in combination, had a synergistic effect that the tumor growth was much more inhibited. The decreased proliferation as indicated by down-regulation of Ki67, and increased apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and caspase-3 staining. The expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 increased in doxorubicin + losartan combination groups. Losartan can increase the therapeutic effectiveness of doxorubicin, yielding more great antitumor benefit. This study provided a rationale for initiating clinical trials using losartan in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to increase their therapeutic effectiveness.

  20. Beneficial Outcome of Losartan Therapy Depends on Type of FBN1 Mutation in Marfan Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, R.; Hartog, A.W. den; Radonic, T.; Micha, D.; Maugeri, A.; Dijk, F.S. Van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Timmermans, J.; Scholte, A.J.; Berg, M.P.; Groenink, M.; Mulder, B.J.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Waard, V. de; Pals, G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that losartan reduces aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome. However, treatment response is highly variable. This study investigates losartan effectiveness in genetically classified subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this predefined substudy of COMPARE,

  1. Beneficial Outcome of Losartan Therapy Depends on Type of FBN1 Mutation in Marfan Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Romy; den Hartog, Alexander W.; Radonic, Teodora; Micha, Dimitra; Maugeri, Alessandra; van Dijk, Fleur S.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that losartan reduces aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome. However, treatment response is highly variable. This study investigates losartan effectiveness in genetically classified subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this predefined substudy of COMPARE,

  2. Effect of dietary fibers on losartan uptake and transport in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazaki, Ayano; Takahashi, Naho; Miyake, Reiko; Hiroshima, Yuka; Abe, Mariko; Yasui, Airi; Imai, Kimie

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary fibers on the transport of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, in small intestinal cells. Using Caco-2 cells in vitro, losartan uptake and transport were evaluated in the presence of various fibers (cellulose, chitosan, sodium alginate and glucomannan). Dietary fibers caused a decrease in the uptake of losartan, with chitosan causing a significant reduction. Chitosan and glucomannan significantly reduced the transport of losartan, while cellulose or sodium alginate did not. Dietary fibers also reduced the level of free losartan; however, this did not correlate with the observed reduction in losartan uptake and transport. In summary, chitosan had the greatest inhibitory effect on losartan uptake and transport, and this potential interaction should be considered in patients taking losartan. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Effects of Telmisartan and Losartan on Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bakıner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Telmisartan has been reported to increase insulin sensitivity by acting as a partial PPAR-gamma agonist, regardless of its renin-angiotensin system inhibition, but losartan has no such activity. In this study, we compared the effects of telmisartan and losartan on insulin sensitivity among type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Method: Age-, sex- and weight-matched patients, who had been on telmisartan or losartan treatment for at least 3 months, were included. Their anthropometric measurements were performed, blood pressures were recorded. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained for analyzing the levels of glucose, HbA1C, insulin and adiponectin. HOMA-IR was calculated. An euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure was performed in each subject and M index was calculated. Thereafter, telmisartan and losartan were withdrawn in both groups. A cross-over design was planned; following a wash-out period of 15 days, losartan group (Group 1 was given telmisartan 80 mg/day, telmisartan group (Group 2 was administered losartan 50 mg/day. After 12 weeks of therapy, all measurements, calculations and the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test were re-performed. Results: General characteristics of the patients at inclusion were similar. Nine cases in group 1 and 8 cases in Group 2 concluded the follow-up. In Group 1, among all follow-up parameters, only weight exhibited a significant decrease at final evaluation (p=0,034. In Group 2, only M value was found to increase (p=0,028. Discussion: Our findings indicated that losartan improved insulin sensitivity in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes, and telmisartan use resulted in more weight loss. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 92-7

  4. LA TERAPIA DE REMPLAZO ENZIMÁTICO ENZIMÁTICO TRATAMIENTO ENFERMEDADES EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE ENFERMEDADES GENÉTICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Homero Sáenz; Luis Alejandro Barrera

    2003-01-01

    La terapia de remplazo enzimático (TRE), consiste en suministrarle a un paciente una proteína exógena, que en su organismo está siendo sintetizada anormalmente. La proteína puede provenir de tejidos y fluidos humanos, ser sintetizada en bacterias, células de mamífero o levaduras, a las cuales se les ha introducido el gen correspondiente. Actualmente son tratadas con TRE las enfermedades de Gaucher, Fabry y la inmunodeficiencia humana combinada. Además existen avanzados estudios en las enferme...

  5. Losartan versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduces cardiovascular events especially well in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne Christine H; Westergaard, Bo; Sehestedt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study has previously demonstrated a beneficial effect of losartan compared to atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment in patients with essential hypertension and left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). However, patient age often...... influences the choice of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, we investigated the influence of age on the effects of losartan versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment....

  6. Terapia Génica

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Zarante

    2001-01-01

    Definición
    La terapia génica es el proceso por el cual se inserta material genético en una célula, con el fin de hacer que ésta produzca una proteína normal. Las utilidades van desde curar enfermedades unigénicas hasta modificar el equilibrio del sistema inmune, permitiendo la modulación de la respuesta contra cualquier antígeno. En esencia es cambiar la secuencia del genotipo de un organismo para que tenga implicaciones fenotípicas.

    &...

  7. Optimal dose of losartan for renoprotection in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen; Rossing, Peter; Juhl, Tina R

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II subtype-1 receptor antagonists represent a valuable new class of drugs in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the optimal dose of losartan for renoprotection and blood pressure reduction in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Fifty...... consecutive hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy received increasing doses of losartan, 50, 100, and 150 mg once daily in three periods each lasting 2 months. At baseline and at the end of each treatment period, albuminuria, 24-h blood pressure (TM2420 A&D), and glomerular...... filtration rate (GFR) ([(51)Cr]EDTA plasma clearance) were determined. RESULTS: Baseline values of albuminuria (geometric mean (95% CI)) and GFR (means+/-SEM) were 1138 (904-1432) mg/24 h and 91+/-3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. The blood pressure at baseline was 155/81+/-3/2 mmHg. All doses of losartan...

  8. Terapia combinada con electroestimulacion y apositos convencionales, como tratamiento de ulceras y heridas en pacientes en hemodialisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melero Rubio, Esperanza; Parraga Diaz, Mateo

    2011-01-01

    ... de la herida y a elegir un determinado producto mas adecuado. Es la evolucion del estado de la piel y la evaluacion de la herida lo que debe determinar la efectividad del protocolo de cura elegido. En el caso que se presenta el protocolo de actuacion fue la aplicacion de un aposito de carbon activado y, como novedad, se introdujo el uso combinado de un ...

  9. Cardiovascular interactions between losartan and fructose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senador, Danielle; Key, Mary; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Elased, Khalid M; Morris, Mariana

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether pharmacological blockade of angiotensin (Ang) AT1 receptors alters the cardiovascular, metabolic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2) responses to a fructose diet in mice. C57BL male mice were fed with a 60% fructose diet for 8 weeks in combination with losartan treatment on week 9 (30 mg/kg per day). Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and autonomic balance were monitored using radiotelemetry with spectral analysis. Renal ACE and ACE2 activity and protein levels as well as Ang II and Ang 1-7 were measured. Fructose impaired glucose tolerance and increased plasma cholesterol and insulin. These effects were not corrected by losartan treatment. Fructose increased BP and HR but only during the dark period. Short-term losartan treatment decreased BP by 16% in the fructose group but had no effect in controls. This was accompanied by a decrease in BP variance and its low-frequency component. Fructose increased Ang II (plasma and kidney) and ACE 2 (renal activity and protein expression). Losartan alone increased plasma Ang II in plasma and ACE2 in kidney. There were no changes in renal Ang 1-7 levels. Losartan reversed the pressor effect of a high fructose diet, demonstrating that there are prominent interactions between a dietary regimen that produces glucose intolerance and an antihypertensive drug that antagonizes Ang signaling. The mechanism of change may be via renal Ang II rather than the ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathway because the fructose losartan combination resulted in lowered renal Ang II without changes in Ang 1-7.

  10. Terapia inmunosupresora en pacientes con Nefropatía Membranosa Idiopática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Llerena García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta a la terapia combinada según el esquema de Ponticelli en pacientes con Nefropatía Membranosa (NM idiopática, en la tasa de remisión de la proteinuria, la tasa de filtración glomerular (TFG y la frecuencia de complicaciones. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo tipo serie de casos en pacientes con NM idiopàtica durante los años 1995 - 2005 que recibieron terapia inmunosupresora, según esquema de Ponticelli. Se determinó la tasa de remisión de la proteinuria y la evolución de la TFG. Resultados: Diez pacientes con NM idiopática cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. La mitad de los casos tuvo remisión parcial (RP al finalizar la terapia; no hubo casos con remisión completa (RC. Al último control, 10% presentó RC y 70% RP. El 80% de los pacientes presentó efectos adversos. Conclusiones: Al finalizar la terapia inmunosupresora según esquema de Ponticelli, se evidencia reducción de la proteinuria (p>0,05, y remisión al último control (p < 0,05, probablemente asociado al uso de bloqueadores del eje renina-angiotensina-aldosterona. Los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia inmunosupresora son frecuentes, sin embargo ningún paciente descontinuó el tratamiento. (Rev Med Hered 2009;20:60-69.

  11. Terapia Génica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Zarante

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Definición
    La terapia génica es el proceso por el cual se inserta material genético en una célula, con el fin de hacer que ésta produzca una proteína normal. Las utilidades van desde curar enfermedades unigénicas hasta modificar el equilibrio del sistema inmune, permitiendo la modulación de la respuesta contra cualquier antígeno. En esencia es cambiar la secuencia del genotipo de un organismo para que tenga implicaciones fenotípicas.

    Historia
    Desde el descubrimiento de las enzimas de restricción en el año de 1970 por Arber y Hamilton se sentaron las bases para transferir genes entre diferentes células u organismos, inclusive pertenecientes a diferentes especies. En 1978 se realizó la primera hormona recombinante insertando el gen de la insulina en una bacteria E. coli. De allí en adelante se afianzaron los conocimientos necesarios para transferir genes a células humanas con el fin de alterar el fenotipo patológico y generar una nueva forma terapéutica. La primera transferencia se realizó en el año de 1989 en un paciente con una inmunodeficiencia. Aunque no se encontraron efectos clínicos se explicitó que tampoco había efectos deletéreos como muchos apocalípticamente habían pronosticado. En 1990 se trató con terapia génica un paciente que padecía de la deficiencia de la enzima adenosin-deaminasa presentando infecciones bacterianas a repetición.

    Aunque la mejoría fue temporal, con este ensayo se comprobó que la terapia génica tenía posibilidades terapéuticas reales....

  12. Psoriasis y nuevas terapias

    OpenAIRE

    Chouela R., Edgardo N.

    2011-01-01

    La psoriasis es una enfermedad compleja, sistémica y crónica, que compromete la calidad de vida de los pacientes desde muy temprana edad y que requiere del compromiso del médico tratante para su manejo terapéutico. El mejor conocimiento de la fisiopatología de la enfermedad ha permitido el desarrollo de nuevas terapéuticas, algunas ya disponibles y otras en vías de serlo en los próximos años. Esta reseña de las nuevas terapias disponibles de la psoriasis y de las que están en camino de ...

  13. Formulation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of losartan potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj J. Aghera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were prepared to improve its bioavailability, to avoid pre-systemic metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic first pass elimination. Methods: The Sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression procedure using different concentration of Starch 1500 and microcrystalline cellulose. Compatibility studies of drug and polymer were performed by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC. Preformulation property of API was evaluated. Postcompressional parameters such disintegration time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro drug release and in vivo bioavailability study of optimized formulation were determined. Results: FTIR spectroscopy and DSC study revealed that there was no possible interaction between drug and polymers. The precompression parameters were in acceptable range of pharmacopoeial specification. The disintegration time of optimized formulation (F3 was upto 48 sec. The in vitro release of Losartan Potassium was upto 15 min. The percentage relative bioavailability of Losartan Potassium from optimized sublingual tablets was found to be 144.7 %. Conclusions: Sublingual tablets of Losartan Potassium were successfully prepared with improved bioavailability.

  14. Losartan treatment attenuates tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sarah C W; Velten, Markus; Youtz, Dane J; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Devine, Raymond D; McCarthy, Donna O; Wold, Loren E

    2015-08-01

    Fatigue and muscle wasting are common symptoms experienced by cancer patients. Data from animal models demonstrate that angiotensin is involved in tumor-induced muscle wasting, and that tumor growth can independently affect myocardial function, which could contribute to fatigue in cancer patients. In clinical studies, inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, suggesting a mechanistic role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we investigated whether an angiotensin (AT) 1-receptor antagonist could prevent the development of tumor-associated myocardial dysfunction. Colon26 adenocarcinoma (c26) cells were implanted into female CD2F1 mice at 8weeks of age. Simultaneously, mice were administered Losartan (10mg/kg) daily via their drinking water. In vivo echocardiography, blood pressure, in vitro cardiomyocyte function, cell proliferation assays, and measures of systemic inflammation and myocardial protein degradation were performed 19days following tumor cell injection. Losartan treatment prevented tumor-induced loss of muscle mass and in vitro c26 cell proliferation, decreased tumor weight, and attenuated myocardial expression of interleukin-6. Furthermore, Losartan treatment mitigated tumor-associated alterations in calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with improved myocyte contraction velocity, systolic function, and blood pressures in the hearts of tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that Losartan may mitigate tumor-induced myocardial dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative evaluation of Losartan/Hydrochlorothiazide (fixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this prospective randomized study is to comparatively evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of combination therapy (losartan/hydrochlorothiazide) with monotherapy (amlodipine). This prospective randomized clinical study was carried out for twelve months (July 2012 – June 2013) and enrolled 250 newly ...

  16. comparison of losartan and enalapril effects on renal function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... COMPARISON OF LOSARTAN AND ENALAPRIL EFFECTS ON RENAL FUNCTION IN HYPERTENSIVE ADULTS. WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AT A ... Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) modifiers such as Angiotensin .... Cigarette smoking; n (%). Yes. 16 (8.0). 11 (9.5). 5 (6.0). 0.364.

  17. Reflexiones humanistas sobre conocimiento y servicios en terapia física, terapia ocupacional y terapia del lenguaje

    OpenAIRE

    H. de Alvarado, Marie Luise; Cuervo E., Clemencia; Trujillo R., Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo constituyó la ponencia central del XX Aniversario de las Carreras de Terapia Física, Terapia Ocupacional y Terapia del Lenguaje en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, celebrado en marzo de 1986. Tiene como propósito fomentar la reflexión sobre la relación entre las dimensiones disciplinar y de formación del profesional de servicios humanos en Terapia Física, Terapia Ocupacional y Terapia del Lenguaje, de acuerdo a una concepción humanista.

  18. Chronic effects of losartan on the muscles and the serologic profiles of mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Sung, Soo-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2015-12-15

    Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, attenuates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, which inhibits myogenic regeneration. Although many researchers have demonstrated that losartan has anti-fibrotic and protective effects on cardiac and skeletal muscles, for long-term administration to treat dystrophic disorders, it is essential to demonstrate not only the therapeutic effects of losartan on muscles but also its effects on other organs and on blood biochemistry. Mdx mice, an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), were fed losartan dissolved in tap water. After 44weeks, the skeletal (gastrocnemius), cardiac, and diaphragm muscles of mdx mice were removed. Tissue and blood samples were collected from all experimental animals. Effects of losartan on muscle regeneration, fibrosis, and blood enzymatic profiles were evaluated. In histopathological findings and serum biochemistry analyses, chronic losartan administration showed muscular protective effects and inhibited fibrosis in skeletal (gastrocnemius), cardiac, and diaphragmatic muscles. In addition, losartan had no effects on other solid organs. Interestingly, losartan had beneficial effects on serum HDL ratio. This study demonstrates the therapeutic effects of losartan on muscles and its effects on other organs and on blood biochemistry. In conclusion, our results provide useful information for consideration of chronic losartan administration be as a treatment of DMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beneficial Outcome of Losartan Therapy Depends on Type of FBN1 Mutation in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Romy; den Hartog, Alexander W; Radonic, Teodora; Micha, Dimitra; Maugeri, Alessandra; van Dijk, Fleur S; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J M; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that losartan reduces aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome. However, treatment response is highly variable. This study investigates losartan effectiveness in genetically classified subgroups. In this predefined substudy of COMPARE, Marfan patients were randomized to daily receive losartan 100 mg or no losartan. Aortic root dimensions were measured by MRI at baseline and after 3 years. FBN1 mutations were classified based on fibrillin-1 protein effect into (1) haploinsufficiency, decreased amount of normal fibrillin-1, or (2) dominant negative, normal fibrillin-1 abundance with mutant fibrillin-1 incorporated in the matrix. A pathogenic FBN1 mutation was found in 117 patients, of whom 79 patients were positive for a dominant negative mutation (67.5%) and 38 for a mutation causing haploinsufficiency (32.5%). Baseline characteristics between treatment groups were similar. Overall, losartan significantly reduced aortic root dilatation rate (no losartan, 1.3±1.5 mm/3 years, n=59 versus losartan, 0.8±1.4 mm/3 years, n=58; P=0.009). However, losartan reduced only aortic root dilatation rate in haploinsufficient patients (no losartan, 1.8±1.5 mm/3 years, n=21 versus losartan 0.5±0.8 mm/3 years, n=17; P=0.001) and not in dominant negative patients (no losartan, 1.2±1.7 mm/3 years, n=38 versus losartan 0.8±1.3 mm/3 years, n=41; P=0.197). Marfan patients with haploinsufficient FBN1 mutations seem to be more responsive to losartan therapy for inhibition of aortic root dilatation rate compared with dominant negative patients. Additional treatment strategies are needed in Marfan patients with dominant negative FBN1 mutations. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp; Unique Identifier: NTR1423. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Effects of losartan and captopril on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob E; Dahlström, Ulf; Gøtzsche, Ole

    2004-01-01

    of losartan and captopril on regional systolic, diastolic, and overall left ventricular (LV) function after AMI. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-five patients aged > or =50 years with documented AMI and heart failure and/or LV dysfunction were randomly assigned treatment with either losartan (50 mg......: WMSI decreased in both groups (losartan 1.58 +/- 0.23 to 1.52 +/- 0.26, P =.009, captopril 1.60 +/- 0.24 to 1.48 +/- 0.22, P losartan -0.05 +/- 0.19, P =.007). In both groups E-DT increased......, although the increase was significant only in patients treated with captoril (193 +/- 61 ms to 208 +/- 70 ms, P =.05). The change in E-DT was not different between treatment groups (captopril 14 +/- 74 ms vs losartan 7 +/- 80 ms, P =.52). Tei index decreased in both groups (losartan 0.59 +/- 0.13 to 0...

  1. Efectividad de distintas terapias físicas en el tratamiento conservador de la fascitis plantar. Revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Díaz López; Patricia Guzmán Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentos: La fascitis plantar es la afección más frecuente de dolor no traumático en el tobillo-pie. Se presenta más en mujeres entre los 40-70 años con comienzo progresivo y difuso en planta del pie o tobillo que poco a poco se agudiza impidiendo la marcha. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar si las distintas terapias físicas utilizadas en el tratamiento conservador de la fascitis plantar de al menos un mes de evolución son efectivas individualmente y/o combinadas entre sí. Métodos:...

  2. Pharmacogenetic approach to losartan in Marfan patients: a starting point to improve dosing regimen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Marelli, Susan; Cheli, Stefania; Montanelli, Stefano; Viecca, Federico; Salvi, Lucia; Ferrara, Alfio; Clementi, Emilio; Trifirò, Giuliana; Pini, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Losartan is under evaluation for managing Marfan patients with aortic root dilatation. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes convert losartan to E3174 active metabolite. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 defective alleles, according to losartan tolerance in paediatric Marfan patients. We genotyped 53 paediatric Marfan patients treated with losartan. The rate of aortic root dilatation was evaluated using the delta z-score variation. Differences in tolerated losartan daily doses with respect to CYP metabolic classes were assessed through the Kruskal-Wallis test. The losartan daily dose spans from 0.16 to 2.50 mg/kg (median 1.10 mg/kg). As we expect from the pharmacokinetics pathway, we observe highest tolerated dose in CYP2C9 poor metabolisers (median 1.50 mg/kg, interquartile range 1.08-1.67 mg/kg); however, this difference is not statistically significant. The optimal dose of angiotensin receptor blocker is not known, and no data are available about losartan pharmacogenetic profile in Marfan syndrome; we have proposed a strategy to tackle this issue based on evaluating the major genetic polymorphisms involved in the losartan conversion into active carboxylic acid metabolite. Further studies are needed to support the use of genetic polymorphisms as predictors of the right dose of losartan.

  3. Caracterización molecular de la cadena gama común y Jak3 en un individuo afectado con inmunodeficiencia severa combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Patiño Grajales

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada (IDSC es una enfermedad
    de origen genético, que se puede heredar de forma autosómica
    recesiva o ligada al cromosoma X. La IDSC se caracteriza por un
    defecto en el número y la diferenciación de los linfocitos T y NK. Los
    individuos afectados desarrollan diarrea crónica, infecciones persistentes y severas como neumonía, septicemia e infecciones fúngicas.
    Estos pacientes presentan retardo en el crecimiento y pueden morir a
    temprana edad si no se realiza una terapia de corrección genética o un
    trasplante de células hematopoyéticas. Las mutaciones responsables
    de la IDSC comprometen principalmente el gen de la cadena gama
    común (γc y la proteína Jak3 que son proteínas fundamentales en la
    transducción de señales de los receptores para varias citoquinas esenciales en la diferenciación y activación de células del sistema inmune, las cuales incluyen IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9 e IL-15 (1,2.

     

     

  4. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  5. Uricosuric effect of losartan in patients with renal transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, A H

    2001-01-01

    and 10 women, median age 47 years (range, 25-63 years), were studied in an open randomized crossover trial, comparing a 2-week control period with a 2-week period of once-daily administration of 50 mg of losartan. The main outcome measurements were fractional excretion of uric acid (FE(uric acid)) based...... on 24-hr urine collections and plasma uric acid. RESULTS: The median FE(uric acid) was 5.7% (range, 2.4-10.4%) in the control period with a median change of +0.84% (range, -1.15% to +2.77%) in the losartan period (Puric acid was 0.47 mM (0.29-0.69 mM) in the control period with a change......-daily administration of 50 mg of losartan in hypertensive CsA-treated patients with renal transplants caused a 17% increase in FE(uric acid) and an 8% fall in plasma uric acid....

  6. Terapia de linguagem na afasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spinelli

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia da linguagem na afasia foi estudada em 15 pacientes, 8 do sexo masculino e 7 do sexo feminino; a idade variou de menos de 10 anos a mais de 50 anos; em 11 casos a afasia era sequela de acidente vascular cerebral e, em 4, de traumatismo crânio-encefálico. Quanto ao tipo de afasia, 5 pacientes apresentavam déficits predominantemente de expressão e 10 apresentavam déficits receptivos e expressivos em graus equiparáveis. Em 6 casos a terapia foi iniciada dentro dos 3 primeiros meses de instalação do quadro; nos restantes foi iniciada mais tardiamente. Dos 15 pacientes, 11 apresentaram evolução satisfatória, a qual não depndeu do grau de afasia, do tipo de afasia, da idade do paciente, do tipo de patologia e do intervalo entre a instalação do quadro afásico e o início da terapia. A terapia da linguagem no paciente afásico é efetiva, o prognóstico não pode ser feito a priori. Somente a evolução do caso com sua retestagem criteriosa poderá dar dados realmente úteis para se falar em evolução.

  7. Terapia gestáltica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Burga

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available La terapia gestáltica a través de sus fundamentos básicos proporciona al hombre los medios necesarios para obtener el atoareness, que genera la auto-realización o auto-apoyo, y así alcanzar el cierre de una gestalt inconclusa, logrando la satisfacción de sus necesidades

  8. Kombination af aliskiren og losartan hos patienter med type 2-diabetes og nefropati - Sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; Persson, Frederik; Lewis, Julia B

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the renoprotective effects of adding aliskiren to treatment with losartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. A total of 599 patients were randomized to six months of treatment with placebo or aliskiren in addition to losartan 100 mg and optimal...

  9. ACE gene polymorphism and losartan treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cooper, Mark E.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Liu, Nancy; Lunceford, Jared; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Wong, Peggy H.; Lyle, Paulette A.; Rossing, Peter; Brenner, Barry M.

    Losartan treatment reduced renal outcomes in proteinuric patients with type 2 diabetes in the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study. It is unknown whether an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene

  10. ACE gene polymorphism and losartan treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cooper, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    Losartan treatment reduced renal outcomes in proteinuric patients with type 2 diabetes in the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study. It is unknown whether an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) g...

  11. Effect of a reduction in uric acid on renal outcomes during losartan treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A; Laverman, Goos D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We...

  12. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Erikstrup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    not significantly compete with bradykinin and does not change the binding affinity of bradykinin on the B2R. Furthermore, Losartan but not Candesartan mimicked the ability of bradykinin to increase the recovery of contractile force after metabolic stress in rat atrial tissue strips. In conclusion, Losartan...

  13. ACE gene polymorphism and losartan treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de, Zeeuw D.; Cooper, M.E.; Remuzzi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Losartan treatment reduced renal outcomes in proteinuric patients with type 2 diabetes in the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study. It is unknown whether an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE......) gene predicts renal outcomes and death and influences the effect of losartan in these patients. Pharmacogenetic analyses were performed comparing losartan with placebo administered with conventional blood pressure-lowering therapy in 1435 (95%) of the 1513 RENAAL study patients. The primary endpoint......, losartan reduced the risk of reaching the composite endpoint by 5.8% (95% confidence interval, -23.3, 28.0), 17.6% (3.8, 29.4), and 27.9% (7.0, 44.1) among those with the II, ID, and DD genotypes, respectively. Similar trends were demonstrated for the individual endpoints. In conclusion, proteinuric type 2...

  14. Losartan renography for the detection of renal artery stenosis: comparison with captopril renography and evaluation of dose and timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Emel Ceylan; Erguen, Eser Lay; Salanci, Bilge Volkan; Ugur, Oemer; Caner, Biray [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Oeztuerk, M. Halil; Hekimoglu, Baki [Social Security Hospital Clinic of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Altun, Buelent [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nephrology, Ankara (Turkey); Cil, Barbaros [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide renography with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition plays an important role in the diagnosis of haemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis. Angiotensin receptor antagonists inhibit the renin angiotensin system at different levels from ACE inhibitors by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to AT1 receptors. The AT1 angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan has recently been used clinically in the treatment of hypertension. However, the available data on the use of losartan with renography for the detection of renovascular hypertension are limited and contradictory. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the effectiveness of losartan renography and captopril scintigraphy in revealing renal artery stenosis. A total of 61 renal units in 32 patients with hypertension were studied in two groups based on the losartan dosage (50 mg in group A and 100 mg in group B). Group A consisted of 17 patients, in whom 19 renal units had angiographically proven renal artery stenosis ({>=}50%). In group B, there were 15 patients, in whom 20 renal arteries were stenotic. All of the patients underwent three renographies (baseline, captopril renography and early losartan renography). Early losartan renography was performed at 1 h after oral losartan administration in both groups. In group B, seven patients underwent additional losartan renography (late losartan) performed 3 h after oral losartan administration; these patients composed group B1. The sensitivities of captopril and losartan studies were 63.2% and 42% in group A, 65% and 65% in group B and 55.6% and 66.6% in group B1, respectively. From our preliminary results, we conclude that losartan is not superior to captopril renography for the detection of haemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis. However, a high dose (100 mg) of losartan provided higher sensitivity than the lower dose (50 mg). Late losartan scintigraphy provided similar diagnostic efficacy to early

  15. ANÁLISE HISTOLOGICA DE TUMORES MAMARIOS SUBMETIDOS A TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainara Moreno Sanches de Almeida

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A terapia fotodinâmica (TFD é uma modalidade terapêutica empregada no tratamento de diversas neoplasias malignas. Ela consiste na ação combinada de um composto fotossensível (FS, luz em comprimento de onda adequado e oxigênio molecular, gerando espécies reativas de oxigênio que levam as células tumorais a morte por necrose ou apoptose. O estudo teve como objetivo a análise histológica de tumores mamários, induzidos quimicamente, após a realização TFD. Foram utilizadas 15 ratas da linhagem Sprague-Dawley, divididas em dois grupos, grupo controle (GC - tumor mamário não tratado e grupo submetido à terapia fotodinâmica (G1 – tumor mamário retirado após 24h da realização da TFD. Na análise histológica observaram-se diversas características gerais de malignidade em ambos os grupos. No entanto, o grupo tratado com TFD apresentou uma alta resposta inflamatória e presença de necrose mostrando a eficácia do tratamento no combate ao câncer de mama.

  16. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus + 0.10 mg/dl; p = 0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control.

  17. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Quigley

    Full Text Available To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in mice.We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13, while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001. The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01. Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001, but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9. Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007. Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at

  18. Armas Combinadas no Séc. XX: Uma Revisão Histórica

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As Armas Combinadas são empregues desde a antiguidade, mas só de há alguns séculos para cá aparece a palavra, e se começa a abordar a temática. O Séc. XX está repleto de exemplos do emprego do conceito de Armas Combinadas. Já no Séc XVII, Antoine Jomini, começa a aborda-lo, e desde então, há muitos autores a debruçar-se sobre o tema, destacando-se desde já militares ilustres como John Fuller, Liddel Hart, Heinz Guderian, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, en...

  19. Terapia antirretroviral em crianças e adolescentes infectados pelo HIV: o que sabemos após 30 anos de epidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ricordi Bazin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o uso da terapia antirretroviral combinada em crianças e adolescentes com AIDS. Foram captados 247 resumos nos portais PubMed e LILACS, publicados entre 1983 e 2013, sendo utilizados 69 artigos para as referências bibliográficas. A atenção atribuída às pesquisas na faixa etária pediátrica durante os trinta anos de epidemia de AIDS se justifica por características imunológicas próprias, sendo a progressão da AIDS mais rápida em crianças que em adultos. Pesquisas recentes abordam estratégias de intervenção medicamentosa de alta potência antes do aparecimento dos sintomas iniciais. A introdução precoce da terapia antirretroviral combinada foi implantada com eficácia e segurança em populações com poucos recursos fixos, com melhora significativa da sobrevida desses pacientes. O desafio atual é lidar com uma doença crônica com intercorrências agudas. Novas pesquisas serão necessárias, atentando para as especificidades populacionais e particularizando as necessidades individuais dos pacientes pediátricos.

  20. The effect of tripterygium glucoside tablet on pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongsheng; Zhou, Xuexue; Shi, Hui; Shi, Wenyu; Ye, Shengjie; Zhang, Hai

    2017-10-01

    Losartan and tripterygium glucoside tablet (TGT) are often simultaneously used for reducing urine protein excretion in clinic. However, it is unknown whether there is potential herb-drug interaction between losartan and TGT. The aim of this study was to investigate their potential herb-drug interaction, and clarify the mechanism of the effect of TGT on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 in rats. The plasma concentrations of losartan and EXP3174 were determined by LC-MS, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The Cmax , t1/2 and AUC(0-t) of losartan became larger after co-administration, while the Cmax and AUC(0-t) of EXP3174 became smaller, suggesting that TGT could influence the pharmacokinetics of losartan and EXP3174. The effects of TGT and its main components on the metabolic rate of losartan were further investigated in rat liver microsomes. Results indicated that TGT and its two main ingredients could decrease the metabolic rate of losartan. Therefore, it was speculated that TGT might increase the plasma concentration of losartan and decrease the concentration of EXP3174 by inhibiting the metabolism of losartan. The results could provide references for clinical medication guidance of losartan and TGT to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Terapia ocupacional en medicina paliativa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicora, Yamila

    2009-01-01

    Terapia ocupacional interviene en el tratamiento de pacientes desde muy temprana edad (recién nacidos) hasta ancianos con déficit en el desempeño de alguna o todas las áreas ocupacionales: - Actividades de la vida diaria (AVD) básicas y personales - AVDI (instrumentales) - Educación - Trabajo - Juego - Ocio - Participación Social Se tienen en cuenta las habilidades de desempeño (motoras, de procesamiento...

  2. Terapia psicológica para la esquizofrenia: Una realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Del Toro Granados

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La esquizofrenia es entendida como un cuadro psiquiátrico, crónico y altamente discapacitante; en la cual, a pesar de las variaciones de la evolución en cada paciente, se observan los siguientes síntomas: ideas delirantes, alucinaciones, comportamiento desorganizado (síntomas positivos y aplanamiento afectivo (síntomas negativos. A finales de los años 70 se produce un cambio en la concepción etiológica de los trastornos psicóticos que comienzan a explicarse desde una perspectiva multicausal, es decir, como predeterminados e influidos por condiciones biopsicosociales. Uno de los más completos paquetes de intervención es la Terapia Psicológica Integral para la esquizofrenia (IPT. Los autores de este protocolo terapéutico parten del supuesto que los pacientes que reúnen criterios para esquizofrenia muestran déficits en varios niveles funcionales de organización de la conducta (nivel atencional-perceptivo, nivel cognitivo, nivel micro-social y nivel macro-social. En el presente análisis, se describen los hallazgos en términos de eficacia de la terapia psicológica integral para la esquizofrenia combinada con farmacoterapia; los distintos estudios reseñados indican que la IPT muestra superioridad terapéutica frente a otro tipo de intervenciones. (DUAZARY 2011, 93 - 98 AbstractSchizophrenia is defined as a table psychiatric, chronic and highly disabling, in the which, despite changes in the evolution of each patient, observe the following symptoms: ideas delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior (positive symptoms and blunted affect (symptoms negative. In the late 70’s is a change in the etiological concept of psychotic disorders starting to explain from a causes, ie as default and influenced by biopsychosocial conditions. One of the most complete packages of intervention is the therapy Comprehensive psychological schizophrenia (IPT. The authors of this therapeutic format asume Patients who meet criteria for

  3. Duelo, duelo patológico y terapia interpersonal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millán-González, Ricardo; Solano-Medina, Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    .... La terapia interpersonal (TI) aborda cuatro elementos principales, uno de ellos el duelo. Objetivo: Revisar la literatura existente sobre duelo, duelo patologico y tratamiento con terapia interpersonal...

  4. ACE2 activity was increased in atherosclerotic plaque by losartan: Possible relation to anti-atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue Hui; Hao, Qing Qing; Wang, Xiao Yu; Chen, Xu; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Li; Li, Shu Ying; Yu, Qing Tao; Dong, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a new member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and it has been proposed that ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target for the control of cardiovascular disease. The effect of losartan on the ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis was studied. Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by high-cholesterol diet for 3 months. An Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (losartan, 25 mg/kg/d) was given for 3 months. ACE2 activity was measured by fluorescence assay and the extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated by H&E and Oil Red O staining. In addition, the effect of losartan on ACE2 activity in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro was also evaluated. Losartan increased ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis in vivo and SMCs in vitro. Losartan inhibited atherosclerotic evolution. Addition of losartan blocked Ang II-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activity, and blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) with PD98059 prevented Ang II-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activity. The results showed that ACE2 activity was regulated in atherosclerotic plaque by losartan, which may play an important role in treatment of atherosclerosis. The mechanism involves Ang II-AT1R-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs (MAPKs) signaling pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Binding of Losartan to Angiotensin AT1 Receptors Increases Dopamine D1 Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Scott, Lena; Crambert, Susanne; Zelenin, Sergey; Eklöf, Ann-Christine; Di Ciano, Luis; Ibarra, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Signaling through both angiotensin AT1 receptors (AT1R) and dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) modulates renal sodium excretion and arterial BP. AT1R and D1R form heterodimers, but whether treatment with AT1R antagonists functionally modifies D1R via allosterism is unknown. In this study, the AT1R antagonist losartan strengthened the interaction between AT1R and D1R and increased expression of D1R on the plasma membrane in vitro. In rat proximal tubule cells that express endogenous AT1R and D1R, losartan increased cAMP generation. Losartan increased cAMP in HEK 293a cells transfected with both AT1R and D1R, but it did not increase cAMP in cells transfected with either receptor alone, suggesting that losartan induces D1R activation. Furthermore, losartan did not increase cAMP in HEK 293a cells expressing AT1R and mutant S397/S398A D1R, which disrupts the physical interaction between AT1R and D1R. In vivo, administration of a D1R antagonist significantly attenuated the antihypertensive effect of losartan in rats with renal hypertension. Taken together, these data imply that losartan might exert its antihypertensive effect both by inhibiting AT1R signaling and by enhancing D1R signaling. PMID:22193384

  6. Effects of losartan combined with exercise training in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Azevedo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether combined treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and exercise training (ET in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR would have an additive effect in reducing hypertension and improving baroreflex sensitivity when compared with losartan alone. Male SHR (8 weeks old were assigned to 3 groups: sedentary placebo (SP, N = 16, sedentary under losartan treatment (SL, N = 11; 10 mg kg-1 day-1, by gavage, and ET under losartan treatment (TL, N = 10. ET was performed on a treadmill 5 days/week for 60 min at 50% of peak VO2, for 18 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured with a catheter inserted into the carotid artery, and cardiac output with a microprobe placed around the ascending aorta. The baroreflex control of heart rate was assessed by administering increasing doses of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside (iv. Losartan significantly reduced mean BP (178 ± 16 vs 132 ± 12 mmHg and left ventricular hypertrophy (2.9 ± 0.4 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 mg/g, and significantly increased baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia sensitivity (1.0 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.2 ± 1.7 bpm/mmHg, respectively in SL compared with SP. However, losartan combined with ET had no additional effect on BP, baroreflex sensitivity or left ventricular hypertrophy when compared with losartan alone. In conclusion, losartan attenuates hypertension and improves baroreflex sensitivity in SHR. However, ET has no synergistic effect on BP in established hypertension when combined with losartan, at least at the dosage used in this investigation.

  7. Different initiatives across Europe to enhance losartan utilization post generics: impact and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C; Godman, Brian; Petzold, Max; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Bennett, Kathleen; Bishop, Iain; Bucsics, Anna; Hesse, Ulrik; Martin, Andrew; Simoens, Steven; Zara, Corinne; Malmström, Rickard E

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for health authorities across Europe to fully realize potential savings from increased use of generics to sustain their healthcare systems. A variety of strategies were used across Europe following the availability of generic losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to be approved and marketed, to enhance its prescribing vs. single-sourced drugs in the class. Demand-side strategies ranged from 100% co-payment for single-sourced ARBs in Denmark to no specific measures. We hypothesized this heterogeneity of approaches would provide opportunities to explore prescribing in a class following patent expiry. Contrast the impact of the different approaches among European countries and regions to the availability of generic losartan to provide future guidance. Retrospective segmented regression analyses applying linear random coefficient models with country specific intercepts and slopes were used to assess the impact of the various initiatives across Europe following the availability of generic losartan. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs). Price reductions for generic losartan were also measured. Utilization of losartan was over 90% of all ARBs in Denmark by the study end. Multiple measures in Sweden and one English primary care group also appreciably enhanced losartan utilization. Losartan utilization actually fell in some countries with no specific demand-side measures. Considerable differences were seen in the prices of generic losartan. Delisting single-sourced ARBs produced the greatest increase in losartan utilization. Overall, multiple demand-side measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits to fully realize savings from generics. There is no apparent "spill over" effect from one class to another to influence future prescribing patterns even if these are closely related.

  8. A Simple Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Determination of Losartan in Some Tablet Dosage Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, M. A.; Asadollahzadeh, H.; Fazelirad, H.

    2015-11-01

    A very simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the direct determination of losartan in some commercial tablets. The suggested method is based on the linear relationship between 0.1-5.0 μg/ml of losartan and its fluorescence intensity at 400 nm in acidic medium. The detection limit and relative standard deviation (for ten repetitive measurements of 2.0 μg/ml) were obtained as 12.0 ng/ml and 1.35%, respectively. The recommended method was successfully applied for the determination of losartan in three types of commercial tablets from different brands.

  9. Time course of the antiproteinuric and antihypertensive effect of losartan in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen; Jacobsen, Peter; Tarnow, Lise

    2003-01-01

    is unknown. We evaluated the time course of the antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effect after initiation of AT1 receptor blockade by losartan in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Ten hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy were included in the study. After a washout period of 4 weeks......, patients received losartan 100 mg once daily for 28 days. Every morning, one urine sample was collected for daily determination of albumin/creatinine ratio. Twenty-four hour blood pressure (Takeda TM2420), plasma renin and plasma creatinine were measured at baseline and days 7, 14 and 28. RESULTS: Baseline...... of losartan treatment and stabilized after 7 days (P

  10. Effect of Telmisartan or Losartan for Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Fatty Liver Protection Trial by Telmisartan or Losartan Study (FANTASY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Hirata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study compared the effects of telmisartan and losartan on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and biochemical markers of insulin resistance in hypertensive NAFLD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison of therapy with telmisartan or losartan. Nineteen hypertensive NAFLD patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to receive telmisartan at a dose of 20 mg once a day (n=12 or losartan at a dose of 50 mg once a day (n=7 for 12 months. Body fat area as determined by CT scanning and hepatic fat content based on the liver-to-spleen (L/S ratio, as well as several parameters of glycemic and lipid metabolism, were compared before and after 12 months. Results. The telmisartan group showed a significant decline in serum free fatty acid (FFA level (from 0.87±0.26 to 0.59±0.22 mEq/L (mean ± SD, P=0.005 and a significant increase in L/S ratio (P=0.049 evaluated by CT scan, while these parameters were not changed in the losartan group. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in improvement in liver enzymes with telmisartan and losartan treatment in hypertensive NAFLD patients with type 2 diabetes after 12 months, it is suggested that telmisartan may exert beneficial effects by improving fatty liver.

  11. Losartan treating podocyte injury induced by Ang II via downregulation of TRPC6 in podocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Xianggeng; Hu-Bo; Yu, S Y; Yin-Lianghong; Meng-Yu; Wang-Boxun; Yang-Jinsheng; Lin-Jiahui; Huang-Dexu; Chen-Lanlan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecule mechanisms of podocyte injury and proteinuria and the protective effects of losartan. This study set up three groups: a control group; an Ang II group (Ang II 10(-6) mol/l, Sigma); and a losartan group (losartan 10(-6) mol/l, Sigma). We used RT-PCR assay to detect TRPC6 mRNA expression, and Western blot to detect TRPC6 protein expression. TRPC6 overexpression was the basic change of podocyte injury and proteinuria occurrence. Losartan can treat podocyte injury and proteinuria induced by Ang II via downregulation of TRPC6 in podocytes. These findings maybe provide an ideal drug target for the diagnosis and treatment of acquired glomerular diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Effect of long-term losartan administration on renal haemodynamics and function in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, S; Parrinello, G; Scaglione, R; Costa, R; Bova, A; Palumbo, V A; Pinto, A; Amato, P; Licata, G

    2000-10-01

    In this study the efficacy and safety of long-term losartan administration on renal haemodynamics were evaluated in mild to moderate hypertension. After a run-in period with placebo, 18 hypertensives without renal or cardiovascular disease were allocated to losartan (50 mg/die for one year) treatment. Renal haemodynamic measurements included renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by standardized radioisotope study. Effective renal blood flow (ERBF), filtration fraction (FF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were also calculated. Blood pressure was evaluated monthly, whereas renal haemodynamics and function were detected at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of losartan administration. Losartan induced a significant (p function after 6 months of treatment, but these favourable effects were attenuated after 1 year of treatment.

  13. Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence evaluation of losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide tablet between Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudershan; Monif, Tausif; Khuroo, Arshad; Reyar, Simrit; Jain, Rakesh; Singla, Ajay K; Kurachi, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the bioequivalence between the test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablet and evaluate the effect of ethnicity on pharmacokinetics properties of losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide on healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. Randomized, open-label, crossover, bioavailability studies were conducted separately in healthy Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. One tablet either of test or of reference product was administered after 10 hours of overnight fasting. After dosing, serial blood samples were collected for a period of 48 hours for both the studies. Plasma samples were analyzed for losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide by a validated liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, tmax, and other pharmacokinetics parameters were determined from plasma concentration-time profiles for both test and reference formulations of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg tablets. Statistical evaluations were done to evaluate bioequivalence between generic test formulation (EPR0001) and Japanese reference product (Preminent®). Losartan, losartan carboxylic acid and hydrochlorothiazide were well tolerated by subjects in all periods of each study under fasted conditions. No serious adverse events were observed. The ratios of least square means for AUC0-t and Cmax and the affiliated 90% confidence intervals were within acceptance range recommended by PMDA. Marginal differences were observed in pharmacokinetic values of Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers. The results of these bioavailability studies indicate that the test formulation of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50 + 12.5 mg (EPR0001) tablets is bioequivalent to marketed Preminent® reference formulation in Asian Indian and Japanese volunteers, when administered under fasting conditions. Both test and reference formulations were well tolerated

  14. Association of treatment with losartan vs candesartan and mortality among patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanström, Henrik; Pasternak, Björn; Hviid, Anders

    2012-04-11

    The benefit of angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARBs) in heart failure is thought to be a class effect, but no head-to-head randomized trials have compared individual ARBs. Results from observational studies suggest that losartan may be associated with increased mortality in patients with heart failure compared with other ARBs. To assess the hypothesis that losartan use is associated with increased all-cause mortality in heart failure patients as compared with candesartan. We conducted a nationwide Danish registry-based cohort study, linking individual-level information on hospital contacts, filled prescriptions, and potential confounders. Patients aged 45 years and older with first-time hospitalization for heart failure in 1998-2008 were identified from the Danish National Patient Registry. New users of losartan and candesartan were selected for inclusion in the study cohort. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to compare the risk of all-cause mortality in users of losartan and candesartan. Among 4397 users of losartan, 1212 deaths occurred during 11,347 person-years of follow-up (unadjusted incidence rate [IR]/100 person-years, 10.7; 95% CI, 10.1-11.3) compared with 330 deaths during 3675 person-years among 2082 users of candesartan (unadjusted IR/100 person-years, 9.0; 95% CI, 8.1-10.0). Compared with candesartan, losartan was not associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% CI, 0.96-1.25) or cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.96-1.36). Compared with high doses of candesartan (16-32 mg), low-dose (12.5 mg) and medium-dose losartan (50 mg) were associated with increased mortality (HR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.19-3.55 and HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.11-1.73, respectively); use of high-dose losartan (100 mg) was similar in risk (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.00). Among patients with heart failure, overall use of losartan compared with candesartan was not associated with an increased mortality risk. Although low doses

  15. Differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in partial and full thickness burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akershoek, Johanneke J; Brouwer, Katrien M; Vlig, Marcel; Boekema, Bouke K H L; Beelen, Rob H J; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M W

    2017-01-01

    Healing of burn wounds is often associated with scar formation due to excessive inflammation and delayed wound closure. To date, no effective treatment is available to prevent the fibrotic process. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) was shown to be involved in fibrosis in various organs. Statins (e.g. Atorvastatin), Angiotensin receptor antagonists (e.g. Losartan) and the combination of these drugs are able to reduce the local RAS activation, and reduced fibrosis in other organs. We investigated whether inhibition of the RAS could improve healing of burn wounds by treatment with Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination of both drugs. Therefore, full and partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted on both flanks of Yorkshire pigs. Oral administration of Atorvastatin, Losartan or the combination was started at post-burn day 1 and continued for 28 days. Full thickness wounds were excised and transplanted with an autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft at post-burn day 14. Partial thickness wounds received conservative treatment. Atorvastatin treatment resulted in enhanced graft take and wound closure of the full thickness wounds, faster resolution of neutrophils compared to all treatments and reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin positive cells compared to control treatment. Treatment with Losartan and to a lesser extent the combination therapy resulted in diminished graft take, increased wound contraction and poorer scar outcome. In contrast, Losartan treatment in partial thickness wounds decreased the alpha-smooth muscle actin+ fibroblasts and contraction. In conclusion, we showed differential effects of Losartan and Atorvastatin in full and partial thickness wounds. The extensive graft loss seen in Losartan treated wounds is most likely responsible for the poor clinical outcome of these full thickness burn wounds. Therefore, Losartan treatment should not be started before transplantation in order to prevent graft loss. Atorvastatin seems to accelerate the

  16. Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan; Grover, Monica; Sibai, Tarek; Black, Jennifer; Rianon, Nahid; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Munivez, Elda; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lee, Brendan; Yang, Tao; Bae, Yangjin

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are a group of anti-hypertensive drugs that are widely used to treat pediatric hypertension. Recent application of ARBs to treat diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Alport syndrome has shown positive outcomes in animal and human studies, suggesting a broader therapeutic potential for this class of drugs. Multiple studies have reported a benefit of ARBs on adult bone homeostasis; however, its effect on the growing skeleton in children is unknown. We investigated the effect of Losartan, an ARB, in regulating bone mass and cartilage during development in mice. Wild type mice were treated with Losartan from birth until 6 weeks of age, after which bones were collected for microCT and histomorphometric analyses. Losartan increased trabecular bone volume vs. tissue volume (a 98% increase) and cortical thickness (a 9% increase) in 6-weeks old wild type mice. The bone changes were attributed to decreased osteoclastogenesis as demonstrated by reduced osteoclast number per bone surface in vivo and suppressed osteoclast differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in RAW cells was attenuated by Losartan. Similarly, RANKL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed by Losartan, suggesting a convergence of RANKL and angiotensin signaling at the level of ERK1/2 regulation. To assess the effect of Losartan on cartilage development, we examined the cartilage phenotype of wild type mice treated with Losartan in utero from conception to 1 day of age. Growth plates of these mice showed an elongated hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and increased Col10a1 expression level, with minimal changes in chondrocyte proliferation. Altogether, inhibition of the angiotensin pathway by Losartan increases bone mass and accelerates chondrocyte hypertrophy in growth plate during skeletal development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ticlopidine on pharmacokinetics of losartan and its main metabolite EXP-3174 in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-hyung; Cho, Young-ah; Choi, Jun-shik

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Losartan and antiplatelet agent ticlopidine can be prescribed concomitantly for prevention or therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the effects of ticlopidine on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite EXP-3174 were evaluated in rats. Methods: Ticlopidine (4 or 10 mg/kg po) was administered 30 min before administration of losartan (9 mg/kg po or 3 mg/kg iv). The activity of human CYP2C9 and 3A4 were measured using the CYP inhibition assay kit. The activity of P-gp was evaluated using rhodamine-123 retention assay in MCF-7/ADR cells. Results: Ticlopidine (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of oral losartan (9 mg/kg), as well as the AUCs of the active metabolite EXP-3174. Ticlopidine (10 mg/kg) did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of intravenous losartan (3 mg/kg). Ticlopidine inhibited CYP2C9 and 3A4 with IC50 values of 26.0 and 32.3 μmol/L, respectively. The relative cellular uptake of rhodamine-123 was unchanged. Conclusion: The significant increase in the AUC of losartan (9 mg/kg) by ticlopidine (10 mg/kg) could be attributed to the inhibition of CYP2C9- and 3A4-mediated losartan metabolism in small intestine and/or in liver. The inhibition of P-gp in small intestine and reduction of renal elimination of losartan by ticlopidine are unlikely to be causal factors. PMID:21666702

  18. Effects of Spironolactone and Losartan on Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile there is an evidence that the anti-inflammatory properties of spironolactone can attenuate proteinuria in type 2 diabetes, its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in diabetic nephropathy have not been clearly defined. In this study, we examined the effects of spironolactone, losartan, and a combination of these two drugs on albuminuria, renal VEGF expression, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in a type 2 diabetic rat model.MethodsThirty-three Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima-Fatty (OLETF rats were divided into four groups and treated with different medication regimens from weeks 25 to 50; OLETF diabetic controls (n=5, spironolactone-treated (n=10, losartan-treated (n=9, and combination of spironolactone- and losartan-treated (n=9.ResultsAt week 50, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased in the losartan and combination groups compared to the control OLETF group. No decrease was detected in the spironolactone group. There was a significant reduction in renal VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, and type IV collagen mRNA levels in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups. Twenty-four hour urine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels were comparable in all four groups but did show a decreasing trend in the losartan and combination regimen groups. Twenty-four hour urine malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased in the spironolactone- and combination regimen-treated groups.ConclusionThese results suggest that losartan alone and a combined regimen of spironolactone and losartan could ameliorate albuninuria by reducing renal VEGF expression. Also, simultaneous treatment with spironolactone and losartan may have protective effects against diabetic nephropathy by decreasing TGF-β and type IV collagen expression and by reducing oxidative stress in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  19. Resultados do tratamento da ambliopia com levodopa combinada à oclusão

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Procianoy; Letícia Procianoy; Fernando Procianoy

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar a melhora da acuidade visual com levodopa/benzerazida combinada à oclusão parcial e seguida por oclusão total, em pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo experimental aberto, envolvendo 37 pacientes entre 7 e 40 anos de idade, com ambliopia por estrabismo ou anisometropia, durante 9 semanas. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com levodopa (0,70 mg/kg/dia) e benzerazida 25% associada à oclusão de 4 horas/dia do olho dominante por 5 seman...

  20. Marcadores de inflamación e insulinorresistencia en la hiperlipemia familiar combinada

    OpenAIRE

    Carratalá Calvo, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    La hiperlipemia familiar combinada (HFC) es un modelo genético de dislipemia mixta con resistencia a la insulina (RI) y elevado riesgo de cardiopatía isquémica por el desarrollo precoz de arteriosclerosis. La RI es independiente del grado de obesidad y del fenotipo lipoproteico. Constituye, además, factor de riesgo cardiovascular en estos pacientes. Actualmente existe una gran evidencia de que en el desarrollo y progresión de la aterosclerosis subyacen mecanismos inmunológicos e inflamator...

  1. [Losartan regulates oxidative stress via caveolin-1 and NOX4 in mice with ventilator- induced lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuguang; Lou, Anni; Li, Yang; Yang, Renqiang; Ning, Zuowei; Li, Xu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of losartan in regulating oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism in mice with ventilator-induced lung injury. Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control group, losartan treatment group, mechanical ventilation model group, and ventilation plus losartan treatment group. After the corresponding treatments, the lung injuries in each group were examined and the expressions of caveolin-1 and NOX4 in the lung tissues were detected. The mean Smith score of lung injury was significantly higher in mechanical ventilation model group (3.3) than in the control group (0.4), and losartan treatment group (0.3); the mean score was significantly lowered in ventilation plus losartan treatment group (2.3) compared with that in the model group (Plosartan treatment groups (Plosartan treatment (Plosartan treatment. Losartan can alleviate ventilator-induced lung injury in mice and inhibit the expression of caveolin-1 and NOX4 and their interaction in the lungs.

  2. Therapeutic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, on CCl₄-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ok-Kyung; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Eun-Joo; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2016-02-08

    TGF-β1 is known to inhibit muscle regeneration after muscle injury. However, it is unknown if high systemic levels of TGF-β can affect the muscle regeneration process. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of a CCl₄ intra-peritoneal injection and losartan (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist) on skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius muscle) injury and regeneration. Male C57BL/6 mice were grouped randomly as follows: control (n = 7), CCl₄-treatment group (n = 7), and CCl₄ + losartan treatment group (n = 7). After CCl₄ treatment for a 16-week period, the animals were sacrificed and analyzed. The expression of dystrophin significantly decreased in the muscle tissues of the control group, as compared with that of the CCl₄ + losartan group (p losartan group (p losartan group compared to the corresponding levels in the control group (p losartan promotes muscle repair from injury via blockade of TGF-β1 signaling.

  3. Losartan reduces myocardial interstitial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Juan; Li, Dajun

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of losartan on the myocardial interstitial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) rats. In this study, a total of 48 male Wister rats (3 groups of 16 animals each) were examined, including the control group, DCM group and losartan-treated (DCM + L) group. Control group was fed with standard diet (14 KJ/g); DCM group and losartan-treated (DCM + L) group were both fed with high glucose and fat diet (20 KJ/g). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injuction (IP, 30 mg/kg body weight). Rats of DCM + L group were treated with losartan (30 mg/kg body weight) daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. Biochemical, hemodynamic, histological and western blotting analyses were performed. Compared with DCM rats, the quantity of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in myocardium of rats treated with losartan was lower, the expression of TGF-β1 was down-regulate, the content of collagen in myocardium decreased, LVSP and ± dp/dt increased, LVEDP decreased, the level of myocardial fibrosis reduced, and heart function improved evidently. Losartan has a protective effect on heart function against myocardial interstitial fibrosis of DCM by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling pathway and lowering the expression of TGF-β1.

