WorldWideScience

Sample records for tephrosia egregia sandw

  1. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-27

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  2. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Faqi; Li, Yinhu; Gao, Qingbo; Lei, Shuyun; Khan, Gulzar; Yang, Huiling; Chen, Shilong

    2015-08-01

    Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herb that is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for S. egregia to investigate its population genetics. Forty-eight pairs of microsatellite primers (including 36 monomorphic loci) were isolated and characterized by magnetic bead enrichment. Twelve of these markers showed polymorphism, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 14 across 50 individuals from three populations of S. egregia. No linkage disequilibrium was detected in any pair of loci. These polymorphic markers are expected to be helpful in further studies on the systematics and phylogeography of S. egregia in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  3. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Faqi; Li, Yinhu; Gao, Qingbo; Lei, Shuyun; Khan, Gulzar; Yang, Huiling; Chen, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herb that is endemic to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for S. egregia to investigate its population genetics. Methods and Results: Forty-eight pairs of microsatellite primers (including 36 monomorphic loci) were isolated and characterized by magnetic bead enrichment. Twelve of these markers showed polymorphism, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 14 across 50 individuals from three populations of S. egregia. No linkage disequilibrium was detected in any pair of loci. Conclusions: These polymorphic markers are expected to be helpful in further studies on the systematics and phylogeography of S. egregia in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. PMID:26312195

  4. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Tephrosia purpurea Pers Root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, S.; Ventaka, Ramana K.; Vinod, K.R

    2010-01-01

    Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part. PMID:22557415

  5. Contraction Of Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum By Tephrosia vogelii Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the isolated guinea pig ileum, using the crude methanolic leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f., and with the aim of determining its effects on contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. Modified Magnus technique was employed in setting up the tissue. Acetylcholine (ACh), histamine and ...

  6. Preliminary Investigation Into The Acute Oral Toxicity Of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the acute toxicity of the crude methanolic leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) in mice following oral administration of the extract at doses ranging from 10 to 10,000 mg per kg body weight. Propylene glycol was used as vehicle of administration. Clinical signs observed ...

  7. Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples ...

  8. Chemical and biological study of Tephrosia toxicaria Pers; Estudo quimico e biologico de Tephrosia toxicaria Pers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Queiroz; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes de; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao Ferreira de; Almeida, Maria Mozarina Beserra; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mafezoli, Jair; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia, Odontologia e Enfermagem. Dept. de Farmacia

    2009-07-01

    The ethanol extracts from leaves, stems, pods and roots were assayed against the third instar Aedes aegypti larvae and the highest activity was observed in the roots extracts (LC{sub 50} 47.86 ppm). This extract was submitted to partition with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The respective fractions were bioassayed and the best larvicidal activities were identified in the hexane (LC{sub 50} 23.99 ppm) and chloroform (LC{sub 50} 13.80 ppm) fractions. Antioxidant activity (DDPH method) was observed in the ethanol extract (IC{sub 50} 276 {mu}g/mL) from roots of T. toxicaria. Fractions from this extract were also tested and the highest antioxidant activity (IC{sub 50} 89 {mu}g/mL) was found in the methanol fraction. The flavonoids iso-obovatin (1), obovatin (2), 6a,12a-dehydro-{beta}-toxicarol (3), 6a,12a-dehydro-{alpha}-toxicarol (4) and {alpha}-toxicarol (5) were isolated and bioassayed against A. aegypti. The flavonoid 5 showed the best larvicidal activity (LC{sub 50} 24.55 ppm). The antioxidant activity of 2 was investigated and showed IC{sub 50} 3.370 {mu}g/ml. The antioxidant and larvicidal activities of Tephrosia toxicaria are reported for the first time. (author)

  9. Tephrosia vogelii for control of fleas in free-range poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2Programme Director International Animal Health, Center for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal. School of Veterinary ... alternative for controlling diseases in rural areas, where access to modern medicines and extension service delivery is lacking. .... included: Tephrosia vogelii (fish bean),. Capsicum frutescens and ...

  10. Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks on dairy cows among small-scale dairy farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. T. vogelii treatment concentrations and Triatix D acaricide dip were randomly administered to 40 dairy cows. The experiment was carried out ...

  11. Ethno-medical and veterinary uses of Tephrosia vogelii hook. F.: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All parts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) is used in tropical Africa for numerous ethno-medical and traditional veterinary practices. The leaf is ichthyotoxic and has been used as insecticide, rodenticide and anthelminthic. It has also been used as abortifacient and to induce menses. The leaf macerate is purgative and ...

  12. Managing Tephrosia mulch and fertilizer to enhance coffee productivity on smallholder farms in the Eastern African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In Maraba, Southwest Rwanda, coffee productivity is constrained by poor soil fertility and lack of organic mulch. We investigated the potential to produce mulch by growing Tephrosia vogelii either intercropped with smallholder coffee or in arable fields o

  13. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  14. Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects ofTephrosia purpurea seed extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Sethupathy, S; Manoharan, S

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of ethanolic seed extract ofTephrosia purpurea (TpEt) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose 6 phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of "TpEt" at a dose of 300mg/kg bw showed significant antihyperglcemic and antilipidperoxidative effects as well as increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of non enzymatic antioxidants. We also noticed that the antihyperglycemic effect of plant drug (TpEt) was comparable to that of the reference drug glibenclamide. Our results clearly indicate that "TpEt" has potent antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive antidiabetic principles from "TpEt".

  15. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Manoharan, S; Renju, G L; Sethupathy, S

    2007-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide leading metabolic syndrome, associated with profound alterations in carbohydrate, lipids, lipoproteins and protein metabolisms. Worldwide, traditional practitioners for the treatment of diabetes and its complications use a wide variety of medicinal plants. In the present study the aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves (TpALet) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Profound alterations in the concentrations of blood glucose, lipids and lipoproteins were observed in diabetic rats. Oral administration of TpALet to diabetic rats at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the level of blood glucose and increased the level of plasma insulin as well as normalized the lipids and lipoproteins profile. The present study thus demonstrated that TpALet has prominent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  16. Agroforestry systems in northern Vietnam with Tephrosia candida as an alternative to short-fallow crop rotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Fagerstroem, M.H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Tephrosia candida was experimentally tested on-farm as an improved fallow species (TepFa), in hedgerows, (TepAl) and in a mulch transfer system (TepMu) in an upland rice (Oryza sativa) system on sloping land in northern Vietnam during the period 1996-1999. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate whether the existing monocropping (Mono) and short-fallow crop rotations (NaFa) are sustainable systems with respect to soil erosion and concomitant nutrient losses; (2) to determine whether agroforestry systems with Tephrosia (TepFa, TepAl, TepMu) can improve nutrient cycling and nutrient balances, for instance by preventing nutrient losses through erosion, as well as sustaining upland rice yields. A criteria system, including soil and nutrient losses, nutrient balances, changes of P-available pools, returns on labour and farmers' response, was used for comparing the systems tested. Only TepFa gave a positive input-output balance for both P and N. TepFa increased soil N and seemed to positively affect the release of soil labile P. However, the cost of Tephrosia seeds made the Net Present Value (NPV) of the Tephrosia fallow crop rotation system negative. TepMu increased upland rice yield by 50% compared to Mono. As a result, NPV was positive and sufficient rice for one more person could be produced per ha and year. However, the yield increase could cause a depletion of plant-available P, and the timing for pruning and mulching activities coincided with the farming activities in paddy fields. TepAl increased soil N, gave a neutral overall effect on crop yield but a negative NPV. NaFa gave a positive and highest NPV. In general, TepFa and TepMu were shown to increase crop yield per hectare with acceptable returns on labour and also to do better than Mono and NaFa with respect to preventing soil and nutrient losses through erosion. Recommendations are made for further research to focus on alternatives to maintain soil P, mechanisms of P pool reallocation and

  17. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.

  18. In Vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia Vogelii on Rhipicephalus Sanguineus in Abomey-Calavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougnon Tossou Jacques

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. The use of Tephrosia leafs’ extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central Kenya. Materials and Methods: The present study’s aim is to inventory endogenous control methods against dogs’ ticks among which Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi. From September to October 2013, a survey was made on forty randomly selected breeders and ticks samples were collected on forty dogs. The web platform, www.epicollect.net, was used for the survey. In total, 77.5% (n=40 of examined dogs were infested with ticks Results: Three species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum. They were found on 77.5%, 17.5%, and 15% of examined dogs, respectively. The numerical abundance of the three species was 87.06%, 11.9%, and 1.03%, respectively. The average number of ticks per animal was 16.83±5.04, 2.3±1.64, and 0.2±0.08 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum, respectively. Farmers used manual diptank (67.5%, plant ash (37.5%, petroleum (12.5%, motor oil (2.50 %, and sea water (7.5% to fight against ticks. Conclusions: The phytochemical screening of the leafy stem’s powder of Tephrosia vogelii revealed the presence of catechol tannins, saponins, sugars, leuco-anthocyanins, polyterpenes, and sterols. A 100% larval mortality was observed at the concentration of 20% the ethanolic extract of the leafy stem of Tephrosia vogelii. The LC50 of this ethanolic extract against Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was equal to 2.6%.

  19. Revisão taxonômica das espécies do gênero Tephrosia Pers. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae) ocorrentes na América do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Teixeira de Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Tephrosia Pers. apresenta distribuição pantropical e é constituído por cerca de 350 espécies. A classificação infragenérica foi baseada principalmente em características florais das espécies. Para o gênero, têm sido reconhecidos dois subgêneros: Tephrosia subg.BarbistylaBrummitt e T. subg. Tephrosia, sendo o primeiro caracterizado pela presença de indumento ao longo do estilete e a base do estigma glabra, enquanto o segundo apresenta estilete glabro e tricomas na base do estigma. Ambo...