  4. Distinct effects of losartan and atenolol on vascular stiffness in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ami B; Buck, J Stewart; Zuflacht, Jonah P; Milian, Jessica; Kadivar, Samoneh; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Singh, Michael N; Creager, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of losartan (100 mg QD) versus atenolol (50 mg QD) for 6 months in adults with Marfan syndrome. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), central augmentation index (AIx), aortic diameter and left ventricular (LV) function were assessed with arterial tonometry and echocardiography. Thirty-four subjects (18 female; median age 35 years, IQR 27, 45) were randomized. Central systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased comparably with atenolol and losartan (p = 0.64 and 0.31, respectively); heart rate decreased with atenolol (p = 0.02), but not with losartan. PWV decreased in patients treated with atenolol (-1.15 ± 1.68 m/s; p = 0.01), but not in those treated with losartan (-0.22 ± 0.59 m/s; p = 0.15; between-group difference p = 0.04). In contrast, AIx decreased in the losartan group (-9.6 ± 8.6%; p losartan reduces the AIx. By improving vascular stiffness via distinct mechanisms of action, there is physiologic value to considering the use of both medications in individuals with Marfan syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Regression of experimental endometriotic implants in a rat model with the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Cavusoglu, Turker; Ates, Utku; Meral, Ayfer; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Erbaş, Oytun

    2015-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease in women of reproductive age, and many different treatments have been developed, although none has provided a cure. In this study, the efficacy of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and an antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory agent, on regression of experimental endometriotic implants in a rat model was investigated. Peritoneal endometriosis was surgically induced in 16 mature female Sprague-Dawley rats. The peritoneal endometriotic implant was confirmed after 28 days, and the animals were divided randomly into two groups. The control group (n = 8) was given 4 mL/day tap water by oral gavage, and the losartan group (n = 8) was given 20 mg/kg per day losartan p.o. We compared endometriotic implant size, extent and severity of adhesion, as well as plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid cytokine levels including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, plasma inflammatory factor pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the treatment groups. Mean surface endometriotic area, histological score of implants, adhesion formation, plasma VEGF, TNF, PTX-3 and CRP levels were significantly lower in the losartan group compared with control (P losartan group than in the control group (P 0.05). Losartan suppressed the implant surface area of experimental endometriosis in rats and reduced the levels of plasma VEGF, TNF-α, PTX-3 and CRP. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Cerebrovascular recovery after stroke with individual and combined losartan and captopril treatment of SHRsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, John S; Daneshtalab, Noriko

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether the superior restoration of cerebrovascular function after hemorrhagic stroke by losartan versus captopril treatment was due to better BP, uremia, uricaemia, or aldosterone control in Kyoto Wistar stroke-prone-hypertensive rats and evaluated whether elevated angiotensin II (A2) levels enhanced the effectiveness of losartan treatment. Constriction was studied in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) using a pressure myograph. Post-stroke survival increased from 21 to 310 and 189days respectively with losartan and captopril treatment. Neither treatment reduced BP, both reversed uremia and hyperaldosteronism equally after 7days. Plasma uric acid remained low. At stroke, MCA constriction to pressure (PDC), protein kinase C (PKC) activation, depolarization, and sarcoplasmic Ca2+ were attenuated. Endothelial-dependent-vasodilation by bradykinin and endogenous NO release were lost. Both treatments recovered these functions within 7days. These functions deteriorated after 116days of captopril but not losartan treatment. Inhibiting A2 formation during losartan treatment didn't alter BP or vascular recovery. The superior recovery of PDC by losartan over captopril was not produced by better BP, uremia or aldosterone control or elevated A2. PDC recovery was associated with improved PKC function and enhanced basal NO release. The re-establishment of PDC could reduce cerebrovascular over-perfusion and hematoma expansion after stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal antiproteinuric dose of losartan in nondiabetic patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverman, G D; Henning, R H; de Jong, P E; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D

    2001-12-01

    Although the antiproteinuric response to antihypertensive treatment is the main predictor of renoprotective efficacy in long-term renal disease, to date, dose-finding studies of antihypertensives have been based only on blood pressure. We aimed to find the optimal antiproteinuric dose of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan. An open-label, dose-response study using subsequent 6-week treatment periods was performed in 10 nondiabetic patients with proteinuria of 5.8 +/- 0.8 g/d and a mean arterial pressure of 103 +/- 3.7 mm Hg without antihypertensive medication. All patients had normal to moderately impaired renal function. After the baseline period, five periods followed with a daily losartan dose of 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 50 mg and a recovery without losartan. At the end of each period, proteinuria and mean arterial pressure were measured. The consecutive doses of losartan had a similar antihypertensive response (-11.3 +/- 2.8% by the 100-mg dose). The optimal antiproteinuric response was reached at 100 mg of losartan (-30 +/- 8%). The 50-mg dose (-13 +/- 7%) was less effective, and the 150-mg dose (-28 +/- 8%) was not more effective. A 100-mg dose of losartan is optimal for reduction of proteinuria in nondiabetic patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.

  8. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Harry A; Pitha, Ian F; Welsbie, Derek S; Nguyen, Cathy; Steinhart, Matthew R; Nguyen, Thao D; Pease, Mary Ellen; Oglesby, Ericka N; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Mitchell, Katherine L; Kim, Jessica; Jefferys, Joan J; Kimball, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice. We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP. The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at the optic nerve head.

  9. Losartan attenuates the coronary perivasculitis through its local and systemic anti-inflammatory properties in a murine model of Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Eisuke; Niimura, Fumio; Matsuda, Shinichi; Ukawa, Toshiko; Nakamura, Hideaki; Sekine, Kaori; Kato, Masahiko; Aiba, Yuji; Koga, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Kuniyoshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Kawasaki disease is a common systemic vasculitis that leads to coronary artery lesions. Besides its antihypertensive effects, losartan can modulate inflammation in cardiovascular disease. We examined whether losartan can attenuate coronary inflammation in a murine model of Kawasaki disease. Five-wk-old C57/BL6J male mice were intraperitoneally injected with Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract to induce coronary inflammation and divided into four groups: placebo, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), losartan, and IVIG+losartan. After 2 wk, mice were harvested. The coronary perivasculitis was significantly attenuated by losartan but not by IVIG alone, and further dramatic attenuation by IVIG+losartan was observed. The frequency of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract-induced myocarditis (80%) was markedly lowered by losartan (22%) and IVIG+losartan (0%). Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA was markedly attenuated by IVIG+losartan. Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-10 after Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract injection were slightly decreased by IVIG or losartan. Moreover, IL-1β, IL-10, and MCP-1 levels were significantly decreased by IVIG+losartan. The addition of losartan to IVIG strongly attenuated the severity of coronary perivasculitis and the incidence of myocarditis, along with suppressing systemic/local cytokines as well as the activated macrophage infiltration. Therefore, losartan may be a potentially useful additive drug for the acute phase of Kawasaki disease to minimize coronary artery lesions.

  10. Terapia periodontal no quirúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Botero Zuluaga, Leticia; Botero Botero, Alejandro; Bedoya Trujillo, Juan Sebastián; Guzmán Zuluaga, Isabel Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: en el tratamiento de las enfermedades periodontales contamos con la terapia periodontal no quirúrgica, la cual ha sido avalada científicamente mostrando su efectividad. El principal objetivo de este artículo es demostrar la efectividad de la terapia periodontal no quirúrgica evidenciada en múltiples estudios con relación a las indicaciones, aspectos microbiológicos, efectos en los tejidos y la importancia de la terapia de mantenimiento una vez finalizado el tratamiento. Métodos:...

  11. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  12. Losartan reverses COX-2-dependent vascular dysfunction in offspring of hyperglycaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Diego Barbosa; Ramos-Alves, Fernanda Elizabethe; Santos-Rocha, Juliana; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Xavier, Fabiano Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether chronic treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, might reverse COX-2-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from offspring of hyperglycaemic rats. Male 12-month-old offspring of hyperglycaemic (O-DR) and normoglycaemic (O-CR) rats were treated with losartan (15mg·kg·day-1) during 2months. Third order MRA of untreated and losartan-treated O-DR and O-CR were mounted in wire myograph for isometric tension measurements. COX-2 expression was analyzed by Western blot; TxA2, PGE2 and PGF2α release was measured using commercial kits. O-DR showed increased blood pressure, impaired acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and increased noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction than O-CR. All these parameters were normalized by losartan in O-DR. Pre-incubation of MRA with indomethacin (COX-1/2 inhibitor), NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor) or tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic) increased relaxation to acetylcholine and reduced contraction to noradrenaline only in O-DR. COX-2 expression, TxA2, PGE2 and PGF2α release were increased in O-DR. In losartan-treated O-DR, NS-398, indomethacin or tempol failed to produce any effect on acetylcholine or noradrenaline responses. Losartan treatment reduced COX-2 expression, TxA2, PGE2 and PGF2α release in O-DR. The present results reveal that chronic losartan administration in O-DR normalizes endothelial function in MRA by correcting the existing COX-2 overexpression and the imbalance between endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. These findings not only support the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor antagonist in O-DR, but also suggest the implication of angiotensin II as a putative mediator of hyperglycemia-programmed vascular dysfunction in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Vascular Study in Hypertensive Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Using Losartan or Amlodipine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Romaro Pozzobon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antihypertensive drugs are used to control blood pressure (BP and reduce macro- and microvascular complications in hypertensive patients with diabetes. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the functional vascular changes in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after 6 weeks of treatment with amlodipine or losartan. Methods: Patients with a previous diagnosis of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into 2 groups and evaluated after 6 weeks of treatment with amlodipine (5 mg/day or losartan (100 mg/day. Patient evaluation included BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, and assessment of vascular parameters using applanation tonometry, pulse wave velocity (PWV, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery. Results: A total of 42 patients were evaluated (21 in each group, with a predominance of women (71% in both groups. The mean age of the patients in both groups was similar (amlodipine group: 54.9 ± 4.5 years; losartan group: 54.0 ± 6.9 years, with no significant difference in the mean BP [amlodipine group: 145 ± 14 mmHg (systolic and 84 ± 8 mmHg (diastolic; losartan group: 153 ± 19 mmHg (systolic and 90 ± 9 mmHg (diastolic]. The augmentation index (30% ± 9% and 36% ± 8%, p = 0.025 and augmentation pressure (16 ± 6 mmHg and 20 ± 8 mmHg, p = 0.045 were lower in the amlodipine group when compared with the losartan group. PWV and FMD were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with amlodipine exhibited an improved pattern of pulse wave reflection in comparison with those treated with losartan. However, the use of losartan may be associated with independent vascular reactivity to the pressor effect.

  14. Epidemiologia das incontinências urinária e anal combinadas Epidemiología de las incontinencias urinaria y fecal combinadas Epidemiology of combined urinary and fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina de Souza Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A baixa investigação pelos profissionais de saúde quanto às perdas urinárias e anais, combinadas ou não, dificultam as ações voltadas para sua prevenção e originam problemas com repercussões física, psicológica e econômica. A escassez de publicações nacionais e a reduzida literatura internacional sobre a epidemiologia dessas incontinências combinadas, motivou a realização deste artigo de atualização.Las pocas investigaciones realizadas por los profesionales de la salud en cuanto a las pérdidas urinarias y fecal, combinadas o no, dificultan las acciones volcadas a su prevención y originan problemas con repercusiones física, psicológica y económica. La escasez de publicaciones nacionales y la reducida literatura internacional sobre la epidemiología de esas incontinencias combinadas, motivó la realización de este artículo de actualización.The shortage of studies on urinary and fecal incontinence makes difficult the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions to address the physical, psychological, and economic problems among patients with these conditions. The lack of national publications and paucity of international literature on the epidemiology of combined urinary and fecal incontinence led to the performance of this literature review.

  15. Impacto da terapia anti-retroviral na magnitude da epidemia do HIV/AIDS no Brasil: diversos cenários Impact of antiretroviral therapy on the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil: various scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, utilizaram-se os algoritmos EM e EMS aplicados ao método do Cálculo Retroativo para estimar a magnitude da epidemia do HIV no Brasil. Fazendo-se suposições a respeito do comportamento dos infectados, em relação à utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais, construíram-se cinco cenários para a epidemia brasileira. O objetivo foi o de ilustrar os impactos que a utilização da terapia combinada das drogas anti-retrovirais possam estar tendo ou possam vir a ter na incubação do vírus e, por conseguinte, nas avaliações da epidemia realizadas a partir dos casos de Aids notificados.We applied the back-calculation method to estimate the magnitude of the HIV epidemic in Brazil, using the EM and EMS algorithms. Under certain assumptions regarding the behavior of infected patients towards combined antiretroviral therapy, we discuss five different scenarios applied to the Brazilian epidemic. Our objective was to illustrate the impact of combined antiretroviral treatment on the incubation period and thus on estimates of the size of the HIV-infected population, based on reported AIDS cases.

  16. An economic assessment of losartan-based versus atenolol-based therapy in patients with hypertension and left-ventricular hypertrophy : Results from the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) study adapted to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Cornelis; Carides, George W.; Atthobari, Jarir; Voors, Adriaan A.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Background: The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction (LIFE) study was a randomized, doubleblind trial that compared the effects of losartan-based treatment with those of atenolol-based treatment on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality in 9193 patients with

  17. Effect of a Reduction in Uric Acid on Renal Outcomes During Losartan Treatment A Post Hoc Analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A.; Laverman, Goos D.; Brenner, Barry M.; Cooper, Mark E.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We therefore

  18. Evaluación de pérdidas de grano en cosecha de arroz con combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Chaparro C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación para evaluar las pérdidas de grano presentadas en la recolección de arroz con combinada en la región de Ambalema (Tolima. Se utilizaron las variedades CICA 8, CICA 9 e IR-22, y las combinadas John Deere 955R, Case 960 y Case 1200. Se tomaron datos climatológicos (humedad relativa, temperatura, velocidad del viento, etc., características del cultivo (humedad del grano (bh, densidad, altura de los tallos, etc., y parámetros de operación de la combinada (velocidad del cilindro, velocidad del molinete, índice del molinete, separación cilindro-cóncavo, etc. durante todo el tiempo del ensayo. Se evaluaron las pérdidas naturales, las pérdidas en el cabezote, las pérdidas en la trilla y las pérdidas en la separación y limpieza. Las pérdidas promedias presentadas en la combinada fueron: 1.44% en el cabezote, 1.56% en la trilla, 4.12% en la separación y limpieza, yen total el 7.17% en 39 observaciones realizadas. Las variables independientes que más influyeron en las pérdidas fueron la humedad del grano y la humedad relativa.

  19. Evaluación de pérdidas de grano en cosecha de arroz con combinada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Chaparro C.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación para evaluar las pérdidas de grano presentadas en la recolección de arroz con combinada en la región de Ambalema (Tolima. Se utilizaron las variedades CICA 8, CICA 9 e IR-22, y las combinadas John Deere 955R, Case 960 y Case 1200. Se tomaron datos climatológicos (humedad relativa, temperatura, velocidad del viento, etc., características del cultivo (humedad del grano (bh, densidad, altura de los tallos, etc., y parámetros de operación de la combinada (velocidad del cilindro, velocidad del molinete, índice del molinete, separación cilindro-cóncavo, etc. durante todo el tiempo del ensayo. Se evaluaron las pérdidas naturales, las pérdidas en el cabezote, las pérdidas en la trilla y las pérdidas en la separación y limpieza. Las pérdidas promedias presentadas en la combinada fueron: 1.44% en el cabezote, 1.56% en la trilla, 4.12% en la separación y limpieza, yen total el 7.17% en 39 observaciones realizadas. Las variables independientes que más influyeron en las pérdidas fueron la humedad del grano y la humedad relativa.

  20. Managing blood pressure control in Asian patients: safety and efficacy of losartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is common in Asian populations and is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in many Asian countries. The overall prevalence of hypertension in India and the People’s Republic of China has been estimated to be 20.6% in men and 22.6% in women. However, the rates of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension remain low in Asia. This reflects a low level of literacy and education, as well as a low level of access to medical care. To overcome these obstacles, strategies targeted at education, promotion, and optimization of medical care, are crucial to achieve target blood pressure control. Angiotensin receptor blockers are one of the first-line treatments for essential hypertension because they confer better cardiovascular outcomes. Losartan has been widely evaluated for the management of hypertension. Although some studies suggested that the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan is perhaps lower than for other angiotensin receptor blockers, losartan has been demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of renal protection in patients with diabetes, heart failure resulting from either systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. However, most of these data were obtained from Caucasian populations. The efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian populations may be different because of genetic and ethnic variations. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of losartan in Asian patients with hypertension warrant further study. PMID:24672231

  1. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitha, Ian F.; Nguyen, Cathy; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Pease, Mary Ellen; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Mitchell, Katherine L.; Kim, Jessica; Jefferys, Joan J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in mice. Methods We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13), while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007). Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP. Conclusions The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at the optic nerve head. PMID:26505191

  2. Effects of losartan treatment on the physicochemical properties of diabetic rat bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Baris Ozgur; Unal, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Semir; Ozturk, Nihal; Oguz, Nurettin; Akkus, Ozan

    2017-03-01

    Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system used to treat several diseases have also been shown to be effective on bone tissue, suggesting that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may reduce fracture risk. The present study investigated the effects of losartan on the physicochemical and biomechanical properties of diabetic rat bone. Losartan (5 mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 12 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole femurs were tested under tension to evaluate the biomechanical properties of bone. The physicochemical properties of bone were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Although losartan did not recover decreases in the BMD of diabetic bone, it recovered the physicochemical (mineral and collagen matrix) properties of diabetic rat bone. Furthermore, losartan also recovered ultimate tensile strength of diabetic rat femurs. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, has a therapeutic effect on the physicochemical properties of diabetic bone resulting in improvement of bone strength at the material level. Therefore, specific inhibition of this pathway at the receptor level shows potential as a therapeutic target for diabetic patients suffering from bone diseases such as osteopenia.

  3. Lipoproteína a, aterosclerosis y terapia hormonal de reemplazo Lipoprotein a, atherosclerosis and replacement hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre la lipoproteína plasmática, Lp(a, cuyo papel fisiológico es poco conocido. Se ha descrito una asociación entre las concentraciones aumentadas de Lp(a y el proceso aterosclerótico. Además, su exceso podría inducir una disminución de la actividad fibrinolítica y, por tanto, favorecer la trombosis. También analizamos la terapia hormonal de reemplazo. En relación con los efectos positivos, mejora los síntomas climatéricos y previene la osteoporosis, aunque entre los efectos adversos en las mujeres que la siguen, se ha descrito un ligero aumento del riesgo del tromboembolismo venoso, y más recientemente, en estudios realizados en EE.UU. en los años 2002 y 2004, en el ya conocido estudio (Women´s Health Initiative Study, se reportó mayor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares para la terapia combinada con estrógenos conjugados equinos y medroxiprogesterona, y de stroke para la terapia estrogénica. Estos estudios pusieron en su lugar los efectos de esta terapia, que no es totalmente inocua. Se precisan estudios más amplios para definir el papel de la terapia hormonal de reemplazo y otras medidas terapéuticas sobre el sistema hemostático, el metabolismo lipídico y la enfermedad cardiovascular.A review of plasmatic lipoprotein, Lp(a, whose physiological role is little known, was made. An association between the augmented concentrations of Lp(a and the atherosclerotic proccess has been described. Besides, its excess may lead to a reduction of the fibrinolytic activity and, therefore, favor thrombosis. The replacement hormone therapy was also analyzed. In relation to its positive effects, it improves the climacteric symptoms and prevents osteoporosis. Among its adverse effects, it has been observed a mild increase of the risk for venous thromboembolism and, more recently, in the aleady known Women's Health Initiative Study, it was reported a higher incidence of cardiovascular events for the combined

  4. Losartan Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Through Upregulation of Src Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Ye, M; Cao, Y; Wang, C

    2017-02-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan has shown strongly anti-insulin resistance properties in vivo and in vitro; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that losartan administration increased phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), enhanced plasma membrane translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and increased glucose uptake, along with increased Src phosphorylation as well as reduced expression of docking protein 1(DOK1) in palmitate-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The beneficial impacts of losartan on insulin signaling were diminished in Src-deficient 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, suppressed expression of DOK1 by losartan was abolished by Src knockdown. Our results suggest that anti-insulin resistance ability of losartan is mediated by Src/DOK1/Akt pathway. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Terapia combinada de criocirugía e interferón alfa-2b humano recombinante en el condiloma acuminado

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Trujillo , Israel

    2015-01-01

    Las continuas recidivas de lcondiloma acuminado hace necesario la búsqueda constante de alternativas terapéuticas. Para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica y seguridad del interferón alfa-2b asociado a criocirugía en el condiloma acuminado fue realizado un ensayo clínico abierto en 170 pacientes del hospital “Hermanos Ameijeiras” que fueron aleatorizados a recibir durante 6 semanas (grupo A) 3 x 106 UI de interferón subcutáneo, 3 veces por semana y aplicación quincenal de criocirugía o (grupo B) ...

  6. Eficacia del tratamiento de la cefalea tensional mediante la maniobra de liberación miofascial suboccipital combinada con terapia interferencial.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Llanes, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    La cefalea es de los tipos más frecuentes de dolor recurrente y uno de los síntomas más habituales en neurología con una elevada prevalencia y un alto impacto socioeconómico. Algunos de los estudios que analizaron los tratamientos físicos en la cefalea presentaron limitaciones metodológicas; con lo que la mayoría de estas modalidades no han podido ser debidamente evaluadas existiendo pruebas limitadas sobre su eficacia. Por este motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar la efica...

  7. Losartan inhibits collagen I synthesis and improves the distribution and efficacy of nanotherapeutics in tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop-Frimpong, Benjamin; Chauhan, Vikash P.; Krane, Stephen; Boucher, Yves; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2011-01-01

    The dense collagen network in tumors significantly reduces the penetration and efficacy of nanotherapeutics. We tested whether losartan—a clinically approved angiotensin II receptor antagonist with noted antifibrotic activity—can enhance the penetration and efficacy of nanomedicine. We found that losartan inhibited collagen I production by carcinoma-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer biopsies. Additionally, it led to a dose-dependent reduction in stromal collagen in desmoplastic models of human breast, pancreatic, and skin tumors in mice. Furthermore, losartan improved the distribution and therapeutic efficacy of intratumorally injected oncolytic herpes simplex viruses. Finally, it also enhanced the efficacy of i.v. injected pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil). Thus, losartan has the potential to enhance the efficacy of nanotherapeutics in patients with desmoplastic tumors. PMID:21282607

  8. Losartan, a therapeutic candidate in congenital muscular dystrophy: studies in the dy(2J) /dy(2J) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Moran; Yanay, Nurit; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Brunschwig, Zivia; Kassis, Ibaa; Ettinger, Keren; Barak, Vivian; Nevo, Yoram

    2012-05-01

    Lamininα2-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a cureless disease associated with severe disability and shortened lifespan. Previous studies have shown reduced fibrosis and restored skeletal muscle remodeling following treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker. We therefore evaluated the effect of losartan treatment in the dy(2J) /dy(2J) mouse model of MDC1A. Homozygous dy(2J) /dy(2J) and control mice were treated with losartan or placebo for 12 weeks from 6 weeks of age. Outcome measures included hindlimb and forelimb muscle strength by Grip Strength Meter and quantitative muscle fibrosis parameters. Losartan's effects on transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were evaluated with Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and cytokine measurements. Losartan treatment was associated with significant impressive improvement in muscle strength and amelioration of fibrosis. Administration of losartan inhibited TGF-β signaling pathway, resulting in decreased serum TGF-β1 level and reduced downstream phosphorylated (P) Smad2/3 proteins. Moreover, losartan activated Smad7 protein, a key negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. In addition, losartan treatment inhibited the MAPK cascade as shown by decreased expression of P-p38 MAPK, P-c-jun-N-terminal kinase, and P-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in the treated mice. Losartan, a commonly prescribed US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for hypertension, demonstrated clinical improvement and amelioration of fibrosis in the dy(2J) /dy(2J) mouse model of MDC1A via TGF-β and MAPK signaling pathways. The results of this study support pursuing a clinical trial of losartan treatment in children with MDC1A. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of candesartan and losartan in the management of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenfeng Zheng; Huilan Shi; Junya Jia; Dong Li; Shan Lin

    2011-09-01

    Candesartan is a relatively novel antihypertensive agent of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Several clinical trials have compared candesartan with losartan in the management of essential hypertension. However, systematic assessment of efficacy and safety between candesartan and losartan is still lacking. We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing candesartan with losartan for net reduction in blood pressure from baseline, response and control rates, and incidences of common and serious adverse events.Weighted mean differences (WMD), and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for continuous and dichotomous data, respectively. A total of 12 RCTs with 3644 patients were included in this meta-analysis. When comparing the efficacy of candesartan and losartan in reducing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at the end of the follow-up period, results with candesartan were superior to losartan in the reduction SBP and DBP (WMD, -2.97; 95% CI, -4.18 - -1.77; p Candesartan had better response and control rates than losartan. (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06-1.18; p candesartan was lower than for losartan (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.92; p = 0.03). The net reduction of DBP showed negative correlation with baseline DBP in both candesartan and losartan groups (regression coefficient -1.81, p = 0.03 and regression coefficient -1.56, p = 0.02, respectively). Candesartan is superior to losartan in reducing blood pressure. Candesartan also causes fewer serious adverse events than losartan.

  10. Losartan for the nephropathy of sickle cell anemia: A phase-2, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charles T; Saraf, Santosh L; Gordeuk, Victor R; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Creary, Susan E; Bodas, Prasad; George, Alex; Raj, Ashok B; Nero, Alecia C; Terrell, Catherine E; McCord, Lisa; Lane, Adam; Ackerman, Hans C; Yang, Yu; Niss, Omar; Taylor, Michael D; Devarajan, Prasad; Malik, Punam

    2017-09-01

    Nephropathy is a common and progressive complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA). In SCA mice, we found that hyperangiotensinemia in the absence of hypertension underlies nephropathy, and its downregulation by losartan, an angiotensin-II-receptor-1 blocker, reduced albuminuria and progression of nephropathy. Therefore, we performed a phase-2 trial of oral losartan, given for 6 months, to explore whether it reduced albuminuria in children and adults with SCA. Participants were allocated to groups defined by class of baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR): no albuminuria (NoA), microalbuminuria (MicroA), and macroalbuminuria (MacroA). The primary endpoint was a ≥25% reduction UACR from baseline. There were 32 evaluable participants (mean age 24 years; NoA = 14, MicroA = 12, MacroA = 6). The primary endpoint was met in 83% of the MacroA group (P Losartan was discontinued in three participants [leg cramps, N = 1; decline in eGFR >25% (142➝104 mL/minute/1.73 m2 ), N = 1; rise in serum creatinine >50% (0.2➝0.3 mg/dL), N = 1]. Albuminuria was associated with diastolic dysfunction and impaired functional capacity, although cardiopulmonary status was unchanged after 6 months of losartan therapy. In summary, losartan decreased urinary albumin excretion in most participants with albuminuria. Those with macroalbuminuria had the greatest benefit. This study forms the basis for a phase-3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of losartan for the nephropathy of SCA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Atherosclerosis following renal injury is ameliorated by pioglitazone and losartan via macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Suguru; Zhong, Jiayong; Yancey, Patricia G; Zuo, Yiqin; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio; Yang, Haichun; Narita, Ichiei; Kon, Valentina

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) amplifies atherosclerosis, which involves renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulation of macrophages. RAS influences peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a modulator of atherogenic functions of macrophages, however, little is known about its effects in CKD. We examined the impact of combined therapy with a PPARγ agonist and angiotensin receptor blocker on atherogenesis in a murine uninephrectomy model. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice underwent uninephrectomy (UNx) and treatment with pioglitazone (UNx + Pio), losartan (UNx + Los), or both (UNx + Pio/Los) for 10 weeks. Extent and characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions and macrophage phenotypes were assessed; RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal mouse cells were used to examine pioglitazone and losartan effects on macrophage phenotype and inflammatory response. UNx significantly increased atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone and losartan each significantly reduced the atherosclerotic burden by 29.6% and 33.5%, respectively; although the benefit was dramatically augmented by combination treatment which lessened atherosclerosis by 55.7%. Assessment of plaques revealed significantly greater macrophage area in UNx + Pio/Los (80.7 ± 11.4% vs. 50.3 ± 4.2% in UNx + Pio and 57.2 ± 6.5% in UNx + Los) with more apoptotic cells. The expanded macrophage-rich lesions of UNx + Pio/Los had more alternatively activated, Ym-1 and arginine 1-positive M2 phenotypes (Ym-1: 33.6 ± 8.2%, p losartan was more effective than losartan alone in dampening lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production, suppressing M1 phenotypic change while enhancing M2 phenotypic change. Combination of pioglitazone and losartan is more effective in reducing renal injury-induced atherosclerosis than either treatment alone. This benefit reflects mitigation in macrophage cytokine production, enhanced apoptosis, and a shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The protective effect of losartan on diabetic neuropathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, T; Karadeniz, T; Cagiltay, E; Karadeniz, M; Yigitturk, G; Acikgoz, E; Uyanikgil, Y; Ates, U; Tuglu, M I; Erbas, O

    2015-09-01

    Involvement of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems is possibly the most frequent complication of diabetes. Important risk factors included hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE) inhibitors should be beneficial in all vascular beds, including neuropathy and retinopathy. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on diabetic neuropathy in a diabetic rat model. 24 male, Sprague Dawley albino mature rats were divided into 3 groups; (1) control group: No drug was administered to the remainder of rats which blood glucose levels were under 120 mg/dl, (2) diabetic control: rats were given no medication, but 4 ml per day of tap water was given by oral gavage, (3) losartan groups: rats were given 10 mg/kg/day oral of losartan for 4 weeks. Electromyography (EMG) was applied to anesthetized rats at the end of 4(th) weekend. Then, the animals were euthanized and sciatic nerve was performed for histopathological examination. Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) amplitude of diabetic rats receiving the Saline in the EMG was significantly reduced when compared to the control group. Distal latency value and CMAP duration of diabetic rats receiving the saline were meaningfully increased when compared to the control group. CMAP amplitude and CMAP duration of diabetic rats receiving the Losartan treatment in the EMG were meaningfully reduced when compared to diabetic rats receiving the Saline.Perineural thickness in the rats receiving the Losartan treatment was found to be significantly reduced when compared to the group receiving the Saline. As a result, it has been shown in this study that perineural thickness of the Losartan treatment was significantly reduced when compared to saline receiving group, significantly increased the immunoexpression of NGF, and also provided a significantly recovery in EMG when compared to Saline receiving group. © Georg

  13. [Aortic root dilatation rate in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome treated with losartan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariucci, Elisabetta; Guidarini, Marta; Donti, Andrea; Lovato, Luigi; Wischmeijer, Anita; Angeli, Emanuela; Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Picchio, Fernando M; Bonvicini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Medical therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or beta-blockers was reported to reduce aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome. No data are available in the literature on losartan effects after 3 years of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish whether losartan reduces aortic root dilatation rates in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. This is a retrospective analysis of 38 pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome followed at the Marfan Clinic of S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital of the University of Bologna (Italy). Aortic diameters were measured at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta with transthoracic echocardiography. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.5 years (range 2-9 years), aortic root z score at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta remained stable. The average annual rate of change in aortic root z score was -0.1 ± 0.4 and 0 ± 0.3 at sinuses of Valsalva and proximal ascending aorta, respectively. The mean dose of losartan was 0.7 ± 0.3 mg/kg/day. Three patients were non-responders, probably because of late beginning or low dose of therapy. Eight patients underwent cardiac surgery (aortic root surgery in 5 and mitral valve repair in 3), all of them started losartan later in life. Despite the retrospective design of the study and the small sample size, a beneficial effect of losartan therapy was observed in pediatric patients with Marfan syndrome in the mid and long term. Late beginning or low doses of losartan can turn off the effects of therapy.

  14. Effects of losartan on left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuichi J; Passeri, Jonathan J; Baggish, Aaron L; O'Callaghan, Caitlin; Lowry, Patricia A; Yannekis, Gia; Abbara, Suhny; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Rothman, Richard D; Ho, Carolyn Y; Januzzi, James L; Seidman, Christine E; Fifer, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of losartan on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Despite evidence that myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis are mediated by angiotensin II and are important determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with HCM, no prior studies have evaluated the effects of angiotensin receptor blockers on LV hypertrophy and fibrosis with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In double-blind fashion, 20 patients (3 women, 17 men; age: 51 ± 13 years) with HCM were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 9) or losartan 50 mg twice a day (n = 11) for 1 year. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and 1 year to measure LV mass and extent of fibrosis as assessed by late gadolinium enhancement. There was a trend toward a significant difference in the percent change in LV mass (median [interquartile range]: +5% [-4% to +21%] with placebo vs. -5% [-11% to -0.9%] with losartan; p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in the percent change in extent of late gadolinium enhancement, with the placebo group experiencing a larger increase (+31% ± 26% with placebo vs. -23% ± 45% with losartan; p = 0.03). This pilot study suggests attenuation of progression of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis with losartan in patients with nonobstructive HCM. Confirmation of these results in a larger trial is required to confirm a place for angiotensin receptor blockers in the management of patients with HCM. (Effect of Losartan in Patients With Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; NCT01150461). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Losartan prevents heart fibrosis induced by long-term intensive exercise in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Gay-Jordi

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Recently it has been shown that long-term intensive exercise practice is able to induce myocardial fibrosis in an animal model. Angiotensin II is a profibrotic hormone that could be involved in the cardiac remodeling resulting from endurance exercise. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antifibrotic effect of losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in an animal model of heart fibrosis induced by long-term intense exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: Exercise, Exercise plus losartan, Sedentary and Sedentary plus losartan. Exercise groups were conditioned to run vigorously for 16 weeks. Losartan was orally administered daily before each training session (50 mg/kg/day. Time-matched sedentary rats served as controls. After euthanasia, heart hypertrophy was evaluated by histological studies; ventricular collagen deposition was quantified by histological and biochemical studies; and messenger RNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor-β1, fibronectin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, procollagen-I and procollagen-III was evaluated in all 4 cardiac chambers. Daily intensive exercise caused hypertrophy in the left ventricular heart wall and originated collagen deposition in the right ventricle. Additionally long-term intensive exercise induced a significant increase in messenger RNA expression and protein synthesis of the major fibrotic markers in both atria and in the right ventricle. Losartan treatment was able to reduce all increases in messenger RNA expression and protein levels caused by exercise, although it could not completely reverse the heart hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan treatment prevents the heart fibrosis induced by endurance exercise in training animals.

  16. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.

  17. Determining the Effects of Morphine, Heroin, and Losartan and the Interaction of each on Losartan in Water Homeostasis Mechanisms by the Kidney in Adult Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Foroohi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Angiotensin II plays a key role in body fluid homeostasis. In the present study, the interaction of i.c.v. injection of morphine, heroin and losartan’s material, opioidergic and angiotensinergic systems on water intake in male rabbits were investigated. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty-five male rabbits were divided into eight groups as follows: a control group without operation, control with surgical accompanying with cannula, the control surgery and cannulated with a saline injection, morphine (at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg rabbit kg, heroin group (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg rabbit, losartan group (45, 90 and 180 mg kg rabbit, losartan (90 mg/kg rabbit with morphine (5/10 kg rabbit, losartan (90 mg kg and heroin (2.5 and 5 mg kg rabbits were received. A cannula was used to ICV treatment in the right lateral ventricle of rabbits. After recovering the animals were deprived of water for 24 hours. The different drugs injected and the amount of drinking water was measured for one hour was measured. The gathered data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Result: The results showed that Morphine (agonist of opioid’s receptor, 10 µg/rabbit, Heroin (agonist of opioid’s receptor, 5 µg/rabbit, Losartan (antagonist of Angiotensin II receptor, 90 µg/rabbit decreased water intake. Blockade of Angiotensin II with losartan, attenuate the inhibitory effect of Morphin and Heroin. Renin- Angiotensin System can regulate water intake via its effect on vasoconstriction and secretion of AVP and Aldestrone. All of these effects will be blocked with Angiotensin II antagonist (losartan. Conclusion: The Opioidergic system was influential in the adjustment of water and electrolyte balance through affecting peripheral and central receptors. The role of the Opioidergic system in regulation of drinking mechanisms was related to the secretion of Antiduretic hormone. According to the obtained results, a marked correlation was

  18. Losartan activates sirtuin 1 in rat reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazi, Eirini; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Zaouali, Mohamed Amine; Folch-Puy, Emma; Pinto Rolo, Anabela; Panisello, Arnau; Palmeira, Carlos Marques; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-07-14

    To investigate a possible association between losartan and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in reduced-size orthotopic liver transplantation (ROLT) in rats. Livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were preserved in University of Wisconsin preservation solution for 1 h at 4 °C prior to ROLT. In an additional group, an antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), losartan, was orally administered (5 mg/kg) 24 h and 1 h before the surgical procedure to both the donors and the recipients. Transaminase (as an indicator of liver injury), SIRT1 activity, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+), a co-factor necessary for SIRT1 activity) levels were determined by biochemical methods. Protein expression of SIRT1, acetylated FoxO1 (ac-FoxO1), NAMPT (the precursor of NAD+), heat shock proteins (HSP70, HO-1) expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) and apoptosis (caspase 12 and caspase 3) parameters were determined by Western blot. Possible alterations in protein expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), such as p-p38 and p-ERK, were also evaluated. Furthermore, the SIRT3 protein expression and mRNA levels were examined. The present study demonstrated that losartan administration led to diminished liver injury when compared to ROLT group, as evidenced by the significant decreases in alanine aminotransferase (358.3 ± 133.44 vs 206 ± 33.61, P losartan was associated with enhanced SIRT1 protein expression and activity (5.27 ± 0.32 vs 6.08 ± 0.30, P Losartan treatment also provoked significant attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress parameters (GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2) which was consistent with reduced levels of both caspase 12 and caspase 3. Furthermore, losartan administration stimulated HSP70 protein expression and attenuated HO-1 expression. However, no changes were observed in protein or mRNA expression of SIRT3. Finally, the protein expression pattern of p-ERK and p-p38 were not altered upon losartan administration. The

  19. Solubility of losartan potassium in several mono-solvents at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Eghrary, Shadi H.; Zarghami, Reza; Jouyban,Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    The solubilities of losartan potassium in eight solvents; 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, propylene glycol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol, were measured at temperatures ranging from 293.2 to 318.2 K at atmospheric pressure using shake-flask method of Higuchi and Connors. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone dissolved the highest amount of losartan potassium and 1,4-dioxane possessed the lowest solubilization power among the investigated solvents. The generated data was ...

  20. Terapia nutricional e sepse neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é revisar a literatura acerca dos conhecimentos atuais relativos à terapia nutricional - enteral e parenteral - para os recém-nascidos pré-termo, principalmente os de muito baixo peso, destacando seu efeito protetor na sepse neonatal e na enterocolite necrosante. As diferentes modalidades de alimentação do recém-nascido prematuro - especialmente para aqueles de muito baixo peso - e seu efeito protetor na diminuição de complicações (mormente as infecciosas foram analisadas. A utilização preferencial do leite materno na nutrição enteral, o controle das ofertas energético-protéicas, o início precoce da nutrição enteral mínima, a introdução precoce da alimentação parenteral - nas primeiras 24 horas - e a utilização dos imunonutrientes que tenham estudos suficientes para fundamentar sua indicação podem se constituir em boas diretrizes adjuvantes na prevenção da sepse neonatal e da enterocolite necrosante. Sem embargo, percebe-se a necessidade de mais estudos - preferencialmente multicêntricos, controlados e randomizados - para esclarecer o papel protetor da nutrição no RNPT, não somente na prevenção de infecções, mas também para auxiliar o desenvolvimento neural e a prevenção de consequências deletérias futuras.

  1. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social

    OpenAIRE

    Ito,Lígia M; Roso,Miréia C; Tiwari,Shilpee; Kendall,Philip C; Asbahr,Fernando R

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Este artigo revisa aspectos relevantes da fobia social e os estágios de tratamento através da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em crianças, adolescentes e adultos. MÉTODO: A partir do banco de dados Medline, realizou-se revisão da literatura publicada a respeito do tratamento da fobia social por meio da terapia cognitivo-comportamental. RESULTADOS: Revisão da literatura sugere que a fobia social é uma condição prevalente e crônica, caracterizada por inibição social e timidez excessi...

  2. Terapia familiar y de pareja de ancianos

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Fernández, Miguel; Cosano, Andrés; Ojeda Moreno, Mª P.; Rodríguez Testal, Juan Francisco

    1998-01-01

    La revisión bibliográfica que presentamos en este trabajo muestra el creciente interés en relación con la participación de las personas mayores en la terapia familiar y de pareja. Se ponen de relieve las peculiaridades de esta población por los estresores que habitualmente experimentan pero, especial y significativamente, por la capacidad o potencial de cambio que tienen las personas de edad avanzada. Por ello, es preciso que la terapia se ajuste a sus características y l...

  3. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Effects of losartan compared with atenolol on lipids in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael Hecht; Wachtell, Kristian; Beevers, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    infarction, or stroke. We measured total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline and annually during 4.8 years of losartan-based compared with atenolol-based treatment in 8611 patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. RESULTS: Patients randomized to losartan-based or atenolol......-based treatment had similar baseline total (6.04 +/- 1.12 vs. 6.05 +/- 1.13 mmol/l, NS) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1.50 +/- 0.44 vs. 1.49 +/- 0.44 mmol/l, NS). Total cholesterol decreased significantly but equally (-0.37 +/- 1.05 vs. -0.34 +/- 1.09 mmol/l, NS), whereas HDL cholesterol......OBJECTIVE: Beta-blockers and angiotensin II receptor blockers have different effects on lipids. METHODS: We examined lipid levels in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study and their impact on the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial...

  5.  Effects of Losartan vs. Enalapril on the Markers of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam H. Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: To compare the effects of losartan and enalapril on themarkers of metabolic syndrome.Methods: One hundred and twenty six newly diagnosedhypertensive patients having other markers of metabolicsyndrome participated in this study. The study was performed inthe department of pharmacology, college of medicine at Ibn-SinaTeaching Hospital in Mosul city, Iraq, during the period betweenDecember 2007 and June 2009. The patients were divided into 2main groups: 1 Losartan group: consisted of 60 patients, and 2enalapril group: Consisted of 66 patients. Waist circumference,weight, Body mass index, blood pressure, serum glucoseconcentration, triglyceride and HDL-cholestrol were measuredbefore and after administration of therapy. The effects of therapywere assessed by statistically comparing the results before andafter the drug administration.Results: Comparison of waist circumference, blood pressure,FSG, triglycerides of the patients before drug administration(baseline data, with those of the controls showed a significantelevation, while HDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction.A significant reduction of waist circumference, BP, FSG and asignificant elevation of HDL-cholesterol were also noted aftertherapy with both losartan and enalapril.Conclusion: Both losartan and enalapril produced a significantreduction of markers of metabolic syndrome and may be regardedas effective drugs for treatment of hypertension in patients withmarkers of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Effects of losartan on experimental varicocele-induced testicular germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, D; Oltulu, F; Uysal, A; Kose, T; Gunlusoy, B; Yigitturk, G; Turk, N S; Turan, T

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the potential protective effects of losartan on varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis, 24 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a sham operation was performed in SHAM group, and experimental left varicocele was created in VAR and VAR + LOS groups. Additionally, in VAR + LOS group, losartan was administered for 30 days starting on the day of surgery. At the end of 30 days, all animals were sacrificed and left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular injury and spermatogenesis were evaluated according to Johnsen scoring system. To assess the nitrosative stress, immunohistochemical staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was used and evaluated by H-score and apoptotic index (AI) of germ cells was analysed by TUNEL method. A significant decrease in the mean Johnsen score (JS) was observed in VAR group compared with SHAM (p losartan administration, mean JS was significantly increased (p losartan acts as a potent protective agent against varicocele-induced germ cell apoptosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Combined losartan and nitro-oleic acid remarkably improves diabetic nephropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Shanshan; Downton, Maicy; Liu, Gang; Du, Yaomin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can alleviate some of the symptoms of DN but fail to stop the progression to ESRD. Our previous studies demonstrate renoprotective action of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) in several rodent models of renal disease. Here we examined the therapeutic potential and the underlying mechanism of combination of losartan and OA-NO2 in db/db mice. OA-NO2 was infused at 5 mg·kg−1·day−1 via osmotic minipump, and losartan was incorporated into diet at 10 mg·kg−1·day−1, each administered alone or in combination for 2 wk. Diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis, accompanied by podocytes loss, increased indexes of renal fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Treatment of the diabetic mice with OA-NO2 or losartan alone moderately ameliorated kidney injury; however, the combined treatment remarkably reduced albuminuria, restored glomerular filtration barrier structure, and attenuated glomerulosclerosis, accompanied with significant suppression of renal oxidative stress and inflammation. These data demonstrate that combination of losartan and OA-NO2 effectively reverses renal injury in DN. PMID:23946292

  8. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; Hartog, A.W. den; Franken, R.; Radonic, T.; Waard, V. de; Timmermans, J.; Scholte, A.J.; Berg, M.P van den; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Marquering, H.A.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Mulder, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. Treatment with losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor-1 blocker, may reduce aortic dilatation rate in Marfan patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicentre,

  9. Losartan reduces aortic dilatation rate in adults with Marfan syndrome : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, Maarten; den Hartog, Alexander W.; Franken, Romy; Radonic, Teodora; de Waard, Vivian; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Marquering, Henk A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. Treatment with losartan, an angiotensin-II receptor-1 blocker, may reduce aortic dilatation rate in Marfan patients. Methods and results In this multicentre,

  10. Losartan therapy decreases albuminuria with stable glomerular filtration and permselectivity in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Marianne E; Lane, Peter A; Archer, David R; Joiner, Clinton H; Eckman, James R; Guasch, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Sickle cell nephropathy begins with hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria and may progress to renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of losartan on glomerular function and albumin excretion in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Individuals with SCA on hydroxyurea with persistent albuminuria were enrolled in a 1-year study of losartan. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by iohexol clearance, albumin excretion rate (AER), and fractional clearance of dextran were assessed at baseline, short-term (1-2month), and long-term (≥12month) intervals. Twelve subjects (6 microalbuminuria, 6 macroalbuminuria) completed short-term studies; 8 completed long-term studies. Baseline GFR was 112ml/min/1.73m 2 (71-147ml/min/1.73m 2 ). AER decreased significantly at the short-term (median decrease -134 mcg/min, p=0.0063). GFR was not significantly-different at short-term or long-term intervals. Dextran clearance improved for diameters smaller than albumin (therapy for ≥1year in sickle nephropathy results in lower albumin excretion with stable GFR. Filtration of neutral molecules ≥36Å was not changed by losartan, suggesting that the effect of losartan is a mechanism other than alteration of glomerular filtration size-selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time course of the antiproteinuric and antihypertensive effect of losartan in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen; Jacobsen, Peter; Tarnow, Lise

    2003-01-01

    is unknown. We evaluated the time course of the antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effect after initiation of AT1 receptor blockade by losartan in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Ten hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy were included in the study. After a washout period of 4 weeks...

  12. Effect of losartan on the blood-brain barrier permeability in diabetic hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M; Kalayci, R; Küçük, M; Arican, N; Elmas, I; Kudat, H; Korkut, F

    2003-11-07

    Our previous publication has stressed the benefits of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood pressure during L-NAME-induced hypertension. This study reports the impacts of anti-hypertensive treatment by losartan on the brain endothelial barrier function and the arterial blood pressure, during acute hypertension episode, in experimentally diabetic hypertensive rats. Systolic blood pressure measurements were taken with tail cuff method before and during administration of L-NAME (0.5 mg/ml). We induced diabetes by using alloxan (50 mg/kg, i.p). Losartan (3 mg/kg, i.v) was given to rats following the L-NAME treatment. Acute hypertensive vascular injury was induced by epinephrine (40 microg/kg). The BBB disruption was quantified according to the extravasation of the Evans blue (EB) dye. L-NAME induced a significant increase in arterial blood pressure on day 14 in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats (p hypertensive and diabetic hypertensive rats (p hypertension in diabetic hypertensive rats increased the content of EB dye dramatically in cerebellum and diencephalon (p cerebral cortex (p hypertensive rats treated with epinephrine (p hypertensive rats, epinephrine administration leads to an increase in microvascular-EB-albumin efflux to brain, however losartan treatment significantly attenuates this protein's transport to brain tissue.

  13. Renal effects of long-term leptin infusion and preventive role of losartan treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Zubeyde; Dursun, Nurcan; Akgun, Hulya; Ozturk, Figen; Okur, Hamit; Koc, Nedret

    2005-12-15

    Leptin has direct and indirect effects on renal pathophysiological characteristics. In the present study, the effects of long-term leptin infusion on the renal hemodynamics, renal excretory functions, and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels, and preventive effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, losartan, on these renal changes were evaluated. The study was performed by using forty Wistar albino rats. On day 0, osmotic mini-pumps filled with leptin or placebo were intraperitoneally placed under sterile conditions. The rats in Group L (Leptin group, n=15) and Group LL (Leptin-losartan group, n=15) were given recombinant murine leptin at a rate of 250 ng per hour for 28 days. Control rats (Group C, n=10) were administered placebo at the same infusion rate. The rats in Group LL were also administered losartan (10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) perorally for 28 days. On day 28, the rats were placed in metabolic cages, and the food and water intakes were determined, and the urine was collected for 24 h. At the end of the study, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were determined directly from the left femoral artery, and renal blood flow (RBF) was recorded indirectly using a laser Doppler flow module. Leptin infusion did not produce any changes in systemic arterial blood pressures and urinary flow rate. The rates of creatinine (Cr), sodium (Na), and protein excretions of the animals infused leptin were significantly increased. The urinary Cr and Na excretions were decreased, while the urinary protein excretion was normalized with the losartan treatment. The rats infused leptin had also higher circulating ET-1 levels. ET-1 levels were also reversed to the normal values with the losartan treatment. Renal TGF-beta1 expression was determined immunohistochemically, and it was more prominent in the renal tubules from the rats treated with leptin. The losartan treatment had no effect on

  14. Efficacy of losartan for improving insulin resistance and vascular remodeling in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Song, Yan; Liu, Jing; Ma, Li-Jie; Shen, Yang; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and vascular remodeling are prevalent and predict cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Angiotensin II (Ang II) may be involved in both pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the Ang II receptor blocker losartan on insulin resistance, arterial stiffness, and carotid artery structure in hemodialysis patients. Seventy-two hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to receive either losartan 50 mg qd (n = 36) or β-blocker bisoprolol 5 mg qd (n = 36). At the start and at month 12, ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements, and carotid artery ultrasound were performed, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. During the study period, bioimpedance method was used to evaluate volume status every 3 months. Home-monitored BPs were measured at least monthly. Ambulatory BP decreased significantly and similarly by either losartan or bisoprolol. Decreases in PWVs in losartan group at the end of month 12 were significantly greater than changes in PWV in bisoprolol group (0.9 ± 0.3 vs. 0.4 ± 0.5 m/s, P = 0.021). Common carotid artery intima-media cross-sectional area decreased significantly only in patients treated with losartan (20.3 ± 4.9 vs. 19.1 ± 5.1 mm(2) , P = 0.001), and HOMA-IR was also reduced in losartan group only (1.9 ± 1.0 vs. 1.7 ± 0.8, P = 0.003). Multiple regression analysis showed significant correlations between changes in PWV and changes in HOMA-IR. With comparable BP-lowering efficacy, losartan achieved better improvement in insulin sensitivity, arterial stiffness, and carotid artery hypertrophy in hemodialysis patients. The regression of arterial stiffness may be in part through attenuation in insulin resistance. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. POR DESHIDRATACIÓN COMBINADA: OPTIMIZACION DEL PROCESO Y EVALUACIÓN DE LAEFICIENCIA ANTIOXIDANTE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Laborde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un alimento deshidratado saludable de eleva da calidad nutricional y valor agregado: uva pasa de bajo contenido calórico, por deshidratación combinada asistida por ultrasonido mediante un tratamiento osmótico dual (D3S de dos etapas complementado por secado. U va rosada Red Globe producida en Mendoz a (Argentina se sometió a sustitución de sus azúcares por edulcorante natural Stevia en dos etapas osmóticas bajo diferentes condiciones ( tratamiento con/sin ultrasonido; concentración del edulcorante 18, 20, 22%p/p ; tiempo 35, 75 , 115 minutos , evaluando sólidos solubles (SS, humedad (M , polifenoles totales ( P F, eficiencia antioxidante (A E y perfil de azúcares. L a optimización múltiple del proceso por la metodología de superficie de respuesta y análisis de deseabilidad , permitió minimiza r M, maximizan do SS ( incorporación de Stevia y conservando la máxima cantidad PF. El tratamiento óptimo redujo un 32% los azúcares mayoritarios de la uva (sacarosa, glucosa tras la primera etapa, y el 57% de ellos al final del proceso.

  16. DIFFERENCES IN EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN MEN AND WOMEN: LOSARTAN VERSUS ENALAPRIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate gender differences in effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy with losartan in comparison with enalapril therapy. Material and methods. Open-label controlled crossover study in parallel groups was conducted during 3 months. A total of 120 patients aged 20-45 years with arterial hypertension (HT of 1 and 2 degree were split into 4 groups with 30 patients in each: 1A, 1B – men; 2A, 2B – women. For the first 6 weeks patients of the 1A, 2A groups received enalapril 5-20 mg while patients of 1B, 2B – received losartan 50-100 mg. Then the therapy was crosswise changed. Results. Initial blood pressure (BP levels did not differ significantly in men and women. In women start therapy with losartan decreased systolic BP (BPs more effectively than enalapril therapy did (18.2±5.4% vs 15.2±4.3%, р=0.02. In men enalapril and losartan start therapies did not show significant differences in BP reduction (13.8±4.5% vs 14.6±4.6%, р=0.539. Follicule-stimulating hormone (FSH level in women correlated positively with age (r=0.826; p=0.0001, HT duration (r=0.498; p=0.0001, BPs level (r=0.466; p=0.001, microalbuminuria level (r=0.583; p=0.0001 and negatively – with glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.58; p=0.0001. Conclusion. Losartan is more effective than enalapril as a start therapy in 20-45-year-old women. In women FSH level correlates with age, HT duration, BPs and microalbuminuria levels, glomerular filtration rate.

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Apigenin on Losartan Metabolism and CYP2C9 Activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Gong, Yun; Zeng, Da-Li; Chen, Lian-Guo; Lin, Gao-Tong; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Sun, Wei; Chen, Meng-Chun; Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Rui-Jie

    2016-01-01

    CYP2C9 is one of the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the metabolism of losartan and human CYP2C9 and rat CYP2C11 activity in vitro. Different concentrations of apigenin were added to a 100 mmol/l Tris-HCl reaction mixture containing 2 pmol/ml recombinant human CYP2C9.1, 0.25 mg/ml human liver microsomes or 0.5 mg/ml rat liver microsomes to determine the half maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the metabolism of losartan. In addition, diclofenac used as CYP2C9 substrate was performed to determine the effects of apigenin on CYP2C9. The results showed that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan in vitro, the IC50 was 7.61, 4.10 and 11.07 μmol/l on recombinant CYP2C9 microsomes, human liver microsomes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. Meanwhile, apigenin's mode of action on human CYP2C9 activity was competitive for the substrate diclofenac. In contrast to its potent inhibition of CYP2C9 in humans (9.51 μmol/l), apigenin had lesser effects on CYP2C11 in rat (IC50 = 15.51 μmol/l). The observations imply that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. More attention should be paid as to when losartan should be administrated combined with apigenin. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Trejo, Ehécatl Miguel Ángel; Arellano Buendía, Abraham Said; Sánchez Reyes, Omegar; García Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Arguello García, Raúl; Loredo Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio Alonso, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy. PMID:28926934

  19. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Trejo, Ehécatl Miguel Ángel; Arellano Buendía, Abraham Said; Sánchez Reyes, Omegar; García Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Arguello García, Raúl; Loredo Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia, Edilia; Sánchez Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio Alonso, Horacio

    2017-09-16

    Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD), reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C), CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral) (CKDA), and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg) (CKDL). After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N -acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1) and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy.

  20. The Beneficial Effects of Allicin in Chronic Kidney Disease Are Comparable to Losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehécatl Miguel Ángel García Trejo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that allicin may play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD, reducing hypertension and oxidative stress and improving renal dysfunction. In the present study, CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy and the animals were divided into four treatment groups as follows: control (C, CKD, CKD+allicin (40 mg/kg pathway oral (CKDA, and CKD+Losartan (20 mg/kg (CKDL. After CKD induction, the rats developed hypertension from week 3 to the end of the study. This was associated with increased creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels in serum, increased albuminuria, increased urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG, increased nephrin expression, and incrased histological alterations in the cortex. The levels of angiotensin receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS were decreased in the renal cortex from the CKD group. Otherwise, lipid and protein oxidation were higher in the CKD group than in the control group. A disturbance was observed in the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Kelch ECH associating protein 1 system (Nrf2/keap1 and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase-1. Allicin or losartan treatments relieved renal dysfunction, hypertension, and oxidative stress. In addition, both treatments showed the same efficacy on the expression of angiotensin receptors, the nephrin, Nrf2/keap1 pathway, and eNOS. Further in silico analyses suggest that allicin and losartan could have a common mechanism involving interaction with AT1 receptors. Allicin showed antihypertensive, antioxidant, and nephroprotective effects. The beneficial effects showed by allicin are similar, or even better, than those of losartan. In fact, the effect of allicin on blood pressure and renal function is comparable to reductions seen with losartan, a prescription drug commonly used as a first-line therapy.