  20. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  1. Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.). A.Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutunga, V.; Karanja, N.K.; Gachene, C.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass

  2. Effects of Tephrosia purpurea aqueous seed extract on blood glucose and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavana, P; Sethupathy, S; Santha, K; Manoharan, S

    2008-10-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous seed extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TpASet) on blood glucose and antioxidant status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia associated with an altered hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, elevated lipid peroxidation, disturbed enzymatic [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and non enzymatic [Glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E] antioxidant status were observed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of "TpASet" at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight showed significant improvement in above mentioned parameters. Our results clearly indicate that "TpASet" has potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and therefore further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principles from "TpASet".

  3. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  4. Chemical constituents of essential oils of Tephrosia purpurea and Ipomoea carnea and their repellent activity against Odoiporus longicollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahayaraj Kitherian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical constituents of essential oils (EOs obtained from stem and root of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers. and Ipomoea carnea Jacq. were investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Total lipid and oil content was high in the stem than the root of T. purpurea and I. carnea. Essential oils extracted from the stem and root of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed 9 and 8 compounds respectively. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the principal constituent of stem (69.61% and root (46.97% of T. purpurea while 70.61and 88.89% for stem and root, respectively in the case of I. carnea. The findings of the present study suggest that T. purpurea and I. carnea EOs can be used as a source of hexadecanoic acid which could be used for industrial purposes. The essential oils of T. purpurea and I. carnea showed strong repellent activity for males (-0.73 and -0.70 for T. purpurea and I. carnea stem EO respectively than females (-0.63 and -0.59 for T. purpurea and I. carnea stem EO respectively against banana pseudostem weevil Odoiporus longicollis. The results indicated that the active compounds of essential oils from stems of T. purpurea and I. carnea can be explored as natural repellents for control of Odoiporus longicollis.

  5. Gangguan fisiologi dan biokimia Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae akibat perlakuan ekstrak campuran Tephrosia vogelli dan Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Chandra Lina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have been known to cause physiological and biochemical interferences against insect, such as feeding inhibitor, food assimilation, and changes on activity of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450. This study was carried out to examine the effect of the extracts mixture of Tephrosia vogeliiand : Piper aduncum (1 : 5 on the physiology of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. as well as extract of P. aduncum on biochemical of C. pavonana. The study showed that larvae of C. pavonana was experiencing a feeding inhibition until 94.82% after treated with extracts mixture on concentration 0.06% or equivalent to LC95. However, larvae treated with extracts mixture on LC25 and LC50 only experienced a relative growth disorders as a result of intrinsic toxicity of extracts mixture which enters into the body of insects. Insect adaptation to toxic plant compounds indicated by an increase in the digestibility of larvae approximately 11.11%. Furthermore, detoxification mechanism by larvae against active compounds of P. aduncum occured and shown by an increase of oxidative enzyme activity of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450, in in vivo and in vitro compared to control. This study provides an information about mode of action of extracts mixture of T. vogelii and P. aduncum (1 : 5 on larvae of C. pavonana and detoxification mechanism by larvae due to extract of P. aduncum 

  6. Rotenoid content and in vitro acaricidal activity of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalume, M K; Losson, B; Angenot, L; Tits, M; Wauters, J N; Frédérich, M; Saegerman, C

    2012-11-23

    This study aimed to determine the rotenoid content of leaf extracts of the white (TVW) and purple (TVP) varieties of Tephrosia vogelii, both collected in North-Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo and to evaluate their in vitro acaricidal efficacy on the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of rotenoid compounds from those extracts revealed that the contents of rotenone and deguelin were respectively higher in the leaves of TVW (0.044% and 1.13%) than in TVP (0.014% and 0.66%). Batches of 20 live adult ticks were immersed for 15 min in six different doses of each plant extract (0.625; 1.25; 2.5; 5; 10 and 20mg/mL of distilled water) and in the solution of Milbitraz(®) (12.5%m/v emulsifiable concentrate of amitraz) as a positive control. Additionally 9.5% ethanol and distilled water control groups were included. Tick mortalities were recorded every 24h for 5 days. The results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the acaricidal effect of Milbitraz(®) and the plant material used at a dose of at least 2.5 or 5mg/mL for TVW and TVP respectively. However, the dose response relationship determined at the fifth day after treatment showed a similar acaricidal effect for the two plant varieties with similar lethal dose 50 (LD(50)) of 0.83 and 0.81 mg/mL for TVW and TVP respectively. It is concluded that T. vogelii leaves may be used for the control of R. appendiculatus in areas where synthetic acaricides are either not available or affordable. However, T. vogelii extract should be sprayed in order to limit the potential risks of ecotoxicity linked to rotenoid compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). Conclusion These results

  8. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  9. Toxic and antifeedant activities of prenylated flavonoids isolated from Tephrosia apollinea L. against three major coleopteran pests of stored grains with reference to their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenaah, Gomah E

    2014-01-01

    Four prenylated flavonoids, isoglabratephrin, (+)-glabratephrin, tephroapollin-F and lanceolatin-A, were isolated from Tephrosia apollinea L. and tested against three stored grain insects. Using the filter paper bioassay, compounds showed adulticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae (L), Rhyzopertha dominica (F) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at concentrations of 0.875, 1.75 and 3.5 mg mL(- 1). At 3.5 mg mL(- 1), tephroapollin-F was the most toxic (78.6%, 64.6% and 60.7% mortality was recorded after 10 days exposure of S. oryzae, R. dominica and T. castaneum, respectively). The F1 progeny production of insects was affected after parental exposure to flavonoids, where S. oryzae was the most susceptible. A nutritional bioassay, employing a flour disc and test concentrations of 0.65, 1.3 and 2.6 mg g(- 1), revealed a significant reduction in the relative growth rate, relative consumption rate and efficiency of conversion of ingested food by all insects. The structure-activity relationship among the tested flavonoids was discussed.

  10. NopP, a phosphorylated effector of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, is a major determinant of nodulation of the tropical legumes Flemingia congesta and Tephrosia vogelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpil, Peter; Saad, Maged M; Boukli, Nawal M; Kobayashi, Hajime; Ares-Orpel, Florencia; Broughton, William J; Deakin, William J

    2005-09-01

    Rhizobium sp. NGR234 nodulates many plants, some of which react to proteins secreted via a type three secretion system (T3SS) in a positive- (Flemingia congesta, Tephrosia vogelii) or negative- (Crotalaria juncea, Pachyrhizus tuberosus) manner. T3SSs are devices that Gram-negative bacteria use to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The only two rhizobial T3SS effector proteins characterized to date are NopL and NopP of NGR234. NopL can be phosphorylated by plant kinases and we show this to be true for NopP as well. Mutation of nopP leads to a dramatic reduction in nodule numbers on F. congesta and T. vogelii. Concomitant mutation of nopL and nopP further diminishes nodulation capacity to levels that, on T. vogelii, are lower than those produced by the T3SS null mutant NGR(Omega)rhcN. We also show that the T3SS of NGR234 secretes at least one additional effector, which remains to be identified. In other words, NGR234 secretes a cocktail of effectors, some of which have positive effects on nodulation of certain plants while others are perceived negatively and block nodulation. NopL and NopP are two components of this mix that extend the ability of NGR234 to nodulate certain legumes.

  11. Behavioural Responses of Heterobranchus longifilis Juveniles. Val (Pisces: 1840 Exposed to Freeze–dried Bark Extract of Tephrosia vogelii as an Anaesthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Solomon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the anaesthetic properties of freeze-dried leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii on the African catfish Heterobranchus longifilis juveniles. Experimental fish of Mean weight 115.00 were obtained from River Benue at Makurdi, Nigeria and acclimatized at the hatchery of University of Agriculture Makurdi for two weeks. Four H. longifilis were selected randomly for both control and treatment groups. Each treatment fish was weighed and injected intramuscularly 0.05ml of the extract at concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06g/l using a 2ml heparinized syringe. The result showed that H. longifilis in treatment group passed sequentially through the first three stages of anaesthesia but could not attain total loss of equilibrium (stage 4 of anaesthesia. The result showed that treatment group of fishes passed sequentially through the first three stages of anaesthesia but could not attain total loss of equilibrium (stage 4 of anaesthsia. Behavioural responses included mucus secretion, slow and erratic swimming, excrement discharge, increase in opercular beat rate, strong retention of reflex action, partial loss of equilibrium and colour change. The induction time showed a declining pattern with increasing concentration of the extract in the treatment levels with significant differences (P0.05. The most effective concentration was 0.06g/l with an induction time of 32.00±1.76 seconds and a recovery time of 182.00±3.46 minutes. The result of this study revealed that the freeze-dried bark extract of T. vogelii can be used as a tranquilizer for transporting fish over average distances, biopsy and morphological evaluation.

  12. Six month-duration Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray planted-fallows for improving maize production in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gachene C.K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment including planted Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia fallow species and natural fallow was conducted at Maseno, Kenya, for assessing whether these fallows grown on a nutrient depleted land could produce sufficient green manure in six month period, whether their biomass retained on the same plots or transferred to continuously cropped plots with or without added P fertiliser could increase yield of consecutive maize crops and whether it is useful to regularly repeat these fallows on same plots. First fallow was established in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. At harvesting, biomass was recorded, then either incorporated in situ or transferred to continuous cropped plots split with and without added P fertiliser and monitored for the effect in improving consecutive maize crops. The second fallow was managed on this split plot design. The two-planted shrubs fallows produced more than 9 Mg total dry biomass and accumulated 154 to 234 kg N.ha-1, which were significantly higher compared to the production in the natural fallow. The shrubs were also superior to natural fallow for P accumulation (5-22 kg versus 2 kg.ha-1. The aboveground dry biomass harvested from planted T. vogelii and T. diversifolia and either incorporated in situ or transferred into continuously cropped plots increased maize yields by 2.5 folds compared to the unmanured crop, the control. Supplementing the organic materials with an additional 20 kg P inorganic fertilizer increased the 1st maize yield by about 40%. Productivity in the plots with T. vogelii or T. diversifolia aboveground biomass removal was low for the subsequent fallow and maize crops when compared to the performance in plots where biomass was incorporated. To achieve sustained yields of maize in depleted soils requires regular improved fallowing at least one season alternating with one season maize, and additional P inputs.

  13. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata M. Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc’hoz A. Chev. (Fabaceae, is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1–100 mg/kg dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ- induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund’s adjuvant- (CFA- induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation.

  14. Assessment of effect of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, activity on lithium-pilocarpine induced Status epilepticus and oxidative stress in Wistar rats Avaliação do efeito do extrato etanólico da Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, sobre o status epilepticus induzido por lítio-pilocarpina e estresse oxidativo, em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Asuntha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, is claimed to be of use in the control and treatment of a variety of epileptic disorders in Indian system of medicine. The present study plans to systematically evaluate T. purpurea and to verify this claim. Status epilepticus was induced in male albino rats of Wistar strain by administration of pilocarpine (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h after lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Different doses of the extract of T. purpurea were administered orally one hour before the injection of pilocarpine. The severity of status epilepticus was observed and recorded every 15 min till 90 min and thereafter every 30 min till 180 min, using the scoring system. The in vivo lipid peroxidation of rat brain tissue was measured. The in vitro NO free radical scavenging activity of plant extract was assessed. The interaction between plant extract and 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH was also observed for in vitro free radical scavenging activity. The severity of status epilepticus was reduced with the administration of ethanolic extract of T. purpurea. Ethanolic extract of the plant exhibited both in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea was found to be useful to control lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus in albino rats of Wistar strain.Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., Fabaceae, é conhecida pelo seu uso no controle e tratamento de uma variedade de distúrbios epilépticos no sistema indiano de medicina. O presente estudo pretende avaliar de forma sistemática T. purpurea e verificar essa alegação. Status epilepticus foi induzido em ratos albinos machos da linhagem Wistar pela administração de pilocarpina (30 mg/kg, i.p. 24 h após o cloreto de lítio (3 mEq/kg, i.p.. Diferentes doses do extrato de T. purpurea foram administrados por via oral uma hora antes da injeção de pilocarpina. A gravidade do status epilepticus foi observada e registrada a cada 15 min até 90 min e

  15. PHARMACOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON ‘SHVET SHARPUNKHA’ – A COMPARATIVE DIAGNOSTIC ACCOUNT OF TEPHROSIA VILLOSA PERS. AND T. PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. FORM ALBIFLORA S. R. PAUL et. R. C. GUPTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of ‘shapunkha’, the ‘Shvet’ (white) and ‘Rakta’ (red) are described in some of the Ayurvedic texts and the former is reported therapeutically more effective. Some of the Ayurvedic physicians use T. villosa Pers. as ‘Shvet sharpunkha’ due to its persistently villous silky white parts. While others have advocated white colour of flowers as main feature for distinguishing “Shvet sharpunkha’. A white flowered form of Tephrosia purpurea which is found in association with red or purple flowered ones is reported by us as T. purpurea (Linn.) Pers. Form albiflora S. R. Paul et R. C. Gupta. In the present work, however, detailed comparative pharmacognosy of all vegetable parts of T. villosa and T. purpurea f. albiflora have been carried out. Also the study reveals that two species exhibit great similarity in their macro – an microscopical feature. PMID:22557616

  16. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS PRINCIPALES DE LA MADERA DE Dalbergia granadillo Pittier Y DE Platymiscium lasiocarpum Sandw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Rutiaga-Quiñones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico de la madera (duramen, zona de transición y albura de dos especies tropicales (Dalbergia granadillo y Platymiscium lasiocarpum de acuerdo a las normas ASTM. Los componentes químicos determinados fueron: cenizas, extraíbles (etanol-benceno, agua caliente y agua a temperatura ambiente, lignina y holocelulosa. Las cantidades de componentes químicos encontrados en las muestras de madera variaron de la siguiente manera: cenizas (0.62 a 1.84 %, solubilidad total (10.19 a 33.35 %, lignina (25.24 a 27.24 % y holocelulosa (49.24 a 55.25 %. El análisis estadístico de varianza de los resultados indicó que la cantidad de componentes químicos es diferente estadísticamente (P<0.05 entre las dos especies y los tres tipos de madera.

  17. ( Tephrosia vogelii ) leave extract exposed to freshwater Cichlid fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a degeneration of kidney tubules. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, cardiac glycoside, rotenone, steroids, balsam, phenol and volatile oil. The result of this study calls for the need to discourage the use of toxic plants for catching fish in Nigeria water bodies.

  18. In vitro anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous extracts of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and the consumer demand for alternative farming systems that limit the use of chemical anthelmintics has made the search for alternative gastrointestinal nematode parasites control methods crucial. Traditional medicinal/herbal plants can offer an alternative to the reliance on ...

  19. Potential larvicidal effects of Tephrosia vogelii leaf extract on Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human and avian malaria, human and animal filariases, rickettsial infections such as Borrelia anserina in fowl .... swimming away from the light were confirmed as dead. Abbots formula (Table 3). Abbots formula takes .... activity in the mosquito larvae need to be carried out. Acknowledgements. We would like to express our ...

  20. Tephrosia vogelii for control of fleas in free-range poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The difference in re-infestation between the treated and control chickens on Days 6, 7 and 8 was significant (p < 0.001). Permethrin ... dried and fresh leaves extracts were 50 ml of the standard extract in 1200 and 800 ml at room temperature, respectively. ... Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis among many others; ...

  1. Tephrosia vogelii for control of fleas in free-range poultry | Isabirye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken production is the leading type of poultry farming in eastern Africa. However, diseases and parasites are limiting factors in production. Ectoparasites in particular lead to reduced egg production, and reduced hatchability, since the hens usually abandon eggs following ectoparasitic infestation. Ethno-veterinary ...

  2. 432-IJBCS-Article - Dr S O Oke - Final version

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Celastraceae. _. +. Sida acuta. Malvaceae. +. +. Spigelia anthelmia. Loganiaceae. +. +. Spondia mombin. Anarcadiaceae. +. _. Talinum trangulare. Portulacaceae. +. _. Tephrosia bracteolata. Papilionaceae. +. _. Trema orientalis. Ulmaceae. +. +. Trianthema portulacastrum. Aizoaceae. +. _. Tridax procumbens. Asteraceae.

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 52 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous extracts of Tephrosia vogelii, Tephrosia villosa and Carica papaya leaves and seeds · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth and yield of hard wheat "Triticum durum Desf.

  4. Tree legumes in medium-term fallows: Nz fixation, nitrate recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legume effects on the fixation of atmospheric N and nitrate recovery were determined in a sub-humid, bi-modal rainfall system. Fallows improved with sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and tephrosia (Tephrosia vogellii) produced more biomass and fixed more N than those fallows improved with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) or ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf-sap and root scrapings are used as ear and tooth ache remedies, respectively. Extracts from the roots have been used ... the Fulanis to add to milk, millet or guinea-corn pap as a seasoning. In Northwestern Nigeria, the ... MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF. Tephrosia vogelii Hook. F. Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. is ...

  6. Checklist of the birds of Kipini Conservancy, Lamu and Tana River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    previously unrecorded north of Sokoke Forest: Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus simplex and Pallid Honeyguide Indicator meliphilus. Among breeding records was the first of. African Crake Crex egregia from the Kenyan coast. Species of conservation concern present at Kipini included resident Southern Banded Snake Eagle ...

  7. Novas ocorrências de gastrópodes e bivalves marinhos no Brasil (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalão Ricardo Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastropods Costaclis egregia (Dall, 1889, Thaleia nisonis (Dall, 1889, Tjaernoeia michaeli Engl, 2001 and the bivalves Bathyarca sp., Myonera aff. ruginosa (Jeffreys, 1882 are recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters. This paper presents a brief description of these species and also include ilustrations.

  8. Indigenous knowledge of field insect pests and their management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-pest plants documented included, Capsicum frutescens, Tagetes spp, Nicotiana tabacum, Cypressus spp., Tephrosia vogelii, Azadirachta indica, Musa spp, Moringa oleifera, Tithonia diversifolia, Lantana camara, Phytollacca dodecandra, Vernonia amygdalina, Aloe spp., Eucalyptus spp., Cannabis sativa, Cofea ...

  9. Journal of Food Technology in Africa - Vol 9, No 1 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effects of Technological Modifications on the Fermentation of Borde, ... Potential African Substitutes for Hops in Tropical Beer Brewing · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Lantana camara L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the Quality Parameters of ...

  10. Occurrence and production of carbon monoxide in some brown algae. [Pelagophycus porra; Pelagophycus giganteus; Nereocystis luetkeana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.J.; Tocher, R.D.

    1966-01-01

    The first report of carbon monoxide in plants was based on studies with the Pacific Coast kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana. This work was extended and later confirmed. In (1916) it was reported that the brown algae Egregia menziesii, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Fucus evanescens did not contain carbon monoxide. Using a more sensitive method, researchers recently showed that the pneumatocysts of Egregia menziesii do indeed contain carbon monoxide, and they also studied its production by tissues of several brown and red algae. Another researcher found that Sargassum linifolium and Fucus virsoides were devoid of this gas, at least in concentrations detectable with a haemoglobin analytical method. By the method to be described, the gas was taken from pneumatocysts of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales) collected at Halifax, Nova Scotia. No carbon monoxide could be detected when 10 cm/sup 3/ of pooled samples of gas was analyzed. 10 references, 2 tables.