  1. Candesartan, rather than losartan, improves motor dysfunction in thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Murad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB, and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg−1·day−1 intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg−1·day−1 as follows: TAA (distilled water, losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg, and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg. Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower “off-rate” from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are

  2. Candesartan, rather than losartan, improves motor dysfunction in thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, H A; Gazzaz, Z J; Ali, S S; Ibraheem, M S

    2017-09-21

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is more common than the acute syndrome. Losartan, the first angiotensin-II receptor blocker (ARB), and candesartan, another widely-used ARB, have protected against developing fibrogenesis, but there is no clear data about their curative antifibrotic effects. The current study was designed to examine their effects in an already-established model of hepatic fibrosis and also their effects on the associated motor dysfunction. Low-grade chronic liver failure (CLF) was induced in 3-month old Sprague-Dawley male rats using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg·kg-1·day-1) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. The TAA-CLF rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8) treated orally for 14 days (mg·kg-1·day-1) as follows: TAA (distilled water), losartan (5 and 10 mg/kg), and candesartan (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg). Rats were tested for rotarod and open-field tests. Serum and hepatic biochemical markers, and hepatic histopathological changes were evaluated by H&E and Masson's staining. The TAA-CLF rats showed significant increases of hepatic malondialdehyde, hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and serum ammonia, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, TNF-α, and malondialdehyde levels as well as significant decreases of hepatic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments significantly reversed these changes. The histopathological changes were moderate in losartan-5 and candesartan-0.1 groups and mild in losartan-10 and candesartan-0.3 groups. Only candesartan significantly improved TAA-induced motor dysfunction. In conclusion, therapeutic antifibrotic effects of losartan and candesartan in thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats are possibly through angiotensin-II receptor blocking, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Improved motor dysfunction by candesartan could be attributed to better brain penetration and slower "off-rate" from angiotensin-II receptors. Clinical trials are recommended.

  3. Long-term treatment with losartan versus atenolol improves insulin sensitivity in hypertension: ICARUS, a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Fossum, Eigil; Høieggen, Aud

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension and insulin resistance might be associated through peripheral vascular hypertrophy/rarefaction which compromises skeletal muscle blood flow and decreases glucose uptake, inducing insulin resistance. We hypothesized that treatment with losartan as compared to atenolol would improve...

  4. Angiotensin IV Receptors Mediate the Cognitive and Cerebrovascular Benefits of Losartan in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royea, Jessika; Zhang, Luqing; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

    2017-05-31

    The use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) correlates with reduced onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism depicting how ARBs such as losartan restore cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in AD is unknown. Here, we propose a mechanism underlying losartan's benefits by selectively blocking the effects of angiotensin IV (AngIV) at its receptor (AT4R) with divalinal in mice overexpressing the AD-related Swedish and Indiana mutations of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP mice) and WT mice. Young (3-month-old) mice were treated with losartan (∼10 mg/kg/d, 4 months), followed by intracerebroventricular administration of vehicle or divalinal in the final month of treatment. Spatial learning and memory were assessed using Morris water mazes at 3 and 4 months of losartan treatment. Cerebrovascular reactivity and whisker-evoked neurovascular coupling responses were measured at end point (∼7 months of age), together with biomarkers related to neuronal and vascular oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase-2), neuroinflammation (astroglial and microglial activation), neurogenesis (BrdU-labeled newborn cells), and amyloidosis [soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) species and Aβ plaque load]. Divalinal countered losartan's capacity to rescue spatial learning and memory and blocked losartan's benefits on dilatory function and baseline nitric oxide bioavailability. Divalinal reverted losartan's anti-inflammatory effects, but failed to modify losartan-mediated reductions in oxidative stress. Neither losartan nor divalinal affected arterial blood pressure or significantly altered the amyloid pathology in APP mice. Our findings identify activation of the AngIV/AT4R cascade as the underlying mechanism in losartan's benefits and a target that could restore Aβ-related cognitive and cerebrovascular deficits in AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Antihypertensive medications that target the renin angiotensin system, such as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), have

  5. Early treatment with losartan effectively ameliorates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and function in a prehypertensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, De-Hua; Lin, Jin-Xiu; Zhang, Liang-Min; Xu, Chang-Sheng; Xie, Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Pharmacological treatment of prehypertension may ameliorate hypertension and improve vascular structure and function. This study investigated 1) whether early treatment with either losartan or amlodipine at the onset of prehypertension can prevent hypertension and 2) whether losartan and amlodipine equally improve vascular remodeling and function in a rat model of hypertension. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats were administered losartan, amlodipine or saline for 6 or 16weeks at the onset of prehypertension. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as a control. All groups were observed for 40weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. Vascular structure and function were determined by microscopy and vascular ring contractility assays, respectively. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) expression was measured by western blot. Losartan effectively reduced progression from prehypertension to hypertension as well as vascular remodeling and improved vascular contractility in SHRSP rats. Long-term losartan (16weeks) had greater benefits than short-term (6weeks) treatment. Losartan increased Ang II and decreased Aldo levels in the serum and vessel walls of resistance vessels in a time-dependent manner. Losartan significantly decreased AT1R and increased AT2R vascular expression. Amlodipine had no effect on vascular AT1R and AT2R expression. Losartan administered at the onset of prehypertension is more effective than amlodipine in ameliorating hypertension and improving vascular remodeling and function, which is likely mediated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AT1R blocker losartan attenuates intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis in a mouse model of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Jing; Shi, Yong-Yan; Wang, En-Bo; Zhu, Tong; Zhao, Qun

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II, which is the main effector of the renin‑angiotensin system, has an important role in intestinal inflammation via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of the AT1R blocker losartan on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Losartan was administered to male adult C57BL/6 J mice 2 weeks prior to the induction of colitis, and images of the whole colon were captured to record changes, scored according to a microscopic scoring system, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed in order to investigate colonic inflammation. In addition, intestinal epithelial barrier permeability was evaluated, and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and apoptosis-related protein expression levels were detected by western blotting. Losartan was able to attenuate TNBS-induced body weight loss and colonic damage. Furthermore, T helper 1-mediated proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by losartan, and gut permeability was largely preserved. TUNEL staining revealed reduced IEC apoptosis in the losartan-treated mice. Losartan also increased the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio and suppressed caspase-3 induction. These results suggested that the AT1R blocker losartan may attenuate TNBS-induced colitis by inhibiting the apoptosis of IECs. The effects of losartan were partially mediated through increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and subsequently suppressing the induction of the proapoptotic mediator caspase-3.

  7. Uji Presisi Dan Profil Disolusi Tablet Losartan Inovator Dan Copy Product Dengan Metode Spektrofotometri Ultraviolet-visible

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Wahyunita Yulia; Astuti, Ika Yuni; Setiawan, Didik

    2010-01-01

    The examine of dissolution in-vitro is used to research drug releated and for basis of bioavaibility prediction. This research aimed to search for precision from the methode is used and to search for profile of dissolution from losartan tablet of inovator although copy product (A, B, C, and D). A method for precision by dissolution method and profile of dissolution losartan tablet, had been developed using spektrofotometri ultraviolet-visible method. Presicion is one of parameters in val...

  8. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury.

  9. Inhibition of cellular transdifferentiation by losartan minimizes but does not reverse type 2 diabetes-induced renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoni, Carine P; Maquigussa, Edgar; Passos, Clévia S; Pereira, Luciana G; Boim, Mirian A

    2015-09-01

    Transformer Growth Factor (TGF-β1) and angiotensin II (AngII) induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation (MFT) contributing to renal fibrosis. The present study evaluated the capacity of an AT1 receptor blocker (losartan) to induce the regression of pre-existing fibrosis via interference with MFT and EMT in a rat model of type 2 diabetes, and in cultured mesangial cells (MCs) stimulated with high glucose and AngII. After 12 weeks of diabetes induction (D12 group), animals showing evidence of nephropathy, were divided in groups untreated for additional 8 weeks (D20 group) and treated for additional 8 weeks with losartan (D20+los group). D12 animals presented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, proteinuria, increased levels of TGF-β1 and MFT/EMT markers. Losartan stabilized all of these parameters and hindered the progression of fibrosis, but it did not reverse the pre-existing fibrotic manifestations. Losartan reduced TGF-β1 in the tubules, but not in the glomeruli. Stimulated MC exhibited myofibroblast phenotype and capacity for migration, which were completely reversed by losartan. Cellular transition may play a role in diabetes-inducing renal fibrogenesis in both AngII-TGF-β1 axis-dependent and independent manners. Losartan was efficient in preventing cells from undergoing further transdifferentiation, but this strategy was not sufficient to induce regression of the pre-existing tissue fibrosis. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Losartan Inhibits Vascular Calcification by Suppressing the BMP2 and Runx2 Expression in Rats In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mincai; Wu, Panfeng; Shao, Juan; Ke, Zhiqiang; Li, Dan; Wu, Jiliang

    2016-04-01

    The blockade of renin-angiotensin II system has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Since vascular calcification (VC) is commonly found in these diseases, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not losartan, a widely used angiotensin II receptor blockers, inhibits VC in rats in vivo. A rat model of VC was generated by treating rats with a combination of warfarin and vitamin K1. Two weeks after the treatments, the rats were treated with vehicle or without losartan (100 ng/kg/day) for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiments, aortic arteries were isolated for the examination of calcification morphology, mRNA and protein expression of BMP2 and Runx2, and osteoblast differentiation. Warfarin and vitamin K instigated vascular remodeling with calcified plaques in the aortic arteries in rats. Losartan significantly attenuated warfarin- and vitamin K-induced vascular injury and calcification. Consistently, losartan suppressed the levels of mRNA and protein expression of BMP2 and Runx2, two key factors for VC. Further, vascular calcified lesion areas expressed angiotensin II 1 receptor (AT1R). Finally, losartan treatment significantly inhibited apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in rat arteries. We conclude that losartan suppresses VC by lowering the expression of AT1R, Runx2 and BMP2, and by inhibiting the apoptosis of VSMC in rat aortic arteries.

  11. Modulating effect of losartan potassium on the mutagenicity and recombinogenicity of doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Oliveira, R G; Orsolin, P C; Nepomuceno, J C

    2016-09-01

    Losartan potassium is an antihypertensive drug in the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARA) class. Some studies claim that, in addition to regulating blood pressure, this class of drug has anticancer properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of losartan potassium using the SMART (Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test) assay on the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as the possible modulating effects of this drug, when associated with doxorubicin (DXR). Third instar larvae, descendents of standard and high bioactivation (ST and HB) crosses, were chronically treated with different concentrations of losartan potassium (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; and 4 mM) alone or in association (co-treatment) with doxorubicin (DXR 0.125 mg/mL). The results showed an absence of a mutagenic effect of losartan potassium. In the co-treatment of losartan with DXR, the results showed that losartan is capable of reducing the number of mutant spots induced by DXR without altering the recombinogenic effect of the chemotherapeutic agent. Antiproliferative action appears to be the main mechanism involved in reducing the frequency of mutant spots and consequent modulation of alterations induced by DXR, although this parameter has not been directly assessed in this study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. COMPARISON OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF LOSARTAN WITH IMIPRAMINE IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choppadandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Comparison of antidepressant activity of Losartan with Imipramine in albino mice. BACKGROUND Of all the afflictions that trouble the soul, depression is the commonest characterised by a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Similarly, hypertension is another condition which has emerged as a major public health problem in India and many other developing countries. There is compulsion that 35% of the population has to use the antihypertensives and antidepressants simultaneously for a long period of time to maintain their health. The present work is aimed at comparing antidepressant activity of losartan with imipramine which acts by raising brain BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels so that a single agent can be used for both the conditions avoiding multiple medications. METHOD 18 Albino mice were taken, divided into 6 mice in each group and subjected to Forced swim test. All the drugs were administered orally. Drugs were administered and time of onset of immobility is measured 60 min. after the drug administration along with total duration of immobility. Animals are exposed to pretest of 15 min., 24 hrs. prior to the 6 min. swim test. Each animal is considered immobile when it ceased to struggle and swim and remained floating in the water, only moving to keep its head above water. Control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg. Standard group received Imipramine (5 mg/kg and test group was treated with Losartan (3 mg/kg. The Forced swim test for each mouse was video captured which was later analysed to count the time of onset of immobility and total duration of immobility. RESULTS Data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Losartan showed significant antidepressant activity indicated by significant delay (P<0.05 in the time of onset of immobility and significant reduction (P<0.05 in the total duration of immobility compared to

  13. Characterization of 18F-FPyKYNE-Losartan for Imaging AT1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Maryam; Tiberi, Mario; Ismail, Basma; Hunter, Chad R; Arksey, Natasha; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Beanlands, Rob S; deKemp, Robert A; DaSilva, Jean N

    2016-10-01

    Most physiologic effects of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) are mediated via the angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R). The 18F-FPyKYNE derivative of the clinically used AT1R blocker losartan exhibits high binding selectivity for kidney AT1R and rapid metabolism in rats. The aim of this study was to further assess the binding profile of this novel PET agent for imaging AT1R in rats and pigs. In vitro binding assays were performed with 18F-FPyKYNE-losartan in rat kidneys. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to assess dosimetry, antagonistic efficacy via blood pressure measurements, and presence of labeled metabolites in kidneys. Test-retest PET imaging, blocking with AT1R antagonist candesartan (10 mg/kg), and plasma metabolism analysis were performed in female Yorkshire pigs. 18F-FPyKYNE-losartan bound with high affinity (dissociation constant of 49.4 ± 18.0 nM and maximal binding of 348 ± 112 fmol/mm2) to rat kidney AT1R. It bound strongly to plasma proteins in rats (97%), and its labeled metabolites displayed minimal interference on renal AT1R binding. FPyKYNE-losartan fully antagonized the Ang II pressor effect, albeit with 4-fold potency reduction (the effective dose inhibiting 50% of the Ang II-induced maximal pressor response of 25.5 mg/kg) relative to losartan. PET imaging exhibited high kidney-to-blood contrast and slow renal clearance, with an SUV of 14.1 ± 6.2. Excellent reproducibility was observed in the calculated test-retest variability (7.2% ± 0.75%). Only hydrophilic-labeled metabolites were present in plasma samples, and renal retention was reduced (-60%) at 10-15 min after blockade with candesartan. 18F-FPyKYNE-losartan has a favorable binding profile and displays high potential for translational work in humans as an AT1R PET imaging agent. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Losartan reduces insulin resistance by inhibiting oxidative stress and enhancing insulin signaling transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Qiao, Q Y; Pan, L H; Zhou, D C; Hu, C; Gu, H F; Fu, S K; Liu, X L; Jin, H M

    2015-03-01

    Inhibition of the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) could reduce insulin resistance in patients with hypertension and diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but whether the effect of losartan on insulin resistance is associated with reduction of oxidative stress and enhancement of insulin signaling transduction has not been fully elucidated. 130 patients with type 2 DKD were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the losartan group (n=65, 100 mg orally daily for 12 months) and the amlodipine group (n=65, 10 mg orally daily for 12 months). Oxidative stress markers in plasma, urine concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine (NT) as well as SOD activity were measured by ELISA. After in vitro treatment with different doses of losartan (10, 100 μmol/L) or amlodipine for 48 h, the size of H2O2-induced adipocytes and glucose consumption were measured. Western blot was performed to investigate IRS-1 serine phosphorylation level as well as the protein expressions of phosphorylated insulin receptor (pIR), phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase (PI3K) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After 12-month treatment, there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreases, plasma fasting blood glucose and HbA1c between the 2 groups. Compared with amlodipine group, fasting blood insulin levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were significantly decreased in losartan group, and in addition, the circulating levels of 8-OHdG and NT were significantly decreased in losartan group, while the serum SOD activity was enhanced. There were significant positively correlations of HOMA-IR with inflammatory oxidative stress markers. In vitro study showed that losartan could increase glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (Padipocyte size (Preduction of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with type 2 DKD as well as the activation of insulin signal pathway in insulin-resistance 3T3-L1 adipocytes through

  15. Terapia familiar sistêmica e idosos: contribuições e desafios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Clara P. de Paula Couto; Laíssa Eschiletti Prati; Deusivania Vieira da Silva Falcão; Sílvia Helena Koller

    2008-01-01

    .... Quatro modalidades terapêuticas são abordadas: a terapia individual com idosos, a terapia de casal na terceira idade, o atendimento familiar com membros idosos e o idoso percebido como recurso à terapia familiar...

  16. The effect of losartan on progressive aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan's syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linggen; Chen, Lei; Fan, Li; Gao, Dewei; Liang, Zhiru; Wang, Rong; Lu, Wenning

    2016-08-15

    To assess the effect of losartan therapy on progressive aortic dilatation and on clinical outcome in patients with Marfan's syndrome (MFS). The meta-analysis was instituted, which included studies identified by a systematic review of MEDLINE of peer-reviewed publications. Echocardiogram or MRI measurements of the aortic root dimension and outcome measures of death, cardiovascular surgery and aortic dissection or rupture were compared between patients who were treated and untreated with losartan therapy. Six randomized trials with 1398 subjects met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with non-losartan treatment, losartan therapy significantly decreased the rate of aortic dilatation (SMD=-0.13 with 95% CI -0.25 to 0.00, p=0.04). The clinical outcome beneficial was not observed in the losartan treatment group when compared with no losartan treatment group (odds ratio=1.04 with 95% CI of 0.57-1.87). Given the current results of the meta-analysis and together with the lack of associated side effects, it would be reasonable to use losartan in MFS patients with aortic root dilatation. However, no clinical outcome benefits were observed in the losartan treatment group when compared with no losartan treatment group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Terapia celular antiparkinsoniana con cuerpo carotídeo

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    La terapia celular es una terapia avanzada en la que las células pueden ser usadas como auténticos medicamentos. Como elemento esencial de la medicina regenerativa, el objetivo principal de estas terapias es la sustitución de tejidos dañados o deficientes por otros sanos o funcionales. Este tipo de terapias son una gran esperanza para el tratamiento de enfermedades prevalentes como algunas enfermedades neurodegenerativas, cuya mortalidad y morbilidad se incrementa año a año en relación con...

  18. Terapia génica: estado actual y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Cayón Somacarrera, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de la terapia génica es llevar a cabo modificaciones genéticas de las células del paciente con un fin terapéutico. Actualmente, la única modalidad de terapia génica en desarrollo es la dirigida a células somáticas, no germinales, lo que asegura que la transferencia sólo afecte al individuo en tratamiento y no a su descendencia. En este tipo de terapia las células a las cuales se dirige la terapia suelen ser aquellas involucradas en el proceso patogénico, sin embargo, en ciertas oc...

  19. Nefrite Intersticial Aguda Após Exposição a Losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Schwerz Weinert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nefrite intersticial aguda é uma causa comum de perda aguda de função renal. Exposição a drogas é o fator desencadeante mais freqüentemente relatado, porém auto-imunidade e infecções também estão associadas. Os inibidores da enzima de conversão da angiotensina têm sido relatados como possíveis agentes, porém não há relato na literatura de nefrite intersticial com uso de losartan. Descrevemos então, o caso de perda aguda de função renal após exposição a losartan, em paciente com dano renal prévio por nefropatia diabética, cuja biópsia renal diagnosticou nefrite intersticial aguda.

  20. Efficacy and safety of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . Treatment was well tolerated by patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction at baseline. INTERPRETATION: Our findings challenge the generally held view that angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce cardiac hypertrophy. Treatment with losartan was safe, suggesting that it can be used for other......BACKGROUND: No medical treatment has been reliably shown to halt or reverse disease progression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the results of several pilot studies have suggested beneficial effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, which...... are predictive of an adverse outcome. We aimed to assess the effect of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients (aged...

  1. Síndroma de Imunodeficiência Severa Combinada. A Propósito de um Caso

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, C.; Marques, L.; Ferreira, P.; Araújo, F.; Chorão, A.; Santos, E.; Vilarinho, A.

    2014-01-01

    As Imunodeficiências Severas Combinadas (SCID) são um grupo heterogéneo de doenças. caracterizadas por profunda deficiência da imunidade celular e humoral e que compreende entidades funcional e geneticamente muito diversas. Os doentes afectados morrem geralmente durante o primeiro ano de vida, a menos que seja efectuado transplante medular ou tratamento enzimático substitutivo.Os autores descrevem um caso de um lactente com história de infecções de repetição e lesões cutâneas eritematodescama...

  2. Propuesta para trabajar las habilidades socioemocionales en niños con TDAH con presentación combinada

    OpenAIRE

    Cuéllar Vicente, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    El Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH), frecuentemente presenta trastornos o síntomas asociados, como es un bajo funcionamiento socioemocional. Este trabajo es una propuesta educativa para el desarrollo de las habilidades socioemocionales de los niños con TDAH con presentación combinada que se encuentren escolarizados en el primer, segundo o tercer nivel de Educación Primaria de un centro educativo ordinario. En ella, se integran contenidos de las diversas habilidades so...

  3. Physical training associated with Enalapril but not to Losartan, results in better cardiovascular autonomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Karina Delgado; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice; de Paula Facioli, Tabata; de Araújo, João Eduardo; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular autonomic effects of physical training associated with Enalapril or Losartan pharmacological treatments in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHRs, 18weeks of age (N=48) was assigned to either sedentary (N=24) and trained (N=24; aerobic training by swimming for 10wk). Each group was subdivided in 3 subgroups (N=8) vehicle (control); Enalapril (10mg·kg-1·d-1); and Losartan (5mg·kg-1·d-1). All animals received a 10-week treatment in drinking water. In the last week of the treatments, the animals had their femoral artery and vein cannulated for blood pressure recording and drug injection, respectively. The autonomic assessment was performed by means of different approaches: double cardiac autonomic block with atropine and propranolol, spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and systolic arterial pressure (SAPV) and assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). The groups treated with Enalapril, sedentary and trained, showed more significant decrease in blood pressure when compared to the other groups. Autonomic evaluation showed that the sedentary group treated with Enalapril or Losartan had similar results, characterized by decreased effect of sympathetic tone and/or increased effect of cardiac vagal tone associated with improved BRS. Isolated physical training attenuated only the effect of sympathetic tone. The association of physical training with Enalapril showed the best results, characterized by the predominance of vagal tone in cardiac autonomic balance, increased HRV, reduced SAPV and increased BRS. Enalapril and Losartan promoted similar beneficial cardiovascular autonomic effects in sedentary animals, while only the association of physical training with Enalapril potentiated these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional effects of losartan in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ho, Carolyn Y; Havndrup, Ole; Kofoed, Klaus F; Norsk, Jakob; Jensen, Morten; Bundgaard, Henning

    2016-02-15

    There is a lack of disease-modifying treatments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to assess if losartan could improve or ameliorate deterioration of cardiac function and exercise capacity. Echocardiography, exercise test and MRI or CT were performed at baseline and after 12 months in 133 patients (52±13 years, 35% female) randomly allocated to losartan (100 mg/day) or placebo. Losartan had no effect on systolic function compared with placebo (mean difference for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 0% (95% CI -3% to 4%), p=0.84 or global longitudinal strain 0.7% (95% CI -0.2% to 1.6%), p=0.13). Neither Doppler measures of diastolic function, left atrial volume (mean difference 2 mL/m(2) (95% CI -4 to 8 mL/m(2)) p=0.53) nor exercise capacity (mean difference -0.3 metabolic equivalents (METS) (95% CI -1.0 to 0.3 METS), p=0.28) differed between the treatment groups. At follow-up, there was further progression of disease, with the most prominent impairment being an increase in left atrial volume of 6 mL/m(2) (95% CI 3 to 9 mL/m(2), plosartan had no effect on cardiac function or exercise capacity compared with placebo. Losartan fail to improve myocardial performance and failed to alter the progression of the disease. These findings do not support the use of angiotensin II receptor blockers as disease modifiers in adult patients with overt HCM. NCT01447654-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Blood Pressure Response to Losartan and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Erik; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Peker, Yüksel

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in people with hypertension, particularly resistant hypertension. Treatment with an antihypertensive agent alone is often insufficient to control hypertension in patients with OSA. To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) added to treatment with an antihypertensive agent has an impact on blood pressure (BP) levels. During the initial 6-week, two-center, open, prospective, case-control, parallel-design study (2:1; OSA/no-OSA), all patients began treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, 50 mg daily. In the second 6-week, sex-stratified, open, randomized, parallel-design study of the OSA group, all subjects continued to receive losartan and were randomly assigned to either nightly CPAP as add-on therapy or no CPAP. Twenty-four-hour BP monitoring included assessment every 15 minutes during daytime hours and every 20 minutes during the night. Ninety-one patients with untreated hypertension underwent a home sleep study (55 were found to have OSA; 36 were not). Losartan significantly reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP in both groups (without OSA: 12.6, 7.2, and 9.0 mm Hg; with OSA: 9.8, 5.7, and 6.1 mm Hg). Add-on CPAP treatment had no significant changes in 24-hour BP values but did reduce nighttime systolic BP by 4.7 mm Hg. All 24-hour BP values were reduced significantly in the 13 patients with OSA who used CPAP at least 4 hours per night. Losartan reduced BP in OSA, but the reductions were less than in no-OSA. Add-on CPAP therapy resulted in no significant changes in 24-hour BP measures except in patients using CPAP efficiently. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00701428).​

  6. Neuroprotective mechanism of losartan and its interaction with nimesulide against chronic fatigue stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, Barinder; Mishra, Jitendriya; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Pottabathini, Raghavender

    2015-12-01

    Potential role of angiotensin-II and cyclooxygenase have been suggested in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue stress. The present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of losartan and its interaction with nimesulide against chronic fatigue stress and related complications in mice. In the present study, male Laca mice (20-30 g) were subjected to running wheel activity test session (RWATS) for 6 min daily for 21 days. Losartan, nimesulide and their combinations were administered daily for 21 days, 45 min before being subjected to RWATS. Various behavioral and biochemical and neuroinflammatory mediators were assessed subsequently. 21 days RWATS treatment significantly decreased number of wheel rotations/6 min indicating fatigue stress like behaviors as compared to naive group. 21 days treatment with losartan (10 and 20 mg/kg, ip), nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/kg, po) and their combinations significantly improved behavior [increased number of wheel rotations, reversal of post-exercise fatigue, locomotor activity, antianxiety-like behavior (number of entries, latency to enter and time spent in mirror chamber), and memory performance (transfer latency in plus-maze performance task)], biochemical parameters (reduced serum corticosterone, brain lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, acetylcholinesterase activity, restored reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity) as compared to RWATS control. Besides, TNF-α, CRP levels were significantly attenuated by these drugs and their combinations as compared to control. The present study highlights the role of cyclooxygenase modulation in the neuroprotective effect of losartan against chronic fatigue stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in mice.

  7. Losartan reverses permissive epigenetic changes in renal glomeruli of diabetic db/db mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Marpadga A.; Sumanth, Putta; Lanting, Linda; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Mei; Mar, Daniel; Alpers, Charles E.; Bomsztyk, Karol; Natarajan, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin histone H3 lysine methylation and acetylation have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications. However, histone modification profiles at pathologic genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in vivo and their regulation by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are not clear. Here we tested whether treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with the AT1R blocker Losartan not only ameliorates diabetic nephropathy, but also reverses epigenetic changes. As expected, the db/db mice had increased blood pressure, mesangial hypertrophy, proteinuria and glomerular expression of RAGE and PAI-1 versus control db/+ mice. This was associated with increased RNA Polymerase II recruitment and permissive histone marks as well as decreased repressive histone marks at these genes, and altered expression of relevant histone modification enzymes. Increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were not associated with such epigenetic changes, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. Losartan attenuated key parameters of diabetic nephropathy and gene expression, and reversed some but not all the epigenetic changes in db/db mice. Losartan also attenuated increased H3K9/14Ac at RAGE, PAI-1 and MCP-1 promoters in mesangial cells cultured under diabetic conditions. Our results provide novel information about the chromatin state at key pathologic genes in vivo in diabetic nephropathy mediated in part by AT1R. Thus combination therapies targeting epigenetic regulators and AT1R could be evaluated for more effective treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24088954

  8. Effects of losartan on ventricular remodeling in experimental infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornoff Leonardo A. M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of losartan on ventricular remodeling and on survival after myocardial infarction in rats. METHODS: After surgical occlusion of left coronary artery, 84 surviving male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: LO treated with losartan (20mg/kg/day, n=33 and NT (n=51, without medication. After 3 months, we analyzed mortality; ventricular to body mass ratio (VM /BM; myocardial hydroxyproline concentration (HOP; isovolumetric pressure, +dp/dt, -dp/dt, and diastolic volume/left ventricle mass ratio (VO/LV. RESULTS: Mortality was: LO = 22%, and NT = 47% (p0.05. The V0/LV values (median were 0.24 mL/g in group LO and 0.31 mL/g in group NT (p<0.05 compared to NT group. There were no differences between the groups for +dp/dt and -dp/dt parameters. CONCLUSION: 1- The use of losartan myocardial infarction causes an attenuation of ventricular remodeling, bringing about an increased survival, an attenuation of ventricular hypertrophy and dilation, and an improvement of the isovolumetric pressure; 2- the treatment does not modify the myocardial collagen concentration.

  9. Aliskiren and losartan trial in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Keng-Thye; Choong, Hui-Lin; Wong, Kok-Seng; Tan, Han-Kim; Foo, Marjorie; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Lee, Evan J C; Anantharaman, Vathsala; Lee, Grace S L; Chan, Choong-Meng

    2014-12-01

    This is a report of a clinical trial on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of combined aliskiren and losartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)) versus aliskiren alone and ARB alone in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) over a 3-year period. This was a randomised trial in 155 patients with non-diabetic CKD comparing aliskiren (150 mg/day) (n=52) versus losartan (100 mg/day) (n=52) and the third group aliskiren (150 mg/day) combined with losartan (100 mg/day) (n=51). The trial utilised primary renal end points of eGFR proteinuria (p<0.001 for all). The changes in eGFR, total urinary protein from baseline to each year were not significantly different between the three therapeutic groups. This study in non-diabetic CKD patients showed that combination therapy with aliskiren and ARB was as efficacious as aliskiren alone and ARB alone. There was one patient who developed a non-fatal stroke in the combined aliskiren and ARB group while the other two groups had none. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Postmarketing study of efficacy and safety of losartan during the treatment of patients with mild and moderate hypertension: Lothar study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Losartan, the angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB exercises its main antihypertensive effect by vasodilatation of peripheral arteries. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect and safety of losartan in patients with mild and moderate arterial hypertension (AH. Methods. This was an open post-marketing study with losartan as monotherapy in previously treated or untreated patients with AH. Primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients that achieved target blood pressure after 8-week treatment with a single daily dose of losartan of 50-100 mg. Safety parameters were assessed according to the percentage of adverse events and metabolic effects of therapy. Results. The study included 550 patients with AH (59% female and 41% male, mean age 56.8±11.4 years, BMI=27±4 kg/m2. Losartan was applied in 31% of untreated and 69% of previously treatment-resistant patients After 8 weeks target blood pressure was achieved in 67.8% (SBP and in 81.1% (DBP of patients, respectively. The mean decrease was 21.8% for SBP and 21.1% for DBP (p<0.001. Out of all, 65% of patients achieved both target SBP and DBP values. Hydrochlorothiazide was added to the therapy in 11.6% of patients. There were no significant differences in drug efficacy between the entire group and subgroups of patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function (p=ns. Adverse events were rare and metabolic effect was favorable. Conclusion. Monotherapy with losartan in a dosage of 50-100 mg applied during 8 weeks resulted in achieving target values of blood pressure in 65% of patient with mild and moderate hypertension, also including the patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function. Losartan is a safe and metabolically neutral medication.

  11. Losartan Attenuates Myocardial Endothelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats via Inhibiting TGF-β/Smad Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Miao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zu, Changhao; Ma, Jing; Lu, Shijuan; Zhong, Jianghua; Zhang, Saidan

    2016-01-01

    Losartan plays an important role in the inhibition of myocardial fibrosis. But the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. Emerging evidences have indicated that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays a crucial role in cardiac fibrosis. Here the present study aims to first investigated the effect of Losartan on EndMT in cardiac fibrosis of spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks, namely the SHR group (Group S), the Losartan-treated group (Group L) and the Prazosin-treated group (Group P). Wistar-Kyoto rats served as controls (Group W). The histological changes were evaluated by Masson's trichrome. Co-expression of CD31 and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) were used as the markers of EndMT through immunofluorescence. The expressions of FSP1, CD31, TGF-β, Smad were detected by Western blot analysis. It was identified that elevated blood pressure induced a significant increase in myocardial fibrosis and EndMT in SHRs, which was reversed by Losartan and Prazosin treatment. Furthermore, the activity of TGF-β/Smad signaling was detected in the four groups. TGF-β/Smad signaling was activated in SHRs and suppressed by Losartan or Prazosin treatment. Losartan exhibited more efficiently than Prazosin in inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling activation, EndMT and myocardial fibrosis. These results showed that EndMT played an important role in promoting hypertensive cardiac fibrosis, and that losartan could suppress cardiac fibrosis through the inhibition of EndMT via classical TGF-β/Smad pathway.

  12. Efficacy of losartan vs. atenolol for the prevention of aortic dilation in Marfan syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forteza, Alberto; Evangelista, Arturo; Sánchez, Violeta; Teixidó-Turà, Gisela; Sanz, Paz; Gutiérrez, Laura; Gracia, Teresa; Centeno, Jorge; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; Rufilanchas, Juan Jose; Cortina, José; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; García-Dorado, David

    2016-03-21

    To determine the efficacy of losartan vs. atenolol in aortic dilation progression in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients. A phase IIIb, randomized, parallel, double-blind study was conducted in 140 MFS patients, age range: 5-60 years, with maximum aortic diameter losartan (n = 70) or atenolol (n = 70). Doses were raised to a maximum of 1.4 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/day. The primary end-point was the change in aortic root and ascending aorta maximum diameter indexed by body surface area on magnetic resonance imaging after 36 months of treatment. No serious drug-related adverse effects were observed. Five patients presented aortic events during a follow-up (one in the losartan and four in the atenolol groups, P = 0.366). After 3 years of follow-up, aortic root diameter increased significantly in both groups: 1.1 mm (95% CI 0.6-1.6) in the losartan and 1.4 mm (95% CI 0.9-1.9) in the atenolol group, with aortic dilatation progression being similar in both groups: absolute difference between losartan and atenolol -0.3 mm (95% CI -1.1 to 0.4, P = 0.382) and indexed by BSA -0.5 mm/m2 (95% CI -1.2 to 0.1, P = 0.092). Similarly, no significant differences were found in indexed ascending aorta diameter changes between the losartan and atenolol groups: -0.3 mm/m2 (95% CI -0.8 to 0.3, P = 0.326). Among patients with MFS, the use of losartan compared with atenolol did not result in significant differences in the progression of aortic root and ascending aorta diameters over 3 years of follow-up. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis.

  14. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reju George Thomas

    Full Text Available Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1 receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC, blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3, human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line. The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis.

  15. Losartan improves heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence are known to be disturbed and associated with excess mortality in heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether losartan, when added on top of beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy, could improve these indices in patients with systolic heart failure. Seventy-seven patients (mean age 60.4 +/- 8.0, 80.5% male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy (mean ejection fraction 34.5 +/- 4.4%) and New York Heart Association Class II-III heart failure symptoms, already receiving a beta-blocker and an ACEI, were randomly assigned to either open-label losartan (losartan group) or no additional drug (control group) in a 2:1 ratio and the patients were followed for 12 weeks. The HRV and heart rate turbulence indices were calculated from 24-hour Holter recordings both at the beginning and at the end of follow-up. The baseline clinical characteristics, HRV, and heart rate turbulence indices were similar in the 2 groups. At 12 weeks of follow-up, all HRV parameters except pNN50 increased (SDNN: 113.2 +/- 34.2 versus 127.8 +/- 24.1, P = .001; SDANN: 101.5 +/- 31.7 versus 115.2 +/- 22.0, P = .001; triangular index: 29.9 +/- 11.1 versus 34.2 +/- 7.9, P = .008; RMSSD: 29.1 +/- 20.2 versus 34.3 +/- 23.0, P = .009; NN50: 5015.3 +/- 5554.9 versus 6446.7 +/- 6101.1, P = .024; NN50: 5.65 +/- 6.41 versus 7.24 +/- 6.99, P = .089; SDNNi: 45.1 +/- 13.3 versus 50.3 +/- 14.5, P = .004), turbulence onset decreased (-0. 61 +/- 1.70 versus -1.24 +/- 1.31, P = .003) and turbulence slope increased (4.107 +/- 3.881 versus 5.940 +/- 4.281, P = .004) significantly in the losartan group as compared with controls. A 12-week-long losartan therapy significantly improved HRV and heart rate turbulence in patients with Class II-III heart failure and ischemic cardiomyopathy already on beta-blockers and ACEI.

  16. Atenolol versus losartan in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacro, Ronald V; Dietz, Harry C; Sleeper, Lynn A; Yetman, Anji T; Bradley, Timothy J; Colan, Steven D; Pearson, Gail D; Selamet Tierney, E Seda; Levine, Jami C; Atz, Andrew M; Benson, D Woodrow; Braverman, Alan C; Chen, Shan; De Backer, Julie; Gelb, Bruce D; Grossfeld, Paul D; Klein, Gloria L; Lai, Wyman W; Liou, Aimee; Loeys, Bart L; Markham, Larry W; Olson, Aaron K; Paridon, Stephen M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Pyeritz, Reed E; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Roman, Mary J; Sharkey, Angela M; Stylianou, Mario P; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns; Young, Luciana T; Mahony, Lynn

    2014-11-27

    Aortic-root dissection is the leading cause of death in Marfan's syndrome. Studies suggest that with regard to slowing aortic-root enlargement, losartan may be more effective than beta-blockers, the current standard therapy in most centers. We conducted a randomized trial comparing losartan with atenolol in children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome. The primary outcome was the rate of aortic-root enlargement, expressed as the change in the maximum aortic-root-diameter z score indexed to body-surface area (hereafter, aortic-root z score) over a 3-year period. Secondary outcomes included the rate of change in the absolute diameter of the aortic root; the rate of change in aortic regurgitation; the time to aortic dissection, aortic-root surgery, or death; somatic growth; and the incidence of adverse events. From January 2007 through February 2011, a total of 21 clinical centers enrolled 608 participants, 6 months to 25 years of age (mean [±SD] age, 11.5±6.5 years in the atenolol group and 11.0±6.2 years in the losartan group), who had an aortic-root z score greater than 3.0. The baseline-adjusted rate of change in the mean (±SE) aortic-root z score did not differ significantly between the atenolol group and the losartan group (-0.139±0.013 and -0.107±0.013 standard-deviation units per year, respectively; P=0.08). Both slopes were significantly less than zero, indicating a decrease in the aortic-root diameter relative to body-surface area with either treatment. The 3-year rates of aortic-root surgery, aortic dissection, death, and a composite of these events did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Among children and young adults with Marfan's syndrome who were randomly assigned to losartan or atenolol, we found no significant difference in the rate of aortic-root dilatation between the two treatment groups over a 3-year period. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00429364.).

  17. Alterações metabólicas, terapia antirretroviral e doença cardiovascular em idosos portadores de HIV Alteraciones metabólicas, terapia antirretroviral y enfermedad cardiovascular en adultos mayores portadores de VIH Metabolic abnormalities, antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Sebben Kramer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fenômenos mais atuais da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS é o surgimento de uma nova população vulnerável: os idosos. Um dos fatores responsáveis por este aumento é o desenvolvimento da terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV, que tem proporcionado uma melhor qualidade e expectativa de vida do portador de HIV. Entretanto, a TARV está associada a efeitos adversos como dislipidemia, diabete melito e resistência à insulina, os quais se constituem como fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. Com o impacto da TARV no metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, surgiram muitos estudos associando a infecção pelo HIV e a doença cardiovascular, assim como, os seus fatores de risco e a utilização da TARV, porém, poucos deles relatam sobre a cardiotoxicidade desta Terapia em idosos. Este artigo tem o objetivo de revisar as principais alterações metabólicas causadas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral e o seu impacto no aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares nos idosos portadores de HIV.Uno de los fenómenos más actuales del síndrome de la inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA es el surgimiento de una nueva población vulnerable: los adultos mayores. Uno de los factores responsables de este incremento es el desarrollo de la terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV, que ha proporcionado una mejor calidad y expectativa de vida del portador de VIH. Sin embargo, la TARV está asociada a efectos adversos como dislipidemia, diabetes melito y resistencia a la insulina, los que se constituyen como factores de enfermedad para riesgo cardiovascular. Con el impacto de la TARV en el metabolismo glucídico y lipídico, surgieron muchos estudios asociando la infección por el riesgo y la enfermedad cardiovascular, así como, sus factores de VIH y la utilización de la TARV, sin embargo, pocos de ellos relatan sobre la cardiotoxicidad de esta terapia en adultos mayores. Este artículo tiene por objeto revisar las principales

  18. DE LA TERAPIA CELULAR A LA REGENERACION PERIODONTAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pérez Borrego, Amparo; Domínguez Rodríguez, Libia; Ilisástigui Ortueta, C. Zaida Teresa

    2009-01-01

    .... La terapia celular regenerativa es un proceder que está dando sus primeros pasos, no obstante se han obtenido avances en múltiples enfermedades, por lo que la aplicación de las células madre adultas constituye una terapia muy esperanzadora para la regeneración periodontal.

  19. The value of losartan suppression test in the confirmatory diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in patients over 50 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Wu, Vin-Cent; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Chen, Yung-Ming; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wang, Ming-Jiuh

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) among the older-aged population has posed a crucial challenge. Among patients over 50 years old, this trial assessed comparability of the performance of two PA diagnostic tests: losartan and captopril suppression tests. A post-hoc subgroup analysis from a prospective cohort was conducted by the TAIPAI (Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation) group between July 2003 and July 2006. Of the 160 patients in the cohort, 60 patients over 50 years old received captopril and losartan tests to confirm PA. Among the 60 patients over 50 years old, 31 patients had PA confirmed by standardized protocol. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for post-captopril aldosterone was significantly less than that for post-losartan plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) (0.87 vs 0.94, p=0.02). Using the aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR)>35 with PAC>10 ng/dl, the specificity was 82.76% vs 93.1% and the sensitivity was 77.42% vs 87.10% for the captopril and losartan tests, respectively. The equivalence between the two tests were confirmed by the exact McNemar's test (p=1.0). The losartan test showed comparable accuracy to confirm PA. Verification of this "elderly-friendly" confirmatory test will be the first step to prepare a specific diagnostic model of PA for the older-aged population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Effects of Losartan in Preserving the Structural Integrity of Decellularized Small Diameter Vascular Allograft Conduit Implants In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Byoung Wook; Kim, Seong Who; Choo, Suk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Decellularization is a proposed method of preparing nonautologous biological arterial vascular scaffolding; however, the fate of the supporting medial elastic fiber, which is important in preserving the vascular structural integrity, is uncertain. The influence of losartan on preserving the medial elastic fiber integrity in decellularized small diameter vascular conduits (SDVC) was investigated. Decellularized infrarenal abdominal aortic allografts were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats treated either with (study rats, n = 6) or without oral losartan (control rats, n = 6) and graded 8 weeks later according to a remodeling scoring system (1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe) which we devised based on the intimal hyperplasia degree, morphologic changes, and elastic fiber fragmentation of the conduits. DAPI immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in 47 (25 decellularization only and 22 losartan treatment) cross-sectional slide specimens. The losartan versus decellularization only SDVC showed a significantly lower medial elastic fragmentation score (1.32 vs. 2.24, P losartan may yield superior medial layer elastic fiber preservation. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of losartan as an anti-fibrotic agent in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Stuart; Wilkinson, Nina; Tiniakos, Dina; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Burt, Alastair D; McColl, Elaine; Stocken, Deborah D; Steen, Nick; Barnes, Jane; Goudie, Nicola; Stewart, Stephen; Bury, Yvonne; Mann, Derek; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide. Experimental and small clinical trials have demonstrated that angiotensin II blockers (ARB) may be anti-fibrotic in the liver. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether treatment with Losartan for 96 weeks slowed, halted or reversed the progression of fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Double-blind randomised-controlled trial of Losartan 50 mg once a day versus placebo for 96 weeks in patients with histological evidence of NASH. The primary outcome for the study was change in histological fibrosis stage from pre-treatment to end-of-treatment. The study planned to recruit 214 patients. However, recruitment was slower than expected, and after 45 patients were randomised (median age 55; 56% male; 60% diabetic; median fibrosis stage 2), enrolment was suspended. Thirty-two patients (15 losartan and 17 placebo) completed follow up period: one patient (6.7%) treated with losartan and 4 patients (23.5%) in the placebo group were "responders" (lower fibrosis stage at follow up compared with baseline). The major reason for slow recruitment was that 39% of potentially eligible patients were already taking an ARB or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and 15% were taking other prohibited medications. Due to the widespread use of ACEI and ARB in patients with NASH this trial failed to recruit sufficient patients to determine whether losartan has anti-fibrotic effects in the liver. ISRCTN 57849521.

  2. Terapia familiar en los trastornos de personalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Rodríguez Moya; José Carlos Peláez

    2013-01-01

    La enfermedad mental afecta no solo al paciente sino también a su familia, dificulta la comunicación intrafamiliar, puede generar patologías adicionales en los familiares y todo ello empeorar la evolución del trastorno. Las terapias familiares de tipo psicoeducativo mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad y además previenen la aparición de otros trastornos en los familiares. Los elementos más importantes de estas intervenciones son la psicoeducación sobre el trastorno, el re-establecimiento de...

  3. Terapia cognitivo-conductual y psicosis

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS CUEVAS-YUST; SALVADOR PERONA-GARCELÁN

    2002-01-01

    En una patología, la psicosis, tradicionalmente reservada al tratamiento psiquiátrico, resulta especialmente interesante y prometedora la aparición de las intervenciones psicológicas. De hecho, la terapia cognitivo-conductual (TCC) está mostrando ser una aproximación efectiva en el tratamiento de síntomas psicóticos positivos resistentes a la medicación neuroléptica, existiendo incluso alguna evidencia de que podría contribuir a la reducción de las recaídas. En el presente trabajo describimos...

  4. Terapia Ocupacional Pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, Germán

    2016-01-01

    El artículo muestra la naturaleza y las actividades propias de la Terapia Ocupacional, y especifica sus posibilidades para promover el desarrollo global de los niños con Síndrome de Down, de modo que alcancen un nivel óptimo de funcionamiento en el hogar, la escuela y el juego o, lo que es lo mismo, logrando así un nivel de autonomía e independencia. Describe el procesamiento e integración sensorial, es decir, su capacidad para organizar e integrar los estímulos sensoriales, aplicándolos a la...

  5. Tratamiento del hombro doloroso mediante terapia manual

    OpenAIRE

    Gabucio López, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: Las disfunciones de hombro son un problema de salud común en las sociedades occidentales. Algunos protocolos de tratamiento han sido desarrollados mediante ensayos clínicos con pacientes que presentan dolor de hombro. Sin embargo, no hay evidencias que sustenten que un protocolo es mejor que otros. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un caso clínico en el que mediante terapia manual y la prescripción de ejercicios físicos se consigue la resolución del ...

  6. Los ritmos como terapia para la impulsividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Triviño

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigaciones recientes muestran que el uso de patrones rítmicos facilita la respuesta óptima en el tiempo, por lo que el entrenamiento mediante ritmos podría proponerse como terapia novedosa ante problemas como la impulsividad. Esto podría beneficiar a pacientes con daño prefrontal o personas con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH, que suelen mostrar conductas impulsivas, así como dificultad para estimar el paso del tiempo.

  7. Células madre y terapia celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Una célula madre (CM o célula troncal es aquella capaz de dividirse indefinidamente y diferenciarse a distintos tipos de células especializadas, no sólo morfológica sino también funcionalmente. Las células madre pueden clasificarse atendiendo a su origen en células madre adultas (CMA y células madre embrionarias (CME. Por sus características, las CM tienen potencialidades para diversos usos en la práctica clínica. La primera es como vehículo terapéutico de genes, en el caso de enfermedades monogénicas o incluso como vehículo de terapias antitumorales o antiangiogénicas. La segunda y principal aplicación es, aprovechando su potencial de diferenciación, en la regeneración de tejidos destruidos o dañados, como terapia de reemplazo celular o medicina regenerativa. En esta área se están desarrollando trabajos de investigación donde se busca reemplazar células dañadas por otras que restituyan la función normal de los tejidos u órganos; en enfermedades como: diabetes mellitus, enfermedades cardiovasculares, enfermedad de Parkinson y enfermedades de células sanguíneas. Actualmente existen muchas investigaciones enfocadas a descubrir células progenitoras que sirvan como banco de células para usos terapéuticos. Se reporta el empleo de varias estrategias, las que incluyen: terapias celulares derivadas de células autólogas; terapias celulares derivadas de líneas celulares establecidas desde una variedad de CM que incluyen MO, cordón umbilical, CME, así como células de tejidos y órganos de animales genéticamente modificados. Las principales aplicaciones se realizan con CM de la médula ósea (MO, ya que esta es un recurso celular propio, accesible y abundante para la terapia celular. (1 En la MO existe un grupo heterogéneo de CMA; además de las hematopoyéticas (CMH están las: endoteliales, mesenquimales (CMM, de la población lateral, progenitoras adultas multipotentes, ovales y también células madre muy peque

  8. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine besylate/losartan and amlodipine camsylate/losartan in healthy subjects: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, YoonJung; Lee, SeungHwan; Cho, Sang-Min; Kang, Won-Ho; Nam, Kyu-Yeol; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of amlodipine and losartan has been used to reduce blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and tolerability of an FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium compared to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium in healthy subjects. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted on 46 healthy male subjects. Blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected up to 144 hours post dose for each period. PK parameters were calculated in each treatment group using a noncompartmental method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the two treatments for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to the last quantifiable time point (AUC0-t) were estimated. Tolerability assessments were performed for all subjects who received the drug at least once. The PK profiles of the two treatments were similar. For amlodipine, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs) of amlodipine besylate to amlodipine camsylate for the Cmax and AUC0-t were 0.98 (0.94-1.01) and 0.97 (0.93-1.01), respectively. The corresponding values for losartan were 0.91 (0.81-1.02) and 1.05 (0.98-1.12), respectively. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two treatments, and both were well tolerated. An FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine)/50 mg losartan potassium produced similar results to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium treatment with respect to the PK parameters of amlodipine and losartan based on Cmax and AUC0-t values. The amlodipine besylate/losartan potassium combination was well tolerated by healthy male subjects.

  9. Comparison of the effects of levocetirizine and losartan on diabetic nephropathy and vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Hanan S; Shehatou, George S G; Suddek, Ghada M; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-06-05

    This work was designed to investigate the effects of levocetirizine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, on diabetes-induced nephropathy and vascular disorder, in comparison to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg). Diabetic rats were divided into three groups; diabetic, diabetic-levocetirizine (0.5mg/kg/day) and diabetic-losartan (25mg/kg/day). Treatments were started two weeks following diabetes induction and continued for additional eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, urine was collected and serum was separated for biochemical measurements. Tissue homogenates of kidney and aorta were prepared for measuring oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Moreover, histological analyses were conducted and aortic vascular reactivity was investigated. Levocetirizine improved renal function in diabetic rats (evidenced by mitigation of diabetes-induced changes in kidney to body weight ratio, serum albumin, urinary proteins and creatinine clearance). Moreover, levocetirizine attenuated the elevated renal levels of TNF-α and TGF-β1, ameliorated renal oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability in diabetic kidney. These effects were comparable to or surpassed those produced by losartan. Moreover, levocetirizine, similar to losartan, reduced the enhanced responsiveness of diabetic aorta to phenylephrine. Histological evaluation of renal and aortic tissues further confirmed the beneficial effects of levocetirizine on diabetic nephropathy and revealed a greater attenuation of diabetes-induced vascular hypertrophy by levocetirizine than by losartan. In conclusion, levocetirizine may offer comparable renoprotective effect to, and possibly superior vasculoprotective effects than, losartan in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, D. S. R.; Faitelson, A. V.; Gudyrev, O. S.; Dubrovin, G. M.; Pokrovski, M. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals), the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone, which was reflected in slowing the thinning of bone trabeculae and in preventing the occurrence of these microfractures, as well as increasing quality of experimental fractures healing. PMID:23401845

  11. Computational study of influence of diffuse basis functions on geometry optimization and spectroscopic properties of losartan potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Mikołaj; Lewadowska, Kornelia; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-02-01

    The work was aimed at investigating the influence of diffusion of basis functions on the geometry optimization of molecule of losartan in acidic and salt form. Spectroscopic properties of losartan potassium were also calculated and compared with experiment. Density functional theory method with various basis sets: 6-31G(d,p) and its diffused variations 6-31G(d,p)+ and 6-31G(d,p)++ was used. Application of diffuse basis functions in geometry optimization resulted in significant change of total molecule energy. Total molecule energy of losartan potassium decreased by 112.91 kJ/mol and 114.32 kJ/mol for 6-31G(d,p)+ and 6-31G(d,p)++ basis sets, respectively. Almost the same decrease was observed for losartan: 114.99 kJ/mol and 117.08 kJ/mol respectively for 6-31G(d,p)+ and 6-31G(d,p)++ basis sets. Further investigation showed significant difference within geometries of losartan potassium optimized with investigated basis sets. Application of diffused basis functions resulted in average 1.29 Å difference in relative position between corresponding atoms of three obtained geometries. Similar study taken on losartan resulted in only average 0.22 Å of dislocation. Extensive analysis of geometry changes in molecules obtained with diffused and non-diffuse basis functions was carried out in order to elucidate observed changes. The analysis was supported by electrostatic potential maps and calculation of natural atomic charges. UV, FT-IR and Raman spectra of losartan potassium were calculated and compared with experimental results. No crucial differences between Raman spectra obtained with different basis sets were observed. However, FT-IR spectra of geometry of losartan potassium optimized with 6-31G(d,p)++ basis set resulted in 40% better correlation with experimental FT-IR spectra than FT-IR calculated with geometry optimized with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Therefore, it is highly advisable to optimize geometry of molecules with ionic interactions using diffuse basis functions

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. R. Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals, the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone, which was reflected in slowing the thinning of bone trabeculae and in preventing the occurrence of these microfractures, as well as increasing quality of experimental fractures healing.