  11. Sixth report on birds from the Cape Verde Islands : including records of 25 taxa new to the archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data on status and distribution of resident and migrant birds in the Cape Verde Islands are presented, including records of 25 taxa new to the archipelago, viz. Mareca penelope, M. americana, Anas carolinensis, A. clypeata, Pterodroma arminjoniana, Sula dactylatra, Egretta thula, Ardea melanocephala, Hieraaetus pennatus, Porzana porzana, Crecopsis egregia, Porphyrula martinica, Pluvialis apricaria, Calidris fuscicollis, C. bairdii, Gallinago delicata, Larus audouinii, L. atricilla, Str...

  12. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tephrosia vogelii and Justicia extensa on Tilapia nilotica in vivo. J. Ethnopharmacol., 69 (2): 99404. KAPOSHI, C.K.M. (1992): The role ofnatural products in integrated tick management in Africa. Status and recent advances in tick management in Africa. Insect Sci. Applia, IS (4); 595-598. KOONA, P. and DORN, S. (2005).

  13. Discovery and Innovation - Vol 17 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larvicidal efficacy of Tephrosia nyikensis Bak subsp. victoriensis Gellet and Brummit crude leaf extract on Anopheles mosquitoes · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FME Wanjala, RA Oriedo, DMS Karanja, 56-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v17i1.15688 ...

  14. leaf extract on Culex quinquefasciatus in Morogoro, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2,S'okoine University ongriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Abstract: Tephrosia vogelii, a local plant, was tested for its potential effects on Cnlex quinquefasciams larvae. Two sets of experiments, one using distilled water and the other using septic tank water as diluents and control were carried out. In the first set of experiments, ...

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A- rings, respectively. Furthermore, the 13C NMR spectrum showed the presence of one primary, one secondary. seven tertiary and eight quaternary carbon atoms. The above evidence confirms that compound 1 is maximaisoflavone H, a compound previously isolated from Tephrosia manna [14, l5]. However, this is the first ...

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appropriate for the 7-oxo form and the revision, on the basis of spectroscopic data, of the structure of praecarisone. A to 7-oxo-9-methoxy chalcone (2) has been published (3). In a recent investigation (4) of the seed-pods of Tephrosia pumild (Lam.) Pers. we reported the occurrence of praecansome A as the major flavonoid.

  17. Indigenous methods of controlling termites in agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The practices included use of wood ash, cow urine, red pepper, intercropping with repellant plants such as Tephrosia vogelli, physical removal of queen, pouring hot crude waragi distillate into anthills, and directing water run off into ant hills. Key words: Agroforestry, Indigenous Knowledge, and termites. Introduction.

  18. Effect of Insecticidal Plant Materials, Lantana camara L. and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Insecticidal Plant Materials, Lantana camara L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the Quality Parameters of Stored Maize Grains. ... product treatments suitable for post-harvest grain protection and as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides in the control of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky.

  19. Species of Concern (SOC) on Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    TEPHROSIA VIRGINIANA, CNIDOSCOLUS STIMULOSUS, ARENARIA CAROLINIANA* POOR QUALITY PINE SCRUB OAK SANDHILL WITH EXTENSIVE SOIL DISTURBANCE (RUTTING) AND...ADENOCAULON BICOLOR, PHACELIA NEMORALIS, CAREX HENDERSONII. CIRSIUM VULGARE COMMON WHERE DISTURBED.* Cedar-hemlock forest on lower slopes of logged...NEMOPHILA PARVIFLORA, CAREX HENDERSONII.* PSME OVERSTORY, GASH MAJOR SHRUB SPECIES. MOIST SITE. MID-SLOPE OF MODERATE SLOPE.* FAIRLY OPEN W/WIDLEY

  20. Animal Research International - Vol 7, No 3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of fish bean (Tephrosia vogelii) leave extract exposed to freshwater Cichlid fish – Tilapia zilli · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. LE Akpa, MNO Ajima, BS Audu, SM Labte, 1236-1241 ...

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 17 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Tephrosia vogelii in controlling ticks in dairy cows by small-scale commercial farmers in Zimbabwe · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Gadzirayi, E Mutandwa, M Mwale, T Chindundu ...

  2. Effect of Insecticidal Plant Materials, Lantana camara L. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ground powders of two tropical plants, Lantana camam L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the level of insect damage and ... lesser rate with high concentration and had no effect on the percent germination of maize grains when compared to the controls. .... white/ yellow to light brown. 3.Moderate change (>5 to ...

  3. In-situ Fertilizer Industry for Small Scale Farmers: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-situ Fertilizer Industry for Small Scale Farmers: The Case of Tephrosia vogelii Fallow and Minjingu Phosphate Rock in Eastern Tanzania. ... The survival of T. vogelii plants was monitored over 22 months. Fallow nutrient accumulation was assessed by measuring the quantity and quality of litter commencing at 12 months.

  4. Histological and biochemical evaluations of the liver and kidney of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the toxicity of fish captured with Tephrosia Vogelii (TV), an ichtyotoxic plant, the Wistar albino rats were fed with the flour of tilapias Sarotherodon melanotheron poisoned with TV leaves powder. This study aimed to evaluate the poisonous effects of TV on various organs of rats, especially the liver and kidney.

  5. Pre-sowing treatment, agronomic performance and nutritive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-sowing treatment, agronomic performance and nutritive potential of Tephrosia bracteolate ( Guill. et Perr. ) at four different stages of growth. ... The results indicated that there was a slight increase in organic matter, N, Ca, Na, K and Zn in the soil after the trial. Sand-treated seeds had the highest percentage germination ...

  6. Efficacy Of Selected Plant Extracts Against Bean Rust Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo evaluation of the efficacy of selected plant extracts; Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives (Neem oil, Neem cake powder and Neem leaf powder) and leaf extracts of pawpaw (Carica papaya L), Tephrosia vogelii, stinging Nettle (Urtica massaica L), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and commercial fungicide: ...

  7. Nitrogen release from decomposing residues of leguminous cover crops and their effect on maize yield on depleted soils of Bukoba District, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen release patterns from decomposing shoot residues of Tephrosia candida, Crotalaria grahamiana, Mucuna pruriens, Macrotyloma axillare, Macroptillium atropurpureum and Desmodium intortum were studied in the laboratory for a period of 22 weeks in a sandy clay soil and 10 weeks in a clay soil

  8. La poética trágico-moderna en Libertad bajo palabra de Octavio Paz

    OpenAIRE

    DE LA TORRE CRUZ, DAVID

    2010-01-01

    una tradición tanto intelectual como artística y poética que, por un lado, tiende su raigambre en la egregia línea del pensamiento trágico y, por otra, abreva y se configura en la visión de mundo y arte románticos. En su obra, Paz conjuga lo antiguo y lo romántico para construir su universo artístico en la modernidad, pues a partir de ellas concibe y organiza la imagen, el papel que tanto la poesía como el poeta (incluida su obra) ostentan en la modernidad.

  9. Para develar un espejismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Gil

    2016-08-01

    Al final del ensayo, volvemos a encontrar esta idea del Colón creador al enterarnos de las zozobras durante el primer viaje del Almirante en el que éste estuvo a punto de perder la cabeza por un motín de los nada felices tripulantes; el narrador ensalza “la figura egregia del piloto genovés, gobernando un frágil leño de pocas toneladas, con el puño puesto en el timón, con el ojo clavado sobre el Occidente y con el corazón alentado por la fe”.

  10. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  11. Integral Study of the Cotton Biocide Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes, César M.; Inst. de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales “Juan de Dios Guevara”, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Jurado, Bertha; Inst. de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales “Juan de Dios Guevara”, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Gordillo, Gloria C.; Inst. de Investigación de Química, Biología, Microbiología y Biotecnología “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Negrón, Luisa P.; Inst. de Investigación de Química, Biología, Microbiología y Biotecnología “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Núñez, Elizabeth; Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria.; Esteban, Melissa; Inst. de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Recursos Naturales “Juan de Dios Guevara”, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.; Távara V, Arturo; Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria.

    2014-01-01

    To study extracts of the cotton biocides it has collected more than thirty species of plants, which were classified taxonomically in the Natural History Museum of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, between species that are considered relevant for its insecticidal properties we have the following species: Tephrosia cinerea (sacha barbasco), Artemisia absinthium (wormwood), Ryania speciosa (riania), Cissampelos grandifolia (legia), Datura stramonium (chamico), Hura crepitans (catahua...

  12. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos comparados da intoxicação por Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae em búfalos e bovinos Comparative epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of poisoning by Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Através de estudo experimental, verificou-se que, embora o quadro clínico-patológico seja essencialmente o mesmo, o búfalo é pelo menos duas vezes mais resistente que o bovino à ação tóxica de Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. Os experimentos demonstraram também, que as folhas novas desta planta são duas vezes (em outubro, fim da época de seca ou uma vez e meio (em maio, fim da época de chuva mais tóxicas do que as folhas maduras, e que a planta é mais tóxica em outubro. Esses dados indicam que a menor incidência de intoxicação por plantas do grupo das que causam morte súbita, em búfalos na Amazônia, deva-se, em parte, à maior resistência dessa espécie animal. Também parece importante a coincidência do habitat preferencial dos búfalos (várzea com o habitat de A. bilabiata, planta menos tóxica que Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil., encontrada em terra firme que é o habitat preferido pelos bovinos.Experiments showed that the clinical and pathological pictures were essentially the same, but the buffalo was at least twice more resistant than the bovine to the toxic effect of Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. It was also shown that the young leaves are twice (October, end of the dry season or one and a half (May, end of the rainy season more toxic than the mature leaves, and that the plant is more toxic in October. These data indicate that the smaller incidence of poisoning by plants of the group that causes sudden death in buffaloes in the Amazon Region is, in part, due to the greater resistance of this animal species to the toxic action of the plant. Also important seems to be the coincidence of the preferential habitat of the buffalo (flooded areas with the habitat of A. bilabiata, less toxic than Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil. which is a plant of the non-flooded areas, the preferential habitat of cattle.