  13. AT1 receptor blocker losartan protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hall, Stephanie E.; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Morton, Aaron B.; Talbert, Erin E.; Toklu, Hale Z.; Tumer, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged ventilator support results in diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction leading to diaphragm weakness, which is predicted to contribute to problems in weaning patients from the ventilator. While it is established that ventilator-induced oxidative stress is required for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness, the signaling pathway(s) that trigger oxidant production remain unknown. However, recent evidence reveals that increased plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) result in oxidative stress and atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. Using a well-established animal model of mechanical ventilation, we tested the hypothesis that increased circulating levels of ANG II are required for both ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. Cause and effect was determined by administering an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) to prevent ventilator-induced increases in plasma ANG II levels, and the ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist (losartan) was provided to prevent the activation of ANG II type 1 receptors. Enalapril prevented the increase in plasma ANG II levels but did not protect against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress or diaphragm weakness. In contrast, losartan attenuated both ventilator-induced oxidative stress and diaphragm weakness. These findings indicate that circulating ANG II is not essential for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness but that activation of ANG II type 1 receptors appears to be a requirement for ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. Importantly, these experiments provide the first evidence that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug losartan may have clinical benefits to protect against ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness in humans. PMID:26359481

  14. Comparison of the AT1-receptor blockers candesartan, irbesartan and losartan for inhibiting renal microvascular constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F van Rodijnen

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor blockers differ in their affinity for the AT1-receptor, suggesting a dissimilar potency for inhibiting Ang II-induced vascular constriction. In the present study, we compared the effects of candesartan, irbesartan and losartan on the renal microvascular constriction to locally-formed Ang II, using isolated, perfused hydronephrotic rat kidneys. Addition of 1 nmol/L angiotensin I (Ang I, the precursor of Ang II significantly reduced the diameters of interlobular arteries (ILAs; -47.6±2.6%, afferent arterioles (AAs; -43.6±2.3% and efferent arterioles (EAs; -31.6±2.4%. Candesartan and irbesartan were more potent in antagonising the constriction to Ang I than losartan. By contrast, candesartan and irbesartan differed only slightly in potency. After a washing period of 60 minutes with drug-free medium, a second application of Ang I failed to induce vasoconstriction only in candesartan-treated kidneys. Pretreatment of hydronephrotic kidneys with candesartan, to further explore its antagonistic properties, shifted the dose-response curves of Ang II approximately 2 log units to the right without reducing the maximal Ang II-induced constriction of ILAs, AAs or EAs. Additionally, dose-response curves of Ang II were similar after short (10 minutes and prolonged (60 minutes preincubation with candesartan. Our findings indicate that candesartan and irbesartan are more potent inhibitors of renal microvascular constriction to locally-formed Ang II than losartan. The inhibitory effect of candesartan is more prolonged, suggesting a slow dissociation from the AT1-receptor. Additionally, candesartan was found to block the Ang II-induced constriction of renal microvessels in a surmountable manner.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of candesartan versus losartan in the primary preventive treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granström O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ola Granström,1 Lars-Åke Levin,2 Martin Henriksson11AstraZeneca Nordic, Södertälje, 2Center for Medical Technology Assessment, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenBackground: Although angiotensin receptor blockers have different receptor binding properties, no comparative randomized studies with cardiovascular event endpoints have been performed for this class of drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of candesartan (Atacand® versus generic losartan in the primary preventive treatment of hypertension.Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes over a patient's lifetime. Data from a clinical registry study were used to estimate event rates for cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. Costs and quality of life data were from published sources. Costs were in Swedish kronor and the outcome was quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs. Results: Due to reduced rates of cardiovascular complications, candesartan was associated with a QALY gain and lower health care costs compared with generic losartan (0.053 QALYs gained and reduced costs of approximately 4700 Swedish kronor for women; and 0.057 QALYs gained and reduced costs of approximately 4250 Swedish kronor for men. This result was robust in several sensitivity analyses.Conclusion: When modeling costs and health outcomes based on event rates for cardiovascular complications from a real-world registry study, candesartan appears to bring a QALY gain and a reduction in costs compared with generic losartan in the primary preventive treatment of hypertension in Sweden.Keywords: hypertension, angiotensin receptor blockers, cost-effectiveness, decision analysis

  16. Terapia hipolipemiante em situações especiais: síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida Hypolipidemic therapy under special conditions: acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Ching Yu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Dislipidemias podem ser observadas precocemente entre pacientes com AIDS. Frequentemente, estas anormalidades lipídicas incluem HDL baixo e moderado aumento dos triglicérides sanguíneos. A terapia anti-retroviral combinada (HAART pode agravar a dislipidemia nestes pacientes, com importante aumento nos triglicérides e no LDL. Vários mecanismos são propostos para explicar a dislipidemia mista observada nestes indivíduos, incluindo diferentes etapas do metabolismo lipídico. A importância do tratamento desses distúrbios lipídicos tem se tornado evidente com o aumento da expectativa de vida e os relatos de complicações cardiovasculares nestes pacientes. Existe um estado de resistência à insulina nos pacientes com AIDS em tratamento com HAART,que apresentam lipodistrofia, hipertrigliceridemia e baixos níveis de HDL. Drogas retro-antivirais são metabolizadas pelo CYP P450 3A4 e interações com algumas estatinas, especialmente com sinvastatina podem ocorrer. O tratamento com agentes hipolipemiantes deve ser baseado no perfil lipídico e no risco de coronariopatia. Para hipertrigliceridemias, fibratos (principalmente fenofibrato ou bezafibrato devem ser as drogas de escolha, bem como as estatinas (principalmente pravastatina. Terapia combinada usando estatinas mais fibratos é recomendada para dislipidemias mistas graves e sempre sob rigoroso monitoramento de efeitos adversos.Lipid alterations can be observed early among patients with AIDS disease. Commonly, these lipid abnormalities include low HDL-C and modest increase in triglyceride plasma levels. Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART in these patients may aggravate the dyslipidemia, with notable increases in triglycerides as well as in LDL-C. There are several mechanisms proposed to explain the mixed hyperlipidemia observed in these subjects, including different steps in lipid metabolism. The importance of the treatment of dyslipidemia became evident with the increased life

  17. Uso da hiperinsuflação manual combinada com pressão expiratória positiva e compressão torácica é seguro durante o choque séptico estável: um estudo clínico randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Netto Blattner

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de manobras de hiperinsuflação manual combinadas com pressão expiratória positiva associadas com técnicas padrão de compressão manual do tórax, com relação à segurança, à hemodinâmica e à oxigenação em pacientes com choque séptico estável. Delineamento: Este foi um estudo com dois grupos paralelos, randomizado e com avaliador cego. Um pesquisador independente preparou uma lista de randomização gerada por computador para alocação dos tratamentos. Local: Unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Participantes: Foram avaliados 52 indivíduos quanto à elegibilidade e, destes, 32 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Todos os indivíduos incluídos (n = 32 receberam a intervenção alocada (n = 19 para o Grupo Experimental e n = 13 para o Grupo Controle. Intervenção: Vinte minutos de manobras de hiperinsuflação manual combinadas com pressão expiratória positiva associadas com técnicas padrão de compressão manual do tórax (Grupo Experimental ou compressão do tórax, conforme o uso rotineiro de nossa unidade de terapia intensiva (Grupo Controle. Foi realizado seguimento imediatamente após e 30 minutos após a intervenção. Principal métrica de desfecho: Pressão arterial média. Resultados: Todos os indivíduos inscritos concluíram o estudo (n = 32. Não identificamos efeitos relevantes na pressão arterial média (p = 0,17, frequência cardíaca (p = 0,50 ou pressão média da artéria pulmonar (p = 0,89 após ajuste quanto à idade e ao peso do participante. Após ajuste dos dados, ambos os grupos foram idênticos com relação ao consumo de oxigênio (p = 0,84. A saturação periférica de oxigênio tendeu a aumentar com o tempo em ambos os grupos (p = 0,05, e não ocorreu associação significante entre o débito cardíaco e a saturação venosa de oxigênio (p = 0,813. Não se observou deterioração cl

  18. [Severe hyperkalemia associated to the use of losartan and spironolactone: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Ronald; Orozco, Rodrigo; Venegas, Juan Carlos

    2005-08-01

    Hyperkalemia is a complications of the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists and aldosterone antagonists. These drugs are commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and cardiac failure. We report a 84 year-old female treated with losartan 50 mg/day and spironolactone 25 mg/day that presented with a hyperkalemia of 8.4 mEq/l and bradicardia, drowsiness and respiratory depression. She required hemodialysis and ventilatory assistance. She was discharged in good conditions five days after admission.

  19. Losartan Administration Reduces Fibrosis but Hinders Functional Recovery after Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-25

    to drinking water with or without losartan potassium powder (Santa Cruz Biotechnol- ogy) at 2.5, 10, or 30 mg·kg1·day1 from 3 days postinjury for 7...mal Care and Use Committee. Adult male Lewis rats (Harlan Labo- ratories, Indianapolis, IN) were housed in a vivarium accredited by the Association...nonfat dried milk . Membranes were then incubated overnight at 4°C in TBST containing 5% (wt/vol) bovine serum albumin and primary antibody for collagen

  20. Tratamiento de una lesión endoperiodontal tipo III (combinada o verdadera): reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    M Alcota; Mondragón, R.; Zepeda,C

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de una lesión endoperiodontal tipo III (combinada o verdadera) en un paciente de sexo femenino de 41 años de edad sin antecedentes sistémicos. La paciente fue derivada del Curso de Especialización en Periodoncia de la Escuela de Graduados de la Universidad de Chile debido a una lesión periapical en la pieza 3.6. El pronóstico en este tipo de lesiones es dudoso, ya que es necesario que se efectúe el tratamiento endodóntico así como el periodontal, y el resultado rec...

  1. Gestalt-Terapia e Terapia Sistêmica: o corpo em psicoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Toscano de Araujo Gurgel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho demonstra a contribuição da abordagem corporal da Gestalt-Terapia para a Terapia Familiar Sistêmica. O método utilizado foi a gravação de uma oficina de corpo estruturada em saberes das duas abordagens. A oficina proporcionou, a cada participante, maior qualidade de atenção, presença, contato e criatividade, uma forma mais integrada de construir sua identidade. O entrecruzamento das duas abordagens trouxe às pessoas maior consciência de quem são e como são no "mundo", ajudando-as no processo de assunção da história que contam. A experiência mostrou aos terapeutas as possibilidades que o trabalho corporal oferece como método de apreensão da realidade co-construída.

  2. Long-term Effect of Losartan on Kidney Disease in American Indians With Type 2 Diabetes: A Follow-up Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Fufaa, Gudeta D; Wheelock, Kevin M; Weil, E Jennifer; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether early administration of losartan slows progression of diabetic kidney disease over an extended period. We conducted a 6-year clinical trial in 169 American Indians with type 2 diabetes and urine albumin/creatinine ratio losartan and 85 to placebo. Primary outcome was a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR; iothalamate) to ≤60 mL/min or to half the baseline value in persons who entered with GFR losartan vs. placebo) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.12-1.99). Participants were then followed posttrial for up to 12 years, with treatment managed outside the study. The effect of losartan on the primary GFR outcome was then reanalyzed for the entire study period, including the clinical trial and posttrial follow-up. After completion of the clinical trial, treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors was equivalent in both groups. During a median of 13.5 years following randomization, 29 participants originally assigned to losartan and 35 to placebo reached the primary GFR outcome with an HR of 0.72 (95% CI 0.44-1.18). Long-term risk of GFR decline was not significantly different between persons randomized to early treatment with losartan and those randomized to placebo. Accordingly, we found no evidence of an extended benefit of early losartan treatment on slowing GFR decline in persons with type 2 diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Barnidipine compared to lercanidipine in addition to losartan on endothelial damage and oxidative stress parameters in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2016-04-12

    Essential hypertension has been extensively reported to cause endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine or lercanidipine, in addition to losartan, on some parameters indicative of endothelial damage and oxidative stress in hypertensive, type 2 diabetic patients. One hundred and fifty one patients were randomised to barnidipine, 20 mg/day, or lercanidipine, 20 mg/day, both in addition to losartan, 100 mg/day, for 6 months. We assessed BP every month, in addition, patients underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We also assessed: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), some markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9), soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion protein-1 (sICAM-1), isoprostanes and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1). Both barnidipine and lercanidipine resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure, even if the reduction obtained with barnidipine + losartan was greater than that obtained with lercanidipine + losartan. Data recorded with ABPM also showed a similar trend. Barnidipine + losartan reduced the levels of Hs-CRP, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and isoprostanes both compared to baseline and to lercanidipine + losartan. Barnidipine + losartan gave an improvement of some parameters indicative of endothelial damage and oxidative stress in diabetic and hypertensive patients. NCT02064218 , ClinicalTrials.gov.

  4. Data on the effects of losartan on protein expression, vascular reactivity and antioxidant capacity in the aorta of ethanol-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Ceron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of losartan, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist on the alterations induced by treatment with ethanol in the rat aorta. The data shown here are related to the article entitled “Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates chronic ethanol consumption-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress” (P. Passaglia, C.S. Ceron, A.S. Mecawi, J. Antunes-Rodrigues, E.B. Coelho, C.R. Tirapelli, 2015 [1]. Here we include new data on the protective effect of losartan against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats treated for 2 weeks with ethanol (20%, vol./vol. exhibited increased aortic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and losartan (10 mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage prevented this response. Ethanol did not alter the expression of eNOS in the rat aorta. Losartan prevented ethanol-induced increase in the aortic expression of nNOS. Neither ethanol nor losartan affected superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase (CAT activities in the rat aorta. Treatment with ethanol increased the contraction induced by phenylephrine in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas and these responses were prevented by losartan. Conversely, neither ethanol nor losartan affected the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine.

  5. Terapia cognitivo-conductual y psicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS CUEVAS-YUST

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En una patología, la psicosis, tradicionalmente reservada al tratamiento psiquiátrico, resulta especialmente interesante y prometedora la aparición de las intervenciones psicológicas. De hecho, la terapia cognitivo-conductual (TCC está mostrando ser una aproximación efectiva en el tratamiento de síntomas psicóticos positivos resistentes a la medicación neuroléptica, existiendo incluso alguna evidencia de que podría contribuir a la reducción de las recaídas. En el presente trabajo describimos las etapas de la TCC en la psicosis, así como su adaptación a esta patología.

  6. Chronic Losartan Treatment Up-Regulates AT1R and Increases the Heart Vulnerability to Acute Onset of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minwoo A.; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is an important therapy in the management of hypertension, particularly in the immediate post-myocardial infarction period. Yet, the role of AT1R in the acute onset of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury still remains controversial. Thus, the present study determined the effects of chronic losartan treatment on heart ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. Losartan (10 mg/kg/day) was administered to six-month-old male rats via an osmotic pump for 14 days and hearts were then isolated and were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion injury in a Langendorff preparation. Losartan significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure. However, heart weight, left ventricle to body weight ratio and baseline cardiac function were not significantly altered by the losartan treatment. Of interest, chronic in vivo losartan treatment significantly increased ischemia-induced myocardial injury and decreased post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular function. This was associated with significant increases in AT1R and PKCδ expression in the left ventricle. In contrast, AT2R and PKCε were not altered. Furthermore, losartan treatment significantly increased microRNA (miR)-1, -15b, -92a, -133a, -133b, -210, and -499 expression but decreased miR-21 in the left ventricle. Of importance, addition of losartan to isolated heart preparations blocked the effect of increased ischemic-injury induced by in vivo chronic losartan treatment. The results demonstrate that chronic losartan treatment up-regulates AT1R/PKCδ and alters miR expression patterns in the heart, leading to increased cardiac vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26168042

  7. Inhibition of Glycoprotein VI Clustering by Collagen as a Mechanism of Inhibiting Collagen-Induced Platelet Responses: The Example of Losartan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    Full Text Available Exposure of platelets to collagen triggers the formation of a platelet clot. Pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting platelet activation by collagen are thus of potential therapeutic interest. Thrombus formation is initiated by the interaction of the GPIb-V-IX complex with collagen-bound vWF, while GPVI interaction with collagen triggers platelet activation that is reinforced by ADP and thromboxane A2. Losartan is an angiotensin II (Ang II type I receptor (AT1R antagonist proposed to have an antiplatelet activity via the inhibition of both the thromboxane A2 (TXA2 receptor (TP and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI. Here, we characterized in vitro the effects of losartan at different doses on platelet responses: losartan inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by 1 μg . mL(-1 and 10 μg . mL(-1 of collagen with an IC50 of ~ 6 μM. Losartan inhibited platelet responses induced by the GPVI specific collagen related peptide but not by the α2β1 specific peptide. However, losartan did not inhibit the binding of recombinant GPVI to collagen, which is not in favor of a simple competition. Indeed, the clustering of GPVI observed in flow cytometry and using the Duolink methodology, was inhibited by losartan. The impact of a therapeutic dose of losartan (100 mg/day on platelet responses was analyzed ex vivo in a double blind study. No statistically significant differences were observed between losartan-treated (n=25 and non-treated (n=30 patients in terms of collagen and U46619-induced platelet activation. These data indicate that in treated patients, losartan does not achieve a measurable antiplatelet effect but provide the proof of concept that inhibiting collagen-induced GPVI clustering is of pharmacological interest to obtain an antithrombotic efficacy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00763893.

  8. Losartan protects liver against ischaemia/reperfusion injury through PPAR-γ activation and receptor for advanced glycation end-products down-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Ji; Yoon, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose PPAR-γ has been reported to be a protective regulator in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) plays a major role in the innate immune response, and its expression is associated with PPAR-γ activation. Several angiotensin receptor blockers possess partial agonist activities towards PPAR-γ. Therefore, this study investigated the action of losartan, particularly with regard to PPAR-γ activation and RAGE signalling pathways during hepatic I/R. Experimental Approach Mice were subjected to 60 min of ischaemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Losartan (0.1, 1, 3 and 10 mg·kg−1) was administered 1 h prior to ischaemia and immediately before reperfusion. GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, was administered 30 min prior to first pretreatment with losartan. Key Results Losartan enhanced the DNA-binding activity of PPAR-γ in I/R. Losartan attenuated the increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and nuclear concentrations of NF-κB in I/R. GW9662 reversed these beneficial effects. Losartan caused a decrease in apoptosis as assessed by TUNEL assay, in release of cytochrome c and in cleavage of caspase-3, and these effects were abolished by GW9662 administration. Losartan attenuated not only I/R-induced RAGE overexpression, but also its downstream early growth response protein-1-dependent macrophage inflammatory protein 2 level; phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK; and subsequent c-Jun phosphorylation. GW9662 reversed these effects of losartan administration. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that losartan ameliorates I/R-induced liver damage through PPAR-γ activation and down-regulation of the RAGE signalling pathway. PMID:23647130

  9. Inhibition of Glycoprotein VI Clustering by Collagen as a Mechanism of Inhibiting Collagen-Induced Platelet Responses: The Example of Losartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Loyau, Stéphane; Tchitchinadze, Maria; Ropers, Jacques; Jondeau, Guillaume; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of platelets to collagen triggers the formation of a platelet clot. Pharmacological agents capable of inhibiting platelet activation by collagen are thus of potential therapeutic interest. Thrombus formation is initiated by the interaction of the GPIb-V-IX complex with collagen-bound vWF, while GPVI interaction with collagen triggers platelet activation that is reinforced by ADP and thromboxane A2. Losartan is an angiotensin II (Ang II) type I receptor (AT1R) antagonist proposed to have an antiplatelet activity via the inhibition of both the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here, we characterized in vitro the effects of losartan at different doses on platelet responses: losartan inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by 1 μg.mL-1 and 10 μg.mL-1 of collagen with an IC50 of ~ 6 μM. Losartan inhibited platelet responses induced by the GPVI specific collagen related peptide but not by the α2β1 specific peptide. However, losartan did not inhibit the binding of recombinant GPVI to collagen, which is not in favor of a simple competition. Indeed, the clustering of GPVI observed in flow cytometry and using the Duolink methodology, was inhibited by losartan. The impact of a therapeutic dose of losartan (100 mg/day) on platelet responses was analyzed ex vivo in a double blind study. No statistically significant differences were observed between losartan-treated (n=25) and non-treated (n=30) patients in terms of collagen and U46619-induced platelet activation. These data indicate that in treated patients, losartan does not achieve a measurable antiplatelet effect but provide the proof of concept that inhibiting collagen-induced GPVI clustering is of pharmacological interest to obtain an antithrombotic efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00763893 PMID:26052700

  10. Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Losartan Inhibits Spontaneous Motility of Isolated Human Ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Slobodan M; Stojadinovic, Dobrivoje; Stojadinovic, Miroslav; Jankovic, Snezana V; Djuric, Janko M; Stojic, Isidora; Kostic, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Ureteral motility is essential for elimination of intraluminal stones, and it may be adversely affected by cardiovascular drugs that a patient is taking chronically. The aim of our study was to test whether ACE inhibitors and an angiotensin receptor blocker may influence spontaneous contractions of isolated human ureter. Both phasic and tonic contractions of the isolated ureteral segments taken from 10 patients were measured as changes of the longitudinal tension or pressure recordings. Captopril, enalapril and losartan were separately added to the organ baths cumulatively. While enalapril (2.7 × 10 -7 -3.9 × 10 -4  M) and captopril (6.1 × 10 -7 -2.7 × 10 -3  M) did not affect either spontaneous activity or tone of isolated ureteral segments, losartan (2.9 × 10 -7 -4.2 × 10 -4  M) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions of the segments (50 % effective concentration (EC 50 ) = 13.46 ± 1.80 × 10 -6  M; F = 10.72, r = 0.79, p ureter.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of non-effervescent floating tablets of losartan potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getyala, Anil; Gangadharappa, H V; Prasad, M Sarat Chandra; Reddy, M Praveen Kumar; Kumar, T M Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the work is to modify the solubility and bioavailability of Losartan potassium, by employing noneffervescent floating drug delivery (tablet dosage forms). Non-effervescent systems are a type of floating drug delivery systems, that have been used to boost the gastric residence and the floatation time in the gastro intestinal tract. The study included formulation of floating tablets using polymers like Chitosan and Karaya gum as matrix forming agents. Accurel(®) MP 1000 was used as floating agent. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. FTIR, DSC studies conformed that there was no incompatibility between the polymer and the drug. Tablet preformulation parameters were within the Pharmacopoeial limit. Tablet showed zero lag time, contisnuance of buoyancy for >12 h. The tablet showed good in vitro release. Drug release was through swelling and abided by the gellation mechanism. In vivo X-ray studies depicted that tablets continued to float in the GIT for 12 h. Accelerated stability showed that, tablets were stable for over 6 month. Thus the prepared non-effervescent floating tablet of Losartan potassium can be used for the treatment of hypertension for more than 12 h with single dose administration.

  12. Terapias cognitivo-conductuales en la fobia social, en adultos

    OpenAIRE

    San Vicente Montalbán, Ainara

    2015-01-01

    La fobia social es una enfermedad psiquiátrica que causa costes socioeconómicos significativos y que presenta una alta comorbilidad. Las terapias cognitivo-conductuales (TCC) pueden ser una alternativa de tratamiento efectiva, ya que buscan el cambio de pensamientos y comportamientos adquiridos en una enfermedad con un alto componente de aprendizaje. Objetivo: Verificar la efectividad de las terapias cognitivo-conductuales (TCC) con respecto a otros tratamientos empleados en la fobia soci...

  13. Determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations using derivative spectrophotometry and chromatographic-densitometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Maślanka, Anna; Apola, Anna; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Two methods, spectrophotometric and chromatographic-densitometric ones, were developed for determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. Spectrophotometric method involved derivative spectrophotometry and zero order spectrophotometry. The measurements were carried out at lambda = 224.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 261.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and lambda = 270.0 nm for losartan when the derivative spectrophotometry was applied and lambda = 317.0 nm when zero order spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide. In chromatographic-densitometric studies high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates were used as stationary phase and a mixture of solvents n-butanol : acetic acid : water (15 : 5 : 1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Under the established conditions good resolution of examined constituents was obtained. Retardation factor for quinapril hydrochloride was R(f) - 0.70, for losartan potassium R(f) - 0.85 and for hydrochlorothiazide R(f) - 0.78. The developed methods are characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. For quantitative analysis, densitometric measurements were carried out at lambda = 218.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 275.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and = 232.0 nm for losartan.

  14. Effect of leflunomide combined with losartan potassium therapy on renal function and glomerular podocyte injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhu Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of leflunomide combined with losartan potassium therapy on renal function and glomerular podocyte injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: A total of 82 patients with diabetic nephropathy (CKDIIIa, IIIb stage who were treated in our hospital between June 2013 and May 2016 were selected as the research subjects, random number table was used to divide them into leflunomide (LEF group and control group who received leflunomide combined with losartan potassium therapy and losartan potassium monotherapy respectively. Before treatment and 8 weeks after treatment, serum contents of renal function indexes, RAAS molecules and inflammatory factors as well as urine contents of podocyte damage proteins were determined. Results: 8 weeks after treatment, serum Scr, BUN, CysC, PRA, AT-II, ALD, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α contents, urine ACR levels as well as podocalyxin, nephrin, CA2AP and podocin contents of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment, and serum Scr, BUN, CysC, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α contents, urine ACR level as well as podocalyxin, nephrin, CA2AP and podocin contents of LEF group were significantly lower than those of control group, serum PRA, ATII, ALD contents had no significant difference with control group. Conclusion: Leflunomide combined with losartan potassium therapy can improve the renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy, and inhibit the inflammatory response injury to glomerular podocyte.

  15. Long-term treatment with losartan versus atenolol improves insulin sensitivity in hypertension: ICARUS, a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Fossum, Eigil; Høieggen, Aud

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension and insulin resistance might be associated through peripheral vascular hypertrophy/rarefaction which compromises skeletal muscle blood flow and decreases glucose uptake, inducing insulin resistance. We hypothesized that treatment with losartan as compared to atenolol would improve...... insulin sensitivity through regression of peripheral vascular hypertrophy/rarefaction....

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies CAMKID variants involved in blood pressure response to losartan: the SOPHIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Francesca; Zaninello, Roberta; Salvi, Erika; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Braga, Daniele; Velayutham, Dinesh; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Fresu, Giovanni; Troffa, Chiara; Bulla, Emanuela; Bulla, Patrizia; Pitzoi, Silvia; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Glorioso, Valeria; Chittani, Martina; Bernini, Giampaolo; Bardini, Michele; Fallo, Francesco; Malatino, Lorenzo; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovanbattista; Scioli, Giuseppe Antonio; Galletti, Ferruccio; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Ezio; Sturani, Alessandra; Semplicini, Andrea; Veglio, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Williams, Tracy A; Lanzani, Chiara; Hiltunen, Timo P; Kontula, Kimmo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Turner, Stephen T; Manunta, Paolo; Barlassina, Cristina; Cusi, Daniele; Glorioso, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Essential hypertension arises from the combined effect of genetic and environmental factors. A pharmacogenomics approach could help to identify additional molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of SOPHIA study was to identify genetic polymorphisms regulating blood pressure response to the angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan, with a whole-genome approach. We performed a genome-wide association study on blood pressure response in 372 hypertensives treated with losartan and we looked for replication in two independent samples. We identified a peak of association in CAMK1D gene (rs10752271, effect size -5.5 ± 0.94 mmHg, p = 1.2 × 10(-8)). CAMK1D encodes a protein that belongs to the regulatory pathway involved in aldosterone synthesis. We tested the specificity of rs10752271 for losartan in hypertensives treated with hydrochlorothiazide and we validated it in silico in the GENRES cohort. Using a genome-wide approach, we identified the CAMK1D gene as a novel locus associated with blood pressure response to losartan. CAMK1D gene characterization may represent a useful tool to personalize the treatment of essential hypertension.

  17. An acute fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment with losartan predicts a slower decrease in long-term renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Thomas, Merlin C

    2011-01-01

    hemodynamic effect and whether this might result in a slower decline in long-term renal function. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial. Patients assigned to losartan had......GFR, during losartan treatment, the slower the rate of long-term eGFR decline. Hence, interpretation of trial results relying on slope-based GFR outcomes should separate the initial drug-induced GFR change from the subsequent long-term effect on GFR....

  18. Combination therapy with losartan and L-carnitine protects against endothelial dysfunction of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleem, Mostafa; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Mangoura, Safwat A

    2014-12-05

    Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor during the initiation of diabetic cardiovascular complications and angiotensin II appears to play a pivotal role in this setting. The present study aimed to investigate whether the combination therapy with losartan and the nutritional supplement, L-carnitine can provide an additional protection against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction and elucidate the possible mechanism(s) underlying this effect. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) in rat. Effects of losartan (20 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) and L-carnitine (200 mg/kg, orally, 3 months) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, oxidative stress parameters, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (eNOS), and vascular function were evaluated. Our results showed a marked increase in aortic superoxide anion (O2(-)) production and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level alongside attenuating antioxidant enzyme capacities in diabetic rats. This was associated with a significant increase in anigiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression and TNF-α serum level of diabetic rats alongside reducing aortic eNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The single or combined administration of losartan and L-carnitine significantly inhibited these changes. Additionally, the vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation with acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic diabetic rat was significantly ameliorated by the single and combined administration of losartan or L-carnitine. Noteworthy, the combination therapy exhibited a more profound response over the monotherapy. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the combined therapy of losartan and L-carnitine affords additive beneficial effects against diabetes-associated endothelial dysfunction, possibly via normalizing the dysregulated eNOS and reducing the inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Antihypertensive Agents on Intestinal Contractility in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: Angiotensin Receptor System Downregulation by Losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Glen Stephen; Abeywardena, Mahinda Yapa

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is an inflammatory condition controlled by the renin angiotensin system and is linked to kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and recently to dysfunction of the gut. The aim of this study was to determine what effect antihypertensive drug treatments may have on intestinal function of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In the first experiment, SHRs were treated with enalapril, hydralazine, or with no treatment as a control. In the second experiment, SHRs were treated with losartan or with no treatment as a control. All drug treatments led to significant lowering of blood pressure after 16 weeks. At termination, intact tissue sections of the ileum and colon were induced to contract ex vivo by KCl; electrical stimulation; and agonists carbachol, angiotensin II, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). There were no differences in ileal or colonic contractility due to hydralazine or enalapril compared with no-treatment SHR control. However, for the ileum, the losartan group responded significantly more to KCl and carbachol while responding less to angiotensin II, with no difference for PGE2 compared with the no-treatment SHR control. In contrast, the colon responded similarly to KCl, electrical stimulation, and PGE2 but responded significantly less to angiotensin II. These results demonstrate that the ileum responds differently (with KCl and carbachol as agonists) to the colon after losartan treatment, whereas there is a reduced contractile response in both the ileum and colon following losartan treatment. Although there are few well documented major contraindications for angiotensin receptor blockers, the modulation of gut contractility by losartan may have wider implications for bowel health. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  20. Losartan and Dexamethasone may inhibit chemotaxis to reduce the infiltration of Th22 cells in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chenggen; Zhou, Qiaoling; Li, Xiaozhao; Li, Hui; Zhong, Yong; Meng, Ting; Zhu, Mengyuan; Sun, Hong; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Rong; Pu, Jiaxi; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II is considered a major profibrotic factor that is involved in tissue remodeling processes, as the inhibition of Angiotensin II can halt renal inflammatory processes. Dexamethasone, an important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, has been widely used to treat renal disease for decades. In this study, we explored the frequency of Th22 cells in a mouse model of IgA nephropathy and compared the possible effects of Losartan and Dexamethasone on Th22 cells. The experiments were performed using 6-week-old BALB/c female mice in an established IgA nephropathy model. The mice were randomly separated into 4 groups, which were administered Losartan (30mg/kg/d) or Dexamethasone (10mg/kg/d) and subjected to IgA nephropathy or the normal control treatment for 1month. The frequency of Th22 cells was measured via flow cytometry, and the relative pathological changes in renal morphology were measured with different pathological staining methods. Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify the expression of CCR10 and CCL27, which is specialized receptor on Th22 cells and its corresponding chemokine, respectively. The concentrations of CCL27 and IL-22 in renal tissue homogenates and sera were detected using ELISAs. Losartan and Dexamethasone differentially decreased the frequency of Th22 cells after 1month, and mesangial cell proliferation was also improved. Moreover, the expression of CCR10, CCL27 and IL-22 was reduced by treatment with either drug. However, significant differences between Losartan and Dexamethasone were not observed. Based on these findings, Losartan and Dexamethasone may suppress inflammatory responses by inhibiting the chemotaxis of Th22 cells in IgA nephropathy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Comparisons of the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of fixed-dose combinations of amlodipine besylate/losartan and amlodipine camsylate/losartan in healthy subjects: a randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available YoonJung Choi,1 SeungHwan Lee,2 Sang-Min Cho,3 Won-Ho Kang,3 Kyu-Yeol Nam,4 In-Jin Jang,1 Kyung-Sang Yu1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, 3Research Institute, 4Global R&D, Korea United Pharm Inc., Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A fixed-dose combination (FDC of amlodipine and losartan has been used to reduce blood pressure in patients whose hypertension is not sufficiently controlled with either drug alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK characteristics and tolerability of an FDC of 6.94 mg amlodipine besylate (5 mg as amlodipine/50 mg losartan potassium compared to an FDC of 5 mg amlodipine camsylate/50 mg losartan potassium in healthy subjects. Subjects and methods: A randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted on 46 healthy male subjects. Blood concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected up to 144 hours post dose for each period. PK parameters were calculated in each treatment group using a noncompartmental method. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs of the geometric mean ratios of the two treatments for the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and the area under the concentration curve from time zero to the last quantifiable time point (AUC0–t were estimated. Tolerability assessments were performed for all subjects who received the drug at least once. Results: The PK profiles of the two treatments were similar. For amlodipine, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs of amlodipine besylate to amlodipine camsylate for the Cmax and AUC0–t were 0.98 (0.94-1.01 and 0.97 (0.93-1.01, respectively. The corresponding values for losartan were 0.91 (0.81-1.02 and 1.05 (0.98-1.12, respectively. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two

  2. Study of chronic effect of Losartan in inhibition of kidney glomerular number and glomerular volume changes in uninephrectomized diabetic rats(Stereological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid Tavafi

    2005-02-01

    Conclusion: Chronic low dose usage of losartan in uninephrectomized diabetic rats can prevent kidney volume increasing (84%, inhibit increase glomerular volume (67% and prevent glomerular number decreasing (68% significantly. Combined drug therapy is recommended for better results.

  3. ACCIÓN COMBINADA DE FEROMONA SEXUAL Y DE AVISPAS Apanteles gelechiidivoris PARA EL CONTROL DE Tuta absoluta EN CULTIVOS DE TOMATE BAJO INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESSICA MORALES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El cogollero del tomate, Tuta absoluta, es considerado plaga principal del cultivo de tomate. Su control se realiza con químicos, aunque existen otros tipos de control como el biológico y etológico. En Colombia no existe ningún precedente que involucre la acción combinada de estrategias de control etológico incluyendo feromona sexual y biológico con Apanteles gelechiidivoris para el control de la plaga en cultivos de tomate. En este trabajo, se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos bajo condiciones de invernadero que incluyen control biológico con A. gelechiidivoris, etológico con trampas de feromona sexual, acción combinada de ambos controles y convencional (químico, con el objetivo de desarrollar una estrategia de control de T. absoluta a través de la acción combinada de control etológico con feromona sexual y biológico. Se realizó un muestreo sistemático, tomando una planta cada 2 m. En cada planta se tomó una hoja por estrato, semanalmente se registró el número de larvas totales, de tercer instar y parasitadas, y número de adultos capturados por trampa. El máximo parasitismo en la población de larvas susceptibles fue del 86,38 % y de la población de larvas totales 68,75 %. Se encontró que la acción combinada presenta una mayor efectividad y permanencia a través del tiempo para el control de larvas de T. absoluta.

  4. Efficacy of Blood Pressure reduction of Losartan in selected Thai populations using Home Blood Pressure Monitoring and Office Blood Pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonbaichaiyapruck, Sarana; Mekwiwatanawong, Wirunsiri; Srisala, Kanuengnit; Amnueypol, Montawatt; Keesukphan, Prasit

    Angiotensin Receptor Blockades (ARB) is becoming a first line drug for essential Hypertension for many types of patient. Losartan is the prototype of ARB due to its vast clinical trials. Home Blood pressure monitoring can provide accurate evaluation of certain drug effect on blood pressure with small number of patient samples. Local production of medicine has made the Medicine readily available and could bring about clinical improvement. Our hypothesis was that Thai population with essential hypertension responded quite well to Losartan and Generic Losartan was not inferior to Original- Losartan. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety in BP reduction by Losartan in certain Thai population and to compare these parameters between Generic Losartan and Original-Losartan using both office and HBPM method. After a two-week run-in period when they would learn to use HBPM device and their blood pressure were still recorded to be higher than 140/90 by office BP or 135/85 by HBPM with or without previous medical regimen, 24 patients were randomized to receive either Generic Losartan or Original-Losartan for 6 weeks. Then they would cross over to receive the alternative and were followed again at 6 weeks. HBPM was performed in the morning and in the evening for 5 days, at baseline, and after 6 & 12 weeks. Office BP measurements were obtained at baseline and after 6 & 12 weeks. One patient in each group dropped out from the study. 22 patients with average age of 54 and averaged office BP 154/88 completed the 12 weeks study. By office BP, SBP was reduced by 27±14.2 at week 6 and 28±15.1 mmHg at week 12. By HBPM, SBP dropped by 17±10.8 at week 6 and by 18±9. at week12. At the end of 12 weeks 68% (15/22) of patients had Office BP Office BP office BP and HBPM this group of Thai patient with essential hypertension responded well to Losartan and Generic Losartan.

  5. Terapia familiar en los trastornos de personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rodríguez Moya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad mental afecta no solo al paciente sino también a su familia, dificulta la comunicación intrafamiliar, puede generar patologías adicionales en los familiares y todo ello empeorar la evolución del trastorno. Las terapias familiares de tipo psicoeducativo mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad y además previenen la aparición de otros trastornos en los familiares. Los elementos más importantes de estas intervenciones son la psicoeducación sobre el trastorno, el re-establecimiento de una relación sana entre paciente-familia, el establecimiento de límites, la mejora de la comunicación familiar y el establecimiento de relaciones con la red social extensa, para evitar el aislamiento tanto de la familia como del paciente. Las intervenciones mixtas, individuales y familiares, han demostrado ser muy útiles en el caso de los trastornos de personalidad, en concreto en el Trastorno Límite de Personalidad (TLP.

  6. Sendo enfermeira no centro de terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrina Katia Corrêa

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Encaminhando-me na perspectiva da fenomenologia, minha proposta é apreender, através dos depoimentos das enfermeiras que trabalham no CTI, os significados que as mesmas atribuem a essa vivência. Ao refletir sobre tais significados, aliando-os à minha experiência profissional, busco compreender o fenômeno ser enfermeira no CTI. Coletei depoimentos escritos das enfermeiras que atuavam no centro de terapia intensiva da Unidade de Emergência do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina - Ribeirão Preto - USP, tendo como questão orientadora: o que significa para você ser enfermeira no CTI. Da análise desses depoimentos (MARTINS, 1992, emergiram as categorias temáticas, revelando que ser enfermeira no CTI é cuidar diretamente dos pacientes, é ter capacidade administrativa, é conviver com máquinas e equipamentos, exige muitos requisitos e o domínio de conhecimentos específicos, é desempenhar um trabalho importante, de responsabilidade e gratificante, bem como, conviver com situações limitantes e de estresse. A partir de uma reflexão compreensiva do modo de ser da enfermeira desse CTI, pretendo contribuir para busca de novas perspectivas do fazer, ampliando seu horizonte de possibilidades.

  7. Molecular and supramolecular characterization of Ni(II)/losartan hydrophobic nanoprecipitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lorrayne O.; Goulart, Pedro P.; Correa, Jéssyca L.; Abrishamkar, Afshin; Da Silva, Jeferson G.; Mangrich, Antonio S.; de França, Amanda A.; Denadai, Ângelo M. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a contribution to understanding of the formation of metal(II)/losartan hydrophobic nanoprecipitate is reported. A Ni(II)/Los system was prepared and characterized in solid state and in solution. Solubility studies confirmed the formation of hydrophobic precipitate. Obtained spectroscopic data suggest a sort of coordination between tetrazolic ring as well as OH, and a D4h geometry around the nickel cation. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated that complexation is a stepwise process, with equal enthalpic and entropic contributions for free energy of complexation. DLS and zeta potential titrations indicate the formation of stable nanoparticles of size and charge dependent on the molar ratio. Finally, rheological studies demonstrate a Bingham plastic behavior for Ni(II)/Los suspension.

  8. СARDIOPROTECTION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION – THE ROLE OF LOSARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chukaeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In patients with arterial hypertension (HT heart is affected earlier and more often than other target organs, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH develops. Considering the proven link between the presence of LVH and increased cardiovascular risk, the deterioration of the clinical course and prognosis in HT patients, as well as a significant prognosis improvement in patients with LVH decrease, correction of modifiable risk factors (including uncontrolled HT is getting extremely important. Organoprotective properties of drugs should be taken into account as one of the important parameters in the consideration of antihypertensive therapy. Major studies conducted in recent years have proven cardioprotective and angioprotective properties of angiotensin receptor blocker losartan, so it can be used as first-line therapy in patients with HT and LVH.

  9. СARDIOPROTECTION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION – THE ROLE OF LOSARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chukaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with arterial hypertension (HT heart is affected earlier and more often than other target organs, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH develops. Considering the proven link between the presence of LVH and increased cardiovascular risk, the deterioration of the clinical course and prognosis in HT patients, as well as a significant prognosis improvement in patients with LVH decrease, correction of modifiable risk factors (including uncontrolled HT is getting extremely important. Organoprotective properties of drugs should be taken into account as one of the important parameters in the consideration of antihypertensive therapy. Major studies conducted in recent years have proven cardioprotective and angioprotective properties of angiotensin receptor blocker losartan, so it can be used as first-line therapy in patients with HT and LVH.

  10. Effect of Losartan on the Acute Response of Human Elderly Skeletal Muscle to Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette Flindt; Andersen, Jesper L; Schjerling, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) upon the response to acute heavy resistance exercise in elderly human skeletal muscle. The hypothesis was that AT1R blocking would result in a superior myogenic response accompanied by downregulation of TGF......-β and upregulation of IGF-1 signalling. METHODS: 28 healthy elderly men (+64 years) were randomized into two groups, consuming either AT1R blocker (Losartan, 100mg/day) or Placebo for 18 days prior to exercise. Participants performed one bout of heavy unilateral resistance exercise. Six muscle biopsies were obtained...... from the vastus lateralis muscles of each subject: two before exercise, and four after exercise (4.5 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days). Blood pressure and blood samples were collected at the same time points. Biopsies were sectioned for immunohistochemistry to determine the number of satellite cells...

  11. Hojas de cálculo para el análisis de losas combinadas con pilotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ibañez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En el diseño de cimentaciones en balsas combinadas con pilotes, se determina un gran número de incógnitas de forma tal que se obtenga una cimentación racional y que a su vez cumpla con los requerimientos de proyecto. El empleo de hojas de cálculo, facilita el trabajo del proyectista, al poder predimensionar la cimentación, evaluando la influencia de los diferentes parámetros que intervienen en el diseño, para finalmente utilizar programas de cómputos para el cálculo definitivo. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos con hojas de cálculo programadas en MathCad y se comparan los valores de la curva estimada carga vs deformación de las hojas de cálculo con resultados de modelos a escala real y otros de la literatura sobre el tema.

  12. Utilización de terapias herbales por parte de practicantes de terapias complementarias y alternativas en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Calvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Dentro de las Medicinas Complementarias y Alternativas, las terapias herbales son de las más utilizadas. Es escasa la evidencia sobre el tipo de terapias herbales usadas en Colombia para el tratamiento de trastornos psiquiátricos. Objetivo. Explorar, en un grupo de practicantes de MCA cómo se da el uso de terapias herbales para el tratamiento de los síndromes psiquiátricos más frecuentes (depresión, ansiedad, psicosis, manía. Materiales y métodos. Se efectuó una búsqueda de practicantes de MCA en anuncios de publicidad, internet y referencias de pacientes. De 130 terapeutas ubicados, solo 25 aceptaron participar. A cada terapeuta se le realizó una entrevista en profundidad en la que se exploró el uso de estas terapias con la ayuda de viñetas que ilustraban casos representativos. Resultados. Se identificaron 17 productos herbales diferentes para tratar trastornos psiquiátricos. En los casos correspondientes a psicosis, depresión y ansiedad, se utilizaron 8, 10 y 7 productos diferentes, respectivamente; en el caso de la manía solo se reportó el uso de un producto. Se utilizan combinaciones de terapias herbales y de diferentes tipos de terapias complementarias y alternativas. La mayoría de productos han sido estudiados en investigaciones científicas para evaluar su utilidad terapéutica. Conclusiones. Los psiquiatras deben reconocer que el uso de terapias herbales es una práctica frecuente entre sus pacientes. El desconocimiento sobre su uso puede estar limitando la disponibilidad de nuevas modalidades terapéuticas, afectando la relación médico paciente y poniendo en riesgo a los pacientes ante la posibilidad de interacciones medicamentosas graves.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Management of Stage 2 hypertension by Combined therapy with Losartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most effective and accurate treatment of hypertensive patients reduces cardiovascular events and improves the quality of life. Objective: This study compared the efficacy and safety of combined (combination therapy with an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB a calcium-channel blocker (CCB (Losartan / Amloidipine 50/10mg vs maximal combination doses of ARB with hydrochlorothiazide (Losartan /HCTZ 100/25 mg and maximal combination doses of CCB with HCTZ (Amlodipine /HCTZ 10/25 mg in the management of stage 2 hypertension. Methods: This randomized clinical trial (RTC comprised 478 hypertensive patients with mean age 50.5±5.21 years, and took place between January 2010 and December 2011 in Vasei Hospital clinic in Sabzevar. Antihypertensive drugs were washed out after 5 days of discontinuation of drugs and the patients with mean blood pressure in sitting position ≥ 160 and <200 mmHg in systole and ≥ 100 and <110 mmHg in diastole were randomized into three groups: Losartan / Amlodipine 50/10 mg (n =164 , Losartan / HCTZ 100/25 mg (n =155 and Amlodipine / HCTZ 10/25 mg (n =159. The end point was reaching the blood pressure below 140/90 within 56 days of treatment in each group. Results: There was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure reductions between treatment groups (P<0.001 and also there was a significant difference between groups in reducing diastolic blood pressure (P<0.01. The highest systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively was found in Amlodipine/losartane and losartane/HTCZ group. The ANCOVA analysis revealed that only treatment regimen had a significant effect (P=0.01 and other factor including Age, Gender, Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking and High serum cholesterol didn’t have significant effect on blood pressure reduction. Conclusion: ARB/CCB combination therapy reduced blood pressure more effectively than the maximal doses of ARB or CCB with HCTZ in stage 2 hypertensive patients within

  14. Análisis del concepto 'justicia' en terapia ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Parra-Esquivel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El campo de estudio de la terapia ocupacional ha venido ampliándose debido a la necesidad de dar respuesta a las demandas sociales, específicamente las necesidades ocupacionales de las personas, comunidades y sociedades, teniendo en cuenta sus fortalezas y especialmente los aspectos que desean mejorar. En este sentido, es preciso profundizar sobre el tema de justicia en la profesión. Objetivo. Analizar el concepto "justicia" en Terapia Ocupacional en el periodo comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2014 a través de los distintos textos encontrados. Materiales y métodos. El estudio es una investigación documental en la cual se realizó una revisión de literatura y análisis de la misma, teniendo en cuenta los conceptos encontrados en los textos y su aporte teórico y práctico para la terapia ocupacional. Resultados. El concepto de justicia se ha incorporado al campo de estudio de la terapia ocupacional, encontrando las categorías justicia social y justicia ocupacional. Conclusión. Se recomienda continuar construyendo conceptualmente la justicia ocupacional a partir de la reflexión en la profesión y la experiencia dada por la aplicación de estos conceptos en terapia ocupacional.

  15. Prehypertensive treatment with losartan, however not amlodipine, leads to long-term effects on blood pressure and reduces the risk of stroke in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangmin; He, Dehua; Lin, Jinxiu

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of losartan and amlodipine in protecting spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats against the risk of stroke. SHRSP rats were administered losartan, amlodipine or the vehicle for 6 weeks. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in rats treated with losartan or amlodipine, however, following drug withdrawal, rats treated with losartan maintained reduced SBP for a longer time compared with rats treated with amlodipine. In addition, rats treated with losartan exhibited thinner vascular walls and improved systolic and diastolic function. Clinical stroke scores in the losartan group were significantly reduced compared with those in the amlodipine and vehicle groups. However, rats treated with losartan exhibited higher levels of angiotensin II and lower levels of aldosterone in the serum and brain cortex compared with the vehicle and amlodipine-treated rats. Furthermore, losartan significantly reduced the abnormal expression of angiotensin II receptors type 1 and 2 in SHRSP rats, whilst amlodipine did not. These results suggest that losartan may be more efficacious than amlodipine in ameliorating blood pressure deterioration and reducing stroke risk in SHRSP rats via regulation of the renin angiotensin system.

  16. Estudo piloto dos efeitos da terapia hormonal sobre o tecido mamário normal de mulheres após a menopausa A pilot study of the effects of hormone therapy on normal breast tissue of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Elias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliou-se o tecido mamário de mulheres antes e depois de seis meses de terapia estroprogestativa combinada contínua (0,625 mg de estrogênios conjugados eqüinos associados a 2,5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona. MÉTODOS: todas as pacientes foram avaliadas antes de se instituir o tratamento e consideradas aptas para este. Foram obtidos fragmentos de tecido mamário por meio de biópsia percutânea com agulha grossa (acoplada a um propulsor automático - "core-biópsia". O material foi fixado e os cortes corados por hematoxilina-eosina. Avaliou-se a densidade epitelial e o volume nuclear do epitélio mamário antes e após a terapia hormonal. Esses parâmetros morfométricos foram analisados graficamente com auxílio do programa Imagelab 2000 ®, após captura da imagem microscópica pelo sistema Vidcap 32. Esse programa permite que sejam selecionadas as áreas de interesse, possibilitando o cálculo de área, volume ou a relação da área ocupada entre diferentes estruturas. RESULTADOS: depois do uso da terapia, o volume nuclear nas mulheres em que o tratamento foi instituído em período mais tardio após a menopausa mostrou um aumento de cerca de 33% (de 103,6 para 138,1 µm³. A densidade epitelial não se modificou de forma significativa: o valor médio antes da terapia hormonal foi de 0,08 e após de 0,10. CONCLUSÕES: a terapia estroprogestativa combinada contínua empregada por seis meses induziu à alteração no volume nuclear das células epiteliais das mamas, sugerindo aumento de sua atividade metabólica. Provavelmente, esse evento precede outros que confirmariam o estímulo da proliferação celular por esses hormônios.PURPOSE: to analyze breast tissue of postmenopausal women before and after six months of continuous combined estrogen-progestin replacement therapy (0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens associated with 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate. METHODS: all patients were evaluated before treatment and

  17. The Role of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 Genotypes in Losartan-Dependent Inhibition of Paclitaxel Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate a previously identified metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel, which is one of the marker substrates of CYP2C8, by using human liver microsomes (HLMs) from donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. Although CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 exhibit genetic linkage, previous studies have yet to determine whether losartan or its active metabolite, EXP-3174 which is specifically generated by CYP2C9, is responsible for CYP2C8 inhibition. Concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and EXP-3174 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after incubations with paclitaxel, losartan or EXP-3174 in HLMs from seven donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values were not fully dependent on CYP2C8 genotypes. Although the degree of inhibition was small, losartan significantly inhibited the production of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel at a concentration of 1 μmol/L in only HL20 with the CYP2C8*3/*3 genotype. HLMs with either CYP2C9*2/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 exhibited a lower losartan intrinsic clearance (Vmax /Km ) than other HLMs including those with CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*2. Significant inhibition of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel formation by EXP-3174 could only be found at levels that were 50 times higher (100 μmol/L) than the maximum concentration generated in the inhibition study using losartan. These results suggest that the metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel is dependent on losartan itself rather than its metabolite and that the CYP2C8 inhibition by losartan is not affected by the CYP2C9 genotype. Further study is needed to define the effect of CYP2C8 genotypes on losartan-paclitaxel interaction. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. EVOLUCIÓN DE LA TERAPIA SUSTITUTIVA RENAL

    OpenAIRE

    Coronada-Daza Jorge Antonio

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) es un problema de salud pública mundial. La cuenta de alto costo de Colombia a 2013 reportó la existencia de 22.926 pacientes en terapia de diálisis, 5.941 con trasplante renal y 1.015.124 pacientes con ERC en estadios I - IV, potenciales a progresar y requerir terapia sustitutiva renal (TSR), para una incidencia aproximada de ingreso a diálisis de 65 personas por millón de habitantes (1). En Estados Unidos en el 2011 se encontra...

  19. TERAPIA DE INTERACCIÓN PADRES-HIJOS (PCIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Ferro García; Lourdes Ascanio Velasco

    2014-01-01

    La Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos (PCIT) es una terapia breve para tratar los problemas de conducta en la infancia. Es un tratamiento que está demostrado válido empíricamente y puede ser considerada como un tratamiento bien establecido para tratar conductas problema en la infancia según las normas de la APA. Este trabajo expone sus características principales, sus componentes clínicos, y los factores que afectan a la efectividad. Hace una revisión de la literatura existente de las invest...

  20. Terapia miofuncional orofacial em crianças respiradoras orais

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Júlia; Campiotto,Alcione Ramos

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: descrever a evolução de crianças respiradoras orais, submetidas à terapia miofuncional orofacial com ênfase no trabalho de fortalecimento da musculatura dos órgãos fonoarticulatórios e treino da respiração nasal. MÉTODOS: participaram da pesquisa seis crianças, com idades entre 5 e 11 anos, que haviam realizado triagem no Setor de Terapia Fonoaudiológica da Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, durante o ano de 2007, que apresentavam respiração oral ou oronasal e sintom...

  1. As terapias alternativas na assistência de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackçon L. Savi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Na seqüência do acompanhamento da disciplina "Métodos Terapêuticos Alternativos" (MTA. implantada no Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem da UFSC em 1990. focalizou-se os egressos com o objetivo de verificar a utilização das terapias alternativas na assistência de enfermagem que prestam como enfermeiros. Nenhum dos entrevistados posicionou-se contrário e a maioria confirmou utilizar uma ou mais terapias na assistência que prestam aos usuários dos serviços onde atuam.

  2. As terapias alternativas na assistência de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackçon L. Savi

    Full Text Available Na seqüência do acompanhamento da disciplina "Métodos Terapêuticos Alternativos" (MTA. implantada no Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem da UFSC em 1990. focalizou-se os egressos com o objetivo de verificar a utilização das terapias alternativas na assistência de enfermagem que prestam como enfermeiros. Nenhum dos entrevistados posicionou-se contrário e a maioria confirmou utilizar uma ou mais terapias na assistência que prestam aos usuários dos serviços onde atuam.

  3. Actitudes terapéuticas en terapia de pareja.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Manrique Solana

    1992-01-01

    El artículo expone diversas actitudes que un terapeuta puede desarrollar en la terapia con parejas. Estas actitudes pueden ser de dos tipos: 1. Aquellas actitudes generales que se han de sostener a lo largo de cualquier terapia. 2. Aquellas destinadas a establecer una adecuada relación terapéutica con la pareja. El conjunto de ambas actitudes permite establecer un marco de relación en el que la conversación terapéutica es posible.

  4. Effect of losartan with folic acid on plasma homocysteine and vascular ultrastructural changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lihe; Yu, Jiong; Jia, Baofu; Zhao, Feng; Tang, Mengmeng; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) is a high risk factor of hypertension due to its function in endothelial dysfunction. Its level in the blood is strongly influenced by folic acid. In order to investigate the effects of losartan with folic acid on plasma level of Hcy and vascular ultrastructural changes, thirty spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) involved and randomly divided into three groups (n=10): SHR-C group (control), SHR-L group (losartan 25 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)), SHR-L+Y group (losartan 25 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) + folic acid 0.4 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)). Another 10 Wistar Rats involved as WKY-C group for normal control. The level of plasma Hcy was measured dynamically by LS-MS, the vascular ultrastructural changes were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Moreover, the thickness and area of aorta was measured. The results showed the Hcy levels in four groups were WKY-C 7.49 ± 1.95 μmol/L; SHR-C 8.45 ± 1.90 μmol/L; SHR-L 8.28 ± 2.11 μmol/L; SHR-L+Y 7.53 ± 2.02 μmol/L at 80 days. There was no significant change for plasma Hcy (P>0.05). The morphological change showed the subendothelial space didn't increased significantly, the endothelial cells have a more smooth and intact cellular membrane in SHR-L+Y group. In conclusion, Losartan combined with folic acid could improve arterial endothelial structure in SHR which has no significant correlation with plasma Hcy.

  5. Losartan Slows Pancreatic Tumor Progression and Extends Survival of SPARC-Null Mice by Abrogating Aberrant TGFβ Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Shanna A.; Rivera, Lee B.; Carbon, Juliet G.; Toombs, Jason E.; Chang, Chi-Lun; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a desmoplastic disease, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world due, in large part, to locally invasive primary tumor growth and ensuing metastasis. SPARC is a matricellular protein that governs extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and maturation during tissue remodeling, particularly, during wound healing and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which lack of host SPARC alters the tumor microenvironment and enhances invasion and metastasis of an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. We identified that levels of active TGFβ1 were increased significantly in tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. TGFβ1 contributes to many aspects of tumor development including metastasis, endothelial cell permeability, inflammation and fibrosis, all of which are altered in the absence of stromal-derived SPARC. Given these results, we performed a survival study to assess the contribution of increased TGFβ1 activity to tumor progression in SPARC-null mice using losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist that diminishes TGFβ1 expression and activation in vivo. Tumors grown in SPARC-null mice progressed more quickly than those grown in wild-type littermates leading to a significant reduction in median survival. However, median survival of SPARC-null animals treated with losartan was extended to that of losartan-treated wild-type controls. In addition, losartan abrogated TGFβ induced gene expression, reduced local invasion and metastasis, decreased vascular permeability and altered the immune profile of tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. These data support the concept that aberrant TGFβ1-activation in the absence of host SPARC contributes significantly to tumor progression and suggests that SPARC, by controlling ECM deposition and maturation, can regulate TGFβ availability and activation. PMID:22348081

  6. Experimental Study of the Effects of EIPA, Losartan, and BQ-123 on Electrophysiological Changes Induced by Myocardial Stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorro, Francisco J; Canto, Irene Del; Brines, Laia; Such-Miquel, Luis; Calvo, Conrado; Soler, Carlos; Zarzoso, Manuel; Trapero, Isabel; Tormos, Álvaro; Such, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical response to myocardial stretch has been explained by various mechanisms, which include Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activation by autocrine-paracrine system activity. Drug-induced changes were analyzed to investigate the role of these mechanisms in the electrophysiological responses to acute myocardial stretch. Multiple epicardial electrodes and mapping techniques were used to analyze changes in ventricular fibrillation induced by acute myocardial stretch in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. Four series were studied: control (n = 9); during perfusion with the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan (1 μM, n = 8); during perfusion with the endothelin A receptor blocker BQ-123 (0.1 μM, n = 9), and during perfusion with the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor EIPA (5-[N-ethyl-N-isopropyl]-amiloride) (1 μM, n = 9). EIPA attenuated the increase in the dominant frequency of stretch-induced fibrillation (control=40.4%; losartan=36% [not significant]; BQ-123=46% [not significant]; and EIPA=22% [P<.001]). During stretch, the activation maps were less complex (P<.0001) and the spectral concentration of the arrhythmia was greater (greater regularity) in the EIPA series: control=18 (3%); EIPA = 26 (9%) (P < .02); losartan=18 (5%) (not significant); and BQ-123=18 (4%) (not significant). The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor EIPA attenuated the electrophysiological effects responsible for the acceleration and increased complexity of ventricular fibrillation induced by acute myocardial stretch. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan and the endothelin A receptor blocker BQ-123 did not modify these effects. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Lisinopril and Losartan on Parameters of Cardiac Hemodynamics and Kidney Function in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiya D. Rasulova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study the comparative influence of lisinopril and losartan on the parameters of cardiac hemodynamics and kidney function state in CHF (Congestive Heart Failure patients with NYHA Functional Class (FC I-III. Material and Methods: The study included 92 CHF patients between the ages of 41 and 75 (mean age 66.3±9.8 yrs with FCI-III of ischemic genesis. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 47 CHF patients with FCI-III who had been receiving losartan for 6 months in addition to standard therapy. Group II consisted of 45 CHF patients with FCI-III who had been receiving lisinopril for 6 months in addition to standard therapy. The dose of losartan was 50–100 mg/day, and lisinopril, 5–10 mg/day. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers. NYHA FC was determined by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT and the Russian scale of evaluation of the clinical condition of the patients. All patients underwent clinical examination, ECG, and echocardiography. Estimated creatinine clearance rate (eCCr was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated using the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Results: The results obtained show a clear association between maladaptive LV remodeling and kidney dysfunction at CHF. Our analysis revealed the significant direct correlation between EF and eGFR, as well as between 6MWT and eGFR. The 6-month therapy of CHF patients with NYHA FCI-III based on a combination of standard therapy with ACEi/ARB has resulted in a significant improvement in the cardiac hemodynamic, LV myocardial contractility, and renal function, with a more significant effect in the patients treated with losartan.

  8. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy of high-dose losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Yuhei; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Norimatsu, Kenji; Hitaka, Yuka; Nagata, Itsuki; Koyoshi, Rie; Morii, Joji; Kuwano, Takashi; Uehara, Yoshinari; Inoue, Asao; Shirotani, Tetsuro; Fujisawa, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Eiyu; Saku, Keijiro

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of high-dose losartan (100 mg/day) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 12.5 mg/day) compared with those of the combination of high-dose telmisartan (80 mg/day) and HCTZ (12.5 mg/day). Forty hypertensive patients who received a combination of high-dose telmisartan and HCTZ were enrolled. We applied a changeover strategy with switching from a combination of high-dose telmisartan and HCTZ to high-dose losartan and HCTZ. We divided the patients into two groups; those who achieved the target blood pressure (controlled group) and those who did not reach the target blood pressure (uncontrolled group) before the changeover and performed further analysis. The uncontrolled group showed a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (143±12 mmHg to 126±11 mmHg at three months). In addition, serum uric acid significantly decreased in all subjects, and in each of the controlled and uncontrolled groups. There were no significant changes in other biochemical parameters, such as potassium and hemoglobin A1c, at three months after the changeover in all subjects. Combination therapy with high-dose losartan and HCTZ was superior to the combination of telmisartan and HCTZ with respect to significant decreases in systolic blood pressure and serum uric acid in hypertensive patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Terapia antiviral para VIH-SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Tarinas Reyes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, muchos agentes antivirales nuevos han sido incorporados a la quimioterapéutica. En esta revisión se resumen tanto los fármacos establecidos de años atrás como los nuevos medicamentos desarrollados para el tratamiento de individuos infectados por VIH. El AZT fue el primero aprobado en marzo de 1987, le siguió el ddl (1991, ddC (1992, d4T (1994, 3TC (1995. Luego fue aprobado el primer inhibidor de proteasa, saquinavir en diciembre de 1995, seguido de ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, nelfinavir (1997; además de otros inhibidores de la reverso transcriptasa como nevirapine (1996, delavirdine (1997, efavirenz (1998, entre otros. En estos momentos se siguen buscando y desarrollando nuevas terapias alternativas para esta afección. En este trabajo se exponen algunas de las características de dichos medicamentos, como son: mecanismos de acción (sobre qué enzima actúa cada uno y cómo lo hacen, el ciclo viral, dosificación, incompatibilidades y reacciones adversas.During the last years many new antiviral agents have been incorporated to the chemotherapeutics. The pharmaceuticals established years ago as well as the new ones developed to treat HIV infected individuals are included in this review. The AZT was the first approved in March, 1987, followed by ddl (1991, ddc (1992, d4t (1994, and 3TC (1995. Later, the first protease inhibitor, saquinovir, was approved in December, 1995, followed by ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, and nelfinavir (1997; in addition to other inhibitors of the reverse transcriptase as neviparine (1996, delavirdine (1997, and efavirenz (1998, among others. At present new alternative therapies for this affection are being searched and developed. Some of the characteristics of these dugs, such as: action mechanisms (on which enzime each of them act and how they do it, viral cycle, dosage, incompatibilites and adverse reactions are dealt with in this paper.

  10. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan attenuates bioprosthetic valve leaflet calcification in a rabbit intravascular implant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hong Ju; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence that angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) could reduce structural valve deterioration. However, the anticalcification effect on the bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) has not been investigated. Thus, we investigated the effects of losartan (an ARB) on calcification of implanted bovine pericardial tissue in a rabbit intravascular implant model. A total of 16 male New Zealand White rabbits (20 weeks old, 2.98-3.34 kg) were used in this study. Commercially available BHV leaflet of bovine pericardium was trimmed to the shape of a 3-mm triangle and implanted to both external jugular veins of the rabbit. The ARB group (n = 8) was given 25 mg/kg of powdered losartan daily until 6 weeks after surgery by direct administration in the buccal pouch of the animals. The control group (n = 8) was given 5 ml of normal saline by the same method. After 6 weeks, quantitative calcium determination, histological evaluation and western blot analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were performed to investigate the mechanisms of the anticalcification effect of losartan. No deaths or complications such as infection or haematoma were recorded during the experiment. All animals were euthanized on the planned date. The calcium measurement level in the ARB group (2.28 ± 0.65 mg/g) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.68 ± 1.00 mg/g) (P = 0.0092). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that BMP-2-positive reactions were significantly attenuated in the ARB group. Western blot analysis showed that losartan suppressed the expression of IL-6, osteopontin and BMP-2. Our results indicate that losartan significantly attenuates postimplant degenerative calcification of a bovine pericardial bioprosthesis in a rabbit intravascular implant model. Further studies are required to assess the effects of ARBs on BHV tissue in orthotopic implantations using a large animal model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  11. Proteção pulmonar: intervenção para reduzir o volume corrente em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de ensino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Briva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o efeito do fornecimento de comentários e educação, com relação ao uso do peso corpóreo previsto para ajuste do volume corrente em uma estratégia de ventilação de proteção pulmonar. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado entre outubro de 2014 e novembro de 2015 (12 meses em uma única unidade de terapia intensiva polivalente universitária. Desenvolvemos uma intervenção combinada (educação e comentários, dando particular atenção à importância do ajuste dos volumes correntes para o peso corpóreo previsto ao pé do leito. Paralelamente, o peso corpóreo previsto foi estimado com base na estatura calculada a partir da altura dos joelhos e incluído nas fichas clínicas. Resultados: Foram incluídos 151 pacientes. O peso corpóreo previsto avaliado pela altura dos joelhos, em vez de avaliação visual, revelou que o volume corrente fornecido era significantemente mais elevado do que o previsto. Após a inclusão do peso corpóreo previsto, observamos redução sustentada do volume corrente fornecido, de uma média (erro padrão de 8,97 ± 0,32 para 7,49 ± 0,19mL/kg (p < 0,002. Mais ainda, a adesão ao protocolo foi subsequentemente mantida durante os 12 meses seguintes (volume corrente fornecido de 7,49 ± 0,54 em comparação a 7,62 ± 0,20mL/kg; p = 0,103. Conclusão: A falta de um método confiável para estimar o peso corpóreo previsto é um problema importante para a aplicação de um padrão mundial de cuidados durante a ventilação mecânica. Uma intervenção combinada, que se baseou em educação e fornecimento continuado de comentários, promoveu uma redução sustentada do volume corrente durante o período do estudo (12 meses.

  12. Losartan improves cerebrovascular function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with combined overproduction of amyloid-β and transforming growth factor-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Tong, Xin-Kang; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2017-06-01

    Alterations of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the efficacy of losartan (10 mg/kg/day for three months), a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, in alleviating cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in double-transgenic mice (six months at endpoint) that overexpress a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind) and a constitutively active form of the transforming growth factor-β1, thereafter named A/T mice. Losartan rescued cerebrovascular reactivity, particularly the dilatory responses, but failed to attenuate astroglial activation and to normalize the neurovascular uncoupling response to sensory stimulation. The cognitive deficits of A/T mice were not restored by losartan nor were the increased brain levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 peptides normalized. Our results are the first to demonstrate the capacity of losartan to improve cerebrovascular reactivity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model of combined Aβ-induced vascular oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1-mediated vascular fibrosis. These data suggest that losartan may be promising for restoring cerebrovascular function in patients with vascular diseases at risk for vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. However, a combined therapy may be warranted for rescuing both vascular and cognitive deficits in a multifaceted pathology like Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Effects of losartan on left ventricular mass: a three-year follow-up in elderly hypertensives with myocardial hypertrophy despite successful conventional antihypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, C; Tolone, S; Lopreiato, F; Scrofani, A R; Bossini, A; Affricano, C; Cassone, R; Gaudio, C

    2017-03-01

    Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients appears to be a desirable goal to the reduction cardiac risk. The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) seems to play a major role in the establishment and maintenance of LVH through the activated systemic RAS and the Intracardiac Angiotensin System (IAS). We focused on the effects of a three-year treatment with losartan supplement in hypertensive patients with LVH not responding to eight years of an effective previous antihypertensive pharmacological treatment. Two groups of 28 sex-, age- and therapy-matched subjects with essential hypertension and LVH were taken into consideration. The two groups were in effective pharmacological treatment (BP losartan (100 mg/die) on-top treatment, whereas patients of Group B continued the follow-up of the previous conventional therapy. Both groups were submitted to an echocardiographic follow-up. Group A, showed a significant reduction of the mean LVH since the first step at six months with a further significant trend during the whole period (variance analysis: p losartan in hypertensive and hypertrophic patients are in agreement with the results of LIFE Trial. However, the reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy in our patients seems to be related to changes inducted by losartan on the IAS, since no further hemodynamic effects were observed. Losartan induced both a significant reduction of LVH and an improvement of LV diastolic function with a subsequent expected beneficial shift on the prognosis.

  14. Vitamin E, Vitamin C, or Losartan Is Not Nephroprotectant against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Presence of Estrogen in Ovariectomized Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nematbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nephroprotective effect of vitamins E and C or losartan against cisplatin (CP- induced nephrotoxicity when they are accompanied by estrogen was investigated. Methods. The ovariectomized rats received estradiol valerate for two weeks. At the end of the first week, a single dose of CP (7 mg/kg, IP was also administered, and they received placebo (group 1, vitamin E (group 2, vitamin C (group 3, or losartan (group 4 every day during the second week, and they were compared with another three control groups. Results. CP alone increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cr, and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS, significantly (P<0.05, however at the presence of estradiol and CP, vitamin C, vitamin E, or losartan not only did not decrease these parameters, but also increased them significantly (P<0.05. The serum level of superoxidase dismutase (SOD was reduced by CP (P<0.05, but it was increased when estradiol or estradiol plus vitamin C or losartan were added (P<0.05. Conclusion. The particular pharmacological dose of estrogen used in this study abolish the nephroprotective effects vitamins C and E or losartan against CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

  15. Effects of losartan on the blood-brain barrier permeability in long-term nitric oxide blockade-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Mutlu; Kaya, Mehmet; Kalayci, Rivaze; Cimen, Vedat; Kudat, Hasan; Arican, Nadir; Elmas, Imdat; Korkut, Ferruh

    2002-07-12

    Hypertension is closely associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor antagonist losartan on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in L-NAME-induced hypertension and/or in ANG II-induced acute hypertension in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method before, during and following L-NAME treatment (1 g/L). Losartan (3 mg/kg) was given to the animal for five days. Acute hypertension was induced by ANG II (60 microg/kg). Arterial blood pressure was directly measured on the day of the experiment. BBB disruption was quantified according to the extravasation of the albumin-bound Evans blue dye. Losartan significantly reduced the mean arterial blood pressure from 169 +/- 3.9 mmHg to 82 +/- 2.9 mmHg in L-NAME and from 171 +/- 2.9 mmHg to 84 +/- 2.9 in L-NAME plus losartan plus ANG II groups (p cerebral cortex significantly increased in L-NAME (p microvascular Evans blue dye efflux to brain, and losartan treatment attenuates this protein-bound dye transport into brain tissue presumably due to its protective effect on endothelial cells of brain vessels.

  16. Caracterización molecular de la cadena gama común y Jak3 en un individuo afectado con inmunodeficiencia severa combinada

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Javier Patiño Grajales; Carlos Estrada; Cristina Rugeles; María Teresa Rugeles López; Carlos Julio Montoya; Bladimiro Rincón

    2001-01-01

    La Inmunodeficiencia Severa Combinada (IDSC) es una enfermedad
    de origen genético, que se puede heredar de forma autosómica
    recesiva o ligada al cromosoma X. La IDSC se caracteriza por un
    defecto en el número y la diferenciación de los linfocitos T y NK. Los
    individuos afectados desarrollan diarrea crónica, infecciones persistentes y severas como neumonía, septicemia e infecciones fúngicas.
    Estos pacientes presentan retardo en el...

  17. Exclusión pilórica en lesión duodeno-pancreática combinada: reporte de 2 casos

    OpenAIRE

    IÑAGUAZO S,DARWIN A

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: Las lesiones traumáticas de duodeno y páncreas constituyen una entidad quirúrgica de tratamiento difícil, especialmente, si se trata de trauma combinado. Debido a su ubicación retroperitoneal; afortunadamente, las injurias de estos órganos no son frecuentes. Objetivo: Proporcionar conocimientos actualizados sobre el diagnóstico y manejo de las lesiones duodeno-pancreáticas combinadas con énfasis en la exclusión pilórica como método de tratamiento quirúrgico. Sede: Hospital de se...

  18. Linfoma hepático primario: Evolución favorable con quimioterapia combinada con rituximab Primary hepatic lymphoma: favorable outcome with chemotherapy plus rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Serrano-Navarro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos el caso de una paciente con un linfoma hepático primario tratado con éxito con quimioterapia combinada con rituximab. Utilizando los "encabezamientos estándar para búsquedas bibliográficas informatizadas" (Medical Subject Heading revisamos los casos publicados hasta la fecha de esta infrecuente entidad.This article describes the case of a patient with a non-Hodgkin primary hepatic lymphoma who was successfully treated with chemotherapy combined with rituximab. Using the Medical Subject Headings the published reports of this rare entity were reviewed.

  19. Influencia de la terapia combinada de vibraciones y electroestimulaci??n sobre la funci??n neuromuscular en personas con lesi??n medular = Influence of simultaneous vibration and electromyostimulation on neuromuscular properties in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Men??ndez Alegre, H??ctor

    2017-01-01

    116 p. El objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral fue analizar los efectos agudos y cr??nicos de la aplicaci??n simult??nea de vibraciones de cuerpo completo (VCC) y electroestimulaci??n neuromuscular (EENM) sobre diferentes variables vasculares y neuromusculares en sujetos sanos y en pacientes con lesi??n medular. Para ello se desarrollaron 3 ensayos cl??nicos diferentes. La aplicaci??n simult??nea de VCC+EENM produjo, de forma aguda, un incremento general mayor sobre la VSM y la VSP...

  20. Regeneración de defectos infraóseos no contenidos mediante terapia combinada de Emdogain® y BoneCeramic®. Estudio clínico controlado aleatorizado a doble ciego

    OpenAIRE

    Losada Martínez, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la regeneración periodontal de defectos infraóseos que, por sus características anatómicas, son no contenidos. Este tipo de defectos, anchos y con un número de paredes remanentes menor, tienen un potencial de regeneración inferior que aquéllos considerados más contenidos. Por un lado, las propiedades estructurales del defecto para albergar el coágulo son menores y, por otro lado, presentan una menor vascularización debido a la reducción del núm...

  1. Enhanced spectrophotometric determination of Losartan potassium based on its physicochemical interaction with cationic surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila; Abdel-Aziz, Lobna; Gaied, Mariam

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Losartan potassium (LST K), an angiotensin-II receptor (type AT1) antagonist, in presence of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The physicochemical interaction of LST K with CTAB was investigated. The effect of cationic micelles on the spectroscopic and acid-base properties of LST K was studied at pH 7.4. The binding constant (Kb) and the partition coefficient (Kx) of LST K-CTAB were 1.62 × 105 M-1 and 1.38 × 105; respectively. The binding of LST K to CTAB micelles implied a shift in drug acidity constant (ΔpKa = 0.422). The developed method is linear over the range 0.5-28 μg mL-1. The accuracy was evaluated and was found to be 99.79 ± 0.509% and the relative standard deviation for intraday and interday precision was 0.821 and 0.963; respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine LST K in pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. Ajuste de tiempos de inmersión en técnicas combinadas de deshidratado de duraznos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urfalino, D.P

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolló una técnica combinada de deshidratado osmótico-convectivo para duraznos. El objetivo fue ajustar los tiempos de inmersión en las soluciones de sacarosa empleadas para generar un proceso de fácil adopción y económico que brinde productos de alta calidad que mantengan dichas características durante todo su período de almacenaje. Para ello, se realizó una primera inmersión de los duraznos pelados en mitades en una solución de metabisulfito de sodio al 5% durante tres minutos y, posteriormente, se colocaron en una solución de sacarosa a 55º Brix variando los tiempos de inmersión (T1: 24 horas; T2: 12 horas; T3: 6 horas y T4: 0 horas. Transcurridos dichos intervalos de tiempo, los duraznos se escurrieron, se enjuagaron y se deshidrataron a 55º C hasta 20% de humedad final en un horno eléctrico. Cada tratamiento se realizó por duplicado. Durante la realización de los ensayos se determinó peso y volumen, antes y después de la etapa de deshidratado osmótico (DO y de la etapa de deshidratado convectivo. Una vez obtenido el producto final se evaluó color y dióxido de azufre residual cada tres meses por un plazo total de 10 meses. Los resultados reflejaron que los tratamientos que tuvieron mayores tiempos de inmersión en la solución hipertónica presentaron mayor volumen y rendimiento en el producto final, los cuales fueron directamente proporcionales al tiempo de inmersión. Por otro lado, los tratamientos que tuvieron la etapa de DO presentaron un contenido de sulfitos considerablemente menor en el producto final, respecto al testigo y una menor degradación del color a través del tiempo. El tratamiento 1 se destacó por presentar la mayor estabilidad del parámetro de color L* (el cual refleja la luminosidad durante los 10 meses de almacenaje evaluados.

  3. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.INTRODUCTION: chronic hepatitis C has reached the category of pandemic. The hepatitis C virus is the

  4. Losartan decreases vasopressin-mediated cAMP accumulation in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in rats with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, M; Brønd, L; Hadrup, N

    2007-01-01

    receptor type-1 (AT(1)) blockade with losartan. AIM: In this study, we investigated whether CHF rats displayed changes in AVP stimulated cAMP formation in the TAL and examined the role of AT(1) receptor blockade on this system. METHOD: CHF was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary...... artery (LAD). SHAM-operated rats were used as controls. Half of the rats were treated with losartan (10 mg kg day(-1) i.p.). RESULTS: CHF rats were characterized by increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. Measurement of cAMP in isolated outer medullary TAL showed that both basal and AVP (10......(-6) m) stimulated cAMP levels were significantly increased in CHF rats (25.52 +/- 4.49 pmol cAMP microg(-1) protein, P Losartan significantly reduced the basal level of cAMP in CHF rats (CHF: 12.56 +/- 1.93 fmol...

  5. Alterações neurorradiológicas cerebrais na degeneração combinada de medula: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA MARCUS TULIUS TEIXEIRA DA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A carência da vitamina B12 em muitas situações manifesta-se também por alterações neuropsiquiátricas, sendo a mais comum a degeneração combinada subaguda da medula espinhal. No sistema nervoso central a repercussão maior é na mielina, sendo a degeneração esponjosa e a desmielinização difusa das colunas lateral e posterior da medula as mais típicas alterações patológicas. O mesmo ocorre nos hemisférios cerebrais, sendo que anormalidades nas imagens por ressonância magnética são esperadas. No entanto muito pouco tem sido relatado e a carência da cobalamina não figura habitualmente na lista de diagnósticos diferenciais de lesões desmielinizantes. Relatamos caso de anemia perniciosa com manifestações neurológicas em que a ressonância magnética mostrou alterações compatíveis com desmielinização do feixe piramidal, consequentes, possivelmente, à carência da vitamina B12. Discutimos os achados neuropatológicos da hipovitaminose. Sugerimos que a degeneração combinada subaguda da medula deve fazer parte do diagnóstico diferencial radiológico das lesões desmielinizantes no sistema nervoso central.

  6. Método simplex supermodificado como estratégia de otimização para respostas combinadas em sistemas alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Rosângela Aguilar da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo combinar modelagem pela superfície de resposta com otimização simplex supermodificado, para tratamento de casos de interesse na ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, com o emprego da função de Derringer & Suich para respostas combinadas. Um programa para microinformática, denominado MULTIPLEX, foi desenvolvido e testado na otimização multirresposta de três sistemas alimentares selecionados na literatura especializada: 1 inativação da lipoxigenase e lipase preservando-se a atividade da fitase durante o processamento hidrotérmico da cevada; 2 desidratação instantânea de maçã por expansão; 3 extração da proteína da linhaça com hexametafosfato. Uma análise estatística rigorosa foi realizada para testar a capacidade preditiva dos modelos. O método simplex supermodificado, com inicialização automática, foi o instrumento para a solução numérica da função de Derringer & Suich para respostas combinadas. O programa desenvolvido mostrou ser eficiente e confiável para a otimização de multirrespostas, sendo executável em microcomputador que disponha de processador 486 e ambiente MS-DOS.

  7. DEGENERACIÓN COMBINADA SUBAGUDA, ANEMIA MEGALOBLÁSTICA Y MANIFESTACIONES NEUROPSIQUIÁTRICAS Caracterización clínica de catorce casos con deficiencia de cianocobalamina

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Omar Zamora Bastidas; Carlos Echavarría Betancourt; Nancy Yannette Hurtado Ordóñez; Edward Ruiz Salazar

    2012-01-01

    La degeneración combinada subaguda es un desorden neurológico que afecta los cordones posteriores de la médula y se manifiesta precozmente con disestesia, parestesias y astenia severa. En pacientes de riesgo, es la manifestación inicial (y a veces única) de una deficiencia de vitamina B12. El cerebro, el nervio óptico y los nervios periféricos pueden afectarse igualmente. Presentamos catorce casos de degeneración combinada subaguda por deficiencia de vitamina B12, con niveles bajos y anemia ...

  8. Desarrollo y aplicación de un sistema de evaluación combinada de ejercicio físico, de alimentación y de variables psicológicas en jóvenes universitarias

    OpenAIRE

    Parrado, Eva; Bonet, Judit; Barahona, Anabel; Capdevila, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La obesidad es un problema importante de salud en los países desarrollados. Es necesario el diseño de sistemas de evaluación que permitan valorar de forma combinada los factores de prevención del sobrepeso y de la obesidad relacionados con un estilo de vida saludable. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar y aplicar un sistema de evaluación combinada de las conductas de ejercicio físico, de alimentación y de las variables psicológicas relacionadas con su adherencia. El sistem...

  9. A randomised controlled trial evaluating renal protective effects of selenium with vitamins A, C, E, verapamil, and losartan against extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy-induced renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahas, Ahmed R; Elsaadany, Mohamed M; Taha, Diaa-Eldin; Elshal, Ahmed M; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abo; Ismail, Amani M; Elsawy, Essam A; Saleh, Hazem H; Wafa, Ehab W; Awadalla, Amira; Barakat, Tamer S; Sheir, Khaled Z

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effects of selenium with vitamins A, C and E (selenium ACE, i.e. antioxidants), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and losartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) against extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal injury. A randomised controlled trial was conducted between August 2012 and February 2015. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with a single renal stone (300 mg/L) were excluded. ESWL was performed using the electromagnetic DoLiS lithotripter. Eligible patients were randomised into one of four groups using sealed closed envelopes: Group1, control; Group 2, selenium ACE; Group 3, losartan; and Group 4, verapamil. Albuminuria and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) were estimated after 2-4 h and 1 week after ESWL. The primary outcome was differences between albuminuria and uNGAL. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed before ESWL, and at 2-4 h and 1 week after ESWL to compare changes in renal perfusion. Of 329 patients assessed for eligibility, the final analysis comprised 160 patients (40 in each group). Losartan was the only medication that showed significantly lower levels of albuminuria after 1 week (P < 0.001). For perfusion changes, there was a statistically significant decrease in the renal perfusion in patients with obstructed kidneys in comparison to before ESWL (P = 0.003). These significant changes were present in the control or antioxidant group, whilst in the losartan and verapamil groups renal perfusion was not significantly decreased. Losartan was found to protect the kidney against ESWL-induced renal injury by significantly decreasing post-ESWL albuminuria. Verapamil and losartan maintained renal perfusion in patients with post-ESWL renal obstruction. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Differential effects of enalapril and losartan on body composition and indices of muscle quality in aged male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christy S; Giovannini, Silvia; Giovaninni, Silvia; Seo, Dong-Oh; DuPree, Jameson; Morgan, Drake; Chung, Hae Young; Lees, Hazel; Daniels, Michael; Hubbard, Gene B; Lee, Shuko; Ikeno, Yuji; Foster, Thomas C; Buford, Thomas W; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2011-06-01

    The primary purpose of the present set of studies was to provide a direct comparison of the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on body composition, physical performance, and muscle quality when administered late in life to aged rats. Overall, enalapril treatment consistently attenuated age-related increases in adiposity relative to both placebo and losartan. The maximal effect was achieved after 3 months of treatment (between 24 and 27 months of age), at a dose of 40 mg/kg and was observed in the absence of any changes in physical activity, body temperature, or food intake. In addition, the reduction in fat mass was not due to changes in pathology given that enalapril attenuated age-related increases in tumor development relative to placebo- and losartan-treated animals. Both enalapril and losartan attenuated age-related decreases in grip strength, suggesting that changes in body composition appear dissociated from improvements in physical function and may reflect a differential impact of enalapril and losartan on muscle quality. To link changes in adiposity to improvements in skeletal muscle quality, we performed gene array analyses to generate hypotheses regarding cell signaling pathways altered with enalapril treatment. Based on these results, our primary follow-up pathway was mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of myocytes. Relative to losartan- and placebo-treated rats, only enalapril decreased DNA fragmentation and caspase-dependent apoptotic signaling. These data suggest that attenuation of the severity of skeletal muscle apoptosis promoted by enalapril may represent a distinct mechanism through which this compound improves muscle strength/quality.

  11. The Combined Use of Losartan and Muscle-Derived Stem Cells Significantly Improves the Functional Recovery of Muscle in a Young Mouse Model of Contusion Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Ota, Shusuke; Terada, Satoshi; Kawakami, Yohei; Otsuka, Takanobu; Fu, Freddie H; Huard, Johnny

    2016-12-01

    Although muscle injuries tend to heal uneventfully in most cases, incomplete functional recovery commonly occurs as a result of scar tissue formation at the site of injury, even after treatment with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). The transplantation of MDSCs in the presence of a transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) antagonist (losartan) would result in decreased scar tissue formation and enhance muscle regeneration after contusion injuries in a mouse model. Controlled laboratory study. An animal model of muscle contusion was developed using the tibialis anterior muscle in 48 healthy mice at 8 to 10 weeks of age. After sustaining muscle contusion injuries, the mice were divided into 4 groups: (1) saline injection group (control group; n = 15), (2) MDSC transplantation group (MDSC group; n = 15), (3) MDSC transplantation plus oral losartan group (MDSC/losartan group; n = 15), and (4) healthy uninjured group (healthy group; n = 3). Losartan was administrated systemically beginning 3 days after injury and continued until the designated endpoint (1, 2, or 4 weeks after injury). MDSCs were transplanted 4 days after injury. Muscle regeneration and fibrotic scar formation were evaluated by histology, and the expression of follistatin, MyoD, Smad7, and Smad2/3 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Functional recovery was measured via electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve. When compared with MDSC transplantation alone, MDSC/losartan treatment resulted in significantly decreased scar formation, an increase in the number of regenerating myofibers, and improved functional recovery after muscle contusions. In support of these findings, the expression levels of Smad7 and MyoD were significantly increased in the group treated with both MDSCs and losartan. When compared with MDSCs alone, the simultaneous treatment of muscle contusions with MDSCs and losartan significantly reduced scar formation, increased

  12. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Signaling Inhibitors-Losartan, Enalapril, and Cardosten-Prevent Infarction-induced Heart Failure Development in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Krisztina; Fekete, Veronika; Pálóczi, János; Sárközy, Márta; Murlasits, Zsolt; Pipis, Judit; Kheyfets, Irina A; Dugina, Julia L; Sergeeva, Svetlana A; Epstein, Oleg I; Csonka, Csaba; Csont, Tamás; Ferdinandy, Péter; Bencsik, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure, which is the reason that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ARBs) have become established therapies for heart failure. However, it is still not known whether preventive treatment with losartan or enalapril can reduce symptoms of infarction-induced heart failure. Ultra-low dose (ULD) drug therapy is thought to exert specific activity, with a lower chance of side effects. OBJECTIVES • The research team had hypothesized that preventive treatment with inhibitors of RAAS signaling-losartan, enalapril, and a preparation of a ULD antibody (ie, cardosten), which target the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor-might alleviate pathological hypertrophy and/or functional decline in infarction-induced heart failure. The research team treated male Wistar rats orally for 30 d with 20 mg/kg of losartan, 10 mg/kg enalapril, 5 or 7.5 mL/kg of cardosten, or a control solution, started 1 d prior to permanent coronary occlusion. A sham-operated group functioned as a second control group. The study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Szeged in Szeged, Hungary, in cooperation with the Pharmahungary Group, also in Szeged, Hungary, and with OOO "NPF" Materia Medica Holding Ltd in Moscow, Russia. To determine cardiac functional parameters in vivo, the research team inserted a catheter into the left ventricle of the rats and measured the parameters of ventricular pressure, and cardiac output was determined by thermodilution. Morphological parameters were measured after heart isolation in transverse sections by a digital caliper. A total of 30 d after permanent coronary ligation, both losartan and enalapril, significantly decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), attenuated the development of the left-ventricular anterior-wall and septum

  13. Comparative clinical- and cost-effectiveness of candesartan and losartan in the management of hypertension and heart failure: a systematic review, meta- and cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, A M; Bodalia, P N; Macallister, R J; Hingorani, A D; Moon, J C; Scott, M A

    2011-03-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) currently spends in excess of £250 million per annum on angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure; with candesartan currently dominating the market. With the recent introduction of generic losartan, we set out to directly compare the branded market leader to its now cheaper alternative. The primary objectives were to compare the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy and cardiovascular outcomes of candesartan and losartan in the treatment of essential hypertension and chronic heart failure, respectively. The secondary objective was to model their comparative incremental cost-effectiveness in a UK NHS setting. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2009, issue 2), which contains the Hypertension and Heart Group's specialist register, Medline (1950-February 2010), and Embase (1980-February 2010) were included in the search strategy. Selection criteria were randomised studies of candesartan versus losartan in adults (> 18 years). The main outcome measures were as follows: Hypertension: mean change from baseline in trough (24 h postdose) systolic and diastolic BP. Heart failure: composite of cardiovascular death and hospital admission for management of heart failure. Two reviewers applied inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. Eight (three of which met inclusion criteria) and zero trials compared candesartan directly with losartan in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, respectively. A between-treatment difference of -1.96 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.40 to -1.51] for trough diastolic BP and -3.00 mmHg (95% CI -3.79 to -2.22) for trough systolic BP in favour of candesartan was observed. Based on this differential, a 10-year Markov model estimates the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained to exceed £40,000 for using candesartan in place of generic losartan. Candesartan reduces BP to a slightly greater

  14. Inhibitory effects of losartan and azelnidipine on augmentation of blood pressure variability induced by angiotensin II in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danfeng; Kawagoe, Yukiko; Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2017-07-05

    Increased blood pressure variability has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently we reported that continuous infusion of angiotensin II not only elevated blood pressure level, but also increased blood pressure variability in a manner assumed to be independent of blood pressure elevation in rats. In the present study, the effects of the angiotensin type I receptor blocker losartan and the calcium channel blocker azelnidipine on angiotensin II-induced blood pressure variability were examined and compared with that of the vasodilator hydralazine in rats. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously infused with 240 pmol/kg/min angiotensin II for two weeks without or with oral administration of losartan, azelnidipine, or hydralazine. Blood pressure variability was evaluated using a coefficient of variation of blood pressure recorded every 15min under an unrestrained condition via an abdominal aortic catheter by a radiotelemetry system. Treatment with losartan suppressed both blood pressure elevation and augmentation of systolic blood pressure variability in rats infused with angiotensin II at 7 and 14 days. Azelnidipine also inhibited angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation and augmentation of blood pressure variability; meanwhile, hydralazine attenuated the pressor effect of angiotensin II, but had no effect on blood pressure variability. In conclusion, angiotensin II augmented blood pressure variability in an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent manner, and azelnidipine suppressed angiotensin II-induced augmentation of blood pressure variability, an effect mediated by the mechanism independent of the blood pressure-lowering action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of losartan combined with amlodipine or with a thiazide on uric acid levels in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Elizalde-Barrera, Cesar I; Suarez-Cuenca, Juan A; Duran-Salgado, Montserrat B

    2017-02-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and has been associated with diseases such as hypertension. Antihypertensive drugs modify serum uric acid levels, however, few data are available about their combinations on uricemia. In this study we evaluate the effect of two combinations of losartan, with amlodipine or with hydrochlorothiazide, on serum uric acid levels in hypertensive patients. A total of 60 hypertensive patients were randomized in two groups; group LA received losartan/amlodipine (100/5 mg) once a day, whereas LH group received losartan hydrochlorothiazide (100/12.5 mg) once a day for 3 months. In both groups serum uric acid levels were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Patients were evaluated monthly for blood pressure (BP) and adverse events. Statistical analysis was performed with a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. All patients experienced a significant reduction of BP to the same extent (LA 155/94 to 123/79, LH 157/92 to 124/78 mmHg, p > 0.05). In the LA group, serum uric acid decreased from 6.5 ± 1.6 to 4.6 ± 1.3 mg/ml ( p = 0.0001), whereas in the LH group there was a nonsignificant increase from 5.82 ± 1.4 to 5.85 ± 1.5 mg/ml, ( p = 0.936). When both groups were compared, we found a significant reduction ( p < 0.00013) on serum uric acid levels in the LA group. Both combinations decrease BP values to the same extent, however, LA combination showed a reduction on serum uric acid levels, which may contribute to a reduction in the metabolic risk in hypertensive patients.

  16. The thermodynamic dissociation constants of losartan, paracetamol, phenylephrine and quinine by the regression analysis of spectrophotometric data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloun, Milan [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: milan.meloun@upce.cz; Syrovy, Tomas [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: tomas.syrovy@upce.cz; Vrana, Ales [IVAX Pharmaceuticals, s.r.o. 74770 Opava (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: ales_vrana@ivax-cr.com

    2005-03-21

    The mixed dissociation constants of four drug acids - losartan, paracetamol, phenylephrine and quinine - at various ionic strengths I of range 0.01 and 1.0 and at temperatures of 25 and 37 deg. C were determined using SPECFIT32 and SQUAD(84) regression analysis of the pH-spectrophotometric titration data. A proposed strategy of efficient experimentation in a dissociation constants determination, followed by a computational strategy for the chemical model with a dissociation constants determination, is presented on the protonation equilibria of losartan. Indices of precise methods predict the correct number of components, and even the presence of minor ones when the data quality is high and the instrumental error is known. Improved identification of the number of species uses the second or third derivative function for some indices, namely when the number of species in the mixture is higher than 3 and when, due to large variations in the indicator values even at logarithmic scale, the indicator curve does not reach an obvious point where the slope changes. The thermodynamic dissociation constant pKaT was estimated by nonlinear regression of {l_brace}pK{sub a}, I{r_brace} data at 25 and 37 deg. C: for losartan pKa,1T=3.63(1) and 3.57(3), pKa,2T=4.84(1) and 4.80(3), for paracetamol pKa,1T=9.78(1) and 9.65(1), for phenylephrine pKa,1T=9.17(1) and 8.95(1), pKa,2T=10.45(1) and 10.22(1), for quinine pKa,1T=4.25(1) and 4.12(1), pKa,2T=8.72(1) and 8.46(2). Goodness-of-fit tests for various regression diagnostics enabled the reliability of the parameter estimates to be found.

  17. TERAPIA DE INTERACCIÓN PADRES-HIJOS (PCIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ferro García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos (PCIT es una terapia breve para tratar los problemas de conducta en la infancia. Es un tratamiento que está demostrado válido empíricamente y puede ser considerada como un tratamiento bien establecido para tratar conductas problema en la infancia según las normas de la APA. Este trabajo expone sus características principales, sus componentes clínicos, y los factores que afectan a la efectividad. Hace una revisión de la literatura existente de las investigaciones sobre su efectividad y eficacia. También, se exponen las últimas adaptaciones en diferentes contextos, formatos, problemas y distintas poblaciones.

  18. LA TERAPIA DE REMPLAZO ENZIMÁTICO ENZIMÁTICO TRATAMIENTO ENFERMEDADES EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE ENFERMEDADES GENÉTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Sáenz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La terapia de remplazo enzimático (TRE, consiste en suministrarle a un paciente una proteína exógena, que en su organismo está siendo sintetizada anormalmente. La proteína puede provenir de tejidos y fluidos humanos, ser sintetizada en bacterias, células de mamífero o levaduras, a las cuales se les ha introducido el gen correspondiente. Actualmente son tratadas con TRE las enfermedades de Gaucher, Fabry y la inmunodeficiencia humana combinada. Además existen avanzados estudios en las enfermedades de Hurler, Hunter, Pompe, Niemann-Pick tipo B, Morquio A, angioderma hereditario y pénfigo vulgar. Una de las limitantes de la TRE ha sido sus altos costos, debido al relativamente pequeño número de pacientes que se tratan a nivel mundial y a que el sistema usado hasta ahora, es decir, la expresión en células de mamífero, requiere procedimientos muy costosos. La expresión en bacterias o levaduras sería mucho más barato, pero las primeras no expresan proteínas glicosiladas que constituyen el 91% del total de proteínas y la mayoría de las levaduras tienen sistemas de glicosilación, distintos a los de mamíferos.Sin embargo, Pichia pastoris y Hansenula polymorpha parecen producir proteínas muy similares a las humanas, con lo cual se evitan los problemas de rechazo por parte del organismo humano. En el Instituto de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo (IEIM de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana se adelantan estudios conducentes a la implementación de un sistema de expresión de proteínas recombinantes en levaduras para uso clínico en enfermedades lisosomales como los síndromes de Hunter y Morquio A. Este modelo, si funciona a cabalidad, podría emplearse para la mayoría de las enfermedades lisosomales (42 en total y para otros errores innatos del metabolismo.

  19. Cuidado paliativo e enfermeiros de terapia intensiva: sentimentos que ficam

    OpenAIRE

    Natyele Rippel Silveira; Eliane Regina Pereira do Nascimento; Luciana Martins da Rosa; Walnice Jung; Sabrina Regina Martins; Moisés dos Santos Fontes

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer os sentimentos dos enfermeiros acerca dos cuidados paliativos em unidades de terapia intensiva de adultos. Método: estudo qualitativo, cujo referencial teórico adotado foi o das Representações Sociais, realizado com 30 enfermeiros do estado de Santa Catarina incluídos por amostragem Bola de Neve. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas de abril a agosto de 2015, organizados e analisados por meio do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. ...

  20. Novos conceitos em cuidados paliativos na unidade de terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bueno Terzi Coelho

    Full Text Available RESUMO Alguns dos pacientes admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva podem enfrentar condições de doença terminal, que geralmente levam à morte. O conhecimento sobre cuidados paliativos é recomendado para os profissionais de saúde encarregados do cuidado destes pacientes. Em muitas situações, os pacientes devem ser avaliados diariamente, já que a introdução de novos tratamentos pode ou não ser benéfica para eles. As discussões entre os membros da equipe de saúde, relacionadas ao prognóstico e aos objetivos do tratamento, devem ser avaliadas cuidadosamente em cooperação com os pacientes e seus familiares. A adoção na unidade de terapia intensiva de protocolos relacionados a pacientes em final da vida é fundamental. É importante ter uma equipe multidisciplinar para determinar se é necessário deixar de iniciar ou mesmo retirar tratamentos avançados. Além disto, pacientes e familiares devem ser informados de que os cuidados paliativos envolvem o melhor tratamento possível para aquela situação específica, assim como respeitar suas vontades e considerar as bases sociais e espirituais dos mesmos. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar os cuidados paliativos como uma opção razoável para dar suporte à equipe da unidade de terapia intensiva na assistência a pacientes com doença terminal. São apresentadas atualizações com relação a dieta, ventilação mecânica e diálise nestes pacientes. Ainda, discutiremos o programa, comum nos Estados Unidos, conhecido como filosofia hospice, como alternativa ao ambiente da unidade de terapia intensiva/hospital.

  1. Efectividad de distintas terapias físicas en el tratamiento conservador de la fascitis plantar. Revisión sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Díaz López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La fascitis plantar es la afección más frecuente de dolor no traumático en el tobillo-pie. Se presenta más en mujeres entre los 40-70 años con comienzo progresivo y difuso en planta del pie o tobillo que poco a poco se agudiza impidiendo la marcha. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar si las distintas terapias físicas utilizadas en el tratamiento conservador de la fascitis plantar de al menos un mes de evolución son efectivas individualmente y/o combinadas entre sí. Métodos: Revisión sistemática en las bases de datos The Cochrane Library Plus, Medline, Lilacs, IBECS, IME, PEDro y Enfispo sin restricción de fecha, en español e inglés. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos controlados aleatoriamente con personas adultas diagnosticadas de fascitis plantar, estudios de intervención, prospectivos y revisiones sistemáticas. La evaluación de la elegibilidad de los estudios fue desarrollada por dos revisores de manera independiente, estandarizada y no cegada. Para clasificarlos, se utilizó la escala crítica PEDro, formulario de calidad metodológica y una revisión crítica de cada resumen y si esto no fue concluyente evaluación del texto completo. Resultados: Se revisó un total de 32 artículos a texto completo. Las técnicas más empleadas fueron los estiramientos y las ondas de choque, aunque los mejores resultados se obtuvieron combinando varias técnicas. Las ondas de choque fueron efectivas cuando otras técnicas fracasaron. Conclusiones: Las terapias físicas empleadas en los distintos estudios han demostrado ser eficaces aunque en distinta medida ya sea para disminuir el dolor o aliviar los síntomas de la fascitis plantar.

  2. Terapia de reposição hormonal e o câncer do endométrio Hormone replacement therapy and endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidilton Lantyer Cordeiro de Araújo Júnior

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A reposição hormonal para alívio dos sintomas menopausais é amplamente utilizada em todo o mundo. A evolução do conhecimento sobre os riscos deste tratamento sempre foi mais lenta do que sua aplicação na prática clínica. Na década de 70, um aumento de incidência de câncer do endométrio ocorreu nos países desenvolvidos sendo que a terapia de estrógenos exógenos na menopausa foi o principal fator relacionado. Nas décadas de 80 e 90, a combinação entre estrógenos e progestínicos passou a ser largamente utilizada com base na premissa de que apresentava efeitos benéficos sobre os sistemas cardiovascular e osteoarticular, sem aumento no risco de câncer uterino. Entretanto, relatos recentes novamente questionam a segurança da reposição hormonal e, desta vez, apontam para o risco maior de câncer total e doença cardiovascular nos esquemas combinados. Concluímos neste trabalho que os riscos recentemente relacionados à terapia combinada têm grande potencial de impacto na Saúde Pública, e este esquema não é indicado para proteção do risco de carcinoma endometrial uma vez que seus riscos superam os benefícios.Hormone replacement therapy (HRT has been used worldwide to relieve menopausal symptoms. The evolution in clinical knowledge of its risks has lagged persistently behind its application in clinical practice. In the 1970s, endometrial cancer incidence increased in developed countries, and exogenous estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women was the most important factor. In the 1980s and 90s, combined estrogen-progesterone therapy was prescribed on a large scale, based on its potential beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems without increasing the risk of endometrial carcinoma. However, once again, recent reports argue against the safety of HRT, and the most important issues are now the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and total cancer in combined formulations. We conclude that the

  3. Terapia comportamental cognitiva: uma comparação entre perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Rodrigues Kerbauy

    Full Text Available A Terapia Comportamental Cognitiva desenvolveu-se a partir de dados e maneiras de trabalhar da Terapia Cognitiva e da Terapia Comportamental. Essas origens e as várias influências parecem determinar maneiras diferentes de conduzir a terapia o que se procurou analisar neste trabalho. Optou-se pela apresentação do trabalho de três autores: Ellis, Beck e Meichembaum como representativos da área embora se reconheça que há diferenças entre algumas concepções e também unanimidade na explicação de comportamentos, especialmente emocionais.

  4. Células madre: problemas biológicos que dificultan la terapia celular

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    La terapia celular es una terapia avanzada en la que las células pueden ser usadas como auténticos medicamentos. Como elemento esencial de la medicina regenerativa, el objetivo principal de estas terapias es la sustitución de tejidos dañados o deficientes por otros sanos o funcionales Las células madre (células stem), ya sean estas embrionarias, pluripotentes inducidas o adultas, son una fuente potencialmente ilimitada de células para la investigación o para su uso clínico en terapia celul...

  5. Tendencias actuales y futuras de la terapia de familias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Almagro Domínguez

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen brevemente la situación actual y las perspectivas de la terapia familiar a partir de la información obtenida en el Séptimo Congreso de IFTA (International Family Therapy Association, celebrado en Guadalajara, México, en Octubre de 1995. Los criterios actuales abarcan desde el ciclo vital y las técnicas nuevas, hasta el tratamiento familiar del SIDA y el cáncer. El futuro se considera, en general, promisorio para estas terapias. Se habla de relacionar diagnósticos, enseñanza integrada a planes de estudio y entrenamiento de personal comunitario; todo ello como perspectiva de la terapia de familiasThe present situation and the outlooks of family therapy based on the information obtained at the 7th Congress of the International Family Therapy Association, held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in October, 1995, are briefly explained. New criteria embrace from the vital cycle and the new techniques to the family treatment of AIDS and cancer. In general, the future is considered as promising for these therapies. It is talked about relating diagnoses, integrating teaching to curricula, and training community personal; all of it as a prospect of family therapy.

  6. Uso de terapias integrativas e complementares por pacientes em quimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyane Felipette Lima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer as terapias integrativas e complementares utilizadas pelos pacientes em quimioterapia oncológica. Metodologia: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com seis pacientes oncológicos em tratamento quimioterápico, em um serviço de oncologia do sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, em junho de 2010, sendo a análise de conteúdo tipo temática. Resultados: As terapias apontadas neste estudo foram a homeopatia, a fitoterapia e as plantas medicinais e percebeu-se que elas aumentam a sensação de bem-estar, possibilitam o estabelecimento de vínculos positivos com profissionais da saúde, e fazem parte do saber popular e estão interligadas ao conhecimento científico. Conclusões: Apreende-se que uso de terapias integrativas e complementares em oncologia permite a aproximação do profissional enfermeiro com o paciente em quimioterapia, conhecendo-o em sua complexidade.

  7. Analytical study for the charge-transfer complexes of losartan potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut 71526 (Egypt)]. E-mail: iadarwish@yahoo.com

    2005-09-06

    Studies were carried out, for the first time, to investigate the charge-transfer reactions of losartan potassium (LOS-K) as n-electron donor with the {sigma}-acceptor iodine and various {pi}-acceptors: 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, p-chloranilic acid, tetracyanoethylene, 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone. Different colored charge-transfer complexes and radical anions were obtained. Different variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. The formed complexes and the site of interaction were examined by UV-vis, IR, and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, and computational molecular modeling. The formation of the colored complexes were utilized in the development of simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the analysis of LOS-K in pure form as well as in its pharmaceutical tablets. Under the optimum reaction conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9985-0.9998) were found between the absorbances and the concentrations of LOS-K in the range of 2-200 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. The limits of assays detection ranged from 0.61 to 19.65 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. No interference could be observed from the co-formulated hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), as well as from the additives commonly present in the tablets. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of tablets from different manufacturers that contain LOS-K, alone or combined with HCTZ, with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentages ranged from 98.96 {+-} 1.62% to 101.58 {+-} 1.29%. The results were compared favourably with the reported method.

  8. Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker, Is Mediated through Inhibition of ER Stress via Up-Regulation of SIRT1, Followed by Induction of HO-1 and Thioredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosang; Baek, Chung Hee; Lee, Raymond Bok; Chang, Jai Won; Yang, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Koo

    2017-01-31

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model were used. Expression of ER stress was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical stain. ER stress was induced by chemical ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, and non-chemical inducers such as TGF-β, angiotensin II, high glucose, and albumin. Losartan suppressed the TM-induced ER stress, as shown by inhibition of TM-induced expression of GRP78 (glucose related protein 78) and p-eIF2α (phosphospecific-eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α), through up-regulation of SIRT1 via HO-1 and thioredoxin. Losartan also suppressed the ER stress by non-chemical inducers. In both animal models, losartan reduced the tubular expression of GRP78, which were abolished by pretreatment with sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor). Sirtinol also blocked the inhibitory effect of losartan on the UUO-induced renal fibrosis. These findings provide new insights into renoprotective effects of losartan and suggest that SIRT1, HO-1, and thioredoxin may be potential pharmacological targets in kidney diseases under excessive ER stress condition.

  9. Terapia celular em doenças pulmonares: existem perspectivas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João T. Ribeiro-Paes

    Full Text Available A terapia celular poderia ser conceituada de forma ampla e genérica como o emprego de células para tratamento de doenças. Apesar de um número não tão expressivo de relatos tendo o pulmão como objeto de estudo na terapia celular em pacientes humanos, há dados consistentes da literatura, tanto em humanos, quanto em modelos animais,que evidenciam a migração de células-tronco da medula óssea para o pulmão,em diferentes situações experimentais. Esses resultados forneceram o embasamento experimental para o emprego de células-tronco na regeneração do tecido pulmonar em modelos animais. Em nosso laboratório, vários projetos de pesquisa têm sido conduzidos com a finalidade de avaliar a resposta pulmonar (morfológica e funcional ao tratamento com células-tronco adultas em camundongos com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC induzida experimentalmente. Os resultados obtidos, aliados àqueles de outros grupos de pesquisa, permitem aventar a possibilidade de aplicação, a curto prazo, da terapia celular em pacientes com DPOC. Em outra patologia pulmonar, fibrose cística (FC, cuja abordagem terapêutica com células-tronco apresenta aspectos particulares em relação às patologias pulmonares crônico-degenerativas, há avanços promissores e potencialmente interessantes; no entanto, os resultados podem ser considerados incipientes e deve-se assinalar, portanto, que a associação da terapia gênica e celular apresenta-se como uma alternativa possível, mas ainda muito distante quanto à sua consolidação e incorporação como opção terapêutica segura e eficaz em FC. Por outro lado, tendo por embasamento os resultados obtidos em modelos experimentais, é possível postular que a terapia celular com células-tronco hematopoéticas (ou de outras fontes encerra perspectivas consistentes de aplicação em diversas outras patologias pulmonares humanas, especialmente em DPOC.

  10. Effects of a combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with hypertension and a history of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Shigetaka; Yoshioka, Koichiro; Amino, Mari; Deguchi, Yoshiaki; Aizawa, Toru; Tanabe, Teruhisa; Ikari, Yuji

    2014-03-20

    To evaluate the switching from an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to a drug combination containing an ARB and a diuretic drug in terms of effects on hypertension, cardiac load, and cardiac function. In a study conducted on 82 patients with a history of heart failure and hypertension who had been treated with an ARB but failed to reach the target blood pressure, ongoing oral ARB treatment was switched to a drug combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), the variations in blood pressure and the effects on cardiac load and cardiac function were evaluated before and after treatment. Comparison of the ABPM findings before and after switching treatment showed significant improvements in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure 1 hour before getting out of bed, and improvements in the plasma levels of human brain natriuretic peptide as an indicator of cardiac load. The drug combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide showed a stronger antihypertensive effect than that of the conventional ARB and improved heart function.

  11. Comparative study of analytical methods by direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry for evaluation of losartan potassium in capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Bonfilio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Losartan potassium is an antihypertensive non-peptide agent, which exerts its action by specific blockade of angiotensin II receptors. The aim of the present study was the validation and application of analytical methods for the quality control of losartan potassium 50 mg in pharmaceutical capsules, using direct and first-derivative UV spectrophotometry. Based on losartan potassium spectrophotometric characteristics, a signal at 205 nm of the zero-order spectrum and a signal at 234 nm of the first-derivative spectrum, were found adequate for quantification. The results were used to compare these instrumental techniques. The linearity between the signals and concentrations of losartan potassium in the ranges of 3.0-7.0 mg L-1 and 6.0-14.0 mg L-1 for direct and first-derivative spectrophotometry in aqueous solutions, respectively, presented a correlation coefficient (r of 0.9999 in both cases. The methods were applied for losartan potassium in capsule dosage obtained from local pharmacies, and were shown to be efficient, easy to apply and low cost. These methods do not use polluting reagents and require relatively inexpensive equipment.O losartano potássico é um agente anti-hipertensivo não peptídico, que exerce sua ação por bloqueio específico dos receptores da angiotensina II. Este trabalho propôs a validação e aplicação de métodos analíticos orientados ao controle de qualidade de losartano potássico 50 mg na forma farmacêutica cápsula, utilizando a espectrofotometria direta e derivada de primeira ordem na região do UV. Baseado nas características espectrofotométricas de losartano potássico, um sinal a 205 nm do espectro de ordem zero e um sinal a 234 nm do espectro de primeira derivada foram adequados para a quantificação. Os resultados foram usados para comparar essas duas técnicas instrumentais. O coeficiente de correlação entre as respostas e as concentrações de losartano potássico na faixa de 3,0-7,0 mg L-1 e 6

  12. Effects of antihypertensive drugs losartan and levamlodipine besylate on insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension combined with isolated impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-Yin; Ning, Ning; Tan, Ming-Hong; Jiang, Xue-Shu; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Ling; Yi, Dong; Wei, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the antihypertensive effect of losartan and levamlodipine besylate on insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension (EH) combined with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG). Patients (n=244) were randomly assigned to losartan potassium tablets (50-100 mg per day) or levamlodipine besylate tablets (2.5-5.0 mg per day) for intensive antihypertensive treatment with no lifestyle interventions for 3 years. The changes in fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin (FINS) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) from before to after treatment were observed. Blood pressure (BP) in each group was significantly reduced by treatment (Plosartan potassium group was significantly decreased and ISI was significantly increased compared with before treatment (P0.05). The incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus was not significantly different between two groups. The antihypertensive effect of losartan and levamlodipine besylate could amoliorate insulin resistance in patients with EH combined with i-IFG. The improvement of insulin resistance by losartan potassium at 12 months might be better than that by levamlodipine besylate; however, after 24 and 36 months of follow-up, both agents significantly alleviated insulin resistance. These results suggest that the effects of these two drugs on insulin resistance are not significantly different.