  13. Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Cheiloclinium Miers (Hippocrateaceae Juss. Palynotaxonomy of the Brazilian species of Cheiloclinium Miers (Hippocrateaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Gonçalves-Esteves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo palinotaxonômico de Cheiloclinium Miers teve a finalidade de melhor caracterizar o gênero representado, na América Latina, por 20 espécies. Foram examinados os grãos de pólen de 38 espécimens pertencentes a 14 espécies brasileiras de Cheiloclinium. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As medidas receberam tratamento estatístico. As principais características polínicas encontradas definem os grãos de pólen como sendo pequenos (médios apenas em C. pedunculatum A.C. Sm., isopolares, suboblatos, oblato-esferoidais ou subprolatos, âmbito subtriangular ou triangular, área polar pequena ou muito pequena (em C. pedunculatum e C. podostemmum (Sandw. A.C. Sm., 3-colporados, com endoaberturas lalongadas (circulares somente em C. diffusiflorum (Miers A.C. Sm., microrreticulados, reticulados ou granulados. Cheiloclinium é um gênero estenopolínico. Com base nos resultados obtidos em microscopia de luz, no entanto, foi possível a separação de espécies cuja morfologia polínica poderá, efetivamente, contribuir nos estudos taxonômicos deste gênero. Os grãos de pólen de Cheiloclinium não tinham sido analisados previamente.The palynotaxonomic study of Cheiloclinium Miers was conducted in order to contribute to a better characterization of this genus, represented in Latin-America by 20 species. Pollen grains from 38 specimens representing 14 Brazilian species were examined. The pollen material was acetolyzed, measured, described and illustrated using ligth and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The data obtained were statistically analysed. The pollen grains of Cheiloclinium are small in size (medium size only in C. pedunculatum A.C. Sm., isopolar, suboblate, oblate-spheroidal or subprolate, amb subtriangular or triangular, polar area small or very small (only in C. pedunculatum and C. podostemmum (Sandw. A.C. Sm., 3-colporate with lalongate

  14. Jorge Fernández artífice del pensamiento comunicacional latinoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Destaca el autor, la egregia figura del primer director del CIESPAL y los decidores hitos que marcaron su gestión de 1959 a 1969. La capacitación a periodistas empíricos de la América Latina cerró la brecha entre el conocimiento práctico del periodista y su vinculación con el conocimiento del orden teórico y académico para hacer de ellos agentes del cambio social. La formulación del Plan Piloto para la enseñanza del periodismo(1964 reformulada en 1968, fue otro avance que permitió no solo formar periodistas sino comunicadores, estrategas capaces de investigar, planificar y formular políticas de comunicación. La investigación de la comunicación se añadió a sus logros.

  15. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Omani Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Al-Busafi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available n-Butanol extracts of nine medicinal plants, Cressa cretica, Ziziphus spina-christ, Acacia tortilis, Tephrosia haussknechti, Aristolochiae bracteolata, Citrullus colocynthis, Teucrium mascatense, Rhazya stricta and Nerium oleander, found in Oman were screened for their antioxidant activity using phosphomolybdenum complex assays and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays. Ocimumi basilicum, a plant with well documented antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. A. tortilis, and T. haussknechti extracts possessed very high antioxidant activity (AOA and high radical scavenging activity (RSA.

  16. Kelp transcriptomes provide robust support for interfamilial relationships and revision of the little known Arthrothamnaceae (Laminariales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chris; Salomaki, Eric D; Lane, Christopher E; Saunders, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    If ever there were "charismatic megaflora" of the sea, the Laminariales (kelp) would undoubtedly meet that designation. From the Northeast Pacific kelp forests to the less diverse, but nonetheless dense, kelp beds ranging from the Arctic to the cold temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere, kelp provide habitat structure and food for a variety of productive marine systems. Consequently, kelp are well represented in the literature, however, understanding their evolution has proven challenging. We used a 152-gene phylogenomics approach to better resolve the phylogeny of the "derived" kelp families (viz., Agaraceae, Alariaceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae). The formerly unresolved Egregia menziesii firmly joined a significantly expanded Arthrothamnaceae including Arthrothamnus, Cymathaere, Ecklonia, Macrocystis, Nereocystis, Pelagophycus, Postelsia, Pseudolessonia, Saccharina, and Streptophyllopsis, which rendered both the Laminariaceae and Lessoniaceae monogeneric. A published eight-gene alignment, the most marker-rich prior to this study, was expanded and analyzed to facilitate inclusion of Aureophycus. Although the topology was unchanged at the family level between the transcriptome data set relative to eight-gene analyses, the superior resolving power of the former was clearly established. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Plant extracts on Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Beauveria bassianaExtratos vegetais sobre Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae e Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking for alternatives to pesticides for Hypothenemus hampei control, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringa and Tephrosia purpurea (tephrosia (seeds, leaves and roots and Melia azedarach (cinnamon, Nerium oleander (oleander and Azadirachta indica (neem (leaves only, on mortality and repellency of H. hampei and its compatibility with Beauveria bassiana, an important natural enemy of this pest. To assess the mortality, coffee leaves (Coffea arabica L were treated by immersion in a solution of endosulfan and plant extracts at a concentration of 10% and then offered to adults of H. hampei. The repellency was evaluated in multiple-choice tests and in no-choice tests among coffee fruit treated and untreated The compatibility between extracts and Beauveria bassiana (CG 452 was analyzed by quantifying germination, colony forming units, growth and yield / productivity of conidia. The highest mortalities were observed when leaves were treated with ethanolic extract of T. purpurea (leaves which did not differ from endosulfan, and aqueous and ethanolic extracts from M. oleifera seeds . In free-choice tests, all the ethanolic extracts showed repellent action, being higher for M. oleifera (root and T. purpurea (seed. The aqueous extracts of M. oleifera (leaves and seeds and N. oleander (leaves showed the highest repellency. In no-choice tests the highest repellency level was for coffee fruits treated with A. indica (leaves. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves negatively affected B. bassiana germination. These studies showed the potential of these plant extracts for use in the field as an alternative to chemical control, once they are also selective for B. bassiana. Visando alternativas ao uso de agrotóxicos no controle de Hypothenemus hampei, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de extratos vegetais aquosos e etanólicos de Moringa oleifera

  18. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre plantas tóxicas das mesoregiões Central e Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Antonio Geraldo Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para determinar as plantas tóxicas incriminadas como de interesse zootécnico em 35 municípios das mesorregiões Central e Oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Foram entrevistados 180 produtores, 20 médicos veterinários, 12 técnicos agrícolas e 5 agrônomos. Os dados obtidos nas entrevistas foram compilados e analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info versão 6.04. As plantas tóxicas relatadas pelos entrevistados como causadoras de diversos surtos foram Ipomoea asarifolia, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Indigofera suffruticosa, Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii, Amorimia septentrionalis, Tephrosia cinerea, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Marsdenia megalantha, Anacardium occidentale, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, Crotalaria retusa, Froelichia humboldtiana, Ipomoea carnea, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa tenuiflora, Nerium oleander, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense e Urochloa (Brachiaria decumbens.

  19. Plantas de cobertura de solo como hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola Cover crops as intermediate hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mileo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cobertura de solo usadas para suprimir o crescimento de plantas daninhas podem hospedar fungos fitopatogênicos. Para testar essa hipótese, elaborou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de nove espécies de plantas como possíveis hospedeiras do fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Cada vaso com três plantas da mesma espécie representou uma unidade experimental. As espécies que constituíram os tratamentos foram: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Crotalaria striata, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta, Mucuna aterrima, Pueraria phaseoloides e Tephrosia candida. Quarenta dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram inoculadas com suspensão de esporos de C. guaranicola na concentração de 10(5 conídios mL¹, enquanto as plantas testemunhas receberam somente água. As plantas foram mantidas em câmara úmida por 48 horas. Diariamente, foram feitas observações por 15 dias após a inoculação, para visualizar sintomas da doença. As espécies que não apresentaram sintomas de C. guaranicola foram Arachis pintoi, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta e Tephrosia candida, e as que manifestaram sintomas após a inoculação foram Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria striata, Mucuna aterrima e Pueraria phaseoloides, que podem ser fontes de inóculo do patógeno da antracnose para o guaranazeiro.Cover crops used to suppress weed growth can be intermediate hosts to phytopathogenic fungi. To test this hypothesis, nine species of cover crops were evaluated as hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design, with four replicates, and conducted under greenhouse conditions. Each vase with three plants of one species constituted one plot. The species treated were: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium

  20. Using ichthyotoxic plants as bioinsecticide: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. ANDRADE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSome ichthyotoxic plants are study object aiming to discover promising substances in the field of Biotechnology, in search of plant extracts which can be used or even transformed into natural insecticides. This paper presents a bibliographical survey in order to check the traditional use of ichthyotoxic plants as bioinsecticide. Among the plants identified as ichthyotoxic, the most cited in traditional use are those from the genera Derris, Serjania, Lonchocarpus, Magonia, and Tephrosia. The survey suggests that ichthyotoxic plant extracts can contain classes of chemical compounds such as isoflavonoids and tannins with a bioinsecticidal effect and, thus, they can be used in Biotechnology, contributing to reduce the use of synthetic insecticides that present a high toxicity level.

  1. Organic fertilization and botanical insecticides to control two-spotted spider mite in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Regina Marques-Francovig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry fields receive several pesticides spraying and residues in fruits are recurrent. Development and application of methods that avoid applying pesticides mostly during fructification period are imminent needs. Comparison of population of two-sppoted spider mite (TSSM Tetranychus urticae Koch. in organic and mineral fertilized plants (as used by growers and treated with alternative products were done. Plants were grown in vessels in a greenhouse infested with local population of TSSM. Extracts of Tephrosia voggeli (Hook, neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., and lime sulfur were applied three times against TSSM in ten days intervals. Assessments were done three times after each spraying. Interaction between fertilization and spraying alternatives was also assessed but was not significant. TSSM population was about 44% lesser in organic fertilized plants than those in inorganic fertilized. T. voggeli extracts reduced in large amounts TSSM; neem oil reduced in some assessments and an intermediate reduction was found for sulfur lime. Organic fertilization and T. voggeli extracts are potential strategies to manage TSSM and additional studies are proposed to enable wide utilization

  2. Pengaruh beberapa Jenis Ekstrak Tanaman sebagai Moluskisida Nabati terhadap Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Kardinan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been carried out at the Pest and Disease Laboratory, Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogar, in the 1997. Research consisted of three parts, those were; (I The toxicity of Dens elliptica, Blumea balsamifera, and methaldehyde, by determining the LC50 values, (2 Effect of the leaves of B.balsamifera, Euphorbia tirucalli and Tephrosia vogelii, (3 Effect of the most poisonous plant as ovicides. Result showed that D.elliptica was the most poisonous material to golden snail with its LC50 value was 400ppm, but it was still under the toxicity value of methaldehyde (11. 78 ppm. There was no significant difference among B.balsamifera, T.vogelii and E. canaliculata, but extract of B.balsarnifera tended to be better material among those plant extracts tested. The extract of D.elliptica did not affect egg hatching of golden snail.

  3. Symbiosis-Promoting and Deleterious Effects of NopT, a Novel Type 3 Effector of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Jun; Zeng, Yong; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Establishment of symbiosis between certain host plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (“rhizobia”) depends on type 3 effector proteins secreted via the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS). Here, we report that the open reading frame y4zC of strain NGR234 encodes a novel rhizobial type 3 effector, termed NopT (for nodulation outer protein T). Analysis of secreted proteins from NGR234 and T3SS mutants revealed that NopT is secreted via the T3SS. NopT possessed autoproteolytic activity when expressed in Escherichia coli or human HEK 293T cells. The processed NopT exposed a glycine (G50) to the N terminus, which is predicted to be myristoylated in eukaryotic cells. NopT with a point mutation at position C93, H205, or D220 (catalytic triad) showed strongly reduced autoproteolytic activity, indicating that NopT is a functional protease of the YopT-AvrPphB effector family. When transiently expressed in tobacco plants, proteolytically active NopT elicited a rapid hypersensitive reaction. Arabidopsis plants transformed with nopT showed chlorotic and necrotic symptoms, indicating a cytotoxic effect. Inoculation experiments with mutant derivatives of NGR234 indicated that NopT affected nodulation either positively (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Yudou No. 1; Tephrosia vogelii) or negatively (Crotalaria juncea). We suggest that NopT-related polymorphism may be involved in evolutionary adaptation of NGR234 to particular host legumes. PMID:18487326

  4. Symbiosis-promoting and deleterious effects of NopT, a novel type 3 effector of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Jun; Zeng, Yong; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2008-07-01

    Establishment of symbiosis between certain host plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria ("rhizobia") depends on type 3 effector proteins secreted via the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS). Here, we report that the open reading frame y4zC of strain NGR234 encodes a novel rhizobial type 3 effector, termed NopT (for nodulation outer protein T). Analysis of secreted proteins from NGR234 and T3SS mutants revealed that NopT is secreted via the T3SS. NopT possessed autoproteolytic activity when expressed in Escherichia coli or human HEK 293T cells. The processed NopT exposed a glycine (G50) to the N terminus, which is predicted to be myristoylated in eukaryotic cells. NopT with a point mutation at position C93, H205, or D220 (catalytic triad) showed strongly reduced autoproteolytic activity, indicating that NopT is a functional protease of the YopT-AvrPphB effector family. When transiently expressed in tobacco plants, proteolytically active NopT elicited a rapid hypersensitive reaction. Arabidopsis plants transformed with nopT showed chlorotic and necrotic symptoms, indicating a cytotoxic effect. Inoculation experiments with mutant derivatives of NGR234 indicated that NopT affected nodulation either positively (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Yudou No. 1; Tephrosia vogelii) or negatively (Crotalaria juncea). We suggest that NopT-related polymorphism may be involved in evolutionary adaptation of NGR234 to particular host legumes.

  5. Land-use legacies and present fire regimes interact to mediate herbivory by altering the neighboring plant community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Philip G. [University of Wisconsin; Orrock, John L. [University of Wisconsin

    2015-04-01

    Past and present human activities, such as historic agriculture and fire suppression, are widespread and can create depauperate plant communities. Although many studies show that herbivory on focal plants depends on the density of herbivores or the composition of the surrounding plant community, it is unclear whether anthropogenic changes to plant communities alter herbivory. We tested the hypothesis that human activities that alter the plant community lead to subsequent changes in herbivory. At 20 sites distributed across 80 300 hectares, we conducted a field experiment that manipulated insect herbivore access (full exclosures and pseudo-exclosures) to four focal plant species in longleaf pine woodlands with diff erent land-use histories (post-agricultural sites or non-agricultural sites) and degrees of fi re frequency (frequent and infrequent). Plant cover, particularly herbaceous cover, was lower in post-agricultural and fi re suppressed woodlands. Density of the dominant insect herbivore at our site (grasshoppers) was positively related to plant cover. Herbivore access reduced biomass of the palatable forb Solidago odora in frequently burned post-agricultural sites and in infrequently burned non-agricultural woodlands and increased mortality of another forb (Pityopsis graminifolia ), but did not aff ect two other less palatable species ( Schizachyrium scoparium and Tephrosia virginiana ). Herbivory on S. odora exhibited a hump-shaped response to plant cover, with low herbivory at low and high levels of plant cover. Herbivore density had a weak negative effect on herbivory. These findings suggest that changes in plant cover related to past and present human activities can modify damage rates on focal S. odora plants by altering grasshopper foraging behavior rather than by altering local grasshopper density. The resulting changes in herbivory may have the potential to limit natural recovery or restoration eff orts by reducing the establishment or performance of

  6. PRELIMINARY REVISIONS OF SOME GENERA OF MALAYSIAN PAPILIONACEAE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS van Meeuwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The revisions or notes have been prepared by Miss M. S. van Meeuwen, except for those of Pseudarthria and Sophora by C. G. G. J. van Steenis, and Tephrosia by J. Stemmerik. In Alysicarpus 4 species are distinguished in Malaysia; a key, synonymy, and discussion are given.Lourea Desv., being a homonym, has, according to Dr. Bakhuizen van den Brink, to be replaced by Christia; a key and discussion is given of 4 Malaysian species; 5 new combinations are proposed. Under Desmodium the variability of D. heterocarpon (L. DC. and its full synonymy are discussed; one new variety is proposed; an enumeration of specimens of both varieties is given. D. ormooarpoides DC. and D. zonatum Miq. are two sharply distinct species which have been confused in the past; a key, synonyms, discussion, and enumeration of specimens ;; j are provided. The discrimination of D. sequax Wall, and D. viegaphyllum Zoll. is discussed and their synonymy given; specimens have been enumerated. Distribution is given of D. scorpiurus (Sw. Desv. and D. tor-tuosum (Sw.   DC. Psoraleai is revised for Malaysia where 4 species are recorded and keyed out; a fifth species must remain dubious, as the type could not be traced in the Paris Herbarium. Of Pseudarthria only one species occurs in Malaysia; its synonymy and distribution is given.Sophora longipes Merr.; an endemic species from the Philippines, is recorded for Timor. Of Tephro&ia maculata M. & P., from Papua, the synonymy is given and specimens enumerated; T. brachystachys Laut. & K. Seh. is reduced. Notes and distribution are given of T. zollingeri Backer. For T. mollie . Val., a later homonym, the new name T. papuana is proposed.

  7. Multilocus sequences confirm the close genetic relationship of four phytoplasmas of peanut witches'-broom group 16SrII-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Piao, Chun-gen; Tian, Guo-zhong; Liu, Zhi-xin; Guo, Min-wei; Lin, Cai-li; Wang, Xi-zhuo

    2014-08-01

    Four witches'-broom diseases associated with Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Crotalaria pallida, Tephrosia purpurea, and Cleome viscosa were observed in Hainan Province, China during field surveys in 2004, 2005, and 2007. In previously reported studies, we identified these four phytoplasmas as members of subgroup 16SrII-A, and discovered that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.9-100% identical to one another. In this study, we performed extensive phylogenetic analyses to elucidate relationships among them. We analyzed sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and rplV-rpsC, rpoB, gyrB, dnaK, dnaJ, recA, and secY combined sequence data from two strains each of the four phytoplasmas from Hainan province, as well as strains of peanut witches'-broom from Taiwan (PnWB-TW), "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", "Ca. Phytoplasma mali AT", aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, and onion yellows phytoplasma OY-M. In the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree, the eight Hainan strains form a clade with PnWB-TW. Analysis of the seven concatenated gene regions indicated that the four phytoplasmas collected from Hainan province cluster most closely with one another, but are closely related to PnWB-TW. The results of field survey and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Cr. pallida, T. purpurea, and Cl. viscosa may be natural plant hosts of peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Why Promote Improved Fallows as a Climate-Smart Agroforestry Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Partey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, a lot is discussed about how agroforestry can achieve the mitigation, adaptation and productivity goals of climate-smart agriculture (CSA. However, this may be relatively too broad to assess the trade-offs and synergies of how specific agroforestry technologies or practices achieve the three pillars of CSA. Here, we provide an overview of how improved fallows (an agroforestry technology consisting of planting mainly legume tree/shrub species in rotation with cultivated crops may achieve the goals of climate-smart agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Our review showed that improved fallow systems have real potential to contribute to food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation in SSA. Under proper management, improved fallows can increase maize yields to about 6 t ha−1, which is comparable to conventional maize yields under fertilization. This is attributed to improved soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. Although data was generally limited, the growing literature showed that improved fallows increased soil carbon sequestration and reduced greenhouse emissions. Further, as a multiple output land use system, improved fallows may increase fodder availability during dry periods and provide substantial biomass for charcoal production. These livelihood options may become important financial safety nets during off seasons or in the event of crop failures. This notwithstanding, the adoption of improved fallows is mainly in Southern and Eastern Africa, where over 20,000 farmers are now using Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii, and Cajanus cajan in two-year fallows followed by maize rotations. Land tenure issues, lack of social capital, and improved germplasm and accessions of fallow species have been cited as constraints to scaling up. However, development of seed orchards, nursery development, and the willingness of policy makers to create a policy environment that addresses market failures and alleviates