  13. Investigation into the interaction of losartan with human serum albumin and glycated human serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular dynamics simulation techniques: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeinpour, Farid; Mohseni-Shahri, Fatemeh S; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Nassirli, Hooriyeh

    2016-09-25

    The interaction between losartan and human serum albumin (HSA), as well as its glycated form (gHSA) was studied by multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics simulation under physiological conditions. The binding information, including the binding constants, effective quenching constant and number of binding sites showed that the binding partiality of losartan to HSA was higher than to gHSA. The findings of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the binding of losartan to HSA and gHSA would alter the protein conformation. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drug were evaluated on the basis of the Förster theory, and it was indicated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA and gHSA to the losartan happened with a high possibility. According to molecular dynamics simulation, the protein secondary and tertiary structure changes were compared in HSA and gHSA for clarifying the obtained results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of children and young adults with Marfan syndrome and aortic root dilation in a randomized trial comparing atenolol and losartan therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacro, R.V.; Guey, L.T.; Dietz, H.C.; Pearson, G.D.; Yetman, A.T.; Gelb, B.D.; Loeys, B.L.; Benson, D.W.; Bradley, T.J.; Backer, J. de; Forbus, G.A.; Klein, G.L.; Lai, W.W.; Levine, J.C.; Lewin, M.B.; Markham, L.W.; Paridon, S.M.; Pierpont, M.E.; Radojewski, E.; Selamet Tierney, E.S.; Sharkey, A.M.; Wechsler, S.B.; Mahony, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Heart Network designed a clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome randomized to receive atenolol or losartan. We report here the characteristics of the screened population and

  15. Long-term effect of prazosin and losartan administration on blood pressure, heart, carotid artery, and acetylcholine induced dilation of cardiovascular system of young Wistar rats and SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristek, Frantisek; Malekova, Magdalena; Cacanyiova, Sona

    2013-06-01

    The long-term effects of prazosin and losartan administration on blood pressure, trophicity of the heart and carotid arteries, and responses of the cardiovascular system to acetylcholine, were studied in Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Four-week-old rats were treated with prazosin (10 mg/kg b.w./day in tap water) or losartan (20 mg/kg b.w./day in tap water) for 5-6 weeks. BP was measured by plethysmographic method. Ten animals of each group were subjected to in vivo studies and subsequent to morphological investigations. The right jugular vein was cannulated for administration of acetylcholine (0.1, 1, and 10 µg). After perfusion with a glutaraldehyde fixative (120 mmHg), the carotid arteries were embedded in Durcupan ACM, and the inner diameter (ID), wall thickness (WT) (tunica intima and media), cross sectional area (CSA) (tunica intima and media), and WT/ID ratio were calculated. In Wistar rats and SHRs, prazosin and losartan administration produced a decrease in the blood pressure and trophicity of the heart. In Wistar rats, both drugs decreased the WT, CSA, and the WT/ID ratio. In addition, these drugs increased the circumferential stress of the artery without affecting the ID. In contrast, in the SHRs, only losartan administration produced these effects. Importantly, both the drugs improved the responses to acetylcholine in SHRs.

  16. Impact of baseline renal function on the efficacy and safety of aliskiren added to losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lewis, Julia B; Lewis, Edmund J

    2010-01-01

    Proteinuric diabetic patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are at high risk of renal and cardiovascular disease progression and treatment-related adverse events. This post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of aliskiren added to the maximal recommended dose of losartan...

  17. Evaluation of [(11)C]methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 for PET imaging of renal AT1receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Basma; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Antoun, Rawad; Lortie, Mireille; deKemp, Robert A; Beanlands, Rob S B; DaSilva, Jean N

    2015-11-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is responsible for the main effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression pattern is altered in several diseases. The [(11)C]methylated derivatives of the clinically used AT1R blocker (ARB) losartan and its active metabolite EXP3174, that binds with higher affinity to AT1R, were evaluated as potential PET imaging tracers in rat kidneys. [(11)C]Methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 were synthesized by [(11)C]methylation of the tetrazole-protected analogs using [11C]methyl iodide. Tissue uptake and binding selectivity of [(11)C]methyl-losartan were assessed by ex-vivo biodistribution and in-vitro autoradiography. Radiolabeled metabolites in rat plasma and kidneys were analysed by column-switch HPLC. Both tracers were evaluated with small animal PET imaging. Due to better pharmacokinetics, [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 was further investigated via PET by co-injection with AT1R antagonist candesartan or the AT2R antagonist PD123,319. Binding selectivity to renal AT1 over AT2 and Mas receptors was demonstrated for [(11)C]methyl-losartan. Plasma metabolite analysis at 10 min revealed stability of [(11)C]methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 with the presence of unchanged tracer at 70.8 ± 9.9% and 81.4 ± 6.0%, of total radioactivity, respectively. Contrary to [(11)C]methyl-losartan, co-injection of candesartan with [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 reduced the proportion of unchanged tracer (but not metabolites), indicating that these metabolites do not bind to AT1R in rat kidneys. MicroPET images for both radiotracers displayed high kidney-to-background contrast. Candesartan significantly reduced [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 uptake in the kidney, whereas no difference was observed following PD123,319 indicating binding selectivity for AT1R. [(11)C]Methyl-EXP3174 displayed a favorable binding profile compared to [(11)C]methyl-losartan for imaging renal AT1Rs supporting further studies to assess its full potential as a

  18. Paresia transitória unilateral combinada do nervo hipoglosso e do nervo lingual após intubação para anestesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ulusoy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lesões de nervos podem ocorrer na região faringolaríngea durante a anestesia geral. Os nervos mais comumente lesionados são o hipoglosso, lingual e laríngeo recorrente. As lesões podem surgir em decorrência de vários fatores, como, por exemplo, durante a laringoscopia, intubação endotraqueal e inserção de tubo e por pressão do balão, ventilação com máscara, manobra aérea tripla, via aérea orofaríngea, modo de inserção do tubo, posição da cabeça e do pescoço e aspiração. As lesões nervosas nessa região podem acometer um único nervo isolado ou causar a paralisia de dois nervos em conjunto, como a do nervo laríngeo recorrente e hipoglosso (síndrome de Tapia. No entanto, a lesão combinada dos nervos lingual e hipoglosso após intubação para anestesia é uma condição muito mais rara. O risco dessa lesão pode ser reduzido por meio de medidas preventivas. Descrevemos um caso de paresia unilateral combinada dos nervos hipoglosso e lingual após intubação para anestesia.

  19. Éxito de la terapia breve centrada en soluciones en su seguimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez del Val, Ángela

    2011-01-01

    A patir de una muestra (N=40) extraída del Centro Clínico en Terapia Sistémica de la Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca se estudia el éxito que tiene la aplicación de la Terapia Breve Centrada en Soluciones (TBCS)

  20. NRE57/12: Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Terapia Ocupacional

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Terapia Ocupacional. Resoluci??n de 22 de febrero de 2012, de la Universidad de Granada, por la que se hace p??blico el Plan de Estudios de Graduado o Graduada en Terapia Ocupacional

  1. Asistencia ventricular izquierda para terapia de destino: primera experiencia en septuagenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian V. Rojas

    2016-10-01

    Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados iniciales demuestran que el implante mínimamente invasivo de DAVI puede ser realizado de manera eficaz, segura y con buenos resultados en pacientes septuagenarios terapia de destino. Los bajos niveles de eventos adversos durante el seguimiento por 2 años demuestran que la terapia de destino puede ser realizada incluso en pacientes septuagenarios.

  2. Mindfulness: terapia alternativa para el tratamiento del dolor en la lesión medular

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sanz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    El Minfulness como procedimiento terapéutico se encuentra en el desarrollo de las denominadas nuevas terapias conductuales. Este tipo de terapias surgen al considerar el contexto como elemento principal, en la explicación e intervención. Se analiza la aplicación de este procedimineto en pacientes con lesión medular

  3. A dual strategy to improve the penetration and treatment of breast cancer by combining shrinking nanoparticles with collagen depletion by losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Xingli; Ruan, Shaobo; Chen, Jiantao; Zhang, Li; Li, Jianping; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2016-02-01

    Although development of nanomedicines has been a promising direction in tumor treatment, the therapeutic outcome of current nanomedicines is unsatisfying, partly because of the poor retention and penetration in tumors. Recently, a kind of tumor microenvironment sensitive size shrinkable nanoparticles (DOX-AuNPs-GNPs) has been developed by our lab, which could enhance the tumor penetration and retention depending on the size shrinking. However, the further enhancement is still restricted by dense collagen network in tumors. Thus in this study, we combined DOX-AuNPs-GNPs with losartan to deplete tumor collagen (constituted up to 90% of extracellular matrix) to further improve tumor penetration. In vitro, DOX-AuNPs-GNPs can shrink from over 117.8nm to less than 50.0nm and release DOX-AuNPs under the triggering of tumor overexpressed matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2). In vivo, pretreatment with losartan significantly decrease the collagen level and improve the tumor penetration. In combination, losartan combined with DOX-AuNPs-GNPs showed the best drug delivery efficiency, striking penetration efficiency and best 4T1 breast tumor inhibition effect. In conclusion, this study provided a promising synergetic strategy to improve the tumor treatment efficiency of nanomedicines. We have developed a dual strategy for deep tumor penetration through combining size shrinkable DOX-AuNPs-GNPs with depleting tumor collagen by losartan. Additionally, we demonstrate therapeutic efficacy in breast tumor bearing mouse model. DOX-AuNPs-GNPs co-administration with losartan is a novel and highly attractive strategy for anti-tumor drug delivery with the potential for broad applications in clinic. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of Kidney Gene Expression Changes Associated with Diabetes in OVE26 Mice, in the Presence and Absence of Losartan Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komers, Radko; Xu, Bei; Fu, Yi; McClelland, Aaron; Kantharidis, Phillip; Mittal, Amit; Cohen, Herbert T.; Cohen, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is among the most common causes of end-stage renal disease, although its pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of renal gene expression changes in the OVE26 murine model of diabetes (age 15 weeks), relative to non-diabetic control, in the presence and absence of short-term (seven-day) treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan (n = 3–6 biological replicates per condition). We detected 1438 statistically significant changes in gene expression across conditions. Of the 638 genes dysregulated in diabetes relative to the non-diabetic state, >70% were downregulation events. Unbiased functional annotation of genes up- and down-regulated by diabetes strongly associated (plosartan treatment; however, of the gene products dysregulated in diabetes and influenced by losartan treatment, the vast majority of changes were in the direction of amelioration rather than exacerbation of the diabetic dysregulation. This group of losartan-protected genes associated strongly with annotation terms for endoplasmic reticulum stress, heat shock proteins, and chaperone function, but not oxidative stress; therefore, the losartan-unaffected genes suggest avenues for additional therapeutic opportunity in diabetes. Interestingly, the gene product most highly upregulated by diabetes (>52-fold), encoded by the cationic amino acid transporter Slc7a12, and the gene product most highly downregulated by diabetes (>99%) – encoded by the “pseudogene” Gm6300 – are adjacent in the murine genome, are members of the SLC7 gene family, and are likely paralogous. Therefore, diabetes activates a near-total genetic switch between these two paralogs. Other individual-level changes in gene expression are potentially relevant to diabetic pathophysiology, and novel pathways are suggested. Genes unaffected by diabetes alone but exhibiting increased renal expression with losartan produced a signature

  5. Beneficial effects of losartan for prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with sick sinus syndrome: analysis with memory function of pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takii, Eiichi; Inage, Tomohito; Yoshida, Teruhisa; Ohe, Masatsugu; Gondo, Takeki; Haraguchi, Go; Ito, Shogo; Kumanomido, Jun; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Fukuomoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors may be useful in preventing the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). However, evaluation of such effect is difficult because many PAF episodes are asymptomatic and not all episodes are detected by intermittent electrocardiographic monitoring. A pacemaker has been developed with dedicated functions for AF detection and electrocardiogram storage. Accordingly, we examined the effect of losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker on PAF occurrence using this new modality. We enrolled 70 consecutive patients who had undergone dual-chamber pacemaker implantation for sick sinus syndrome. Finally, 62 patients participated in the study. Thirty patients were randomized to the losartan group (mean 43 ± 12 mg/day) and 32 patients to the control group. They were followed up for 3 months. The frequency, the maximum duration and the total duration of PAF recorded by the stored electrocardiograms for the last 1 month during the observation period and study period were compared between the two groups. The change in the frequency of PAF from the observation period in the losartan and control groups was similar (-35 ± 25 vs. -67 ± 62 times; NS). However, the change in the maximum duration and the total duration of PAF was significantly shorter in the losartan group than in the control group (-493 ± 158 vs. -10 ± 69 min; p Losartan suppressed the maximum duration and the total duration of PAF in patients with sick sinus syndrome without hemodynamic changes. This is the first study to show the effect of a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor on the secondary prevention of PAF using the dedicated functions of a pacemaker for PAF detection and electrocardiogram storage.

  6. Effectiveness of chlorthalidone/amiloride versus losartan in patients with stage I hypertension: results from the PREVER-treatment randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Flávio D; Scala, Luiz César N; Vilela-Martin, José F; de Mello, Renato Bandeira; Mosele, Francisca; Whelton, Paul K; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E; de Alencastro, Paulo Ricardo; E Silva, Ricardo Pereira; Gus, Miguel; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Schlatter, Rosane; Cesarino, Evandro José; Castro, Iran; Neto, José A Figueiredo; Chaves, Hilton; Steffens, André Avelino; Alves, João Guilherme; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; de Sousa, Marcos R; Jardim, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Leila B; Franco, Roberto Silva; Gomes, Marco Mota; Neto, Abrahão Afiune; Fuchs, Felipe Costa; Filho, Dario C Sobral; Nóbrega, Antônio C; Nobre, Fernando; Berwanger, Otávio; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-04-01

    To compare the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy of a chlorthalidone/amiloride combination pill with losartan, during initial management of stage I hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 655 participants were followed for 18 months in 21 Brazilian academic centers. Trial participants were adult volunteers aged 30-70 years with stage I hypertension (BP 140-159 or 90-99 mmHg) following 3 months of a lifestyle intervention. Participants were randomized to 12.5/2.5 mg of chlorthalidone/amiloride (N = 333) or 50 mg of losartan (N = 322). If BP remained uncontrolled after 3 months, study medication dose was doubled, and if uncontrolled after 6 months, amlodipine (5 and 10 mg) and propranolol (40 and 80 mg twice daily) were added as open-label drugs in a progressive fashion. At the end of follow-up, 609 (93%) participants were evaluated. The difference in SBP during 18 months of follow-up was 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 3.3) mmHg favoring chlorthalidone/amiloride. Compared with those randomized to diuretic, more participants allocated to losartan had their initial dose doubled and more of them used add-on antihypertensive medication. Levels of blood glucose, glycosilated hemoglobin, and incidence of diabetes were no different between the two treatment groups. Serum potassium was lower and serum cholesterol was higher in the diuretic arm. Microalbuminuria tended to be higher in patients with diabetes allocated to losartan (28.5 ± 40.4 versus 16.2 ± 26.7 mg, P = 0.09). Treatment with a combination of chlorthalidone and amiloride compared with losartan yielded a greater reduction in BP. NCT00971165.

  7. Comparison of benazepril and losartan on endothelial function and vascular stiffness in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Ronaldo A O C; Oigman, Wille; Bedirian, Ricardo; Pozzobon, Cesar R; Ladeira, Marcia C Boaventura; Neves, Mario F

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of benazepril and losartan on endothelial function and vascular stiffness, in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We included hypertensive diabetic patients with an office systolic blood pressure (BP) ⩾ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ⩾ 80 mmHg. Patients were rolled over to amlodipine for 6 weeks, then we performed C-reactive protein assays, BP measurement and vascular tests; next, patients were randomized to benazepril or losartan. The tests were repeated after 12 weeks. We randomized 14 patients to benazepril and 16 to losartan. There were no differences in systolic (139 versus 134 mmHg, p = 0.618) and diastolic (82 versus 80 mmHg, p = 0.950) BP at the end of the study. C-reactive protein values were lower in the benazepril group (0.38 versus 0.42 mg/dl, p = 0.020). There was a slightly higher flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) response in the benazepril group (45% increase, p = 0.057) than in the losartan group (19% increase, p = 0.132). Both central systolic BP (129 versus 123 mmHg, p = 0.934) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) (8.5 versus 8.5 m/s, p = 0.280) were the same between groups. Hypertensive diabetic patients using benazepril had a greater reduction in C-reactive protein, and a slight improvement in FMD, than those taking losartan. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Introducción a la terapia asistida con animales: tipologías de terapia en España

    OpenAIRE

    García Martín, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Se hace una revisión teórico-bibliográfica sobre la terapia asistida con animales, centrándose en animales como perros, caballos y delfines, en los diferentes ámbitos de intervención en España, incluyendo datos recogidos sobre los resultados de este tipo de terapia en algunas asociaciones del país

  9. Modelos en desarrollo de terapias derivadas de biotecnologia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes Monroy, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de la terapia génica para el tratamiento del cáncer es eliminar las células tumorales preservando el tejido normal. Diversas estrategias para llevar acabo este objetivo han demostrado resultados promisorios en el laboratorio, incluyendo moléculas que pueden tener blancos específicamente predeterminados en secuencias en el ADN y el ARNm; estas secuencias proporcionan un medio para modular la función de genes endógenos. Diferentes tipos de moléculas: inductores de hélices triples, o...

  10. Rendimiento escolar: su abordaje desde la terapia de juego familiar

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Xóchitl; Ruiz, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    La evaluación del área emocional cuando existe bajo aprovechamiento escolar permite tener más herramientas para el diagnóstico. Adicionalmente la revisión bibliográfica, el trabajo interdisciplinario y el juego ofrecen herramientas para la toma de decisiones. En este trabajo, se describe el proceso de evaluación e intervención clínica de una menor de nueve años con dificultades académicas. La madre solicitó terapias de aprendizaje debido a “bajas calificaciones y problemas de socialización”. ...

  11. Terapia gênica para osteoporose Gene therapy for osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pacheco da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A osteoporose é considerada um dos problemas de saúde mais comuns e sérios da população idosa mundial. É uma doença crônica e progressiva, caracterizada pela diminuição da massa óssea e deterioração da microarquitetura do tecido ósseo. A terapia gênica representa uma nova abordagem para o tratamento da osteoporose e tem como princípio devolver a função comprometida pelo metabolismo. Esta revisão visa focar os trabalhos relevantes desenvolvidos nos últimos anos, disponibilizados nas bases de dados médicas, e que utilizaram a terapia gênica para o tratamento da osteoporose em modelos animais, bem como, as perspectivas futuras desta terapia. A maioria dos estudos utiliza os genes BMPs, PTH e OPG na tentativa de restabelecer a massa óssea. Apesar da carência de novas moléculas, todos os genes empregados nos estudos se mostraram eficientes no tratamento da doença. Os benefícios que a terapia gênica proporcionará aos pacientes no futuro devem contribuir substancialmente para o aumento na qualidade de vida dos idosos. Em breve, protocolos clínicos envolvendo humanos irão beneficiar os indivíduos com osteoporose.Osteoporosis is considered one of the most common and serious problems affecting the elderly population worldwide. It is a chronic and progressive disease, characterized by decreased bone mass and degeneration of the microarchitecture of the bone tissue. Gene therapy represents a new approach in osteoporosis treatment, and its main function is to restore the compromised function in the metabolism. This review aims to elucidate the main studies on gene therapy in recent years, in the medical databases, that use gene therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis in animal models, as well as the future prospects of this therapy. The majority of the studies use the BMP, PTH and OPG genes, in an attempt to reestablish bone mass. Despite the lack of new molecules, all genes employed in these studies have proven to be

  12. Development and evaluation of sustained release losartan potassium matrix tablet using kollidon SR as release retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Sarwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to develop sustained release (SR matrix tablets of losartan potassium, an angiotensin-II antagonist for the treatment of hypertension. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method, along with Kollidon SR as release retardant polymer. The amount of losartan potassium remains fixed (100 mg for all the three formulations whereas the amounts of Kollidon SR were 250 mg, 225 mg, and 200 mg for F-1, F-2, and F-3 respectively. The evaluation involves three stages: the micromeritic properties evaluation of granules, physical property studies of tablets, and in-vitro release kinetics studies. The USP apparatus type II was selected to perform the dissolution test, and the dissolution medium was 900 mL phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The test was carried out at 75 rpm, and the temperature was maintained at 37 ºC ± 0.5 ºC. The release kinetics was analyzed using several kinetics models. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. At lower polymeric level, the rate and extent of drug release were enhanced. All the formulations followed Higuchi release kinetics where the Regression co-efficient (R² values are 0.958, 0.944, and 0.920 for F-1, F-2, and F-3 respectively, and they exhibited diffusion dominated drug release. Statistically significant (PO presente estudo foi realizado para desenvolver (SR matriz de comprimidos de liberação sustentada de losartana, um antagonista da angiotensina II, para o tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Os comprimidos foram preparados pelo método de compressão direta com Kollidon SR como polímero de liberação lenta. A quantidade de losartana potássica permanece fixa (100 mg para todas as três formulações enquanto que as quantidades de Kollidon SR foram de 250 mg, 225 mg e 200 mg para F-1, F-2 e F-3, respectivamente. A avaliação envolve três etapas- propriedades micromeríticas dos grânulos, estudo das propriedades físicas dos comprimidos e

  13. Terapia celular no diabetes mellitus Cell therapy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Voltarelli

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão são discutidas várias alternativas de regeneração do conjunto de células produtoras de insulina do pâncreas, usando células-tronco embrionárias do cordão umbilical e adultas, e o trabalho que está sendo realizado em nosso grupo de pesquisas utilizando imunossupressão em altas doses combinada com a infusão de células-tronco hematopoéticas autólogas em diabete do tipo 1 recém-diagnosticado.In this review, we discuss several alternatives for the regeneration of the pool of insulin-producing cells by the pancreas using embryonic, cord blood or adult stem cells and the work being carried out by our research group using high dose immunosuppression with autologous hematopoietic stem cells in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Terapia antihipertensiva en enfermedad renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rodrigo Tagle, Dr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC constituye una de las causas más frecuentes de hipertensión arterial (HTA secundaria. Existe una nueva clasificación de la ERC basada en la presencia de un daño estructural con o sin un deterioro de la velocidad de filtración glomerular (VFG. La prevalencia de la HTA varía principalmente según la magnitud de la VFG y la etiología de la enfermedad del parénquima renal. Los mecanismos hipertensógenos primordiales son: la retención de sodio e hipervolemia, y la activación del eje renina angiotensina aldosterona. La HTA es también un factor de progresión de la ERC. La terapia se basa en la restricción de sodio, diuréticos y bloqueadores del eje renina angiotensina. Consideraciones farmacológicas y clínicas son fundamentales para un efectivo uso de esta terapia. Los objetivos son la prevención cardiovascular y renal, a través de la obtención de determinados niveles de presión arterial (PA.

  15. Two episodes of anuria and acute pulmonary edema in a losartan-treated patient with solitary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiykim, Ahmet Alper; Boz, Murat; Ozer, Caner; Camsari, Ahmet; Yildiz, Altan

    2004-01-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is an increasingly important cause of end-stage kidney disease, and may cause hypertension, progressive renal failure, and recurrent pulmonary edema. Herein, we report two episodes of anuria and acute pulmonary edema associated with losartan treatment in a hypertensive patient with preexisting severe renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney. After successful percutaneous renal balloon angioplasty procedure, urine flow was started immediately, despite 10 days of anuria. Blood pressure measurements were still at acceptable levels with a low dose Beta blocker, and serum creatinine levels were normal even after eight months. PTRA should be done in such patients, even with prolonged anuria. Physicians who recommend angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with RAS, especially in patients wih hypovolemia or a solitary kidney, should be careful about this complication.

  16. Intermittent Losartan Administration Triggers Cardiac Post-Conditioning in Isolated Rat Hearts: Role of BK2 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarra, Luca; Leo, Valentina; Addabbo, Francesco; Iacobazzi, Dominga; Carratù, Maria Rosaria; Montagnani, Monica; Potenza, Maria Assunta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The angiotensin (Ang) and bradykinin (BK) tissue-system plays a pivotal role in post-conditioning, but the efficacy of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) in post-ischemic strategies is still under investigation. We evaluated functional and morphological outcomes, together with activation of cytosolic RISK pathway kinases, in rat hearts subjected to losartan (LOS) or irbesartan (IRB) post-ischemic administration. Methods Isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Post-conditioning was obtained by intermittent (10 s/each) or continuous drug infusion during the first 3 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular developed pressure (dLVP), coronary flow (CF), and left ventricular infarct mass (IM) were measured together with the activation status of RISK kinases Akt, p42/44 MAPK and GSK3β. Results When compared to hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (iI/R) alone, continuous IRB or LOS administration did not significantly reduce total infarct mass (cIRB or cLOS vs. iI/R, p = 0.2). Similarly, intermittent IRB (iIRB) was not able to enhance cardioprotection. Conversely, intermittent LOS administration (iLOS) significantly ameliorated cardiac recovery (iLOS vs iI/R, plosartan is effective in mediating post-conditioning cardioprotection, whereas irbesartan is not. The infarct mass reduction by intermittent losartan seem mainly related on its specific ability to modulate BK2R, and only modestly associated on AT1R blocking properties. PMID:24520397

  17. Drug-drug interactions between sucroferric oxyhydroxide and losartan, furosemide, omeprazole, digoxin and warfarin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edward; Kalia, Veena; Willsie, Sandra; Winkle, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The novel iron-based phosphate binder sucroferric oxyhydroxide is being investigated for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Patients with chronic kidney disease often have multiple comorbidities that may necessitate the daily use of several types of medication. Therefore, the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between sucroferric oxyhydroxide and selected drugs commonly taken by dialysis patients were investigated. Five Phase I, single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period crossover studies in healthy volunteers investigated the effect of a single dose of sucroferric oxyhydroxide 1 g (based on iron content) on the pharmacokinetics of losartan 100 mg, furosemide 40 mg, omeprazole 40 mg, digoxin 0.5 mg and warfarin 10 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters [including area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 extrapolated to infinite time (AUC0-∞) and from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24)] for these drugs were determined: alone in the presence of food; with sucroferric oxyhydroxide in the presence of food; 2 h after food and sucroferric oxyhydroxide administration. Systemic exposure based on AUC0-∞ for all drugs, and AUC0-24 for all drugs except omeprazole (for which AUC 0-8 h was measured), was unaffected to a clinically significant extent by the presence of sucroferric oxyhydroxide, irrespective of whether sucroferric oxyhydroxide was administered with the drug or 2 h earlier. There is a low risk of drug-drug interactions between sucroferric oxyhydroxide and losartan, furosemide, digoxin and warfarin. There is also a low risk of drug-drug interaction with omeprazole (based on AUC0-∞ values). Therefore, sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be administered concomitantly without the need to adjust the dosage regimens of these drugs.

  18. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e ântero-posteriores em pacientes Classe II esquelética, tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração cervical ou combinada Cephalometric evaluation of anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal Class II patients treated with cervical or combined traction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira; Luiz Antônio Alves Bernardes

    2007-01-01

    ...°), tratados com aparelho extrabucal cervical (grupo 1) associado a aparelho fixo do tipo Edgewise ou tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada (grupo 2) associado ao mesmo. METODOLOGIA...

  19. Avaliação cefalométrica das alterações verticais e ântero-posteriores em pacientes Classe II esquelética, tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração cervical ou combinada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira; Luiz Antônio Alves Bernardes

    2007-01-01

    ...°), tratados com aparelho extrabucal cervical (grupo 1) associado a aparelho fixo do tipo Edgewise ou tratados com aparelho extrabucal de tração combinada (grupo 2) associado ao mesmo. METODOLOGIA...

  20. Terapias Psicológicas para el Tratamiento del Dolor Crónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Moix

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que existe abundante literatura que muestra la efectividad del tratamiento cognitivo-conductual del dolor crónico, en nuestro país, se carecía de un manual del mismo. Por este motivo, diseñamos un protocolo donde se describen las diferentes técnicas de dicha terapia. En el presente artículo, realizamos una detallada descripción del mismo. Antes de adentrarnos en la terapia cognitivo-conductual, presentamos una revisión de las principales terapias psicológicas que se emplean en el tratamiento del dolor crónico.

  1. Terapias Cognitiva e Cognitivo-Comportamental em dependência química

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Cláudio Jerônimo da; Serra,Ana Maria

    2004-01-01

    Este artigo descreve o estado atual da Terapia Cognitiva, Comportamental, Prevenção de Recaída e Treinamento de Habilidades no tratamento de usuários de drogas. O objetivo é apresentar uma revisão sobre teorias e técnicas da Terapia Cognitiva e outras abordagens que dela derivam. Terapias Cognitiva e Comportamental, bem como Prevenção da Recaída e Treinamento de Habilidades, são tratamentos limitados no tempo, orientados em uma meta, e que utilizam sessões estruturadas, assumindo, assim, uma ...

  2. Habilidades clínicas en la terapia conductual de tercera generación

    OpenAIRE

    Barraca, J. (Javier)

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se repasan las técnicas de tres de las terapias de tercera generación conductual (Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso, Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional y Terapia Conductual Dialéctica) para reflexionar sobre el tipo de destrezas que el terapeuta debe desarrollar si pretende lograr una actuación competente al practicarlas. Este examen lleva a distinguir entre: (1) habilidades de escucha y discriminación de respuesta; (2) habilidades de fluidez, repertorio y ...

  3. La terapia breve: una alternativa de intervención psicológica efectiva

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Andrés Gantiva Díaz; Nohelia Hewitt Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y estructurar los orígenes, bases teóricas y los procedimientos de la terapia breve desde la perspectiva terapéutica cognitivo conductual. Se inicia con la identifi cación de las bases teóricas de la terapia breve, principalmente las teorías motivacionales relacionadas con la disponibilidad al cambio y la autoefi cacia desde la teoría social cognitiva. Se realiza un paralelo entre las características principales de la terapia breve en contraposición co...

  4. Historia e institucionalización de la terapia neural en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento Rodríguez, Luz Dary

    2014-01-01

    La historia de la Terapia Neural que el mundo médico conoce data de tan sólo nueve décadas atrás, con la apertura generada por los estudios de los hermanos Huneke. Investigaciones recientes permiten concluir que las bases científicas de la Terapia Neural parten de la corriente rusa, desde la primera mitad del siglo XIX, a través de la escuela del Nervismo1 . La Terapia Neural en los países occidentales se encuentra en un proceso de definirse como un sistema médico, lo que exige...

  5. La eficacia de la terapia musical Vs. Diacepam para disminuir la ansiedad preoperatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Berbel Sánchez, Pere

    2015-01-01

    La terapia musical puede y debe constituir una herramienta más del arsenal terapéutico actual del que se dispone para el tratamiento de distintas enfermedades. Es una terapia individual y coadyuvante de otras aceptadas como estándar a las que complementa pero no substituye. En el apartado 1, se hace una exhaustiva revisión histórica para situarnos y poder entender mejor el significado y objeto de la terapia musical y se describen las razones que han llevado a realizar este trabajo. En el apar...

  6. Anestesia combinada e extubação precoce em paciente com persistência do canal arterial: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio de Mattos Gouvêa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O canal arterial é uma estrutura que integra a circulação fetal. Fatores como prematuridade, hipóxia, acidose e sepse contribuem para a sua patência. O objetivo deste relato é demonstrar a utilização da anestesia combinada em cirurgia para correção da persistência do canal arterial. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente masculino, 14 meses, 11 kg,estado físico ASA II com infecções respiratórias de repetição, foi submetido à correção cirúrgica de PCA. Utilizou-se midazolam (0,5 mg.kg-1 por via oral, no pré-anestésico, seguido de indução inalatória com halotano 1-2%. A hidratação foi feita com solução de Ringer com lactato (8 ml.kg-1.h-1. Após intubação orotraqueal foi iniciada ventilação mecânica em sistema circular pediátrico com reabsorvedor de CO2. Procedeu-se bloqueio peridural torácico no espaço T1-T2 com injeção única de bupivacaína a 0,125% com adrenalina 1:800.000 no volume de 0,5 ml.kg-1. A manutenção foi feita com halotano (0,5-0,6 CAM. O procedimento cirúrgico durou 70 minutos e foi feito por toracotomia látero-posterior com boa estabilidade cardiovascular. A criança foi extubada na sala cirúrgica e encaminhada para SRPA em boas condições. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica de anestesia combinada em anestesia pediátrica promove melhora na qualidade da analgesia per e pós-operatória. O bloqueio peridural torácico, com indicação criteriosa, pode ser utilizado com bons resultados.

  7. Terapia Craneal en Agua Vs Terapia Craneal en Sala: Efectividad de la Terapia Cráneo-Sacral en el Medio Acuático con Pacientes que Sufren Estrés.

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte Marín, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    La sociedad actual, regida por la falta de tiempo y la sobreabundancia de compromisos, actualmente sufre de estrés, disponiéndose ésta, como una de las afecciones más comunes en nuestra vida cotidiana. En el ámbito de la fisioterapia cada vez es mayor el interés por la terapia manual y sobre todo por una indolora y suave, siendo la terapia cráneo-sacral una de las técnicas más indicadas. El objetivo principal del presente estudio trata de evaluar si el medio acuático con la terapia cráneo-sac...

  8. Resincronización ventricular combinada asociada con la cirugía convencional de la miocardiopatía dilatada

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bengochea, José B.; Fernández, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    La eficacia de la terapia de resincronización (RSC) en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada y asincronismo sistólico está ampliamente demostrada, aun cuando sus resultados se ven limitados por la variabilidad anatómica del sistema venoso coronario, el cual no siempre permite una adecuada colocación del electrodo ventricular izquierdo (VI). El asincronismo ventricular agudo es un factor de mal pronóstico que está presente en un considerable número de pacientes con indicación de cirugí...

  9. The intrathecal administration of losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, produces an antinociceptive effect through the inhibiton of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the mouse formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Wataru; Ogata, Yoshiki; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yaoita, Fukie; Tanado, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2015-01-12

    We have recently reported that an intrathecal (i.t.) administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) into mice induces a nociceptive behavior accompanied by the activation of p38 MAPK signaling via AT1 receptors (Nemoto et al., 2013, Mol. Pain 9, 38). These results suggested that Ang II participates in the facilitation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. In the present study, we used formalin test to examine the effect of i.t.-administered losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, and determine whether Ang II acts as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the spinal transmission of nociceptive information. When administered i.t. 5 min before the injection of a 2% formalin solution into the plantar surface of the hindpaw, losartan (30-100 nmol) produced a dose-dependent and significant antinociceptive effect during both the first and second phases of the test. In the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord (laminae I and II), the fluorescence intensities for Ang II and phospho-p38 MAPK were both significantly increased on the ipsilateral side 3 min after the injection of formalin compared to saline-treated controls. Moreover, the increase of phospho-p38 MAPK fluorescence intensity was significantly inhibited by the i.t. administration of losartan (54.8 nmol) 5 min prior to formalin. These results indicate that losartan produces an antinociceptive effect through the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the mouse formalin test and that Ang II may act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the spinal transmission of nociceptive information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effects of the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan in infection-induced and arthritis-associated alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Junior, C M; Silveira, K D; de Oliveira, C R; Moura, A P; Madeira, M F M; Soriani, F M; Ferreira, A J; Fukada, S Y; Teixeira, M M; Souza, D G; da Silva, T A

    2015-12-01

    The angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bone disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an AT1 receptor antagonist in infection-induced and arthritis-associated alveolar bone loss in mice. Mice were subjected to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans oral infection or antigen-induced arthritis and treated daily with 10 mg/kg of the prototype AT1 antagonist, losartan. Treatment was conducted for 30 d in the infectious condition and for 17 d and 11 d in the preventive or therapeutic regimens in the arthritic model, respectively. The mice were then killed, and the maxillae, serum and knee joints were collected for histomorphometric and immunoenzymatic assays. In vitro osteoclast assays were performed using RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysacharide (LPS). Arthritis and A. actinomycetemcomitans infection triggered significant alveolar bone loss in mice and increased the levels of myeloperoxidase and of TRAP(+) osteoclasts in periodontal tissues. Losartan abolished such a phenotype, as well as the arthritis joint inflammation. Both arthritis and A. actinomycetemcomitans conditions were associated with the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma, interleukin-17 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and an increased RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio in periodontal tissues, but such expression decreased after losartan treatment, except for TNF-α. The therapeutic approach was as beneficial as the preventive one. In vitro, losartan prevented LPS-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity. The blockade of AT1 receptor exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastic effects, thus protecting periodontal tissues in distinct pathophysiological conditions of alveolar bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. One-year renal and cardiac effects of bisoprolol versus losartan in recently diagnosed hypertensive patients: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Paterna, Salvatore; Torres, Daniele; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Mezzero, Manuela; La Rocca, Gabriella; Cardillo, Mauro; Trapanese, Caterina; Caradonna, Mario; Licata, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a significant cause of chronic renal injury and its effective treatment is capable of reducing the rate of renal failure. beta-Adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers) have been reported to induce a deterioration in renal function, while several data have indicated a renoprotective effect of treatment with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. Previous studies of the interaction between the selective beta(1)-blocker bisoprolol and kidney function were performed only for short- and medium-term periods. The aim of this study was to compare the antihypertensive efficacy and renal and cardiac haemodynamic effects of bisoprolol with those of losartan over a 1-year time period in patients with essential hypertension. Seventy-two patients (40 males) with recently diagnosed uncomplicated (European Society of Hypertension [ESH] criteria stage 1-2) hypertension (mean +/- SD age 52 +/- 12 years) were enrolled in the study. After a run-in period of 14 days on placebo, the patients were randomized in a double-blind, prospective study to receive either bisoprolol 5 mg or losartan 50 mg, administered once daily for 1 year. At recruitment and 12 months after treatment, cardiac output and renal haemodynamics and function were evaluated by echocardiography and radionuclide studies, respectively. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical data, including glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure, between the two treatment groups. At 1 year, blood pressure had decreased significantly (p function were similar with both drugs, the only change being a significant reduction in the filtration fraction for each group. These data suggest that both bisoprolol and losartan are effective agents for the treatment of patients with recently diagnosed ESH stage 1-2 hypertension. Over a 1-year period, both agents maintained good renal and cardiac performance and haemodynamics.

  12. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas funcional, motriz, sensorial, perceptivo y cognitiva. No debemos olvidar el asesoramiento realizado al paciente, a la familia y/ o cuidadores sobre el manejo de la persona que ha sufrido un ictus, la adaptación del entorno y la prescripción, uso y manejo de ayudas técnicas cuando sea necesario.Las propuestas terapéuticas que expondré a continuación, no son recetas únicas que se puedan emplear del mismo modo en todos las personas que hayan sufrido un ictus. Con cada paciente será necesario una evaluación individualizada de su situación y una adaptación de la terapia según sus déficit específicos.La meta final de la Terapia Ocupacional es la integración óptima del paciente dentro de su entorno familiar y social, con el mayor grado de autonomía posible.ABSTRACTAmong the patients who need Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment, there are those who have suffered a cerebrovascular damage when elderly.People’s gradual ageing is one of the risk factors in the nervous central system’s alterations and this is why I am going to write about intervention on geriatric population.The Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment works on the functional, motor, sensorial, perceptive and cognitive areas. Moreover, we should not forget to advise the patient and his/her family or caregivers about the way of treating ,the environment’s adaptation, the prescription and use of technical aids when needed.The following therapeutic

  13. Prevenzione delle infezioni ospedaliere in una terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Orsi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: sorveglianza delle infezioni ospedaliere (IO nell’unità di terapia intensiva (UTI di un grande ospedale romano.

    Metodi. tutti i pazienti ricoverati nell’UTI tra il 1.1.2000 ed il 31.12.2001 per ›48 ore. Lo studio, applicando le definizioni di caso dei CDC, ha considerato le seguenti infezioni: infezioni polmonari (POL, setticemie (SET, infezioni delle vie urinarie (IVU, infezioni della ferita chirurgica (IFC. Inoltre sono stati valutati eventuali fattori di rischio preesistenti, procedure invasive, isolamento dei microrganismi e loro suscettibilità agli antibiotici.

    Sulla base dei risultati epidemiologici preliminari, dall’ottobre 2000 al marzo 2001 sono stati effettuati una serie di interventi che hanno modificato alcune importanti variabili associate alle IO.

  14. Losartan Preserves Erectile Function by Suppression of Apoptosis and Fibrosis of Corpus Cavernosum and Corporal Veno-Occlusive Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 plays important roles in penile corporal fibrosis and veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD. Angiotensin II (Ang II is critically involved in erectile dysfunction, and blocking of Ang II is more important than inhibition of TGF-β in non-penile tissue fibrosis. However, the role of Ang II in corporal fbrosis and CVOD in a diabetic condition has not been investigated. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with sildenafil or losartan (an Ang II antagonist alone or in combination. Intracavernosal pressure, dynamic infusion cavernosometry, and histological and molecular alterations of the corpus cavernosum were examined. Results: Diabetic rats exhibited decreases in erectile response, severe CVOD, apoptosis, fibrosis, and activation of the TGF-β1 pathway. Treatment with sildenafil had a modest effect on erectile response and an insignificant suppressive effect on CVOD, apoptosis, fibrosis, and the TGF-β1 pathway. Although losartan greatly improved the histological and molecular changes and CVOD as compared with sildenafil, its effect on erectile response was low. The combination of sildenafil and losartan had superior effects on these parameters than did either compound alone. Conclusion: Ang II activation may be involved in apoptosis and fibrosis of the corpus cavernosum through Smad and non-Smad pathways, resulting in CVOD and ED. The low efficacy of sildenafil in a diabetic ED rat model was at least partly due to its inadequate effects on apoptosis, fibrosis, and CVOD.

  15. The "Rise-Peak-Fall" Pattern of Time Dependency of the Cardiovascular Pleiotropic Effects of Treatment With Low-dose Atorvastatin, Losartan, and a Combination Thereof in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Cerne, Darko; Marc, Janja; Jerin, Ales; Skitek, Milan; Drevensek, Gorazd; Sabovic, Miso

    2016-07-01

    Treatment with low, subtherapeutic doses of statins and sartans expresses beneficial pleiotropic effects on the arterial wall. The present study explored whether these effects depend on treatment duration. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and received low-dose atorvastatin, low-dose losartan, their combination, or saline (control) daily. After 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks of treatment, the animals were anesthetized, blood samples taken, and hearts and thoracic aortas isolated. Thoracic aorta endothelium-dependent relaxation and parameters of the isolated heart exposed to ischemic-reperfusion injury were assessed along with blood serum parameters and vasoactive genes expression. Low-dose atorvastatin, losartan, and especially their combination showed the characteristic time dependency of all studied parameters (thoracic aorta relaxation, isolated heart parameters, C-reactive protein values, genes encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and CD40). The peak in efficacy was observed after 6 weeks of treatment and subsequently steadily declined. The peak versus control values were significant for all measured parameters. Only a combination of atorvastatin and losartan increased nitric oxide and decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine. A characteristic time-dependent "rise-peak-fall" pattern of the cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of statins and sartans in subtherapeutic low doses was revealed. Evidently, resistance to the explored treatment occurs after a certain period.

  16. Comparison of the effects of barnidipine+losartan compared with telmisartan+hydrochlorothiazide on several parameters of insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Querci, Fabrizio; Franzetti, Ivano; Dario Ragonesi, Pietro; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of barnidipine+losartan compared with telmisartan+hydrochlorothiazide on several parameters of insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We enrolled 148 normocholesterolemic patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were treated with barnidipine, 20 mg day(-1), in combination with losartan, 100 mg day(-1), or with telmisartan+hydrochlorothiazide, 80/12.5 mg day(-1), for 6 months. We assessed blood pressure (BP) on a monthly basis; additionally, blood samples were collected to assess, at baseline and after 6 months, the following parameters: fasting plasma glucose; glycated hemoglobin; fasting plasma insulin; HOMA index; and some adipocytokines, such as adiponectin (ADN), resistin, leptin, visfatin and vaspin. Patients were also subjected to an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess the M value and glucose infusion rate to ascertain their insulin sensitivity. One hundred and forty-one patients completed the study. The BP was reduced in both groups, although the reduction was greater with barnidipine+losartan (Plosartan increased the M value and glucose infusion rate during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (Plosartan (Plosartan compared with baseline (Plosartan were significantly better than those obtained with telmisartan+hydrochlorothiazide (Plosartan improved the insulin sensitivity, as assessed by an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and improved some of the adipocytokines related to insulin resistance.

  17. Losartan suppresses the kainate-induced changes of angiotensin AT1 receptor expression in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Dimitrinka; Tchekalarova, Jana; Ivanova, Natasha; Nenchovska, Zlatina; Pavlova, Ekaterina; Atanassova, Nina; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2017-12-06

    Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effect of losartan was studied on AT1 receptor expression in epileptic rats that were treated for a period of 4weeks after status epilepticus. The naive and epileptic SHRs were characterized by stronger protein expression of AT1 receptor than normotensive Wistar rats in the CA1, CA3a, CA3b, CA3c field and the hilus of the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus but fewer cells were immunostained in the piriform cortex. Increased AT1 immunostaining was observed in the basolateral amygdala of epileptic SHRs but not of epileptic Wistar rats. Losartan exerted stronger and structure-dependent suppression of AT1 receptor expression in SHRs compared to Wistar rats. Our results confirm the important role of AT1 receptor in epilepsy and suggest that the AT1receptor antagonists could be used as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Losartan 50 mg in Reducing Blood Pressure among Patients with Post-Dialysis Euvolemic Hypertension: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Raja Ahsan; Khan, Amer Hayat; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2017-12-18

    The aim of current study was to assess the effectiveness of losartan 50 mg in reducing blood pressure among post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients, observing their survival trends and adverse events during the course of study. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, single-blind trial was conducted to assess the effect of losartan 50 mg every other day (EOD), once a morning (OM) among post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients. Post-dialysis euvolemic assessment was done by a body composition monitor (BCM). Covariate Adaptive Randomization was used for allocation of participants to the standard or intervention arm. Of the total 229 patients, 96 (41.9%) were identified as post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive. Final samples of 88 (40.1%) patients were randomized into standard and intervention arms. After follow-up of 12 months' pre-dialysis systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p 0.01), intradialysis diastolic (p 0.02), post-dialysis systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p < 0.001) blood pressure was reduced from the baseline among intervention-arm patients Compared to only pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure (p 0.003) among standard arm patients after 12 months of follow. Total of six deaths were reported among standard-arm patients compared to 2 deaths among the intervention arm. Losartan 50 mg achieve an overall significant decline in blood pressure among post-dialysis euvolemic hypertensive patients.

  19. Simultaneous Analysis of Losartan Potassium, Amlodipine Besylate, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Bulk and in Tablets by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography with UV-Absorption Densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunanidhi Santhana Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method for separation and quantitative analysis of losartan potassium, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations has been established and validated. After extraction with methanol, sample and standard solutions were applied to silica gel plates and developed with chloroform : methanol : acetone : formic acid 7.5 : 1.3 : 0.5 : 0.03 (/// as mobile phase. Zones were scanned densitometrically at 254 nm. The values of amlodipine besylate, hydrochlorothiazide, and losartan potassium were 0.35, 0.57, and 0.74, respectively. Calibration plots were linear in the ranges 500–3000 ng per spot for losartan potassium, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide, the correlation coefficients, r, were 0.998, 0.998, and 0.999, respectively. The suitability of this method for quantitative determination of these compounds was by validation in accordance with the requirements of pharmaceutical regulatory standards. The method can be used for routine analysis of these drugs in bulk and in formulation.

  20. 216. Experiencia con la terapia de aspiración continua como tratamiento de la mediastinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramis

    2010-01-01

    Conclusiones: La terapia VAC es un método seguro, que permite lograr una estabilidad torácica completa, logrando disminuir las complicaciones, tanto sépticas como respiratorias, en los pacientes con mediastinitis aguda.

  1. Terapia con celulas madre en cirrosis.(Perspectiva general de la enfermedad/trastorno)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pulido, Cesar Daniel Nino; Restrepo Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Hoyos Vanegas, Natalia Andrea; Londono Agudelo, Jessica Maria

    2011-01-01

    En este articulo se presenta una revision de la literatura sobre las celulas madre como terapia para la cirrosis hepatica, con enfasis en describir la situacion cientifica actual y las implicaciones...

  2. Fenômeno vivido por familiares de pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Comassetto, Isabel; Enders, Bertha Cruz

    2009-01-01

    COMASSETTO, Isabel, ENDERS, Bertha Cruz. Fenômeno vivido por familiares de pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem., Porto Alegre(RS), v.30,n., p.46-53. Mar. 2009. Disponivel em: . RESUMO: O propósito deste estudo foi compreender o fenômeno vivido pelos familiares durante a internação do seu parente na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Teve como referencial a fenomenol...

  3. Meningite após técnica combinada para analgesia de parto: relato de caso Meningitis después de técnica combinada para analgesia de parto: relato de caso Meningitis after combined spinal-epidural analgesia for labor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar Vásquez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Meningite é uma complicação grave em anestesia regional, embora rara de ocorrer. O objetivo deste relato é mostrar um caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com meningite após realização de analgesia de parto pela técnica combinada (raqui-peridural com dupla punção. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente com 25 anos, segunda gestação e cesariana anterior, em trabalho de parto. Foi realizada analgesia de parto pela técnica combinada (raqui-peridural com dupla punção. Após 24 horas apresentou cefaléia em repouso, picos de hipertermia, calafrios discretos, que regrediram com medicação sintomática. No 5º dia a cefaléia piorou. No 10º dia surgiram vômitos e dor na nuca. No 13º dia os sintomas tornaram-se mais intensos. Foi realizada punção lombar. A história clínica e o exame do líquor foram compatíveis com meningite bacteriana. CONCLUSÕES: A técnica combinada (raqui-peridural para analgesia do parto está próxima do ideal. Cuidados com a técnica de anti-sepsia são necessários para realização de bloqueios espinhais. A complicação apresentada ocorreu sem a aparente falha na realização da técnica, sendo uma questão que é inerente ao risco-benefício que a técnica proporciona.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Meningitis es una complicación grave en anestesia regional, no obstante, rara de ocurrir. El objetivo de este relato es mostrar un caso de una paciente que evolucionó con meningitis después de realización de analgesia de parto por la técnica combinada (raqui-peridural con dupla punción. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente con 25 anos, segunda gestación y cesariana anterior, en trabajo de parto. Fue realizada analgesia de parto por la técnica combinada (raqui-peridural con dupla punción. Después de 24 horas presentó cefalea en reposo, picos de hipertermia, calofríos discretos, que mejoraron con medicación sintomática. En el 5º día la cefalea peoró. En el 10º día surgieron vómitos y dolor en la

  4. EFECTIVIDAD ANALGÉSICA POST EXODONCIA SIMPLE DE LA TERAPIA PROFILÁCTIVA Y LA TERAPIA CONTINUADA CON NAPROXENO SÓDICO

    OpenAIRE

    Asmat Abanto, Angel Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: comparar la efectividad analgésica post exodoncia simple entre la terapia profiláctica y la terapia continuada con naproxeno sódico. Material y métodos: el presente ensayo clínico, prospectivo aleatorizado, paralelo y simple ciego, se desarrolló en la Clínica Estomatológica de la Universidad Alas Peruanas Filial Trujillo. Los pacientes, quienes requerían exodoncia simple por caries dental, fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres grupos: 30 recibieron naproxeno sódico 550 mg en e...

  5. Efecto de la terapia física y terapia ocupacional en una paciente con Síndrome de West: Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminio Teófilo Camacho-Conchucos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de Síndrome de West. Asistió a consulta médica por primera vez a los 8 meses de edad, sus convulsiones se acentuaron a la edad de dos años y medio, lo que agravó el retraso psicomotor. Inicio terapia física y terapia ocupacional, empleando técnicas de neurodesarrollo y marcos de referencia respectivamente. A la presentación del caso se observaron avances favorables en aspectos cualitativos más que cuantitativos.

  6. Efecto de la terapia física y terapia ocupacional en una paciente con Síndrome de West: Reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Herminio Teófilo Camacho-Conchucos; Fanny Matheus-Berrocal; Giannina Valdez-Maguiña; Rocío Cartolin-Principe

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de Síndrome de West. Asistió a consulta médica por primera vez a los 8 meses de edad, sus convulsiones se acentuaron a la edad de dos años y medio, lo que agravó el retraso psicomotor. Inicio terapia física y terapia ocupacional, empleando técnicas de neurodesarrollo y marcos de referencia respectivamente. A la presentación del caso se observaron avances favorables en aspectos cualitativos más que cuantitativos.

  7. ¿que es terapia física? una reflexión sobre la identidad profesional

    OpenAIRE

    Heine de Alvarado, Marie Luise

    2012-01-01

    En este ensayo se exponen las dimensiones que caracterizan la profesión de terapia física. EI texto se compone de tres secciones: la primera caracteriza la terapia física como profesión de los servicios humanos, la segunda la precisa como campo de investigación y en la última se conceptualiza la terapia física como una praxis.

  8. Evaluación económica del empleo de terapias farmacológicas para la cesación en el hábito tabáquico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoñanzas F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las intervenciones públicas dirigidas a ayudar a los fumadores que desean cesar en el hábito tabáquico consisten principalmente en el consejo médico y la terapia de grupo. Actualmente, existen varios tratamientos farmacológicos que reducen la adicción al tabaco. Uno de ellos, el bupropión, tiene una destacada eficacia (30% en un año en comparación con las terapias sustitutivas de nicotina (chicles [8%] y parches [17%] en un año. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la eficiencia del empleo de farmacoterapias para la cesación en el consumo del tabaco. Material y métodos: Para ello, partimos de la situación actual en España en cuanto a los métodos utilizados por los fumadores que desean dejar el hábito tabáquico, que consiste en una mezcla del consejo médico, la terapia de grupo y la fuerza de voluntad, combinada con el uso de fármacos en una proporción reducida. Dicha situación se compara con tres escenarios en los cuales, alternativamente, se amplía (hasta el 10% el uso durante un año de las distintas farmacoterapias disponibles, realizando un análisis de coste-efectividad para calcular el coste por muerte evitada y por año de vida ganado en cada uno de ellos. Este análisis contempla un horizonte temporal de 20 años y se basa en una adaptación del modelo HECOS, promovido por WHO-Euro, que permite comparar distintas farmacoterapias. Los datos epidemiológicos empleados proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (1997 y del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (1999. Resultados: La estrategia basada en el empleo de bupropión como método de cesación tiene una ratio coste-efectividad de 70.939 euros por muerte evitada y 37.305 euros por año de vida ganado, transcurridos 5 años. Cuando el horizonte temporal se amplía a 20 años, estos resultados se tornan en beneficios netos de 28.166 y 3.265 euros, respectivamente. Tanto los parches como los chicles de nicotina tienen unos cocientes de coste

  9. La terapia integral conductual de pareja (IBCT). Descripción, técnicas y aplicación

    OpenAIRE

    Barraca, J.

    2013-01-01

    La Terapia Integral Conductual de Pareja (IBCT) es una intervención evolucionada desde la terapia conductual de pareja que desarrollaran Jacobson y Margolin en los añossetenta. Este nuevo modelo de trabajo se inscribe dentro de las terapias de conducta de tercera generación y, como tal, pone un énfasis especial en el concepto de aceptación, que se desarrolla de forma característica y propia para el entorno de la pareja. La terapia aporta una formulación de los problemas de par...

  10. Ramipril and Losartan Exert a Similar Long-Term Effect upon Markers of Heart Failure, Endogenous Fibrinolysis, and Platelet Aggregation in Survivors of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Single Centre Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinšek, Martin; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients prevents heart failure and recurrent thrombosis. Our aim was to compare the effects of ramipril and losartan upon the markers of heart failure, endogenous fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in STEMI patients over the long term. After primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), 28 STEMI patients were randomly assigned ramipril and 27 losartan, receiving therapy for six months with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). We measured N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), ejection fraction (EF), plasminogen-activator-inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and platelet aggregation by closure times (CT) at the baseline and after six months. Baseline NT-proBNP ≥ 200 pmol/mL was observed in 48.1% of the patients, EF losartan resulted in a similar effect upon PAI-1, NT-proBNP, EF, and CT levels in survivors of STEMI, but in comparison to control group, receiving DAPT alone, ramipril or losartan treatment with DAPT significantly increased mean CT (226.7 ± 80.3 sec versus 158.1 ± 80.3 sec, p losartan exert a similar effect upon markers of heart failure and endogenous fibrinolysis, and, with DAPT, a more efficient antiplatelet effect in long term than DAPT alone.

  11. Desempenho econômico do consórcio de coentro com beterraba, adubados com doses de jitirana, combinada com esterco bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise econômica ajuda a interpretar os resultados obtidos nos diferentes sistemas de cultivo e deve ser empregada indicando o que e como plantar, de maneira a gerar lucro ao produtor. A utilização da mistura de adubos orgânicos constitui-se em alternativa para os agricultores que produzem em sistema agroecológico, pois contribui para a redução dos custos de produção e maior eficiência no uso dos insumos disponíveis na área. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho econômico do consórcio de coentro com beterraba, adubados com doses de jitirana, combinada com esterco bovino. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Rafael Fernandes, distrito de Alagoinha, zona rural de Mossoró – RN, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2014. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos completos casualizados com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelo cultivo solteiro e consorciado do coentro e da beterraba. O segundo fator, pelas doses de jitirana, combinada com esterco bovino (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 kg m-2 de canteiro. As características avaliadas para os indicadores econômicos foram: renda bruta e renda líquida, taxa de retorno e índice de lucratividade. O melhor desempenho econômico do sistema foi obtido na dose de 4,0 kg m-2 de canteiro, com renda bruta de R$ 14.940,00; custo de produção de R$ 3.306,00; renda líquida de R$ 11.634,00; taxa de retorno R$ 4,52; índice de lucratividade de 77,87%, para uma área de produção de 900 m2. Economic performance of coriander consortium with beet fertilized with doses of jitirana, combined with manureAbstract: The economic analysis helps to interpret the results obtained in different farming systems and should be employed indicating what and how to plant, in order to generate profit to the producer. The use of the mixture of organic fertilizers is up alternative for farmers who

  12. Computation and interpretation of vibrational spectra on the structure of Losartan using ab initio and Density Functional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, B.; Gunasekaran, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.