  9. Genetic differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae populations on cultivated cowpea and wild host plants: implications for insect resistance management and biological control strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope A Agunbiade

    Full Text Available Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on a variety of leguminous plants in the tropics and subtropics. The contribution of host-associated genetic variation on population structure was investigated using analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 sequence and microsatellite marker data from M. vitrata collected from cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., and alternative host plants Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. var. javanica (Benth. Baker, Loncocarpus sericeus (Poir, and Tephrosia candida (Roxb.. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed a significant global FST estimate of 0.05 (P≤0.001. The program STRUCTURE estimated 2 genotypic clusters (co-ancestries on the four host plants across 3 geographic locations, but little geographic variation was predicted among genotypes from different geographic locations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA; among group variation -0.68% or F-statistics (FSTLoc = -0.01; P = 0.62. These results were corroborated by mitochondrial haplotype data (φSTLoc = 0.05; P = 0.92. In contrast, genotypes obtained from different host plants showed low but significant levels of genetic variation (FSTHost = 0.04; P = 0.01, which accounted for 4.08% of the total genetic variation, but was not congruent with mitochondrial haplotype analyses (φSTHost = 0.06; P = 0.27. Variation among host plants at a location and host plants among locations showed no consistent evidence for M. vitrata population subdivision. These results suggest that host plants do not significantly influence the genetic structure of M. vitrata, and this has implications for biocontrol agent releases as well as insecticide resistance management (IRM for M. vitrata in West Africa.

  10. KEEFEKTIFAN TIGA JENIS INSEKTISIDA NABATI TERHADAP KUTU PUTIH PEPAYA PARACOCCUS MARGINATUS DAN KEAMANANNYA TERHADAP LARVA KUMBANG PREDATOR CURINUS COERULEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sifa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of three botanical insecticides against the papaya mealybug Paracoccus marginatus and their safety to the predatory Curinus coeruleus larvae.  Preparations of Tephrosia vogelii (Tv leaf extract (0.5% and 1% w/v, Annona squamosa (As seed extract (0.5% and 1%, and Cinnamomum multiforum (Cm leaf essential oil (1% and 2%, and their mixtures (Mix-1: Tv 0.25% + As 0.25% + Cm 0.5%; Mix-2: Tv 0.5% + As 0.5% + Cm 1% were tested for their effectiveness on third-instar nymphs of Paracoccus marginatus by spraying the test materials on undetached papaya leaves and by direct spraying on the test insects using Potter spray tower. Tv extract was also applied on the test insects placed on undetached papaya leaves. The safety test was done by direct spraying of the test materials on the predatory Curinus coeruleus larvae using Potter spray tower. Tv and As extracts at a concentration of 1% each are potential to be used for the control of P. marginatus. Spraying of T. vogelii extract on the test P. marginatus nymphs placed on papaya leaves was more effective than spraying of the test materials on papaya leaves or direct spraying on the test insects only. The treatment with Cm essential oil required twice the concentration of Tv and As extracts to obtain the same level of effectiveness. The treatment with Mix-2 caused lower P. marginatus mortality than the sum of mortality caused by its components applied separately. Nonetheless, the three botanical insecticides and their mixtures were safe to C. coeruleus larvae. On the other hand, although the synthetic insecticide imidacloprid (neonicotinoid, included in the study for comparison, was effective against P. marginatus, it was also toxic to the predatory C. coeruleus larvae so its use should be avoided or limited.

  11. Comparing seeds germination of some local plant species on two hydroseeding mulches for post mining revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Anshari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine seed germination rate of some local plant species in two hydroseeding mulches containing different tackifier concentration, as well as to determine the optimal hydroseeding mulch media composition for germinating seeds. This study used seeds of 13 local plant species: two species of Cyperaceae (Cyperus brevifolius, C. javanicus, five species of Leguminosae (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria pallida, Sesbania grandiflora, S. sesban, Tephrosia purpurea, and six species of Poaceae (Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum, Sorghum timorense, S. bicolor, Sporobolus indicus, Themeda arundinaceae. Two hydroseeding mulch media with different tackifier composition were mixed with seeds of each species and then sowed in pots. Each treatment was repeated three times. Moistened cotton wool was used as control and comparative media for observing seed viability. Seed germination in mulch media was observed during 13 days. The results showed that only 8 of 13 species could be germinated: S. indicus, S. timorense, T. arundinaceae, C. cajan, C. pallida, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, and T. purpurea. The highest germination rate was shown by S. sesban (67% in M2 medium and the lowest one was shown by T. arundinaceae (2% in both media. The fastest germination time was recorded for C. pallida and S. sesban seeds that germinated in 2 days after sowing (DAS in both media, while S. timorense and T. arundinaceae seeds showed the lowest ones in 11 DAS. The fluid M1 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (50% and S. grandiflora (35%, while the thicker M2 medium was optimal for seeds germination of S. sesban (67% and S. timorense (50% in 13 DAS. The maximum germination rate was generally reached in 11 DAS.

  12. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin

  13. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkenda, Prisila; Mwanauta, Regina; Stevenson, Philip C; Ndakidemi, Patrick; Mtei, Kelvin; Belmain, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders). Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin) and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A). Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  14. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisila Mkenda

    Full Text Available Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders. Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A. Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  15. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamique de la flore et de la végétation des Niayes et du Bassin arachidier au Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadji Faye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactualisation of floristic and phytosociologic datas in Niayes and Peanut-Basin areas were undertook with village scale approach to better underline resources' conervation. In Savannah and sub-guinean areas specially in the Peanut-Basin and Niayes, 288 floristic samples were put in place in 6 villages in an stratified way based on ethnic groups, land use systems and topography. In the same time, 25 samples were realised in the 2 reference sites (Noflaye and Sambandé and comparison were made with researches conducted in 1940. Datas were submitted to multivariate analysis. SØrensen similarity index were used to compare villages systems and natural sites. Results showed discrimination of 11 phytosociologic groups: 5 of which came from natural sites (savanah G4 Hexalobus monopetalus et Gardenia ternifolia and G8 Acacia macrostachya et Ischaemum rugosum, secondary forest G10 Aphania senegalensis et Voaganca africana, semi-aquatic vegetations G1 Ipomoea aquatica et I. dichroa and G5 Phragmites australis subsp australis et Paspalum vaginatum and 6 from anthropic systems (disturbed areas G6 Echinochloa colona et Jussiae erecta and G7 Dactyloctenium aegyptium et Brachiaria disticophylla, and finally post-cultural zones with G2 Brachiaria disticophylla et Cenchrus biflorus, G3 Celosia trigyna et Digitaria velutina, G9 Tephrosia purpurea et Cenchrus biflorus and G11 Mitracarpus scaber et Eragrostis tremula. Natural sites groups were progressively invided by disturded area species and the others by ruderals and nitrophyl species. Overall floristic richness is about 336 species among which 260 from the Niayes sites and 176 from Peanut-Basin ones. References sites are always richer in terms af genera but peul areas are richer in termes of species. Differences were evidenced between actual taxa and Trochain (1940 descriptions. This methodological approach might be extended to other ecogeographical zones in Senegal in order to better identify and follow

  17. Piezas de la Historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Pantoja

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el presente número de ”Medicina” sale a la luz pública para su divulgación entre el cuerpo médico, la segunda parte de las apuntaciones críticas preparadas por el Presidente Otero-Ruiz, hechas con base en las notas cuidadosamente recogidas por el historiador Humberto Cáceres, a quien se le reconocen su gran interés y competencia en esta importante clase de estudios.

    Cronología histórica es el título del escrito de Otero.

    En el mismo orden se menciona el Prontuario elaborado bajo la dirección del expresidente académico Pablo Gómez Martínez, que contiene la lista y las referencias de los funcionarios y expresidentes de esta Corporación, con una relación completa que parte desde la fundación de la antigua Sociedad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales en 1873.

    De esa fecha hasta hoy han pasado 118 años, lapso que cubre la mayor parte de la vida de la República, digno de recordación en vista de que corresponde a la evolución política y de la medicina colombiana.

    La Academia por esta circunstancia muy notable, conserva en sus anales y guarda en sus archivos un vasto acervo de conocimientos, de hechos magníficos que han sido cumplidos en el discreto recinto, pero que ahora cabe proyectar en el ámbito intelectual de la salud, por toda la Nación.

    Los volúmenes citados constituyen las piezas de la Historia, que se valoran con las memorias de las egregias figuras del pensamiento médico que por aquí han desfilado para honra y paz de la intelectualidad médica nacional.

    Los insignes antecesores del trabajo, dejaron un mensaje que este Cuerpo Colegial se esfuerza por no dejar que se extinga, preservando el patrimonio de ciencia y arte de la medicina propuestos a la buena atención de los habitantes del territorio, amparados así mismo, por el cumplimiento sin esguinces de la ética que enaltece a las profesiones de la salud.