    2014-11-01

    The solid phase FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of Losartan have been recorded in the region 400-4000 cm-1. The spectra were interpreted in terms of fundamental modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule was optimized and the structural characteristics were determined by Quantum chemical methods. The vibrational frequencies yield good agreement between observed and calculated values. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded and resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-600 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies calculated by TD-HF approach. NBO atomic charges of the molecules and second order perturbation theory analysis of Fock matrix also calculated and interpreted. The geometrical parameters, energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities, Raman intensities, and absorption wavelengths were compared with experimental and theoretical data of the molecule.

  13. Optimization of a spectrofluorimetric method based on a central composite design for the determination of potassium losartan in pharmaceutical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Demirkaya-Miloglu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of potassium losartan (PL in pharmaceutical products is described. The effects of critical parameters, pH, acid molarity, and temperature, on the fluorescence intensity of PL were analyzed, and these parameters were optimized using a central composite design (CCD. The highest fluorescent intensity at excitation (λex and emission (λem wavelengths of 248 nm and 410 nm, respectively, was achieved using 0.01 M sulfurous acid (pH 2 at 21.6 °C. Under optimum conditions, the method was linear from 0.025-0.5 µg/mL, with a reasonably high correlation coefficient (0.9993. Furthermore, the method was very sensitive (LOQ, 0.006, accurate (RE, ≤7.06, and precise (%RSD, ≤6.51. After development and validation of the method, samples containing PL were analyzed with this method, and the obtained data were statistically compared with those obtained with a previously published reference method using a two one-sided equivalence test (TOST. According to the data, the results from the proposed and reference assays were equivalent.

  14. Investigating the potential of essential oils as penetration enhancer for transdermal losartan delivery: Effectiveness and mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Vashisth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tea tree oil (TTO, cumin oil (CO, rose oil (RO and aloe vera oil (AVO on the skin permeation of losartan potassium (LP was investigated. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using rat skin. The mechanism of skin permeation enhancement of LP by essential oils treatment was evaluated by FTIR, DSC, activation energy measurement and histopathological examination. Both concurrent ethanol/enhancer treatment and neat enhancer pretreatment of rat SC with all the oils produced significance increase in the LP flux over the control. The effectiveness of the oils as the penetration enhancers was found to be in the following descending order: AVO > RO > CO > TTO. However, only AVO was the only enhancer to provide target flux required to deliver the therapeutic transdermal dose of LP. FTIR and DSC spectra of the enhancer treated SC indicated that TTO, CO, RO and AVO increased the LP permeation by extraction of SC lipids. The results of thermodynamic studies and histopathological examination of AVO treated SC suggested additional mechanisms for AVO facilitated permeation i.e. transient reduction in barrier resistance of SC and intracellular transport by dekeratinization of corneocytes which may be attributed to the presence of triglycerides as constituents of AVO. It is feasible to deliver therapeutically effective dose of LP via transdermal route using AVO as penetration enhancer.

  15. Terapia manual no tratamento da espondilólise e espondilolistese: revisão de literatura Manual therapy for treating spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabrício José Jassi; Leila Suzuki Saita; Ana Carolina Pimenta Grecco; Margarete Kazue Tamashiro; Danilo Santos Catelli; Paulo Roberto Carvalho do Nascimento; Heloyse Uliam Kuriki; Rubén de Faria Negrão Filho

    2010-01-01

    ... terapia manual, a fim de ajudar os terapeutas na prescrição de intervenções eficazes. Os resultados mostram que tanto a terapia manual como a fisioterapia convencional apresentam efeitos benéficos na...

  16. AS CORES DO AMBIENTE DA UNIDADE DE TERAPIA INTENSIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Barbosa Boccanera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever as cores mais freqüentemente utilizadas nas paredes, tetos, mobiliários e roupas das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva e verificar com os funcionários e pacientes desta unidade as cores que gostariam que existissem dentro deste ambiente e a associação que eles estabelecem com as cores. Foi realizada pesquisa descritiva exploratória, com enfoque quanti-qualitativo. A amostra foi constituída de pacientes e profissionais da UTI de três hospitais públicos de Goiânia em 2002. Observou-se a existência de cores monótonas e neutras nestes ambientes, em tons que vão do branco ao preto, enquanto outras nuanças de cores aparecem num percentual menor. Constatou-se uma preferência pelas cores azul-claro, branco, verde-claro e amarelo entre os dois seguimentos pesquisados. Concluiu-se que as pessoas estabelecem associações com as cores; que a cor pode auxiliar no estabelecimento do equilíbrio e contribuir para harmonia do corpo, da mente e das emoções.

  17. An efficient synthesis of a rationally designed 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT1 Angiotensin II receptor antagonist: reorientation of imidazole pharmacophore groups in losartan reserves high receptor affinity and confirms docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelis, George; Roumelioti, Panagiota; Resvani, Amalia; Durdagi, Serdar; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Kelaidonis, Konstantinos; Vlahakos, Demetrios; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Matsoukas, John

    2010-09-01

    A new 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT1 Angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist related to losartan with reversion of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups at the 2-, 5-positions of the imidazole ring was synthesized and evaluated for its antagonist activity ( V8). In vitro results indicated that the reorientation of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups on the imidazole template of losartan retained high binding affinity to the AT1 receptor concluding that the spacing of the substituents at the 2,5- positions is of primary importance. The docking studies are confirmed by binding assay results which clearly show a comparable binding score of the designed compound V8 with that of the prototype losartan. An efficient, regioselective and cost effective synthesis renders the new compound as an attractive candidate for advanced toxicological evaluation and a drug against hypertension.

  18. Analgesia de parto: estudo comparativo entre anestesia combinada raquiperidural versus anestesia peridural contínua Analgesia de parto: estudio comparativo entre anestesia combinada raqui-peridural versus anestesia peridural continua Labor analgesia: a comparative study between combined spinal-epidural anesthesia versus continuous epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Figueiredo Côrtes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O alívio da dor no trabalho de parto tem recebido atenção constante visando ao bem-estar materno, diminuindo o estresse causado pela dor e reduzindo as conseqüências deste sobre o concepto. Inúmeras técnicas podem ser utilizadas para analgesia de parto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a técnica peridural contínua com a combinada, ambas com o uso de bupivacaína a 0,25% em excesso enantiomérico 50% e fentanil como agentes. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 40 parturientes em trabalho de parto com dilatação cervical entre 4 e 5 cm que foram distribuídas em dois grupos iguais de forma aleatória. O Grupo I recebeu anestesia peridural contínua. O Grupo II recebeu anestesia combinada. Foram avaliados: medidas antropométricas, idade gestacional, dilatação cervical, tempo entre o bloqueio e a ausência de dor por meio da escala analógica visual, possibilidade de deambulação, tempo entre o início da analgesia e a dilatação cervical completa, duração do período expulsivo, parâmetros hemodinâmicos maternos e vitalidade do recém-nascido. Possíveis complicações, como depressão respiratória, hipotensão arterial materna, prurido, náuseas e vômitos, também foram observadas. Para a comparação das médias utilizou-se o teste t de Student e para a paridade e tipo de parto utilizou-se o teste do Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os dois grupos em relação ao tempo entre o início da analgesia e a dilatação cervical completa, bem como em relação ao tempo da duração do período expulsivo, incidência de cesariana relacionada com a analgesia, parâmetros hemodinâmicos maternos e vitalidade do recém-nascido. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas se mostraram eficazes e seguras para a analgesia do trabalho de parto, embora a técnica combinada tenha proporcionado um rápido e imediato alívio da dor. Estudos clínicos com maior número de casos s

  19. La terapia breve: una alternativa de intervención psicológica efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Hewitt Ramírez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y estructurar los orígenes, bases teóricas y los procedimientos de la terapia breve desde la perspectiva terapéutica cognitivo conductual. Se inicia con la identificación de las bases teóricas de la terapia breve, principalmente las teorías motivacionales relacionadas con la disponibilidad al cambio y la autoeficacia desde la teoría social cognitiva. Se realiza un paralelo entre las características principales de la terapia breve en contraposición con las terapias tradicionales. Por último, se propone una estructura procedimental general de estrategias clínicas a emplear en la terapia breve con soporte empírico, la cual puede ser utilizada en diferentes problemáticas con variaciones específicas de acuerdo con el problema tratado o las características específicas del consultante.

  20. La terapia breve: una alternativa de intervención psicológica efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Gantiva Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y estructurar los orígenes, bases teóricas y los procedimientos de la terapia breve desde la perspectiva terapéutica cognitivo conductual. Se inicia con la identifi cación de las bases teóricas de la terapia breve, principalmente las teorías motivacionales relacionadas con la disponibilidad al cambio y la autoefi cacia desde la teoría social cognitiva. Se realiza un paralelo entre las características principales de la terapia breve en contraposición con las terapias tradicionales. Por último, se propone una estructura procedimental general de estrategias clínicas a emplear en la terapia breve con soporte empírico, la cual puede ser utilizada en diferentes problemáticas con variaciones específi cas de acuerdo con el problema tratado o las características específi cas del consultante

  1. A randomized, double blind pilot study to assess the effects of losartan vs. atenolol on the biophysical properties of the aorta in patients with Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, George G S; Alghamdi, Mohammed H; Raffin, Leslie A; Potts, Mary T; Williams, Lindsey D; Potts, James E; Kiess, Marla; van Breemen, Casey

    2015-01-20

    Patients with Marfan (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz (LDS) syndromes have been shown to have abnormal aortic biophysical properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 12-months of therapy with atenolol or losartan on vascular function in young patients with MFS and LDS. Seventeen patients with MFS or LDS were recruited and randomized to treatment with atenolol, 25-50mg, or losartan, 25mg daily. Prior to treatment and following therapy, echocardiography for left ventricular size, function and aortic root size was performed. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), input (Zi, ZiF) and characteristic (Zc, ZcF) impedances, arterial stiffness (Ep and β-index), total arterial compliance (TAC), mean (Wm) and total (Wt) hydraulic power, efficiency, power cost per unit of forward flow (Wt/CI) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured. The atenolol group consisted of 9 females (17.6years) and the losartan group 7 males and 1 female (17.0years). Their height, weight, BSA, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar. Baseline to 12-month changes for atenolol and losartan were PWV (20% vs -14%), Zi (-2% vs -27%), Zc (-20% vs -27%), Ep (1%, vs -13%), β-index (10% vs 14%), FMD (11% vs 20%), TAC (3% vs 42%), Wm (-24% vs 15%), Wt (-24% vs 17%), and Wt/CI (3% vs 21%). There was a trend for losartan to decrease PWV and stiffness indexes while atenolol decreased power and power/unit flow. This pilot study suggests that atenolol and losartan may have different mechanisms of action on vascular function. A larger clinical trial is needed to confirm these effects.Clinical trials registration NCT00593710 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aplicación de la terapia de interacción padres-hijos en un caso de trastorno negativista desafiante

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Rafael; Vives, Carmen; Ascanio, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    La terapia de interacción padres-hijos (PCIT) es una forma de terapia para tratar problemas de la infancia que integra la terapia de juego tradicional y los métodos clásicos operantes. Ha demostrado ser útil en problemas como: desobediencia, hiperac

  3. Nunez, A. C. y Tobon, S. . Terapia cognitivo conductual: el modelo procesual de la salud mental como camino para la integracion, la investigacion y la clinica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castrillon Moreno, Diego

    2007-01-01

    .... Analisis critico del eclecticismo en la Terapia Cognitivo Conductual. 3. Sintesis experimental del comportamiento y Terapia Cognitivo Conductual. 4. La integracion en la Terapia Psicologica: hacia un Modelo Procesual de la Salud Mental. 5. Antecedentes, filosofia y dimensiones centrales del Modelo Procesual de la Salud Mental. 6. Una perspec...

  4. Long-Term Treatment with Losartan Attenuates Seizure Activity and Neuronal Damage Without Affecting Behavioral Changes in a Model of Co-morbid Hypertension and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, Jana D; Ivanova, Natasha; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Lazarov, Nikolai; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Stoynev, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 10 years, accumulated experimental and clinical evidence has supported the idea that AT1 receptor subtype is involved in epilepsy. Recently, we have shown that the selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan attenuates epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotection in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in epileptic Wistar rats. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of long-term treatment with losartan (10 mg/kg) after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) on seizure activity, behavioral and biochemical changes, and neuronal damage in a model of co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. Spontaneous seizures were video- and EEG-monitored in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for a 16-week period after SE. The behavior was analyzed by open field, elevated plus maze, sugar preference test, and forced swim test. The levels of serotonin in the hippocampus and neuronal loss were estimated by HPLC and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. The AT1 receptor antagonism delayed the onset of seizures and alleviated their frequency and duration during and after discontinuation of treatment. Losartan showed neuroprotection mostly in the CA3 area of the hippocampus and the septo-temporal hilus of the dentate gyrus in SHRs. However, the AT1 receptor antagonist did not exert a substantial influence on concomitant with epilepsy behavioral changes and decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the antihypertensive therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker might be effective against seizure activity and neuronal damage in a co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy.

  5. Glucoregulatory consequences and cardiorespiratory parameters in rats exposed to chronic-intermittent hypoxia: Effects of the duration of exposure and losartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B Fenik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with glucose intolerance. Both chronic sleep disruption and recurrent blood oxygen desaturations (chronic-intermittent hypoxia – CIH may cause, or exacerbate, metabolic derangements. Methods: To assess the impact of CIH alone, without accompanying upper airway obstructions, on the counter-regulatory response to glucose load and cardiorespiratory parameters, we exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to CIH or sham room air exchanges for 10 h/day for 7, 21 or 35 days and then, one day after conclusion of CIH exposure, conducted intravenous glucose tolerance tests (ivgtt under urethane anesthesia. Additional rats underwent 35 days of CIH followed by 35 days of regular housing, or had 35 day-long CIH exposure combined with daily administration of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (15 mg/kg, p.o., and then were also subjected to ivgtt. Results: Compared with the corresponding control groups, CIH rats had progressively reduced glucose-stimulated insulin release and impaired glucose clearance, only mildly elevated heart rate and/or arterial blood pressure and slightly reduced respiratory rate. The differences in insulin release between the CIH and sham-treated rats disappeared in the rats normally housed for 35 days after 35 days of CIH/sham exposure. The losartan-treated rats had improved insulin sensitivity, with no evidence of suppressed insulin release in the CIH group. Conclusions: In adult rats, the glucose-stimulated insulin release is gradually suppressed with the duration of exposure to CIH, but the effect is reversible. Elimination of the detrimental effect of CIH on insulin release by losartan suggests that CIH disrupts glucoregulation through angiotensin/catecholaminergic pathways. Accordingly, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure may ameliorate pre-diabetic conditions in OSA patients, in part, by reducing sympathoexcitatory effects of recurrent

  6. Criopreservação de espermatozóides eqüinos comparando duas curvas de congelamento combinadas com diluentes comerciais: uma análise laboratorial

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Barros Terraciano

    2008-01-01

    Durante o processo de criopreservação de sêmen, os espermatozóides sofrem alguns danos que resultam na diminuição da fertilidade deste. O presente estudo foi realizado a fim de avaliar o efeito da utilização, combinada de duas curvas de congelamento com dois diluentes comerciais sobre a criopreservação de sêmen eqüino. Foram analisados 20 ejaculados. As amostras foram avaliadas, pela motilidade progressiva e total do sêmen pós-descongelamento e pela integridade e funcionalidade da membrana do...

  7. Criopreservação de espermatozóides eqüinos comparando duas curvas de congelamento combinadas com diferentes diluentes comerciais: uma análise laboratorial

    OpenAIRE

    Terraciano, Paula Barros; Bustamante, Ivan; Miquelito, Ludmila do Vale; Arlas, Tamarini; Castro, Fabiana Santos; Mattos, Rodrigo Costa; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Oberst, Eneder Rosana; Lima, Elizabeth Obino Cirne

    2008-01-01

    Durante o processo de criopreservação de sêmen, os espermatozóides sofrem alguns danos que resultam na diminuição da fertilidade deste. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização combinada de duas curvas de congelamento com dois diluentes comerciais (FR-5® e Botu-Crio®) sobre a criopreservação de sêmen eqüino. Foram analisados 20 ejaculados de dois garanhões. As amostras foram avaliadas por microscopia de contraste de fase e microscopia de epifluorescên...

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells versus losartan on adriamycin-induced renal cortical injury in adult albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Hoda H; Zidan, Rania A; Shaheen, Mohammad A; Abd-El Fattah, Enas A

    2016-08-01

    Renal disease is a major health problem. Recent studies have reported the efficacy of stem cell therapy in nephropathy animal models. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) versus losartan in the treatment of renal alterations induced by adriamycin (ADR). Thirty-five adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I was the control group. Group II (adriamycin-treated group),which included ten rats that were injected with a single dose of adriamycin (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, was subdivided into subgroup IIa and IIb and they were sacrificed 1 week and 5 weeks after adriamycin injection, respectively. Group III was the adriamycin + losartan-treated group and 1 week after adriamycin injection five rats received 10 mg/kg of losartan orally and daily for 4 weeks. Group IV was the adriamycin + MSC-treated group); five rats were injected with adriamycin as group II then supplied with MSCs at a dose of 1 × 10(6) cells suspended in 0.5 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) per rat in the tail vein 1 week after adriamycin injection. Rats of this group were sacrificed 4 weeks after the stem cell injection. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were measured. Samples from renal cortex were processed for light and electron microscope examination. As regards light microscope, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), masson trichrome, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Caspase-3 immunohistochemical stains. Morphometrical and statistical analyses were also conducted. Examination of adriamycin-treated group revealed deterioration of renal functions and various degrees of renal structural alterations as vacuolated cytoplasm, dark nuclei and detached epithelial lining. Administration of losartan partially improved ADR-induced kidney dysfunction, whereas MSCs denoted a more ameliorative role evidenced by

  9. Prognostic importance of hemoglobin in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy: the Losartan Intervention For End point reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael Hecht; Wachtell, Kristian; Beevers, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    baseline hemoglobin measurements were randomized to losartan- or atenolol-based treatment and followed for 4.8 years for end points of all-cause mortality and composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, or nonfatal myocardial infarction. RESULTS: U-shaped relations were observed between deciles...... of baseline hemoglobin and all-cause mortality and the composite end point. In univariate Cox models, baseline hemoglobin in the lowest gender-specific decile (women/men: end point (HR 1......) and the composite end point (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71, P

  10. Measuring angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity by micro plate assays: comparison using marine cryptides and tentative threshold determinations with captopril and losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Henda, Yesmine; Labidi, Anis; Arnaudin, Ingrid; Bridiau, Nicolas; Delatouche, Régis; Maugard, Thierry; Piot, Jean-Marie; Sannier, Frédéric; Thiéry, Valérie; Bordenave-Juchereau, Stéphanie

    2013-11-13

    To determine the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of marine cryptides, different methods were tested. ACE inhibition was measured using two synthetic substrates, (N-[3-(2-furyl) acryloyl]-Phe-Gly-Gly (FAPGG) and N-hippuryl-His-Leu hydrate salt (HHL)), and a natural one, angiotensin-I. The IC50 value (defined as the concentration of inhibitory molecule needed to inhibit 50% of the ACE activity) of the reference synthetic inhibitor captopril was in the nanomolar range (1.79-15.1 nM) when synthetic substrates were used, whereas it exhibited IC50 of micromolar range (16.71 μM) with angiotensin-I. We chose losartan, an antagonist of angiotensin-II receptor as negative control for the ACE inhibition. Losartan was also able to inhibit ACE whatever the substrate tested, with IC50 of micromolar range (17.13-146 μM). We defined this value as a limit above which molecules are not showing in vitro ACE inhibitory activity. Val-Trp (VW), Val-Tyr (VY), Lys-Tyr (KY), Lys-Trp (KW), Ile-Tyr (IY), Ala-Pro (AP), Val-Ile-Tyr (VIY), Leu-Lys-Pro (LKP), Gly-Pro-Leu (GPL), Ala-Lys-Lys (AKK), and Val-Ala-Pro (VAP) were tested as inhibitors of ACE with synthetic and natural substrates. IC50 displayed were substrate-dependent. With FAPGG as substrate, IW, VAP, KY, IY, AP, AKK, and VIY show IC50 values over the IC50 value of losartan and should not be considered as inhibitors of ACE. VY, VW, KW, and LKP exhibited IC50 value lower than the IC50 value of losartan for all substrates tested and were thus considered as good candidates for effectively decreasing hypertension. It appears that the comparison of IC50 is not consistent when IC50 values are obtained with different substrates and different methods. In vitro ACE inhibitory activity assays should always include various ACE substrates and references such as captopril and a negative control to obtain data reliable to discriminate ACE inhibitory peptides.

  11. A terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como reflexividade na alta modernidade: uma sociologia do conhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ivan de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Uma sociologia do conhecimento interpreta a produção do conhecimento como vinculada a situações sociais. Partindo dessa premissa epistemológica, nosso artigo objetivou interpretar a terapia cognitiva de Aaron Beck como conhecimento construído e construtor do fenômeno de reflexividade da alta modernidade, conforme interpretada por Anthony Giddens. Nossa hipótese é que a reorientação do sistema de crenças do cliente, proposta pela terapia cognitiva, é uma forma de reconstrução reflexiva da autoidentidade, visando superar conflitos típicos da instabilidade da alta modernidade. Assinalamos aspectos na terapia cognitiva que a identificam com a reflexividade, sobretudo a ideia de que a construção da autoidentidade é uma tarefa na qual o indivíduo se engaja reflexivamente.

  12. NUEVAS HERRAMIENTAS PARA LA PSICOLOGÍA CLÍNICA: Las Terapias Basadas en la Evidencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto las diversas necesidades psicosociales emerge ntes, como el visible crecimiento expansivo de los trastornos psicológicos y psiquiátricos en diferent es países, hacen patente la necesidad de un reajust e en la aplicación de terapias psicológicas que demue stren eficacia, efectividad y eficiencia. La escasa utilización de Terapias Apoyadas en la Evidencia (T BE en las prácticas clínicas, y la pobre investigación que presenta Chile al respecto, sugie re la existencia de variables que condicionan la adscripción de los profesionales a este modelo. Se revisan los antecedentes teóricos y el estado en qu e se encuentran las TBE en la actualidad nacional, ad emás de las críticas y perspectivas realizadas en torno al auge de estas terapias.

  13. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. In-vitro percutaneous absorption of losartan potassium in human skin and prediction of human skin permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkar K.C.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the feasibility of transdermal controlled administration of Losartan potassium (LP across human cadaver skin. Study also defines the influence of capsaicin, sex and site of application on permeation characteristics and determined an appropriate animal model for human skin permeability. The permeation of LP of various formulations was studied using Keshary-Chein diffusion cell. Optimized controlled formulation (without capsaicin released 42.17% (±1.85 of LP in 12 hr whereas treatment formulation (with capsaicin 0.028 % w/v released 48.94% (±1.71 of LP with significant difference on null hypothesis. Influence of sex showed statistically significant difference for permeation of LP through male and female rats, as well as male and female mice across both the abdominal and dorsal sides of the skin (p<0.05. Similarly statistically significant differences were noted for permeation of LP across male and female mice abdomen-dorsal, but not for male rat abdomen-dorsal and female rat abdomen-dorsal. Furthermore, in-vitro permeation of LP across human skin was compared with the permeation across rat and mice skins. Male rat and male mice dorsal skin was found to have closer permeability characteristics to human than other skin membranes, but the Factor of Difference values were < 3 for all membranes which were used suggesting the membranes are good models for human skin permeability. In conclusion simple transdermal adhesive patches formulations incorporating high molecular weight of LP can deliver a dose in-vivo and proposed model skin membranes can be utilized for future pharmacokineic and toxicokinetic studies as well as metabolism studies of LP

  15. Molecular insight into atypical instability behavior of fixed-dose combination containing amlodipine besylate and losartan potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Tarun; Jhajra, Shalu; Bhagat, Shweta; Bharatam, P V; Chakraborti, Asit K; Singh, Saranjit

    2017-03-20

    Combination therapy with the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is evincing increasing interest of prescribers, manufacturers and even regulators, evidently due to the primary benefit of improved patient compliance. However, owing to potential of drug-drug interaction, FDCs require closer scrutiny with respect to their physical and chemical stability. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to explore stability behavior of a popular antihypertensive combination of amlodipine besylate (AML) and losartan potassium (LST). Physical mixtures of the two drugs and multiple marketed formulations were stored under accelerated conditions of temperature and humidity (40°C/75% RH) in a stability chamber and samples were withdrawn after 1 and 3 months. The physical changes were observed visibly, while chemical changes were monitored by HPLC employing a method that could separate the two drugs and all other components present. The combination revealed strong physical instability and also chemical degradation of AML in the presence of LST. Interestingly, three isomeric interaction products of AML were formed in the combination, which otherwise were reported in the literature to be generated on exposure of AML free base above its melting point. The same unusual products were even formed when multiple marketed FDCs were stored under accelerated conditions outside their storage packs. However, these were absent when AML alone was stored in the same studied conditions. Therefore, reasons for physical and chemical incompatibility and the mechanism of degradation of AML in the presence of LST were duly explored at the molecular level. The outcomes of the study are expected to help in development of stable FDCs of the two drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study between atorvastatin and losartan on high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmed A; Heeba, Gehan H; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is often associated with chronic inflammatory state which contributes to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated the effects of single and combined administration of atorvastatin (ATOR, lipid-lowering drug) and losartan (LOS, angiotensin receptor antagonist) on metabolic disorders and inflammatory status that are implicated in the development of T2DM with the use of pioglitazone (PIO) as a standard antidiabetic drug. T2DM was induced in male rats by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 16 weeks. Oral administrations of ATOR (10 mg/kg), LOS (20 mg/kg), PIO (3 mg/kg), their binary combinations, or vehicle were started in the last 4 weeks. Fasting serum glucose, oral glucose tolerance, fasting serum insulin, IR, serum lipid profile, serum TNF-α and body composition index were determined. Results showed that all drugs and their combinations had positive impact effect on all measured parameters, and better results were achieved from binary drug combinations than administration of each drug alone. Combination of PIO with either ATOR or LOS provided better improvements on T2DM-associated metabolic abnormalities and inflammatory status with respect to each drug alone. However, the most pronounced effects of drugs and their combinations regarding the above parameters were attributed to LOS + PIO combination. In conclusion, this study indicates that combination of ATOR + PIO and, in particular, LOS + PIO can be used as promising effective therapies in the management of HFD-induced T2DM. This concept may be attributed to the combined effects of the respective monotherapies to improve lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and TNF-α level. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Sistema de tareas para la enseñanza combinada de la gramática comunicativa y la gramática tradicional de lengua inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy del Carmen Jiménez Figueredo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el diseño de un sistema de tareas para la enseñanza combinada de la gramática comunicativa y la gramática tradicional de lengua inglesa, con metodología cuali-cuantitativa, en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta” de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas, durante el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2011 y julio de 2014. El objetivo estuvo direccionado a perfeccionar la corrección lingüística en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma Inglés. La realización del diseño contó con: una revisión bibliográfica de los principales enfoques utilizados en la enseñanza-aprendizaje del Inglés; la revisión documental, que permitió determinar las insuficiencias lingüísticas y la necesidad de combinar la gramática comunicativa con la gramática tradicional, en los estudiantes del cuarto año de la carrera de Estomatología; el intercambio con profesionales con más de quince años de experiencia, para obtener información acerca del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la gramática; y la aplicación de una valoración equivalente al juicio de expertos, método de agregados individuales, para valorar la propuesta. Los principales resultados fueron: la caracterización de las insuficiencias provocadas por la absolutización del enfoque comunicativo en la enseñanza de la gramática de la lengua inglesa y el diseño de un sistema de tareas para el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la gramática inglesa en estos estudiantes

  18. NUEVAS TERAPIAS EN EL MANEJO DE LOS GLIOMAS DE ALTO GRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Raúl Valenzuela

    2017-01-01

    El reto de mejorar el tratamiento actual de los gliomas de alto grado ha sido abordado con inmensa creatividad, desarrollándose una gran variedad de estrategias para este fin. El análisis interino de un estudio fase III mostró que el beneficio de la terapia standard mejora al complementarla con terapia de campos eléctricos alternantes (Novo TTF-100 A); dadas las limitaciones de un análisis interino, queda por establecer la real magnitud y relevancia clínica de esta mejoría. El presunto benefi...

  19. CONTRIBUIÇÕES DA TERAPIA COGNITIVO COMPORTAMENTAL NO TRATAMENTO DA OBESIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raquel Mattoso Chagas Martins; Alice Pessanha Rocha de Assis; Amanda Barbosa de Freitas; Bianca Machado da Silva Rangel; Larissa Barreto Bastos; Erika Costa Barreto Monteiro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Levando em consideração que o homem é o único animal capaz de modificar seu corpo através do pensamento, a Terapia Cognitivo Comportamental (TCC) vem se configurando como um importante aliado no combate à obesidade, proporcionando uma reestruturação cognitiva capaz de modificar não apenas um corpo obeso, mas modificar todo um estilo de vida. A terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC) tem sido amplamente usada no tratamento da obesidade em associação com outras intervenções, como o acompanhament...

  20. A atuação do profissional fisioterapeuta em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Casciane Simão Reis Theis; Laís Rodrigues Gerzson; Carla Skilhan Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: revisar na literatura atual, a atuação do profissional fisioterapeuta em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal. Método: como estratégia, foi realizada busca nas bases de dados MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane CENTRAL, Lilacs e PEDro, publicado nos últimos dez anos. Além de busca manual em referências de estudos já publicados sobre o assunto. Foram encontrados 20 artigos. A busca compreendeu os seguintes descritores "Fisioterapia motora”, “Unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal”, “técn...

  1. Terapia génica: ¿Qué es y para qué sirve?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Castellanos, M. (M.); Sangro, B. (Bruno)

    2005-01-01

    La terapia génica se ha desarrollado como un método de acercamiento al tratamiento de las enfermedades humanas basado en la transferencia de material genético a las células de un individuo. Habitualmente la finalidad de esta transferencia de material genético es restablecer una función celular que estaba abolida o defectuosa, introducir una nueva función o bien interferir con una función existente. Así, las distintas estrategias de la terapia génica se basan en la combinación de tres elemento...

  2. Uso de kits desechables para optimizar tiempos, movimientos y apego a protocolos de la terapia intravenosa

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Escamilla Zamudio; Gretta Itzel Ramírez Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: En México un 95% de los pacientes hospitalizados requerirán un acceso vascular y terapia intravenosa; sin embargo, el uso de intervenciones estandarizadas favorece a la prevención y reducción de infecciones asociadas a catéter vascular. El objetivo es demostrar el beneficio al implementar el uso de kits desechables en procedimientos de terapia intravenosa en comparación con el método tradicional en instituciones de salud en México. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo cuasi...

  3. Terapia compresiva en úlceras de extremidad inferior de etiología venosa

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta Primo, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Las úlceras venosas son las más prevalentes dentro del conjunto de heridas crónicas. Se trata de lesiones con pérdida de sustancia, originadas por una insuficiencia venosa crónica. Su abordaje es complicado, siendo necesario combinar varias formas de tratamiento para conseguir su cicatrización y, evitar, en la medida de lo posible, las recidivas. La terapia compresiva, es considerada, la terapia estrella y fundamental para este tipo de heridas, ofreciendo grandes beneficios ...

  4. Prevención cardiovascular y de la osteoporosis con terapia hormonal sustitutiva

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); López-García, G. (Guillermo)

    1999-01-01

    Se recomienda actualmente que todo médico -sea cual sea su especialidad- aproveche la oportunidad que supone la atención clínica a cualquier mujer postmenopáusica o que se halle en torno a la menopausia para aconsejarle acerca de los beneficios y riesgos que supone la terapia hormonal sustitutiva (THS) con estrógenos y progesterona. Una vez que sea adecuadamente informada de estos beneficios y riesgos, debe ser la propia mujer quien decida si va a iniciar o no esta terapia, teniendo ...

  5. Terapia comportamental construtiva: uma outra face da clínica comportamental

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Vandenberghe

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta a terapia comportamental construtiva conforme elaborada por Beata Bakker-de Pree. A abordagem, desenvolvida nos Países Baixos, traz uma filosofia do processo terapêutico que é compatível com a de várias terapias comportamentais conhecidas. Acrescenta uma perspectiva valiosa em sua descrição explícita de alguns ingredientes importantes do trabalho clínico, que não estão em destaque nos outros modelos comportamentais, sendo estas a técnica de diferenciação livre e a anális...

  6. Conforto na perspectiva de familiares de pessoas internadas em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Kátia Santana; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    O estudo objetivou compreender o significado de conforto para familiares de pessoas em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa realizada na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital, em Salvador-Bahia. Entrevistaram-se quatorze familiares. Recorreu-se aos pressupostos teóricos do Interacionismo Simbólico e à técnica de análise de dados qualitativos. Os resultados apontaram que as categorias Segurança, Acolhimento, Informação, Proximidade, Suporte social e espiritual, ...

  7. Efectividad de la terapia con sanguijuelas. Revisión bibliográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Sánchez, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Encontrar evidencias actuales que demuestren la efectividad de la terapia con sanguijuelas en diferentes ámbitos de la salud, así como los beneficios potenciales de esta terapia natural y los posibles efectos secundarios, si los hubiese. Metodo: Revisión sistemática en Medline a través de Pubmed, CINALH, Instituto Joanna Brigs, Biblioteca Cochrane, Instituto Médico Español. Publicados entre 2006 y 2016. Ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados, sin grupo de control,...

  8. A física da terapia de captura de nêutrons pelo boro

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno-Machado,A.C.; Fortes,E.C.F.S.; Tijero,M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo fazemos uma breve exposicão de como um dos conceitos fundamentais da física nuclear fissão nuclear e seus produtos tem aplicação na medicina, na chamada terapia de captura do nêutron pelo boro (BNCT na sigla em inglês). Essa terapia foi concebida como um tratamento alternativo para o câncer podendo, em determinados casos, substituir a cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Na BNCT, o fármaco atuante é o boro 10 que, após ser injetado no paciente, é submetido à radiação de um fei...

  9. Trasplante celular y terapia regenerativa con células madre

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper, F. (Felipe)

    2008-01-01

    Uno de los campos de la medicina que más expectativas ha levantado en los últimos años es la terapia celular con células madre. El aislamiento de células embrionarias humanas, la aparente e inesperada potencialidad de las células madre adultas y el desarrollo de la terapia génica nos llevar a imaginar un futuro esperanzador para un importante número de enfermedades actualmente incurables. A lo largo de las siguientes páginas vamos a tratar de dibujar el panorama de la ...

  10. Terapia biológica en enfermedades reumatológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F.; Acevedo-Vásquez, Eduardo M; Alarcón, Graciela S.

    2013-01-01

    El advenimiento del uso de terapias biológicas en Reumatología ha modificado significativamente el pronóstico de pacientes portadores de artritis reumatoide (AR), artritis juvenil (AJ), espondilitis anquilosante (EA), entre otras enfermedades. A diferencia de las terapias convencionales estos productos biológicos se dirigen a los llamados blancos terapéuticos ya sea estas una línea celular, un mediador inflamatorio o un receptor de superficie. Estos compuestos son producidos por células vivas...

  11. Terapia dialéctico conductual para el trastorno de personalidad límite

    OpenAIRE

    Irene de la Vega; Sabrina Sánchez Quintero

    2013-01-01

    La terapia dialéctico conductual (TDC) es una terapia psicológica de tercera generación desarrollada por Marsha Linehan (1993a, 1993b) para tratar específicamente los síntomas característicos del trastorno límite de la personalidad: inestabilidad afectiva, trastorno de identidad, impulsividad y dificultades en las relaciones sociales. La TDC parte de un modelo biosocial del trastorno límite y combina técnicas cognitivo conductuales con aproximaciones zen y budistas basadas en la aceptación de...

  12. La estructura de la pareja: implicaciones para la terapia cognitivo conductual

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ ANTONIO GARCÍA HIGUERA

    2002-01-01

    La terapia de pareja cognitivo conductual ha mostrado su eficacia de manera empírica (Chambless et al., 1998). Sin embargo, existen limitaciones (Christensen y Heavey 1999) que indican la necesidad de su potenciación. Este artículo repasa la situación de la terapia de pareja, con las aportaciones actuales, enmarcando todo ello en una visión estructural de la pareja, como ente social y relación diádica, que permita una compresión de los avances que se están dando, y aporte indicaciones sobre l...

  13. Terapia fonológica com uso de computador: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Llaguno Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O tema desse artigo aborda as mudanças fonológicas a partir da terapia fonológica com o uso de computador em casos de desvio fonológico. Realizou-se estudo de caso de quatro sujeitos (S1, S2, S3 e S4 com idade entre 4:7 e 5:3, de ambos os gêneros, com desvio fonológico. Realizou-se a Avaliação Fonológica da Criança, Exame Articulatório Repetitivo, Avaliação do Sistema Estomatognático, Teste de Figuras para Discriminação Fonêmica, Prova de Estimulabilidade e avaliação audiológica. Os sujeitos foram divididos em duplas de acordo com a semelhança dos sistemas fonológicos, sendo que um sujeito de cada dupla foi tratado com terapia fonológica padrão e outro com uso de computador como principal recurso terapêutico (terapia experimental. Os dados das avaliações dos sujeitos foram analisados e, após, foram comparados os resultados dos submetidos à terapia padrão (S1 e S2, com os pareados submetidos à terapia experimental, com auxílio do computador, (S3 e S4 por meio do teste Exato de Fisher, considerando significância estatística de 5% (p<0,05. Verificou-se que a evolução dos sujeitos S3 e S4 submetidos à terapia experimental foi maior em relação à evolução de S1 e S2 submetidos à terapia padrão, sendo este resultado estatisticamente significante. Os achados da pesquisa demonstram terem sido favoráveis o uso da terapia experimental no tratamento de crianças com desvio fonológico. Contudo, há necessidade de realização de outros estudos com ampliação casuística para confirmação dos achados.

  14. Terapia nutricional en las alteraciones metabólicas en personas viviendo con VIH/Sida

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Falco; Aline de Cássia Oliveira Castro; Erika Aparecida Silveira

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito do tratamento nutricional sobre as alterações metabólicas provocadas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral em adultos vivendo com HIV/aids. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática de literatura no PubMed, Lilacs e Cochrane, entre 1996 e 2010, do tipo ensaio clínico, controlado, randomizado, crossover, adultos, vivendo com HIV/aids em uso de terapia antirretroviral e sem doenças oportunistas. A intervenção de interesse foi suplementação nutricional via oral e/ou mudança de estil...

  15. Trastornos de la alimentación y Terapia Ocupacional: Anorexia nerviosa

    OpenAIRE

    López Domínguez, Esther María

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Grado Curso 2015-2016 [ES]Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la anorexia nerviosa y la terapia ocupacional, intentando analizar la evolución de este trastorno que actualmente está tan en apogeo, entre otros factores como los autores, las palabras de las cuales hacen más uso en sus títulos, el idioma y las revistas que más auge han tenido en dicho tema. Además, justificando la importancia que tiene la intervención desde la terapia ocupacional en los tr...

  16. Interacción del componente pertussis de células completas con los antígenos tetánico, Haemophilus influenzae tipo B y hepatitis B en ensayos de potencia para vacunas combinadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Landys

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas combinadas permiten un grado de aceptación mayor entre la población, dado que se requiere de menos inmunizaciones para proteger contra las enfermedades infecciosas. Sin embargo, esto ha generado nuevos retos, ya que se han reportado numerosas interacciones entre los diferentes antígenos que conforman estas vacunas. El propósito del presente trabajo fue evaluar la interferencia potencial del componente pertussis de células completas sobre los ensayos para determinar la actividad biológica de otros antígenos como toxoide tetánico, Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib y hepatitis B. Para ello se estudiaron mediante ensayos de potencia vacunas combinadas que contenían estos antígenos y se compararon con vacunas monovalentes. A su vez se prepararon adyuvaciones experimentales cuya composición permitió estimar adecuadamente la extensión y naturaleza de la interacción entre componentes. Se obtuvo que el componente pertussis incrementó significativamente la actividad biológica de Hib y tétanos, aunque esto puede depender mucho del modelo animal y el diseño experimental utilizado. En cuanto al antígeno de hepatitis B se demostró que pertussis inhibía la potencia de este antígeno, tanto in vitro como in vivo, aunque por mecanismos diferentes y de forma no significativa.

  17. DEGENERACIÓN COMBINADA SUBAGUDA, ANEMIA MEGALOBLÁSTICA Y MANIFESTACIONES NEUROPSIQUIÁTRICAS Caracterización clínica de catorce casos con deficiencia de cianocobalamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Omar Zamora Bastidas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La degeneración combinada subaguda es un desorden neurológico que afecta los cordones posteriores de la médula y se manifiesta precozmente con disestesia, parestesias y astenia severa. En pacientes de riesgo, es la manifestación inicial (y a veces única de una deficiencia de vitamina B12. El cerebro, el nervio óptico y los nervios periféricos pueden afectarse igualmente. Presentamos catorce casos de degeneración combinada subaguda por deficiencia de vitamina B12, con niveles bajos y anemia en la mayor parte de pacientes. Una revisión de la literatura muestra también estados carenciales en grupos poblacionales pobres de adultos mayores con otros factores de riesgo; y deficiencias subclínicas con depósitos hepáticos de vitamina B12 casi exhaustos. Puede haber clínica neuropsiquiátrica en casos sin niveles bajos de vitamina B12 ni anemia.

  18. Losartan loaded liposomes improve the antitumor efficacy of liposomal paclitaxel modified with pH sensitive peptides by inhibition of collagen in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tai; He, Qin; Shi, Kairong; Wang, Yang; Yu, Qianwen; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qianyu; Gao, Huile; Ma, Lifang; Liu, Ji

    2018-01-01

    The dense collagen network in tumors restricts the penetration of drugs into tumors. Free losartan could inhibit collagen, but it would cause hypotension at the dosage of 10 mg/kg/d. In this study, losartan was encapsulated in liposomes (LST-Lip) and the collagen inhibition ability of LST-Lip was investigated. Our results showed the blood pressure was not affected by LST-Lip at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg every other day. The amount of Evans Blue in tumor in LST-Lip group was 1.98 times of that in control group. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that prior injection of LST-Lip could inhibit collagen and further improve the tumorous accumulation of liposomes modified with TH peptides (AGYLLGHINLHHLAHL(Aib)HHIL-NH2) (TH-Lip) in 4T1 tumors. Compared with control group, the tumor inhibition rate of combined strategy of LST-Lip and paclitaxel loaded TH-Lip (PTX-TH-Lip) was 41.73%, while that of group only treated with PTX-TH-Lip was 14.94%. Masson's trichrome staining confirmed that collagen was inhibited in LST-Lip group. Thus, the administration of LST-Lip in advance could inhibit the collagen in tumors effectively and did not affect the blood pressure, then PTX-TH-Lip injected subsequently could exert enhanced antitumor efficacy. In conclusion, this combined strategy might be promising for breast cancer therapy.

  19. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  20. The role of losartan in preventing vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inhibition of the H2O2/VPO1/HOCl/MMPs pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangqing; Zhang, Guogang; You, Baiyang; Cheng, Guangjie; Chen, Luyao; Shi, Ruizheng

    2017-11-04

    Vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) has been proved to be associated with vascular endothelial cell apoptosis by producing reactive oxygen species. However, the contribution of VPO1 to the development of vascular remodeling (VR) remains to be fully characterized. We explored the role of VPO1 in VR in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the underlying mechanism of losartan in inhibiting VR. Compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the SHR showed remodeling of their vascular walls. The level of VPO1 and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration were increased in the SHRs. However, the SHRs pretreated with losartan showed significant inhibition of blood pressure and VR and decreased levels of VPO1 and H2O2 compared to the non-treated SHRs. Angiotensin II significantly increased the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and the concentrations of H2O2 and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, only the H2O2 level increased in VSMCs when transfected with VPO1 shRNA. These results support a critical but previously unrecognized role of VPO1 in VR and suggest that therapies to reduce VPO1 may be novel approaches for VR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome-based analysis of kidney gene expression changes associated with diabetes in OVE26 mice, in the presence and absence of losartan treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Komers

    Full Text Available Diabetes is among the most common causes of end-stage renal disease, although its pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of renal gene expression changes in the OVE26 murine model of diabetes (age 15 weeks, relative to non-diabetic control, in the presence and absence of short-term (seven-day treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan (n = 3-6 biological replicates per condition. We detected 1438 statistically significant changes in gene expression across conditions. Of the 638 genes dysregulated in diabetes relative to the non-diabetic state, >70% were downregulation events. Unbiased functional annotation of genes up- and down-regulated by diabetes strongly associated (p52-fold, encoded by the cationic amino acid transporter Slc7a12, and the gene product most highly downregulated by diabetes (>99%--encoded by the "pseudogene" Gm6300--are adjacent in the murine genome, are members of the SLC7 gene family, and are likely paralogous. Therefore, diabetes activates a near-total genetic switch between these two paralogs. Other individual-level changes in gene expression are potentially relevant to diabetic pathophysiology, and novel pathways are suggested. Genes unaffected by diabetes alone but exhibiting increased renal expression with losartan produced a signature consistent with malignant potential.

  2. TERAPIA GÉNICA Y PRINCIPIOS ÉTICOS A TERAPIA GÊNICA E OS PRINCÍPIOS ÉTICOS GEN THERAPY AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Yunta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La terapia génica constituye una forma de manipulación genética que trata de corregir o disminuir los efectos que ocasionan enfermedades de origen genético. Existen grandes esperanzas en el desarrollo de este tipo de terapia, sobre todo para enfermedades somáticas de origen genético que no tienen curación. Pero hay también numerosas dificultades técnicas que no están del todo resueltas. No se ha demostrado todavía eficacia clínica y se pueden producir daños irreversibles en el organismo. Por una parte, existe la necesidad de regular por medio de protocolos que deben ser rigurosamente analizados por comités de evaluación ética y científica y, por otra, hace falta un diálogo entre países, con el fin de evitar una presentación exitista de la técnica en el mercado sin mencionar sus dificultades inherentes. Una de las preocupaciones mayores es que la aceptación paulatina de este tipo de terapia, y la eliminación de restricciones, permita el uso de la técnica para terapia génica germinal y para terapia génica de mejoría, cuya validez ética es cuestionada. Usar la terapia génica en células germinales conlleva el riesgo de introducir daños genéticos en generaciones posterioresA terapia gênica constitui uma forma de manipulação genética que trata de corrigir ou diminuir os efeitos que ocasionam enfermidades de origem genética. Existem grandes esperanças no desenvolvimento deste tipo de terapia, sobretudo para doenças somáticas de origem genética que não tem cura. Existem, não obstante isso numerosos dificuldades técnicas que não estão totalmente resolvidas. Não se demostrou ainda a eficácia clínica e se pode causar danos irreversíveis no organismo. De um lado, existe a necessidade de regular por meio de protocolos que devem ser rigorosamente analisados por comitês de avaliação ética e científica, por outra, faz falta um diálogo entre países, para se evitar uma apresentação unilateral exitosa da t

  3. Costo-beneficio de la terapia en ambiente húmedo versus terapia tradicional: el caso de un paciente con úlcera en la extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lilia Reyes-Rocha

    Full Text Available Actualmente, ha cobrado relevancia el uso de la terapia húmeda en la cura de las heridas crónicas; sin embargo, persiste el uso de la terapia tradicional como técnica para lograr la cicatrización de las mismas. El caso que presentamos tiene como propósito determinar el costo-beneficio del empleo de apósitos de cura en ambiente húmedo versus cura tradicional en un paciente con úlcera en la extremidad inferior. Los resultados muestran que el coste es mayor con la terapia en ambiente húmedo; sin embargo, el periodo de cicatrización de la herida es menor en comparación con el tiempo de cicatrización que conlleva la cura tradicional; esto redunda en un beneficio para el paciente al alcanzar su recuperación en un menor tiempo. Estos hallazgos permiten proponer hipótesis para estudios posteriores bajo otro diseño metodológico, a fin de generar evidencia científica que coadyuve en la mejora de los procesos de atención en beneficio de la población con este tipo de padecimiento.

  4. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  5. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  6. CONTRIBUIÇÕES DA TERAPIA COGNITIVO COMPORTAMENTAL NO TRATAMENTO DA OBESIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Mattoso Chagas Martins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Levando em consideração que o homem é o único animal capaz de modificar seu corpo através do pensamento, a Terapia Cognitivo Comportamental (TCC vem se configurando como um importante aliado no combate à obesidade, proporcionando uma reestruturação cognitiva capaz de modificar não apenas um corpo obeso, mas modificar todo um estilo de vida. A terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC tem sido amplamente usada no tratamento da obesidade em associação com outras intervenções, como o acompanhamento nutricional e a prática de atividade física. A TCC é uma terapia de duração breve e com sessões estruturadas nas quais o paciente é solicitado a colaborar ativamente na identificação e na mudança de seus comportamentos e sentimentos que contribuem para a obesidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho é verificar a eficácia do apoio psicoterápico com base na Terapia Cognitivo Comportamental na redução de peso de pacientes obesos. Palavras-chave: Cognitivo; Comportamental; Obesidade.

  7. Atitude de Estudantes de Medicina frente a Terapias Alternativas e Complementares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Mendes Morales

    Full Text Available O uso das Terapias Alternativas e Complementares (TAC vem aumentando ao longo dos anos no Brasil e no mundo com o advento de políticas de saúde favoráveis ao emprego dessas práticas. No entanto, as escolas médicas ainda não oferecem disciplinas curriculares sobre este tema. Com o intuito de descrever as atitudes dos estudantes de Medicina de uma universidade do Sul do Brasil com relação às terapias complementares, foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal descritivo, por meio da aplicação de um questionário. Houve 65,22% de taxa de resposta, e a terapia mais conhecida pelos estudantes foi a Fitoterapia (90,3%. A maioria deles demonstrou atitudes favoráveis com relação às terapias, e 75,26% gostariam de aprender sobre o tema em aulas curriculares.

  8. Uso de kits desechables para optimizar tiempos, movimientos y apego a protocolos de la terapia intravenosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Escamilla Zamudio

    2017-09-01

    Cómo citar este artículo: Escamilla JJ, Ramírez GI. Uso de kits desechables para optimizar tiempos, movimientos y apego a protocolos de la terapia intravenosa. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(3: 1749-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i3.412

  9. La Tarea de Auto-consuelo Compasivo en Terapia Focalizada en la Emoción

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciro Caro; Teresa Hornillos

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es poner a disposición de los terapeutas y de los equipos de investigación clínica en psicoterapia, el conocimiento actualizado sobre la Tarea de Auto-consuelo Compasivo de la Terapia Focalizada...

  10. La terapia de la coherencia: un enfoque constructivista apoyado por la neurociencia contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiński, Michał; Paz, Clara; Feixas, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    En el presente artículo se describe la terapia de la coherencia (TC). Con el fin de presentar este enfoque se realiza una breve descripción del constructivismo y su influencia tanto en la TC, como en la psicoterapia en general. Se continúa con la expli

  11. Estressores em familiares de pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Adam Barth

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar e estratificar os principais fatores estressores para os familiares de pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva adulto de um hospital escola. Métodos: Estudo transversal descritivo com familiares de pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva no período de abril a outubro de 2014. Foi utilizado questionário contendo identificação e dados demográficos dos familiares, dados clínicos dos pacientes, bem como 25 fatores estressores adaptados da Escala de Estressores em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. O grau de estresse de cada fator foi determinado por uma escala de valores pontuando de 1 a 4. Os fatores estressores foram ranqueados conforme média dos pontos obtida. Resultados: A principal causa de admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva foi clínica em 36 (52,2% casos. Os principais fatores estressores foram a presença do estado de coma (3,15 ± 1,23, o paciente não conseguir falar (3,15 ± 1,20 e o motivo da internação (3,00 ± 1,27. Quando retirados da análise os 27 (39,1% pacientes em coma, os fatores de maior estresse para os familiares foram o motivo da internação (2,75 ± 1,354, ver o paciente na unidade de terapia intensiva (2,51 ± 1,227 e o paciente não conseguir falar (2,50 ± 1,269. Conclusão: A dificuldade na comunicação e na relação com o paciente internado na unidade de terapia intensiva foi apontada como os maiores estressores por seus familiares, com destaque para o estado de coma. Por outro lado, o ambiente, as rotinas de trabalho e a relação entre familiar e equipe da unidade de terapia intensiva tiveram menor impacto como fatores estressores.

  12. Efficacy and safety of the losartan-hydrochlorothiazide combination tablet in patients with hypertension uncontrolled by angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy: the Aichi Research on Combination therapy for Hypertension (ARCH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kengo; Adachi, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, Atsushi; Koh, Naoki; Miura, Yoshitaka; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2012-01-01

    The guidelines recommend combination therapy for patients who are unable to achieve target BP with monotherapy; some fixed dose therapies including an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and diuretics are available in Japan. However, to date there have been few reports on this long-term treatment and the patient profiles suited for this combination remain ambiguous. The Aichi Research on Combination therapy for Hypertension Study was a multicenter, open-label, prospective observational study that investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-year treatment with the losartan-hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination tablet in patients with hypertension uncontrolled by either ARB monotherapy or combination therapy with a calcium channel blocker (CCB). An ARB was switched to a losartan-HCTZ tablet after a pre-observation period. A total of 614 of 648 patients were evaluable (mean age, 66.3 years; 52.8% men; mean baseline blood pressure, BP, 157.7/87.9 mmHg). The BP had decreased significantly to 138.0/78.2 mmHg by month 3 (p<0.001, t-test), and 36.2% of the patients had achieved their target BP. The hypotensive effect lasted for 1 year and was found equally in the losartan-HCTZ arm and the losartan-HCTZ plus CCB arm. A stratified analysis showed significant hypotensive effects in patients with higher baseline BP, women, and patients who did not drink alcohol (p<0.001, unpaired t-test). The losartan-HCTZ combination tablet was found to have an early hypotensive effect, good tolerability, and stable long-term benefits in patients with hypertension uncontrolled by ARB monotherapy or combination therapy with a CCB.

  13. Terapia sistémica de pareja en la depresión: un estudio de caso único

    OpenAIRE

    Feixas i Viaplana, Guillem; Muñoz Cano, Dámaris; Dada Sánchez, Gloria; Compañ, Victoria; Arroyo Andreu, Susana

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio de caso único se presenta el tratamiento de una mujer diagnosticada de depresión mayor con terapia sistémica de pareja. Esta modalidad de terapia supone la inclusión de la pareja en todas las sesiones de tratamiento, en las que se trabaja con ambos de forma conjunta. A medida que avanza la terapia se van explicitando los significados relacionales de los síntomas y las dificultades de relación, y se trabaja de forma conjunta para remediarlas. El proceso terapéutico se completó ...

  14. A experiência emocional atualizadora em Gestalt-terapia de curta duração

    OpenAIRE

    Ênio Brito Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Apresenta-se e se discute o conceito, de Alexander, de experiência emocional corretiva, sob a ótica da abordagem gestáltica. Propõe-se que em Gestalt-terapia se deva falar em experiência emocional atualizadora. Discute-se a noção de neurose e de psicopatologia em Gestalt-terapia, bem como as implicações desses conceitos no processo de Gestalt-terapia de Curta Duração.

  15. Resultados do tratamento da ambliopia com levodopa combinada à oclusão Results of amblyopia treatment with levodopa associated with occlusion therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Procianoy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a melhora da acuidade visual com levodopa/benzerazida combinada à oclusão parcial e seguida por oclusão total, em pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo experimental aberto, envolvendo 37 pacientes entre 7 e 40 anos de idade, com ambliopia por estrabismo ou anisometropia, durante 9 semanas. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com levodopa (0,70 mg/kg/dia e benzerazida 25% associada à oclusão de 4 horas/dia do olho dominante por 5 semanas e, nas 4 semanas seguintes foi realizada somente a oclusão total (24 h do olho dominante. A acuidade visual foi medida na tabela do ETDR (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy com escala logMAR (logaritmo do mínimo ângulo de resolução antes de iniciar o tratamento e após 1, 3, 5 e 9 semanas de tratamento. As adesões ao tratamento de oclusão e a ingesta do me-dicamento foram verificadas por meio de questionário e pela contagem das cápsulas. Os efeitos adversos foram avaliados por exame clínico e questionário. RESULTADOS: Após 9 semanas de tratamento, a acuidade visual média melhorou em logMAR de 0,58 ± 0,16 para 0,23 ± 0,16 (melhora de 4 linhas na tabela ETDR. CONCLUSÃO: Levodopa, na dose de 0,70 mg/kg/dia, é bem tolerada e associada à oclusão produz melhora significativa na acuidade visual de pacientes com ambliopia considerada irreversível.PURPOSE: To evaluate visual acuity improvement with levodopa/benzerazide associated with partial occlusion and followed by total occlusion therapy in patients with amblyopia considered irreversible. METHODS: A 9-week experimental open study was performed involving 37 patients, between 7 and 40 years old, with strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia. All patients were treated with levodopa (0.70 mg/kg/day and 25% benzerazide associated with 4-hour/day occlusion of the dominant eye for 5 weeks. In the last 4 weeks, only the total occlusion (24 h of the dominant eye was performed. Visual acuity

  16. NUEVAS TERAPIAS EN EL MANEJO DE LOS GLIOMAS DE ALTO GRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raúl Valenzuela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El reto de mejorar el tratamiento actual de los gliomas de alto grado ha sido abordado con inmensa creatividad, desarrollándose una gran variedad de estrategias para este fin. El análisis interino de un estudio fase III mostró que el beneficio de la terapia standard mejora al complementarla con terapia de campos eléctricos alternantes (Novo TTF-100 A; dadas las limitaciones de un análisis interino, queda por establecer la real magnitud y relevancia clínica de esta mejoría. El presunto beneficio de usar tratamiento antiviral contra citomegalovirus es muy controvertido y su utilidad no se ha demostrado en forma fehaciente. Las terapias antiangiogénicas han mostrado ser útiles para el manejo de las recurrencias, al menos como tratamiento sintomático, pero no han demostrado mejorar la sobrevida en pacientes de novo. La terapia dirigida contra señales intracelulares de crecimiento, conceptualmente muy atractiva, todavía no ha logrado resultados clínicos exitosos. Hay datos preliminares promisorios respecto al uso clínico de vacunas antitumorales y de inmunomodulación con inhibidores de “checkpoints”; también hay algunos datos preliminares a favor del uso de virus oncolíticos. La terapia genética parece estar en etapas aún muy tempranas de su desarrollo y probablemente demore más tiempo en llegar a demostrar utilidad clínica.

  17. Complicações rinossinusais após descompressão orbital em técnica externa e endonasal combinada Sinus complications after orbital decompression by combined external and endonasal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Pezato

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas técnicas de descompressão orbital têm sido utilizadas no tratamento da oftalmopatia por Graves. Recentemente, introduziu-se a cirurgia endoscópica endonasal na descompressão de órbita, como técnica isolada ou combinada com as já existentes, acreditando proporcionar melhor visão da parede medial da órbita e menor incidência de infecção bacteriana quando a parede medial é acessada por endoscópio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as complicações após a descompressão orbital por técnica combinada assistida por endoscopia na prevenção de infecção rinossinusal. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico Prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 16 pacientes 18 órbitas foram submetidos à descompressão orbital no Setor de Órbita do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Escola Paulista de Medicina UNIFESP. RESULTADOS: Quatro pacientes, durante o acompanhamento por tomografia no pós-operatório, apresentaram velamento do seio maxilar ou frontal, sem sintomatologia. CONCLUSÃO: A descompressão orbital por via externa combinada com a via endonasal auxiliada por endoscopia mostrou-se eficaz na prevenção de sinusite clinicamente manifesta e suas complicações, embora no acompanhamento tomográfico 22% dos pacientes apresentaram velamento do seio maxilar ou frontal.Many techniques of orbital decompression have been used in the treatment of Graves ophthalmopathy. Recently endonasal endoscope surgery was introduced in the orbital decompression, as an isolated technique, or combined with existing techniques hopefully to give better visualization of medial wall and a lower incidence infection when the medial wall is acessed. AIM: To evaluate orbital decompression combined with endoscope in prevention of bacterial infection, we relate three cases of assyntomatic patients with computer tomography control of facial sinus presenting opacification of maxillary or frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical Prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 16 patients with 18 orbita procedures

  18. Abelmoschus manihot - a traditional Chinese medicine versus losartan potassium for treating IgA nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Chen, Yi-Zhi; Lin, Hong-Li; Ni, Zhao-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Li; Wang, Rong; Yang, Hong-Tao; Fang, Jing-Ai; Wang, Nian-Song; Li, Wen-Ge; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2017-04-11

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerular diseases worldwide, but effective therapy remains limited and many patients progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Only angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I)/angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) show a high level of evidence (1B level) of being of value in the treatment for IgAN according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. However, traditional Chinese medicine has raised attention in kidney disease research. Abelmoschus manihot, a single medicament of traditional Chinese medicine has shown therapeutic effects in primary glomerular disease according to the randomized controlled clinical trial that we have completed. Here, we conduct a new study to assess the efficacy and safety of Abelmoschus manihot in IgAN. Also, this study is currently the largest double-blind, randomized controlled registered clinical research for the treatment of IgAN. We will conduct a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled study. The study is designed as a noninferiority clinical trial. Approximately 1600 biopsy-proven IgAN patients will be enrolled at 100 centers in China and followed up for as long as 48 weeks. IgAN patients will be randomized assigned to the Abelmoschus manihot group (in the form of a huangkui capsule, 2.5 g, three times per day) and the losartan potassium group (losartan potassium, 100 mg/d). The primary outcome is the change in 24-h proteinuria from baseline after 48 weeks of treatment. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline after 48 weeks of treatment, the incidence of endpoint events (proteinuria ≥3.5 g/24 h, the doubling of serum creatinine, or receiving blood purification treatment) are the secondary outcomes. Twenty-four-hour proteinuria and eGFR are measured at 0, 4, 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks. This study will be of sufficient size and scope to evaluate the efficacy and safety of

  19. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Danijela; Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  20. Electrocardiographic strain pattern and prediction of new-onset congestive heart failure in hypertensive patients: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Peter M; Devereux, Richard B; Nieminen, Markku S; Jern, Sverker; Oikarinen, Lasse; Viitasalo, Matti; Toivonen, Lauri; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Dahlöf, Björn

    2006-01-03

    The ECG strain pattern of ST depression and T-wave inversion is strongly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) independently of coronary heart disease and with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. However, whether ECG strain is an independent predictor of new-onset congestive heart failure (CHF) in the setting of aggressive antihypertensive therapy in unclear. The relationship of ECG strain at study baseline to the development of CHF was examined in 8696 patients with no history of CHF who were enrolled in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. All patients had ECG LVH by Cornell product and/or Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria on a screening ECG, were treated in a blinded manner with atenolol- or losartan-based regimens, and were followed up for a mean of 4.7+/-1.1 years. Strain was defined as a downsloping convex ST segment with inverted asymmetrical T-wave opposite the QRS axis in lead V5 or V6. ECG strain was present in 923 patients (10.6%), and new-onset CHF occurred in 265 patients (3.0%), 26 of whom had a CHF-related death. Compared with patients who did not develop CHF, hypertensive patients who developed CHF were older; were more likely to be black, current smokers, and diabetic; were more like to have a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease; and had greater baseline severity of LVH by Cornell product and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, higher baseline body mass indexes, higher serum glucose levels and albuminuria, similar baseline systolic and diastolic pressures, and reductions in diastolic pressure with treatment but greater reductions in systolic pressure. In univariate Cox analyses, ECG strain was a significant predictor of new-onset CHF (hazard ratio [HR], 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49 to 4.29) and CHF mortality (HR, 4.74; 95% CI, 2.11 to 10.64). In Cox multivariable analyses adjusting for baseline differences

  1. Changes of blood pressure, abdominal visceral fat tissue and gene expressions in fetal programming induced rat model after amlodipine-losartan combination treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyen; Lee, Hyeryon; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Pil Je; Kim, Kwan Chang; Hong, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of complications that can occur if there is under-nutrition during pregnancy followed by a period of rapid catch-up growth, including a higher chance of adult obesity, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of fetal under-nutrition during late pregnancy and lactation on blood pressure, visceral fat tissue, gene expressions and to evaluate changes after amlodipine- losartan combination treatment. The rats were divided into three groups: the control (C) group, the food restriction (FR: 50 % food restricted diet) group, and the CX group, which was treated with Cozaar XQ (amlodipine- losartan combination drug) in FR rats from postnatal 4 to 20 weeks. Masson's trichrome staining was performed in the heart tissues. The amount of abdominal visceral fat tissues was measured. Western blot analysis such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor type IA (ATIA), troponin I (Tn I) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were performed. Body weights were significantly higher in the FR group compared with the C group at weeks 8 and 20 and lower in the CX group at week 20. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the FR group compared with the C group at week 20 and lower in the CX group at weeks 12 and 20. The amount of abdominal visceral fat was significantly higher in the FR group compared with the C group at weeks 8, 12 and 20 and significantly lower in the CX group at weeks 16 and 20. Protein expression of ATIA and eNOS were significantly reduced in the CX group at weeks 16 and 20. ACE was significantly reduced in the CX group at week 20 and Tn I was significantly reduced in the CX group at week 16. When there is fetal under-nutrition during pregnancy, it leads to obesity, high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia and several gene changes in offspring. Amlodipine-losartan combination treatment was able to lower obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and

  2. Terapia nutricional no diabetes gestacional Nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Padilha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura científica sobre a terapia nutricional no Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, sem restrição de data e com fontes primárias indexadas nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed, Medline. Os resultados desta revisão apontam a intervenção nutricional como uma importante aliada no controle do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, trazendo potenciais benefícios à saúde materno-fetal. Na avaliação do estado nutricional materno devem ser empregados os indicadores antropométricos, dietéticos, bioquímicos, clínicos e funcional. Neste sentido, a avaliação dietética deve ser detalhada, com atenção para o fracionamento e composição das refeições, e grupos de alimentos presentes. No planejamento nutricional a distribuição de macronutrientes em relação ao consumo energético diário deve ser 45-65% de carboidratos, 15-20% de proteínas e 20-35% de lipídeos. Quanto a recomendação dos edulcorantes, são liberados para gestantes acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, sacarina e sucralose. A atividade física também deve fazer parte da estratégia de tratamento do Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional, embora o impacto do exercício nas complicações neonatais ainda mereça ser rigorosamente testado. Ademais, estudos associam a habilidade de aconselhamento nutricional com a melhorara na adesão ao cuidado nutricional. Diante desses achados, para sucesso no controle do DMG são necessários: a participação da equipe inter e multidisciplinar, o cuidado pré-natal precoce, com assistência nutricional oportuna e a garantia da assistência de qualidade ao longo da gestação.This is a scientific literature review about nutritional therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus, without date restriction and using the SciELO, PubMed and Medline databases. The results of this review show that nutritional intervention is an important tool for managing gestational diabetes mellitus, and potentially benefits the mother's and fetal health

  3. Onicolisis exudativa y paroniquia bacteriana aguda en relacion con BIBF-1120 y paclitaxel: respuesta a la terapia topica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freites-Martinez, Azael; Martinez-Sanchez, Diego; Puente de Pablo, Nieves; Calderon-Komaromy, Angelica; Cordoba, Susana; Burbujo, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    .... A la semana de iniciar la terapia topica, se observo una paroniquia bacteriana con la perdida de la una del quinto dedo de la mano izquierda, con cultivos positivos para Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina...

  4. Conducta suicida: consideraciones prácticas para la implementación de la terapia cognitiva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald Toro

    2013-01-01

    .... Puede tratarse con Terapia Cognitiva (TC), la cual ha demostrado efectividad en esta problematica, basada en la modificacion de cogniciones negativas y estilos disfuncionales de afrontamiento, reduccion de desercion, adherencia a servicios...

  5. Aspectos funcionais e psicologicos imediatamente apos alta da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: coorte prospectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrini Silveira Vesz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar aspectos funcionais e psicológicos dos pacientes imediatamente após alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Coorte prospectiva. Na primeira semana após alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, por meio de uma entrevista estruturada, foram aplicados questionários e escalas referentes à avaliação do grau de dependência e da capacidade funcional (escalas de Barthel modificada e Karnofsky, e aos problemas psíquicos (questionário hospitalar de ansiedade e depressão, além da escala de sonolência de Epworth, em todos os sobreviventes com mais de 72 horas de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, admitidos de agosto a novembro de 2012. RESULTADOS: Nos 79 pacientes incluídos no estudo, houve aumento do grau de dependência após a alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, quando comparados aos dados pré-hospitalização, por meio da escala de Barthel modificada (57±30 versus 47±36; p40, o prejuízo foi uniforme em todas as categorias da escala de Barthel modificada (p<0,001. Já nos 15 pacientes previamente muito dependentes (Karnofsky <40, o prejuízo ocorreu somente nas categorias de higiene pessoal (p=0,01 e na capacidade de subir escadas (p=0,04. Na avaliação dos distúrbios psicológicos, os transtornos do humor (ansiedade e/ou depressão ocorreram em 31% dos pacientes e os distúrbios do sono em 43,3%. CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, observaram-se redução da capacidade funcional e aumento do grau de dependência na primeira semana após alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, bem como elevada incidência de sintomas depressivos, de ansiedade e distúrbios do sono.

  6. Terapia comunitária: relato de uma experiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Nogueira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho apresentamos uma experiência de Terapia Comunitária Integrativa, realizada em classes do ensino médio, no Colégio Modelo Luís Eduardo Magalhães, situado em um bairro de periferia da cidade de Salvador, pertencente à rede pública do Estado da Bahia. O objetivo principal do trabalho consistiu em acolher pessoas da comunidade escolar (alunos, pais, mães, avós e/ou responsáveis e da administração do Colégio (direção, coordenadores, professores e funcionários, na tentativa de promover mudanças nas atitudes dessas Instituições, de pessoas outras ligadas ao processo de educação, dos alunos e familiares envolvidos, da comunidade a que pertencem e, consequentemente, da Sociedade como um todo. A metodologia utilizada consistiu, primeiramente em criar espaço necessário, dentro do horário escolar em paralelo com a atividade curricular normal onde foram realizadas rodas de terapia, visando o desenvolvimento do aluno como ser humano e como cidadão. Essas rodas de terapia, cuja característica é ser trabalho grupal aberto, foram desenvolvidas no período de Maio/2010 a Junho/2011, com alunos da primeira, segunda e terceira séries, e com professores dessas classes, nos turnos matutino e vespertino. Depoimentos e questionários aplicados, nesse período, nas rodas de terapia comunitária nos deram subsídios para dados estatísticos que anexaremos ao trabalho. Embora os resultados ainda não tenham sido aferidos no aspecto quantitativo, os depoimentos de professores e alunos e responsáveis atestam o êxito obtido nos resultados das rodas de terapia comunitária, ali realizadas, o que nos leva a concluir que vale a pena continuar investindo e lutando pela inclusão da Terapia Comunitária na Educação.

  7. Beneficios de la terapia con resistómetro inspiratorio en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple frente a terapias respiratorias convencionales

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Sánchez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    [ES] La Universidad de Salamanca (USAL) a través del programa de Doctorado en Oncología Clínica realiza un estudio con ASPRODES, la Asociación Salmantina de Esclerosis Múltiple (ASDEM) y la Asociación Zamorana de Esclerosis Múltiple (AZDEM) para llevar a cabo un estudio experimental con el fin de analizar las ventajas que la terapia respiratoria con resistómetro inspiratorio puede aportar a los pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple frente a las técnicas de fisioterapia respiratoria convencional. ...

  8. Foto personali e foto di famiglia come strumento per la terapia. Il “Come, Cosa e Perché” delle tecniche di FotoTerapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Weiser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo spiega come e perché, l’utilizzo delle foto personali e quelle di famiglia delle persone in terapia durante il loro trattamento (“Tecniche di FotoTerapia” possa aumentare e approfondire tale processo, e migliorare la qualità dei risultati terapeutici. Si descrive come le foto creino un ponte in grado di raggiungere aree profonde del vissuto del cliente dove le parole non possono arrivare – fornendo quindi un eccellente mezzo per esaminare ed esplorare i sentimenti con il minimo dell’interferenza e delle difese cognitive. Basato sul principio che le fotografie presentano accanto ai dettagli visivi un contenuto emotivo, questo articolo mostra come il terapeuta formato nelle Tecniche di FotoTerapia possa usare le foto personali e quelle di famiglia del cliente per evocare ricordi, richiamare sentimenti, riconnettere pensieri, nascondere segreti, e portare alla luce il passato con nuove modalità. Si mostra come le Tecniche di FotoTerapia siano basate sul fatto che tutte le fotografie parlano il linguaggio metaforico e simbolico dell’inconscio, senza usare le parole, e quindi ogni immagine fotografica è in grado, indipendentemente dalla modalità preferita dal terapeuta, di raggiungere informazioni e sentimenti precedentemente bloccati o fortemente difesi. Dopo l’” Introduzione” e le Sezioni relative alle “Arti (e Arte Terapia” e “Fotografie (e Fotografia” che propongono le basi teoriche delle tecniche di FotoTerapia, l’articolo procede da una rassegna generale dell’“Uso delle Fotografie nella Pratica Terapeutica” a una spiegazione più dettagliata della “Cornice di Lavoro delle Tecniche di FotoTerapia”, discutendo i principi e le specifiche applicazioni di ogni tecnica, da usare singolarmente o in combinazione con le altre. È inoltre inclusa una comparazione tra le tecniche di “FotoTerapia” e le analoghe applicazioni sia della “Foto Arte Terapia” che della “Fotografia Terapeutica

  9. Terapia de reidratação oral no setor de emergência

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira da Costa, Auxiliadora Damianne P.; Gisélia Alves Pontes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever o manejo da diarreia aguda na emergência, explorando fatores associados à prescrição da terapia de reidratação oral (TRO) versus terapia de reidratação venosa (TRV) para crianças com desidratação não grave. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo conduzido de janeiro a maio de 2008 em duas unidades de emergência em Recife (PE), A e B, sendo a emergência B vinculada a um hospital-escola, com observação do manejo de crianças com desidratação não grave por diarreia aguda. As principais va...

  10. Terapia fotodinâmica em carcinoma basocelular periocular: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Camargo Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem a aplicação de terapia fotodinâmica com cloridrato de aminolevulinato de metila (Metivix® em uma paciente com carcinoma basocelular padrão misto (nodular e infiltrativo em pálpebra inferior de olho direito. Os efeitos colaterais sobre o olho foram avaliados semanalmente. Foi submetida à biòpsia incisional com punch de 2 mm para controle de cura após 12 semanas de tratamento. O anátomopatológico revelou ausência de neoplasia. O tratamento padrão ouro reconhecido mundialmente é a exérese da lesão, porém a terapia fotodinâmica com cloridrato de aminolevulinato de metila (MAL surge como uma opção terapêutica à cirurgia.

  11. Terapias compressivas no tratamento de úlcera venosa: estudo bibliométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Teixeira Nicolosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: úlceras de origen venosas son lesiones cutáneas que generalmente acometen el tercio inferior de las piernas. El trata - miento de estas heridas es dinámico y depende de la evolución de las fases de la reparación del tejido. Este tratamiento incluye métodos clínicos y quirúrgicos, y la terapia compresiva es el método no quirúrgico más utilizado. Entre las terapias compresivas, se destacan los vendajes inelásticos y elásticos, medias elásticas y presión neumática intermitente. Objetivo: este estudio buscó identificar el perfil de la producción científica nacional e internacional que describiera la terapia compresiva y la úlcera venosa para clasificarla de acuerdo con: cronología de publicación, procedencia, periódicos en que están publicadas, evaluación del “ Qualis ” — coordinación de perfeccionamiento de personal de nivel superior (Capes, distribución del abordaje metodológico, análisis del contenido de las publicaciones y comparar, cuando fuera posible, los datos presentados en esta revisión. Método: estudio bibliométrico realizado en las bases de datos Medline, Lilacs y CINAHL en el que se utilizaron los descriptores “ Varicose Ulcer/therapy ” , “ Compression Bandages ” , “ Wound Healing ” y el opera - dor booleano AND entre los años de 2009 a 2013. Resultados: se seleccionaron 47 artículos; la mayoría de ellos publicados en 2012 (n = 12; 25,53 % , en Estados Unidos (n=14; 29,78 % y Reino Unido (n=14; 29,78 % , en revistas de especialidad vascular (n=19; 40,42 % , con evaluaciones A2 (n=13; 27,65 % y B1 (n=13; 27,65 % . La parte más grande de la metodología utilizada en los estudios seleccionados fue tipo “ estudios clínicos ” (n= 30; 63,82 % . Entre los estudios clínicos y metanálisis, apenas 30 % (n= 14 presentaban como objetivo principal evaluación de la terapia compresiva y estudiaban comparativamente eficacia de vendajes elásticos, inelásticos, medias el

  12. A Gestalt-terapia na universidade: da f(ô)rma à boa forma

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Loyola Madeira Soares

    2009-01-01

    Este texto apresenta uma discussão sobre as características do trabalho de supervisão em Gestalt-terapia nos Serviços de Psicologia Aplicada dos cursos de graduação em Psicologia. Com uma presença que ainda pode ser considerada recente na universidade, a Gestalt-terapia propõe uma abordagem no estágio em Psicologia Clínica que não se confunde com uma formação de gestalt-terapeutas. Sua estratégia passa pelo desdobramento de possibilidades criativas da relação do supervisor com o estagiário e,...

  13. La estructura de la pareja: implicaciones para la terapia cognitivo conductual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO GARCÍA HIGUERA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La terapia de pareja cognitivo conductual ha mostrado su eficacia de manera empírica (Chambless et al., 1998. Sin embargo, existen limitaciones (Christensen y Heavey 1999 que indican la necesidad de su potenciación. Este artículo repasa la situación de la terapia de pareja, con las aportaciones actuales, enmarcando todo ello en una visión estructural de la pareja, como ente social y relación diádica, que permita una compresión de los avances que se están dando, y aporte indicaciones sobre los caminos que seguirá en un futuro inmediato.

  14. Terapia complexa descongestiva no tratamento intensivo do linfedema: revisão sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, Isabel de Almeida; Fréz,Andersom Ricardo; Schiessl, Larissa; Ribeiro, Larissa Gulogurski; Preis, Cássio; Guérios, Lara

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO O linfedema caracteriza-se por acúmulo de proteínas e fluídos no interstício, com alterações físicas e psicológicas. Entre as técnicas fisioterapêuticas utilizadas para redução do linfedema está a terapia complexa descongestiva. O objetivo desta revisão é identificar evidências para a prática da terapia complexa descongestiva no tratamento intensivo do linfedema. Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados PubMed, EMBASE e PEDro. Os artigos selecionados foram estudos randomizados e de coo...

  15. Terapia comportamental construtiva: uma outra face da clínica comportamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Vandenberghe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a terapia comportamental construtiva conforme elaborada por Beata Bakker-de Pree. A abordagem, desenvolvida nos Países Baixos, traz uma filosofia do processo terapêutico que é compatível com a de várias terapias comportamentais conhecidas. Acrescenta uma perspectiva valiosa em sua descrição explícita de alguns ingredientes importantes do trabalho clínico, que não estão em destaque nos outros modelos comportamentais, sendo estas a técnica de diferenciação livre e a análise funcional do comportamento saudável do cliente.

  16. Losartan in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a multisystemic disorder of the connective tissue with a prevalence of 1 per 5000 and is caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Cardiovascular characteristics of MFS include aortic dilatation, aortic dissection and a diminished ventricular function. Transforming growth

  17. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da depressão Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Bitencourt Powell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso de técnicas cognitivas e revisar os estudos de eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento da depressão. MÉTODO: Revisão não-sistemática proveniente dos estudos originais, complementada por informações provenientes de metanálises e livros-texto especializados. RESULTADOS: Foram descritos os fundamentos da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento da depressão e revisadas as evidências de eficácia em curto e longo prazo. Discutimos igualmente o uso de tratamento farmacológico concomitante à terapia cognitivo-comportamental. CONCLUSÕES: A terapia cognitivo-comportamental é uma das abordagens que apresentam mais evidências empíricas de eficácia no tratamento da depressão, quer oferecida de forma isolada ou em combinação com farmacoterapia.OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of cognitive techniques and to review studies on the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of depression. METHOD: A non-systematic review of the literature of original studies complemented with data from meta-analyses and specialized textbooks. RESULTS: The fundamentals of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of depression are described and the evidence of short- and long-term efficacy is reviewed. The use of pharmacological therapy in conjunction with CBT is also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: CBT in the treatment of depression is one of the therapeutic modalities with the highest empirical evidence of efficacy, whether applied alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy.

  18. Terapia EMDR en el trastorno límite de personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Mosquera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de personalidad se han asociado a problemas de apego y trauma temprano, siendo de todos ellos el trastorno límite el que presenta unos porcentajes más elevados. La aplicación de terapias orientadas al trauma como EMDR (Desensibilización y Reprocesamiento por Movimientos Oculares en estos trastornos ofrece interesantes posibilidades para su abordaje.

  19. TERAPIA ELÉCTRICA EN CARDIOLOGÍA Electrical Therapy in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mora Pabón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La terapia eléctrica en cardiología está encaminada a transferir electrones al miocardio, su mayor utilidad está dada en la cardioversión y desfibrilación. La terapia eléctrica cumple las leyes de la electricidad y el mayor factor a vencer es la impedancia o resistencia al flujo de electrones. Para mejorar la efectividad de la terapia eléctrica se han ideado diferentes formas en la onda de choque, en la duración y la polaridad. La terapia eléctrica ha logrado consolidarse como el tratamiento de elección del paro cardiorrespiratorio secundario a fibrilación ventricular y taquicardia ventricular sin pulso. Es igualmente el tratamiento de elección en taquiarritmias con compromiso hemodinámico. Pese a sus grandes ventajas tiene efectos secundarios que se deben conocer adecuadamente para dar un tratamiento oportuno.Electrical shock in cardiology are pursuid transfer of electrons to the myocardium. Its main indications are`s cardioversion and defibrillation. The electrical shock therapy follows laws of electricity laws and consequently, its main difficulty is the impedance or resistance of electrons flow. To make better the effectiveness of this therapy, a number of improvements have been made on the shock wave, its duration, and polarity. The electric shock therapy has become the preferred treatment when dealing with cardiorespiratory arrest secondary, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Similarly, it is the preferred treatment for ventricular tachyarrhythmia associated with hemodynamic compromise. Despite its significant advantages, this treatment causes secondary effects, which should adequately be known in order to provide a timely treatment.

  20. Tratamento cirúrgico e terapias adjuvantes na papilomatose respiratória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ameloti Gomes Avelino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Papilomatose respiratória recorrente ou papilomatose laríngea recorrente é uma doença da laringe, causada pelo papiloma vírus humano, caracterizada por lesões epiteliais verrucosas e, geralmente, recorrentes. Na literatura são descritos diversos tipos de tratamento, como cirurgia a frio, a laser e/ou uso de microdebridador, além das terapias adjuvantes; todas no sentindo de diminuir possíveis sequelas permanentes da doença. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão de literatura a respeito desta doença com ênfase nas técnicas cirúrgicas e terapias adjuvantes mais utilizadas atualmente. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se a metodologia de revisão bibliográfica, por meio de levantamentos em base de dados eletrônicos de domínio público, entre 1992-2012, utilizando-se as palavras-chave: papiloma, infecções por papillomavírus, laringe, terapêutica, vacinas contra papillomavírus. RESULTADOS: Foram levantados 357 artigos, dos quais 49 foram usados como base para esta revisão. Os trabalhos científicos apontam para a redução de recidiva na maioria das terapêuticas adjuvantes. Entretanto, o levantamento demonstrou metodologias e amostras diferentes, o que não permitiu comparar os tipos de tratamento e de terapias adjuvantes. CONCLUSÃO: A escolha da técnica cirúrgica varia entre os autores, porém, há uma tendência atual ao uso do microdebridador. As terapias adjuvantes recentes, como cidofovir, vacina tetravalente contra o papiloma vírus humano e bevacizumab, necessitam de estudos mais amplos.

  1. Asistencia ventricular izquierda para terapia de destino: primera experiencia en septuagenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian V. Rojas; Murat Avsar; Jasmin S. Hanke; Aitor Uribarri; Sara Rojas-Hernandez; Pedro L. Sanchez; José M. González-Santos; Axel Haverich; Jan D. Schmitto

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: Durante los últimos años el número de pacientes de avanzada edad que presentan insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva se ha incrementado de manera dramática. En el contexto del estancamiento global del trasplante cardíaco nace la necesidad de una terapia definitiva alternativa para estos pacientes. Recientemente, los dispositivos de asistencia ventricular izquierda (DAVI) han experimentado un auge, sobrepasando incluso el número de pacientes trasplantados mundialmente. El desarrollo tec...

  2. Habilidades Clínicas en la Terapia Conductual Tercera Generación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Barraca Mairal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se repasan las técnicas de tres de las terapias de tercera generación conductual (Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso, Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional y Terapia Conductual Dialéctica para reflexionar sobre el tipo de destrezas que el terapeuta debe desarrollar si pretende lograr una actuación competente al practicarlas. Este examen lleva a distinguir entre: (1 habilidades de escucha y discriminación de respuesta; (2 habilidades de fluidez, repertorio y competencia verbal; (3 habilidades de ejecución motora; (4 habilidades de imaginación-creatividad; (5 habilidades de conexión-empatía; y (6 otras habilidades (trabajo en grupo entre terapeutas, meditación, atención plena, etc.. Un análisis de estas destrezas permite concluir que los nuevos desarrollos parten de las tradicionales habilidades del terapeuta cognitivo-conductual pero replanteadas y con formas decididamente más elaboradas. Por otro lado, se revela que las competencias habitualmente entrenadas en la licenciatura, así como las que pueden derivarse exclusivamente de la lectura de los textos en que se divulgan estas terapias, resultan limitadas para un trabajo eficaz dentro de estos nuevos modelos. En conclusión, se propone la implementación de una formación práctica o procedimental a través de talleres, materiales audio-visuales y supervisión de casos.

  3. Terapias cognitivo conductuales para el tratamiento de los trastornos de personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Navarro-Leis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se han propuesto muchos tratamientos psicológicos para el abordaje de los trastornos de personalidad, realizándose gran variedad de estudios para comprobar la eficacia de los mismos. Y aunque hasta la fecha no se ha podido demostrar empíricamente que exista ningún tratamiento establecido como eficaz, si se ha demostrado que los tratamientos cognitivo conductuales y conductuales resultan probablemente eficaces para el tratamiento de estos trastornos, en concreto y de forma más específica para el Trastorno Límite de Personalidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión a nivel teórico y empírico de los tres modelos de tratamiento considerados actualmente de mayor eficacia: Terapia Dialéctica Conductual, Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso y Psicoterapia Analítico Funcional, incluidas dentro de las llamadas Terapias de conducta de tercera generación.

  4. Estilos de cuidar de enfermeiras na Terapia Intensiva mediados pela tecnologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Celestino da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar as representações sociais de enfermeiras de terapia intensiva sobre as práticas de cuidado, face à tecnologia. Realizou-se entrevistas com vinte e uma enfermeiras de um centro de terapia intensiva, em hospital público do Rio de Janeiro. Aplicouse análise lexical, com uso do Alceste 2010. Os resultados se organizaram em duas categorias, cada qual com três classes lexicais. A primeira trouxe o sentido da tecnologia na terapia intensiva e a organização dos estilos de cuidar; a segunda mostrou a condição do cliente e suas repercussões na prática de cuidar das enfermeiras. Concluiu-se que a tecnologia organiza os estilos de cuidar das enfermeiras, que se constroem na assistência ao cliente no contexto do trabalho. Estes conduzem as enfermeiras a atribuírem sentidos às suas práticas, levando-os a elaboração de modos de atuar em face das tecnologias.

  5. Tres casos interesantes de uso de terapia de vacío en neonatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Capdevila

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. La terapia de vacío es una herramienta adicional en el arsenal terapéutico actual del cirujano plástico y se aplica frecuentemente en el tratamiento de heridas complejas como paso intermedio hasta el tratamiento definitivo de las mismas, y como medida de disminución del tiempo que transcurre hasta su cierre. En el caso de los neonatos, es especialmente crítico conseguir disminuir este tiempo hasta el cierre definitivo de las heridas; sin embargo, la bibliografía al respecto no aporta suficiente información sobre el uso de esta modalidad terapéutica en épocas tempranas de la vida. Pretendemos por tanto compartir la experiencia clínica en este tema de nuestra Unidad de Cirugía Plástica Pediátrica. Material y Método. Describimos 3 casos en los que el uso de terapia de vacío permitió un tratamiento adecuado y definitivo de heridas de diferente etiología y diferentes localizaciones en pacientes neonatos. Conclusiones. Consideramos que la terapia de vacío constituye una excelente herramienta para la preparación de heridas complejas como paso previo al tratamiento definitivo y como una medida terapéutica segura también en neonatos.

  6. Terapia con anticuerpos monoclonales en Cardiología y Medicina Interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian David Adams-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La terapia biológica basada en anticuerpos monoclonales, constituyen una nueva herramienta terapéutica, que de la mano del desarrollo de la biología molecular permiten intervenir puntos claves en la etiopatogenia de la enfermedad, permitiendo una terapia personalizada. Se han desarrollado nuevos anticuerpos monoclonales que intervienen en las enfermedades cardiovasculares, por lo que el entendimiento de los principios terapéuticos, los tipos y el mecanismo de acción de estos fármacos es esencial para un uso adecuado. En este artículo se discutirá el perfil de los anticuerpos monoclonales en la enfermedad cardiovascular, como los inhibidores de la PCSK-9 y el antídoto del Dabigatran, pasando por las moléculas ya conocidas como el abciximab, el antídoto de la digoxina y la terapia inmunomoduladora en el trasplante cardiaco. Del mismo modo, se evalúa una posible aplicación de los anticuerpos monoclonales usados en reumatología que podrían tener un papel importante en el manejo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

  7. 207. Terapia de resincronización cardíaca en la práctica clínica diaria. seguimiento a medio plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La TRC es una terapia eficaz en el tratamiento de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento convencional en nuestro medio. Es fundamental una correcta selección de los pacientes que van a ser sometidos a dicha terapia con vistas a mejorar la efectividad de ésta.

  8. La discrepancia entre la investigación y la práctica clínica de la terapia de conducta

    OpenAIRE

    Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    1999-01-01

    La terapia y modificación de conducta se ha consolidado como la terapia psicológica de mayor relevancia y eficacia en sus 40 años de existencia. Sin embargo cada vez más se hace evidente el surgimiento de discrepancias entre la investigación que sust

  9. Efectos de una terapia combinada de ejercicio terapéutico basado en el método pilates y movilización neuromeníngea en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico inespecífico. Estudio de casos.

    OpenAIRE

    González Sánchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Grado (TFG) Objetivo: Conocer los efectos de un programa de tratamiento que combina el ejercicio terapéutico basado en el método Pilates y la Movilización Neuromeníngea en pacientes con dolor lumbar crónico inespecífico irradiado a miembros inferiores. Diseño: Estudio de casos. Participantes: Muestra de 7 pacientes, todas ellas mujeres de entre 39 y 61 años de edad, que presentan dolor lumbar crónico inespecífico irradiado a miembros inferiores. Intervención: Se realizó un p...

  10. Cuanta más psicología, mejor: eficacia para dejar de fumar. De la terapia cognitiva conductual intensiva y de los parches de nicotina combinados con terapia cognitiva conductual intensiva y menos intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Gabino Fernández Arias; María Paz García-Vera; Jesús Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Para comparar la eficacia para dejar de fumar de la terapia cognitiva conductual intensiva (TCC/I), la TCC/I con parches de nicotina (TCC/I+PN) y la terapia cognitiva conductual no intensiva con parches de nicotina (TCC/NI+PN) se realizó un estudio experimental de medidas repetidas con 235 fumadores adultos asignados aleatoriamente a uno de esos tres tratamientos. Entre los pacientes que completaron el tratamiento (n = 152) la TCC/I+PN mostró tasas de abstinencia a los 6 meses y al año, mayor...

  11. Relación empírica entre la Terapia Racional Emotivo-Conductual (TREC) de Ellis y la Terapia Cognitiva (TC) de Beck en una muestra costarricense

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas Pizarro, Hannia; Lega, Leonor I.

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio se explora una posible relación empírica entre la terapia racional emotivoconductual (TREC) de Ellis y la terapia cognitiva (TC) de Beck, dos de los modelos más conspicuos en el campo de la psicoterapia cognitiva actual. Si bien este modelo utiliza el término “cognitivo” en forma tal que se encuentra asociado con el afecto, la fisiología y la conducta (Dobson, 1986), sostiene que las perturbaciones emocionales, en esencia, son causadas por el proceso cognitivo del individuo. E...

  12. Tratamento hipolipemiante em situações especiais: pós-transplante e/ou terapia imunossupressora

    OpenAIRE

    Izar,Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Existem dados limitados sobre o uso concomitante de agentes hipolipemiantes e drogas imunosupressoras. As melhores evidências provêm do uso de estatinas e ciclosporina. Em termos farmacodinâmicos, estas duas drogas têm substratos diferentes. No tocante a farmacocinética, as estatinas não modificam as concentrações plasmáticas de ciclosporina. Entretanto, quando combinada a qualquer estatina, um controle rigoroso dos níveis de ciclosporina é recomendado, levando-se em conta o seu estreito inte...

  13. Terapia fibrinolítica sistêmica no tromboembolismo pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ceresetto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O tromboembolismo pulmonar permanece como um grande desafio terapêutico para os médicos especialistas, pois, apesar de todo investimento e desenvolvimento em seu diagnóstico, profilaxia e tratamento, essa condição continua sendo a principal causa de morte evitável em ambiente hospitalar. Ainda restam muitas dúvidas em relação a qual perfil de paciente vai se beneficiar de fato da terapia fibrinolítica sistêmica, sem ficar exposto a um grande risco de sangramento. A estratificação de risco e a avaliação do prognóstico do evento, através de escores clínicos de insuficiência ventricular direita, marcadores de dilatação e disfunção do ventrículo direito e avaliação da massa trombótica, associados ou de forma isolada, são ferramentas que podem auxiliar na identificação do paciente que irá se beneficiar dessa terapia. Os únicos consensos em relação à terapia fibrinolítica no tratamento do tromboembolismo pulmonar são: não deve ser indicada de forma rotineira; nenhum dos escores ou marcadores, isoladamente, devem justificar seu uso; e os pacientes com instabilidade hemodinâmica são os mais beneficiados. Além disto, deve-se avaliar cada caso em relação ao risco de sangramento, especialmente no sistema nervoso central.

  14. Terapia trombolítica en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio en Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Abilio Hernández Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el tratamiento trombolítico practicado a menos de dos horas, tras el inicio del infarto tiene resultados similares a la reperfusión mecánica. Objetivo: describir aspectos relevantes de la terapia trombolítica en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST en Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, en 225 pacientes egresados (vivos y fallecidos desde el 1o de abril de 2012 al 31 marzo de 2013, de la Unidad de Cuidados Integrales del Corazón y la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Polivalentes, del Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima. Las variables estudiadas se obtuvieron de la revisión de las historias clínicas e incluyeron: variables demográficas y clínicas, tiempos de demora, sitio, motivo de exclusión y nivel de prioridad para la trombolisis. Resultados: la media de edad superó los 60 años. Predominaron los hombres, hipertensos y de alto riesgo según la escala GRACE. El 29,7 % de los pacientes no recibió terapia trombolítica, debido mayormente al factor tiempo y la mayoría (82,3 % se trató en el Hospital. Las medianas de los tiempos de demora: síntomas-puerta, puerta-droga y síntomas-droga fueron 90, 35 y 140 minutos respectivamente. Conclusiones: la trombolisis extrahospitalaria acorta el tiempo total de isquemia, pero pocos pacientes se beneficiaron de ella. Los retrasos para la terapia trombolítica en Cienfuegos continúan por encima de los estándares requeridos.

  15. A atuação do profissional fisioterapeuta em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Casciane Simão Reis Theis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar na literatura atual, a atuação do profissional fisioterapeuta em unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal. Método: como estratégia, foi realizada busca nas bases de dados MEDLINE (via PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Lilacs e PEDro, publicado nos últimos dez anos. Além de busca manual em referências de estudos já publicados sobre o assunto. Foram encontrados 20 artigos. A busca compreendeu os seguintes descritores "Fisioterapia motora”, “Unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal”, “técnicas fisioterapêuticas”, “Motor Physiotherapy”, “neonatal intensive care unit”, “physiotherapeutic techniques. Resultados: a fisioterapia é parte da assistência multiprofissional proporcionada nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs. O contínuo desenvolvimento do tratamento fisioterapêutico nas UTIs neonatais levou às melhores técnicas e recursos para essa população. A fisioterapia motora está entre os procedimentos utilizados com a preocupação de diminuir atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor dos recém-nascidos (RNs. Conclusões: a função do fisioterapeuta no atendimento em UTIs neonatais é identificar o melhor tratamento, a fim de intervir precocemente nas possíveis disfunções motoras advindas do tempo de internação prolongado dos RNs. Cada vez mais, a inserção do profissional fisioterapeuta se faz necessário na assistência multidisciplinar ao recém-nascido pré-termo. Em geral, constatou-se que a fisioterapia desempenha um papel importante dentro das UTIs neonatais, promovendo resultados importantes na qualidade de vida desses recém-nascidos e seus familiares.

  16. Diferentes terapias na osteoartrite induzida por papaína em joelhos de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseto, Laryssa Petrocini [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    Devido ao aumento da expectativa de vida dos animais e o crescente número de pessoas, a osteoartrite (OA), também conhecida como artrose, surge como uma das afecções mais relevantes na medicina veterinária e humana. Diversos tratamentos são utilizados e propostos, porém não há ainda consenso sobre a melhor terapia. Objetivou-se investigar e comparar a eficácia do Laser de baixa intensidade e o ultrassom terapêutico em conjunto com plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP), no tratamento da o...

  17. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental da fobia social Cognitive-behavioral therapy in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M Ito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo revisa aspectos relevantes da fobia social e os estágios de tratamento através da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em crianças, adolescentes e adultos. MÉTODO: A partir do banco de dados Medline, realizou-se revisão da literatura publicada a respeito do tratamento da fobia social por meio da terapia cognitivo-comportamental. RESULTADOS: Revisão da literatura sugere que a fobia social é uma condição prevalente e crônica, caracterizada por inibição social e timidez excessiva. Tanto o diagnóstico como o tratamento desse transtorno são comumente determinados pelo nível de incômodo e pelo prejuízo funcional. Estudos populacionais indicam taxas de prevalência ao longo da vida para a fobia social entre 2,5 e 13,3%. As principais técnicas utilizadas na terapia cognitivo-comportamental para a fobia social são descritas e exemplificadas em um relato de caso. CONCLUSÕES: Há consenso geral na literatura de que a terapia cognitivo-comportamental é eficaz tanto para o tratamento de jovens como de adultos com fobia social. Uma vez que a fobia social com freqüência tem início precoce, a identificação de crianças com risco acentuado para o desenvolvimento de fobia social deve ser priorizada em investigações futuras.OBJECTIVE: This article reviews relevant aspects of social phobia and the stages of treatment within cognitive-behavioral therapy in children and adolescents, as well as in adults. METHOD: A review of the literature published on the treatment of social phobia using cognitive-behavioral treatments was performed using the Medline database. RESULTS: A review of the literature suggests that social phobia is a chronic and prevalent condition, characterized by social inhibition and excessive shyness. Diagnosis and treatment of the disorder are usually determined by distress level and functional impairment. Population studies indicate that lifetime prevalence rates for social phobia range from 2.5 to 13

  18. Familiares de pacientes com AVC em unidade de terapia intensiva: impactos do adoecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Galdieri Torres

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo principal, conhecer o impacto do adoecimento para os familiares de pacientes vítimas de AVC, que se encontram internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. Habitualmente, a literatura tem mostrado trabalhos realizados com familiares de pacientes em situação crônica de adoecimento; estudos que contemplem os familiares no momento inicial do adoecimento ainda são escassos. Os instantes iniciais de internamento em uma UTI configuram-se como um desafio a ser enfrentado ...

  19. Efecto de la terapia manual en el síndrome del latigazo cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Olombrada de Santos, María

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome del latigazo cervical es una patología muy común altamente relacionada con los accidentes de tráfico. Puede presentarse de varias formas, cuyos signos y síntomas son distintos en cada caso, por ello no existe un solo tipo de tratamiento. El tratamiento fisioterápico, que incluyen las terapias manuales, es fundamental para la mejoría de estos pacientes. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la utilidad de las diferentes técnicas manuales, utilizadas por fis...

  20. Terapia génica neuroprotectora a largo plazo en un modelo de envejecimiento experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Schwerdt, J. I.; Hereñú, Claudia Beatriz; Camihort, Gisela; Luna, Georgina; Spinedi, Eduardo; Goya, Rodolfo Gustavo; Cónsole-Avegliano, Gloria Miriam

    2015-01-01

    El envejecimiento se asocia a una mayor incidencia de enfermedades neurodegenerativas (Parkinson, Alzheimer) que abren la posibilidad de aplicar terapia génica con factores neurotróficos. Los pacientes portadores de enfermedad de Parkinson presentan alteraciones funcionales en el eje hipotálamolactotropo. En la rata hembra, el envejecimiento trae aparejada una progresiva degeneración y pérdida de neuronas hipotalámicas tubero-infundibulares dopaminérgicas (TIDA) que ejercen un control tóni...

  1. Impacto nutricional de la terapia biológica en pacientes oncológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar González, Marta

    2015-01-01

    La malnutrición es un factor determinante en pacientes oncológicos, siendo considerado como factor pronóstico de la enfermedad. La desnutrición no es causada solo por el tumor, sino que también por los tratamientos recibidos para su cura. Uno de esos tratamientos es la terapia biológica, también denominada inmunoterapia, la cual no ha sido muy estudiada para determinar el impacto nutricional que conlleva a estos tipos de pacientes. Debido a la poca información disponible sobre el impa...

  2. Laser terapia no controle da mucosite oral: um estudo de metanálise

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, André Luiz Peixoto; Lins, Liliane; Cattony, Ana Carolina; Falcão, Antônio Fernando Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Realizar uma metanálise da eficácia da laser terapia (LT) na prevenção damucosite oral (MO) em pacientes submetidos à oncoterapia. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma busca nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane, utilizando as palavras-chave "laser therapy" e "oral mucositis". Os estudos de caso-controle incluídos foram submetidos à análise do odds ratio (OR), cujo ponto de corte para a estatística foi MO grau > 3. Os cálculos foram realizados com o programa BioEstat 5.0, utilizando a...

  3. PATOLOGIA ENDOMETRIAL EN MUJERES CON SANGRADO ANORMAL DURANTE TERAPIA DE REEMPLAZO HORMONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi P,Marcelo; Berrios C.,Cecilia; Villaseca D.,Paulina; Arteaga U,Eugenio

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio para analizar la incidencia de patología endometrial en mujeres sanas posmenopáusicas que reciben terapia de reemplazo hormonal (TRH) y que presentan sangrado uterino anormal. Se estudiaron 188 mujeres posmenopáusicas que presentaron flujo rojo uterino anormal (irregular o excesivo) durante TRH con estrógenos y progesterona en diferentes esquemas (49% secuencial continuo; 39% combinado continuo; 12% secuencial discontinuo. Al 100% de las pacientes se les realizó en form...

  4. TERAPIA GESTÁLTICA DE FRIEDRICH SOLOMON PERLS FUNDAMENTACIÓN FENOMENOLÓGICA-EXISTENCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Velásquez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera parte de este documento se ocupa de la vida de Fritz Perls, quien ha sido considerado uno de los principales representantes del Enfoque Humanista en Psicología. En segunda instancia se analiza, de manera clara y precisa, la estrecha relación que existe entre la filosofía existencial, la fenomenología y la Terapia Gestalt propuesta por Perls. Así mismo, el autor revisa los elementos teóricos y prácticos de diversas teorías y escuelas de pensamiento que convergen de manera apropiada en el modelo psicoterapéutico de Perls.

  5. Acidosis láctica secundaria a terapia antirretroviral en pacientes con VIH/sida

    OpenAIRE

    Benhard Hasbum-Fernández; José Rojas-Solano; Luis Gutiérrez-Jaikel; María Paz León-Bratti

    2006-01-01

    La acidosis láctica es una complicación infrecuente de la terapia antirretroviral para VIH. Su aparición se ha relacionado con la administración de análogos nucleósidos de la transcriptasa inversa, en especial estavudina y didanosina. Se presentan los 2 casos que se manejaron en el año 2005 en el Servicio de Medicina del Hospital México. En ambos el desenlace fue fatal, aún cuando se utilizaron todas las medidas terapéuticas recomendadas.Lactic acidosis is a rare complication of antiretrovira...

  6. Fenomenologia do onírico: a gestalt-terapia e a daseinsanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívena Pérola do Amaral Santos

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta a gestalt-terapia e a daseinsanálise enquanto abordagens representativas no trabalho clínico com o sonhar humano, tendo como base o método fenomenológico. Traz os conceitos teóricos e as aplicações práticas propostas por ambas. Por fim, traz uma análise das convergências e divergências entre as duas teorias, estabelecendo-se suas distinções e contribuições.

  7. Tratamiento psicológico, según la terapia racional emotiva

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Amorós Terán

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo el autor presenta el caso de un paciente de 30 años, de sexo masculino, soltero, quien sufre de ansiedad, depresión e incapacidad para enfrentar el trabajo. Se describen los datos más importantes de la historia y el motivo de consulta y se relatan algunas sesiones de terapia racional emotiva. The author presents the study of a 30 year old patient, a single male, who suffers from anxiety, depression and difficulties to cope with his work. The most important aspects of the pati...

  8. Humanização da fisioterapia em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto: estudo transversal

    OpenAIRE

    Mondadori, Aléxia Gabrielly; Zeni, Emanuelly de Moraes; Oliveira, Alani de; Silva, Cristiane Cosmo da; Wolf, Vaneza Lira Waldow; Taglietti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Para promover qualidade de vida aos pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), há a necessidade e obrigação de humanizar o atendimento, em que somos comprometidos a prevenir, cuidar, proteger e recuperar, ou seja, promover saúde. O fisioterapeuta exerce um papel fundamental na reabilitação dos pacientes internados em UTI, e, além de qualidade técnica, deve prezar pela qualidade relacional de sua assistência, a fim de transmitir confiança e de estar atento às necessidad...

  9. Evidencia de la eficacia de la terapia cognitivo-conductual, mediante neuroimagen, en trastornos de ansiedad

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno de la Torre, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Es bien conocida la propiedad plástica del cerebro, su capacidad de cambio para adaptar la conducta a las exigencias del entorno. En esta revisión de 20 estudios publicados entre 2011-2015, se analizan los cambios cerebrales asociados a la terapia cognitiva-conductual (TCC) en trastornos de ansiedad y se discute si las técnicas de neuroimagen pueden contribuir a valorar la eficacia de esta modalidad terapéutica. Cada vez hay más pruebas que evidencian la estrecha relación entre cambio cerebra...

  10. Terapia de ondas de choque (oce) en ortopedia y medicina deportiva

    OpenAIRE

    Llinas, Paulo José

    2014-01-01

    La terapia de ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas es una nueva opción de tratamiento para patologías ortopédicas y medicina de rehabilitación. Su descubrimiento se remonta a los años 40 durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, cuando las autopsias de náufragos que habían sufrido el efecto de ataques con cargas de profundidad, evidenciaron severas lesiones a nivel pulmonar a pesar de no existir signos externos de violencia. Esta situación generó un profundo interés en los efectos ...

  11. TERAPIA GESTÁLTICA DE FRIEDRICH SOLOMON PERLS FUNDAMENTACIÓN FENOMENOLÓGICA-EXISTENCIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Fernando Velásquez

    2001-01-01

    La primera parte de este documento se ocupa de la vida de Fritz Perls, quien ha sido considerado uno de los principales representantes del Enfoque Humanista en Psicología. En segunda instancia se analiza, de manera clara y precisa, la estrecha relación que existe entre la filosofía existencial, la fenomenología y la Terapia Gestalt propuesta por Perls. Así mismo, el autor revisa los elementos teóricos y prácticos de diversas teorías y escuelas de pensamiento que convergen de...

  12. Efectividad de la terapia breve hipnótica en mujeres violentadas por su pareja

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas Velázquez, Bertha Margarita

    2017-01-01

    El propósito de esta tesis es mostrar evidencias de la efectividad del tratamiento de Terapia Breve, con base a la hipnosis como coadyuvante (TBH), en el proceso psicoterapéutico de mujeres violentadas por parte de su pareja, o expareja. El problema de la violencia contra la mujer por la pareja ha sido ratificado como un problema de salud pública por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS, 2003a, 2010), tanto por el alto número de muertes de mujeres en manos de sus parejas, como por la...

  13. Aspectos fundamentales en la elección de la terapia renal sustitutiva

    OpenAIRE

    González Calvo, Carlos; Álvarez Rodríguez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Comunicación Oral presentada en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid La Insuficiencia Renal Crónica (IRC) es una enfermedad con una gran prevalencia en nuestro medio, y las personas que sufren dicha enfermedad deben de tener claro que Terapia Renal Sustitutiva (TRS) puede adaptarse mejor a su forma de vida. Es importante que el paciente tenga la suficiente información sobre las técnicas a la...

  14. Terapia miofuncional no tratamento de fratura de côndilo mandibular: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Trench,Janayna de Aguiar; Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia de; Benevides,Silvia Damasceno

    2012-01-01

    p. 263-266 A reabilitação das fraturas de côndilo mandibular envolve a opção por procedimentos cirúrgicos conservadores, fisioterápicos e fonoaudiológico. O objetivo deste estudo é o de descrever a relevância da terapia miofuncional orofacial em paciente acometido por fratura de côndilo mandibular bilateral. Trata-se de um relato de caso clínico de um menor com 14 anos de idade, atendido e acompanhado no Serviço de Fonoaudiologia do Ambulatório Prof. Magalhães Neto, anexo ao HU...

  15. Terapia ocupacional modulando a dor em pacientes oncológicos sob cuidados paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Natasha [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Estudos têm relacionado o uso de atividades terapêuticas como uma técnica nãofarmacológica efetiva para o controle da dor oncológica e de outros sintomas decorrentes da doença, contribuindo de maneira significativa na melhora da qualidade de vida. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados de um programa de terapia ocupacional aplicado a pacientes oncológicos sob cuidados paliativos, no que se refere à modulação da dor, qualidade de vida e sintomas emocionais. Após a aprovação do comit...

  16. Gênese e construção de uma filosofia da gestalt na gestalt-terapia

    OpenAIRE

    Granzotto, Rosane Lorena

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia A Gestalt-terapia é uma proposta de intervenção psicoterapêutica que se entende fundamentada numa leitura gestáltica da metapsicologia freudiana, por um lado, e numa interpretação fenomenológica da Psicologia da Gestalt, por outro. Seu principal mentor, Perls, referiu-se a esses fundamentos como uma sorte de "filosofia da gestalt", parcialmente des...

  17. Nuevas terapias biológicas en el tratamiento de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Pravia Sánchez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) define a un grupo de enfermedades distintas que comparten como característica el producir inflamación crónica del tracto gastrointestinal. Los dos principales tipos de EII son la colitis ulcerosa (CU) y la enfermedad de Crohn (EC). En este trabajo vamos a realizar un estudio de las nuevas terapias biológicas utilizadas para el tratamiento de la EII. Son muchos los estudios existentes sobre dicha enfermedad, cosa que facilita el análisis de nuestr...

  18. Bases científicas de la terapia de conducta: nuevas propuestas para un viejo problema

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Bornas; Miquel Noguera

    2002-01-01

    En este trabajo se revisa críticamente el recurrente tópico de las bases científicas de la Terapia de Conducta. Asumiendo que la investigación científica de la conducta es conveniente, si no necesaria, para el desarrollo tecnológico y aplicado, se propone tomar en consideración algunos conceptos relativamente nuevos de la Ciencia (por ejemplo, el de caos determinístico) y utilizarlos, al menos tentativamente, para procurar obtener un conocimiento mejor de la complejidad de la c...

  19. Efecto placebo y terapias alternativas: ¿Qué relación hay entre ambos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafina Petrova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Los placebos son sustancias farmacológicamente inertes utilizadas habitualmente como controles en los ensayos clínicos. Sin embargo, estas sustancias pueden llegar a tener un efecto significativo a nivel fisiológico a través de varios mecanismos psicológicos, lo que llamamos “efecto placebo”. En este artículo describimos en detalle qué es este efecto, cuáles son sus bases neurofisiológicas y cómo se relaciona con algunas terapias alternativas populares como la homeopatía.

  20. Novas tendências terapêuticas de enfermagem: terapias naturais - programa de atendimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Toshiko Ono Tashiro

    Full Text Available O presente estudo relata a experiência vivenciada pelos enfermeiros na Clínica de Enfermagem do Campus Universitário do Grande ABC (UniABC, utilizando as terapias naturais: balanceamento muscular, acupuntura e reflexologia como ações terapêuticas de enfermagem. Conclui ressaltando a relevância da aplicação técnico-científica no desenvolvimento das atividades de enfermagem e a sua conseqüente repercussão no cuidado de enfermagem.