    El lapso clásico a que concretamente se refieren estas l

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleteng Kose, Lerato; Moteetee, Annah; Van Vuuren, Sandy

    2015-07-21

    Ethnobotanical knowledge in Lesotho is passed on orally from one generation to another. As a result it has not been well documented. Existing publications have relied on previous literature and are limited either in terms of scope or coverage. Furthermore, some of them are out of print. Therefore, there are gaps in the documentation of medicinal plants used in Lesotho. The purpose of the current study is to investigate common ailments in Lesotho's traditional medicine and document plants that are used in treating such ailments. Interviews were conducted in five urban and four rural areas of the capital town of Maseru, by means of questionnaires to elicit information on medicinal plant use to cure common ailments. The informants were 20 males and seven females comprising 15 traditional healers, 11 herbalists and one pharmacist. Reproductive ailments were found to be the most commonly treated, followed by respiratory, degenerative and digestive problems. A list of the 80 plants used for treating the common ailments is given. A total of 44 families is represented, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Asphodelaceae and Poaceae families having the highest number of species used for medicinal purposes. The most frequently mentioned medicinal plants in interviews include; Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Pentanisia prunelloides, Hypoxis hermerocallidea, Eriocephalus sp., Salvia runcinata, Scabiosa columbaria, Dicoma anomala, Morella serrata, Xysmalobium undulatum, and Leobordea lanceolata. Due to the high demand of medicinal plants, some species such as L. lanceolata, Tephrosia capensis, E. elephantina, D. anomala and P. prunelloides were reported as over-harvested. In some cases animal products are added to the medicinal plants to enhance their curative abilities. A total of 80 plants were recorded in the study as treating 38 common ailments in the Maseru district of Lesotho. Records of eight medicinal plants and 146 new medicinal uses of 34 plants that were not recorded elsewhere in

  19. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e eqüídeos no Seridó Ocidental e Oriental do Rio Grande do Norte Toxic plants for livestock in the western and eastern Seridó, state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval M. da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a ocorrência de diferentes intoxicações por plantas na região do Seridó Ocidental e Oriental do Rio Grande do Norte foram entrevistadas 82 pessoas, entre produtores e técnicos em 17 municípios. De acordo com esse inquérito as duas intoxicações mais importantes são as por Ipomoea asarifolia, que causa sinais nervosos em ovinos, caprinos e bovinos, e por Aspidosperma pyrifolium que, segundo os entrevistados, causaria abortos em caprinos, ovinos e bovinos. O efeito abortivo desta última planta foi comprovado em caprinos, mas não em bovinos e ovinos. Alguns entrevistados mencionaram, também, a intoxicação por A. pyrifolium como causa de sinais nervosos em bovinos e eqüídeos, o que ainda não foi comprovado. Intoxicações por plantas cianogênicas, incluindo Manihot spp, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (=Piptadenia macrocarpa, Sorghum bicolor e Sorghum halepense são importantes na região. São importantes, também, as intoxicações por Prosopis juliflora em bovinos e, com menor freqüência, em caprinos, por Crotalaria retusa em eqüinos, ovinos e bovinos e por Mascagnia rigida em bovinos. As intoxicações por Brachiaria decumbens e Enterolobium contortisiliquum ocorrem esporadicamente. Outras intoxicações menos importantes são as causadas por Indigofera suffruticosa, Ipomoea carnea e Ricinus communis. Diversos produtores descreveram a intoxicação por Marsdenia sp afetando ovinos e bovinos, além de um surto em suínos que foram alimentados com as raízes da planta. Foi demonstrado que tanto as raízes da planta quanto as folhas são tóxicas para ruminantes, causando sinais nervosos, mas sem lesões histológicas. Outra intoxicação relatada pelos produtores e comprovada experimentalmente foi a causada por Tephrosia cinerea em ovinos, que causa um quadro clínico de ascite, com lesões de fibrose hepática. Seis produtores descreveram a intoxicação por Nerium oleander, sempre em bovinos que tiveram

  20. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  1. Colocación Del Oleo Del Doctor Manuel Plata Azuero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gómez Martinez

    1987-08-01

    Azuero, el primer Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, que viene en selecta comisión, a rendir un homenaje a la memoria de tan ilustre científico y eminente ciudadano ya perpetuar su efigie en este claustro magnífico que es la Casa de la Cultura del Socorro, descubriendo un óleo que refrescará permanentemente su recuerdo a las generaciones venideras.

    Ningún lugar más propicio y que mueva más a la reflexión que éste, para intentar al menos hacer un bosquejo, así sea desdibujado, de su -egregia personalidad, que como ninguna, se destaca en el ámbito nacional y llena los confines de la patria, por su obra como legislador, como médico, como político y como benefactor de la humanidad.

    Nació Plata Azuero en la ciudad del Socorro, en el año de 1823, del matrimonio de don Trinidad Plata Durán, y de doña Bárbara Azuero y Gómez. Hizo sus primeros estudios en su ciudad natal y a la edad de 9 años fue enviado a la Capital de la República en compañía de su hermano Patricio. Cursó estudios de literatura en el Colegio de San Bartolomé en donde se distinguió como uno de los más inteligentes y aprovechados educandos.

    “Ingresó luego a la Universidad Central de Bogotá, en donde se matriculó en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Fueron sus profesores los eminentes médicos de la época, doctores Benito Osorio, José Félix Merizalde, Andrés María Pardo, Eugenio Ramón y Francisco Mario Quijano”.

    “Recibió el título de doctor en Medicina y Cirugía en el año de 1845, después de haber obtenido los de Bachiller en Literatura y Licenciado en Medicina, según las exigencias de la época. En la Universidad se destacó por su consagración y rendimiento y antes de graduarse desempeñó el cargo de Secretario del Gran Consejo de la Facultad de Medicina; Subdirector de la misma y Catedrático sustituto”...

  2. Álvaro López Pardo 1926 – 1993. CESAR AUGUSTO PANTOJA (Diciembre 18, 1904 - Septiembre 5, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jacobo Muñoz Delgado

    1993-12-01

    jico.

    Su sabiduría quedará impresa en una organización hospitalaria ejemplar, que por más de cinco años (1955-1960 va infundiendo día a día, con su ciencia, tesón y paciencia.

    Su talento social, su formación pediátrica, su cerebro organizado, hacen de Alvaro López Pardo, el director paradigmático de un hospital de niños, que quiere llevar salud, comprensión y ternura.

    La inteligencia de Juan Pablo Llinás lo lleva a un ámbito grande. Va a la Alcaldía de Bogotá (1960- 1966 como Director de Asistencia Social. Ante el espectáculo proliferante de la gaminería, se crece su espíritu social. Cuántas instituciones aparecieron para cambiar la suerte de los cruelmente abandonados, gracias a su imaginación, que buscaba ayudar a sus congéneres.

    Después de muchos años pasa al Bienestar Social de la Universidad Nacional, en donde forma al personal necesario para tan difíciles labores...

    Doctor Cesar Augusto Pantoja

    Ha concluido, después de casi noventa años, la existencia de un hombre que supo hacer del ejercicio
    del vivir un arte extraordinario. Ha dejado de pensar un cerebro que nos dio una lección profunda
    de armonía y se ha detenido un corazón que supo amar a aquellos que merecían su afecto. Ha terminado su clase el excelso maestro académico que enseñaba la cirugía ética y generosa. Impone una
    marca difícil el ciudadano integérrimo que de sus recias virtudes hizo una religión. Sus amigos desolados hoy sentimos la profunda angustia de la oscuridad impenetrable y del vacío definitivo.


    Su vida se inicia el 18 de diciembre de 1904 en Baranoa (Atlántico, población rica en luz, similar
    a tantas otras de nuestra Costa; que llenaron la cultura con inteligencia, con gracia y color. Sus
    padres fueron Federico A. Pantoja e Isabel Maldonado. Ellos admiraban la egregia figura de su
    primo el doctor Antonio Pantoja, primer médico elegido en Colombia como Correspondiente de la

  3. Las Revoluciones Científicas - ¿Porqué el Premio Nobel 1991? Erwin Neher y el “Patch Clamp”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La Sociedad Colombiana de Historia de la Medicina me ha conferido el alto honor de encargarme el Discurso de Orden, usual en estas ocasiones, con motivo de la recepción como Socio Activo del doctor Fernando Guzmán Mora. El sentimiento de admiración que guardo para con la Sociedad y sus directivas y el afecto que le profeso al doctor Guzmán Mora hacen que el honroso encargo que se me ha conferido sea tomado por mí con la más alta consideración y que lo aprecie en grado sumo.

    Fernando Guzmán Mora es una de las figuras jovenes más brillantes de nuestra medicina en la actualidad. Nació hace 39 años y se graduó de Médico y Cirujano en la Escuela de Medicina del Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario en 1974. Durante tres años hizo su residencia en Anatomía Patológica en el Hospital San José, lo que había de permitirle adquirir sólidos conocimientos en esa ciencia básica, de inmensa utilidad para su futura carrera quirúrgica.

    Dedicó los siguientes tres años a su entrenamiento como cirujano general en el Hospital de la Samaritana, centro científico de muy alta categoría, fundado por la egregia figura del profesor Jorge E. Cavelier. Posteriormente, viajó a Inglaterra, en donde obtuvo después de cuatro años de entrenamiento, su grado de especialista en Cirugía Cardiotorácica, en el Freeman Hospital de la Universidad de Newcastle Upon Tyne.

    A su regreso al país ha ocupado el cargo de Cirujano de Tórax y Cardiovascular de la Fundación Santa Fé de Bogotá y es Jefe de Transplante Cardiaco en esa misma Institución, en donde llevó a cabo brillantemente el primer transplante de corazón realizado en Bogotá el día 19 de abril de 1990.

    El doctor Guzmán Mora está casado con la doctora María de la Paz Duque de Guzmán, quien a su belleza y clara inteligencia agrega el hecho de ser hija del profesor Luis Duque Gómez, intelectual de gran valia y antropólogo a quien se deben importantes